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Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
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Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth. [1]

³

northern black wattle, Darwin black wattle, ear-pod wattle,
tan wattle [1], auri, black wattle, ear leaf acacia, earleaf
acacia, Papuan wattle, wattle [8], coast wattle, Japanese
acacia [9]

K> sTisn½y

³

Acacia auriculaeformis A. Cunn. ex Benth.,
Racosperma auriculiforme (A. Cunn. ex Benth.) Pedley [1]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

northern black wattle (Trade name) [1] - akashmoni,
Australian babul, kasia, sonajhuri (India) [1] - ngarai, unar
(Papua New Guinea) [1] - Japanese acacia, auri (Philippines)
[1, 9] - akasai, akasia, kasia, ki hia (Indonesia) [9] - akasia
kuning, kasia (Malaysia) [9] - mkesia (East Africa) [9] krathin-narong (Thailand) [9] - smach’té:hes (Vietnam) [9]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

Gakasüasøkw tUc
ÉksarBieRKaH : [6]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

1

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

smach’tehs [4], acacia sleuk touch [6]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Fabales
RKYsar : Fabaceae

(

GnuRKYsar: Mimosoideae)
ePT : Acacia
RbePT : Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex
Benth.

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

ÉksarBieRKaH: [1]

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: Gakasüasøkw tUv CaedImeQICrM uHsøkw rW ébtgCanic© CaedImeQIRbePT leguminous
EdlGac mankMBs;dl;eTA 25-35 m [1] (25-30 m [3], 30-40 m [2], 15-30 m [9]) edaymanedImRtg;
nigkMBs;edIm 12-15 m [3] ( 12 m [9]) nigGgát;p©it DBH x<sb; Mput 60-80 cm [3] (80-100 cm [2], 50 cm
[9]) . eTaHya:gNa vaCaedImeQImanTMhMtUceTAmFüm 8-20 m [1, 2] rW CaedImeQItUckMBs; 3-5 m [1] (28 m [4]) manEmkeRcIn nigedImTab . vaduHEbkEmk nigRbB½nr§ wseRCA [8] (rak; [9]) nigRkas; .
kenSamsøwkFM nigBN’ébtgcas; mansøkw Rkas; . EmktUc² manragekag Kµaneram nigBN’ébtg .
[sMbk]: sMbkBN’RbepH eTA RbepHexµA rW CYnkaletñat nigmankras;
2-3 mm [3]
relagenAeBledImeQI enAtUc nigeRKIm ehIyeRbHtambeNþayenAeBlcas; .
sMbkxagkñúgmanBN’RbepHRsal nigkMras; 7-9 mm [3] .
[søwk]: søk
w samBaØ ragsMEb:t phyllodes (= TgsøwkmantYnaTI CasøwkBitR)akd ) ragdUckeNþóv qøas;
dUces<ó rW RTEvg ragekag esþIg manTMhM 10-16 x 1.5–2.5 cm [8] (7-17 x 1.5-2.7 cm [3], 8-20 cm x 1.04.5 cm [1]) dUcEs,kesþIg BN’ébtgcas; nigKµaneram . mansréscMnYn 3 RsbKña Edlelc
eLIgya:gc,as; [1] (6-8 srésr [3], 3-8 srés [9]) zitenARsbKña sMedAeTAEpñkTabrbs;EKmsøwk rW
enABak;kNþalKl;skøw eday mansrésr TIBIr nigmanlkçN³xusKñaBIKl;swkø . søwkPaKeRcIn
zitenAelIedIm enAkMLgú rdUvR)aMg Gayurbs; BYkvaCamFümKWRbEhl 1 qñaM [1] enAxaglic Java .
[páa]: kBa©úp
M aá ragCagG½kS dUck,al EdlmanRbEvg 8.5 cm [1] zitenACaKUrenAKl;skøw . páamanRbEvg
0.3 cm [8] BN’masRsal rW elOg páaBIrePT tUc nigmankøn
i . Rtbkpáa mancMnYn 5 duHenACitKña
manRbEvg 0.1 cm [1] ftmanlkçN³xøI nigKµaneram . RsTab;páa begátI CakBa©úMRsTab;páa EdlmanRbEvg
0.2 cm [1] eday manekseQµalCaeRcIn nigmanRbEvg 0.3 cm
[1] . eksjI tUc nigRKb
edayeramRkas; . páaRtUv)andMeNIr lMGgedaystVl¥it . karecjpáa nigEpøekItmaneLIgmineTogTat;

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

BIExkkáda dl; tula [3] . enAtMbn;Ca eRcInedImeQIGacecjpáa nigEpøbnþbnÞab;Kañ eBjmYyqñaM [3] .
eTaHbI karecjpáamanlkçN³xusKña GaRs½y tMbn;k_eday . enAPaKxageCIgGURsþalI
karecjpáaekItmanenAExemsa dl;kkáda edayRKab;cab;epþmI TMu bnÞab;BI 4-5 ExeRkay enAExsIha
dl;tula . Sedgley et al. (1992) )anrkeXIjfa eBlEdlecjpáaeRcIn CageK KWekItmanenAEx kumÖ³
dl;]sPa enA Atherton kñgú Queensland (GURsþalI) nigenACitKULaLaMBY enA]bTIbV ma:eLsIu nig Tawau
enA Sabah EdlEpø TMuenArvagEx tula nigemsa . enA Java (\NÐeÚ nsIu) páaeRcInCageK enAkñgú Ex mina
dl;mifuna [1] .
[Epø]: Epøcas;GacRtUv)anRbmUlenAEx sIha dl; kumÖ³ enARbeTséf [1] . Epø (= EpøKYtUc) manTMhM 7-8 x
1.2- 1.4 cm [3] (6.5 x 1.5 cm [1], 6-8 x 1-1.5 cm [8]) ragekag sMEb:t Gacbt;Ebn)an b:uEnþrwg
manCatieQItic RKbedayBN’s manCatiRkmYn Kµaneram mansrésrenAEKm . EpøGacRtg; rW ekag
b:Eu nþenAeBlTMu ragekag rW rmYl . TgEpømanRbEvg 1.2 cm [3] . Epønmi Yy² manRKab;BN’exµABI 5-7 [3]
ragmUl rW eGlIb TMhM 0.4-0.6 x 0.3-0.4 cm [1] (RbEvg 5 mm [8]) nigRKab;nmi Yy²
B½T§edayExSBN’Rkhm Evg TgRKab;manBN’elOg rW TwkRkUc .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9]

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

lkçN³eQI]: eQImanTMhMFM nigRtg; . eQIRsaymanBN’s eTAelOg nigeQIxwmø manBN’etñat rW exµA
Rsal srésRtg; nigFn; . eQIGakasüasøkw tUcmandg;seIu t 0.5-0.65 g/cm³ [1, 3, 9] nigkMritkMedA
4,700-4,900 kcal/kg [1] (4,500-4,900 kcal/kg [9]) . eQImanlkçN³relag Tak;Taj nigRss;sa¥ t .
sréseQI xøI RbEvgRbEhl 0.85 mm [1] nigTTwg 0.2 µm [1] . smasFatuKImI manCatieQI 59% lIjIn
24% ePntUesn 19% nigepH 0.4% . sarFatu Flavonoid k_manenAkñg
ú enaHEdr [1] .
eQIxwømmanlkçN³rwg nigFn; b:Eu nþeQI Rsay gayrgeRKaHedaykarvayRbhal rbs;keNþó
nigBBYkecaHeQI nigTamTareGay eRbIR)as;nvU sarFatukarBareQI enAeRbIR)as;b:HBal;ngw dI .
kþarbs;vaGaceRbHEbk enAeBleFVkI arGar .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3, 9]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

3

:

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

RbEhl : 5°S eTA 17°S [1] . RbePTenH manRbPBkMeNIt enAGURsþalI
b:Eu nþRtUv)anykeTAdaMduHenAkEnøg CaeRcInénBiPBelak CaedImeQIéRB CaBiessenA GasIuxagt,Úg
GasIuGaeKñy_ nigGaeRhVc . edImeQI Edl duHedayFmµCati manenAkñgú RbeTsGURsþalI )a:BUjÚKeI no
nig\NÐeÚ nsIu . GakasüasøwktUc duHlUtlas;enA tMbnRtUBki TMnab enAtamRcaMgTenø EdlRbePTenHCa
RbePTeQIlb;pgEdr . vak_manduH enAkñúgéRBricril EdlmanRbePT eRbgxül;
nigGakasüaepSgeTotduHpgEdr . vak_manenAtMbn;éRBrgTwkePøóg enAbnÞab;BI éRBekagkag rW eqñrxSac;
[1] . vak_manlT§PaBx<s; kñúgkarduHelItMbn;Kaµ nCICati nigtMbn;valPk;pgEdr (pH 9.5 [9])
nigtMbn;RtUv)anbMBuledayGuy‘ ra:jÚm (pH 3.0 [9]) EdlvaRtUv)anrkeXIjfaCaRbePTeQI EtmYyKt;
EdlGacduHlUtlas;)anbnÞab;BIry³eBl 20 qñaM [1] . CaTUeTA vaduHlUtlas; enAtMbn;Cti RbPBTwk (Tenø
nigbwg ) tMbn;éRBCMruHsøkw s¶tÜ éRBel,aHesIm nigvalesµA savanna . vaCasmasFatusMxan; sMrab;éRBCit
mat;Twk Edllb;edayBBYk
Melaleuca
EdlCakEnøgmindk;Twk . vak_CaRbePT
EdlduHlUtlas;enAtMbn; éRBtUc²pgEdr . CaFmµtavaduHlUtlas;enA CamYyBBYk Acacia mangium, A.
aulacocarpa nig Melaleuca cajuputi . vaRtUv)annaMcUlRbeTskm<C
ú a tamry³RbeTsevotNam
EdlCaTIkEnøg vaRtUv)andaMduHCacMkar sMrab;karsþar éRBeQIeLIgvij .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 4, 9]
:

Gakasüasøkw tUc duHlUtlas;cab;BIkMritnIvT:U wksmuRT eTAdl;kMBs; 400 m [2, 9] b:Eu nþ vak_manduHenAkMrit
ry³kMBs; ticCag 80 m [2] (0-500 (-1,000) m [9]) . RbePTenH duHenACaFmµCati enAtMbn;ekþAesIm
nigBak; kNþalekþAesIm . sMrab;r)a:yCaFmµCati sItuNðPaBCamFüm x<sb; MputenAExekþAbMput (vickäi a Fñ)Ú edaymankMrit 32-34°C nigsItuNðPaBTabbMputCamFüm enArdUvRtCak;bMput (]sPa -kBaØa) KW 1722°C
.
enAxageRkACMrkFmµCati
vaGacFn;ngw GakasFatuepSg²Kña
EdlbgðajfaRbePTenHmankarsMrbxønÜ x<s; . senSImminekItmanenAkñgú EdnFmµCatirbs;vaeT
b:Eu nþvaGacFn;ngw senSImtictYc . kMritePøógFøak;RbcaMqañ M manBI 760 mm enAPaKxageCIgGURsþalI nig
3,400 mm enA)a:BUjÚKeI no (6,000 mm [9]) . eTaHbI r)a:y FmµCati nigkardaMduHenATIEnøg EdlmankMrit

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

4

. vaRtUvkarGakasFatumsU gu
edaymankMritePøógFøak; BIExFñÚ dl; mina [1] . Gakasüasøkw tUcman karFn;nwg rdUvvsSaBI 0-7 Ex [2] (06 Ex [3]) b:Eu nþvak_qab;st
¶Ü pgEdr nigFn;ngw ePøgI eqHpgEdr . vaminFn;ngw møbe; T BIeRBaHRbePTeQIenH
RtUvkarBnøWxaø gM nigkMritFn;nwgxül;Tab Emkrbs;vaGac)ak;enAeBl EdlRtUv xül;xaø gM .
esµAGacCabBaða enAeBledImeQIRtUv)andaMduHenAdMNak;kaldMbgU .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 8, 9]
2,500 mm (1,000-2,000 mm [3], 700-2,000 mm [2], 650-2,000 mm [9])

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

5

:

enAGURsþalI GakasüasøwktUcmanduHenAtMbn;TMnab nigtMbn;TMnabeqñr tamRbB½n§FarasaRsþ
bnÞab;BIBBYkéRBekagkag nigtamdgTenø (TICrM alpgEdr [8]) . dIeRcInmanBN’elOg b:Eu nþCaeqñrxSac;
nigl,aydIl,b; EdlmankMrit\dæ nigmemakx<s; . man pH kMritBI 4.5-6.5 b:uEnþvak_duHlUtlas;elI
eqñrxSac; EdlmanCatiéRb edaymankMrit pH BI 8-9 (CaTUeTA pH kMritBI : 3.0-9.5 [8], 4.3-9 [9]) .
enAPaKxaglicTImr½ ( West Timor) RbePTenH CaeQIl¥bpM tu sMrab;daMduH enAelIdImanCatiéRb x<sp; gEdr
. Gakasüasøkw tUc mankarFn;x<s;nwgdIGasIut . enAGURsþalI ma:eLsIu nighVlI IBnI
vaduHlUtlas;elIdIGasuIt EdlrgnUvkarbMpaø j rbs;mIn nigman pH 3 GakasüasøwkRtUvCaRbePT
EdlRtUv)andaMduHCaeRcInenAelIRbePTdI
GasIuts‘ulpat
(pH
3)
éndIsNþrTenøemKgÁénRbeTsevotNam . vaGacFn;nwg dImanCatiéRbpgEdr . enAkñgú karBiesaFn_
enARbeTséf vaduHlUtlas;enAeRkamkMritCatiéRb EdlmankMrit 0.15 to 7.25 dS/m enAelIdIesIm
nigs¶Üt
.
Gakasüasøkw tUc
CaRbePTl¥bpM tu
kñúgcMeNamRbePTGakasüa
EdlmanlkçN³Fn;ngw karlicTwk nigCatiéRb enAPaKxagt,ÚgeQogxaglic xVnI eLn . BYkvaduH
enAelIdI EdleRCobTwk)anl¥ minelcTwkry³eBlyUr . dI EdlmanCatiGasIutxøaMg nigminsUvmanCICati
manGasUtkMritTab manb:UtasüÚm nigpUsrV EdlGacpøas;bÚrþ Kña)an [1] . vaGacduHlUtlas; enAelIdI
ofproblem EdlsMbUrPk;
(pH 9.5 [9]) nigmankarbMBuledayG‘y
u ra:jÚm (pH 3.0 [9])

EdlCakEnøgmanRbePTeQIenH duHlUtlas; bnÞab;BIry³eBl 20 qñaMeRkay [1] . CaTUeTA
vaduHlUtlas;enAelIRbePTdICaeRcIn dUcCa dI)asal;BN’elOg dIl,b; dI\dæ dIeqñr dI lateritic dI limestone
dIrgkarbMpaø jedaymIn dI podzols dImanCatiéRb dIfµxSac; dI savanna dIxSac; nigdI vertisols .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 8, 9]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: RbePTenH RtUv)andaMduHsMrab;CaeQIfamBl nigplitkmµFüÚg edaydaMduHenAkMritdg;seIu tx<s;
nigtMél famBlmanBI 4,700-4,900 kcal/kg [1] (4,500-4,900 kcal/kg [9]) vaCaRbePT eQIduH
lUtlas;elOn nigsmrb eTA nwglkçN³tMbn;CaeRcIn EdleFIeV GayRbePTenH CaRbePTsm
RsbbMptu sMrab; plitkmµeQIfamBl . FüÚgminF¶n; minmanEpSg nigGNþatePøgI xøaMg . søwk
nigEmkRCuHCaRbcaMqñaM EdlmankMrit 4-6 t/ha Edlman sar³sMxan;sMrab;CafamBlsMrab;eRbIR)as;kúgñ pÞH
[1] . eRkABIeQIfamBl eQIRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;eFVI eQIemSARkdas . cMkarRtUv)andaMduH
sMrab;eFIVRkdas manKuNPaBx<s; edayeRbInUvsarFatuKImI sulphite . cMkarCaRTg;RTayFM RtUv)anbegátI
enAK½ra:La (\NÐa) sMrab;plitkmµeQIemSARkdas [9] . dMeNIrkar sulphate eday 13% alkali Gacplit
55%
eQIemSARkdas . vaminsUvmanlkçN³sm RsbsMrab;dMeNIrkar KImI
sMrab;pliteQIemSARkdaseT [1] . eQIGakasüasøkw tUc RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eFIeV RKOgsgðarwm RbsineQI
manTMhMFM nigRtg; ehIyGacRtUv)aneRbI sMrab;eFIVCaRbdab;ekµgelg nigsMPar³eFIBV éI dmYycMnYn .
vaRtUv)an eRbIsMrab; eFIsV u‘m rW kMral cMlak; begÁal dg]bkrN_epSg² RbGb; eFITV U kþaBum< nigsMNg; .
eTaHbI edIm minRtg; nigmanedImeRcIn eFIeV GaykareRbIR)as;manlkçN³kMNt; dUcCaeRbICabegÁalCaedIm
.
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 9]
[Gnupl]:
vaminRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;CacMNIrstV b:Eu nþenA\NÐa cMkarEdlmanGayumyY qñaM
RtUv)anCan;edaystV eKa [9] . karsikSaeTAelI kareRbICacMNIrstV)anbgðajfa
Gakasüasøkw tUcmanpÞkú nUv sarFatucwBa©wmTab [1] . sMbkmanCatitanIn (RbEhl 13% [1], 13-25% [9])
sMrab;eFIVBaNiCk¢ mµ nigRtUv)anekatsresIrGMBI sar³sMxan;rbs;va sMrab;CaeQIfamBleTotpg .
sMbkmanpÞúk 6-14% [9] énl½kçFmµCati EdleRbIenAkñúg ]sSah_kmµvaynP½NÐén batik enA\NÐeÚ nsIu .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

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6

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

7

søwkRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;RKb edImbegánI KuNPaBdI . pSit Edl GacbriePaK)an (Tylopylus fellus)
manduHenAkñgú cMkarGakasüasøwktUc enARbeTséf nigevotNam .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 9]
[epSg²]: cMkarGakasüaGacCYybegán
I nUvlkçN³KImrI bs;dI dUcCa lT§PaBkñúgkarrkSaTwk kabUnsrIragÁ
GasUt nig b:tU asüÚm . Tgsøwkrbs;va pþl;nvU KMrbdIya:gl¥ . GakasüaGacpþl;GasUt
bnÞab;BIduHkMBkrWs Rhizobium nig Bradyrhizobium . vak_manTak;TgnwgRbePTpSit ecto- nig endomycorrhizal [9] . eTaHbI vaminRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;RbB½nk
§ sirukçkmµ edaykarduHlUtlas;EbkEmkeRcIn
nigmankarRbKYtRbECg nUvkarduHrWsnwgrukçCatiepSg²eTot kardaMdMNaMCacenøaHk_RtUv)anGnuvtþpgEdr
edaydaMduHCamYy sENþk RsUv sENþk mung nig kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)
RtUv)anTTYlsÁal;faTTYl)aneCaKC½y EtkardaMduHCamYy eBatKWmin)aneCaKC½yeT .
vak_RtUv)aneRbICaedImeQI sMrab;EfTaM enAkñgú cMkarEtpgEdr .Gakasüa CYnkal RtUv)andaMduH
CamYyeRbgxül; nigRbePTeQI Edlminpþl;GasUteTAeGaydIepSgeTot edIm,IrkSaKuNPaBdI .
RbePTenH RtUv)andaMCaExSRkvat;karBar tamsmuRT nigdaMedImeQIeLIgvij enAtMbn; EdlrgkarbMpaø j
BImIn . edaysarkarduHEbkeRcIn nigkMritRkas;rbs;RbB½nr§ Ws vaGacCYyTb;sáat;karhUreRcaHdIpgEdr .
vaRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;kardaMduHeQIeLIgvij nigbegánI KMrbdIenARbeTs\NÐa \NÐeÚ nsIu nigevotNam .
vaman lT§PaB kñúgkarrkSaesßrPaBdIKaµ nCICati nig tMbn;vaPk; (pH 9.5 [9]) nigdIrgkarbMBulBIGy‘u ra:jÚm
(pH 3.0 [9]) EdlvaCaRbePTeQI EtmYyKt; EdlmanduHenAeRkayeBl 20 qñaM [1] . kenSamsøwkRkas;
EdlmanenA rdUvR)aMg GaceFIeV GayedImeQI pþl;møb; nigCaedImeQIlMGr enAkñgú TIRkug EdlvaGacecj
páaBN’elOgd_ Rss;sa¥ t . vaKWmanlkçN³smRsb sMrab;CaCMrkdl;RbePTcMkarc½nÞRksña (Santalum
album) rW sMrab;kar begát
I cMkar c½nÞRksña . CaTUeTA RbePTeQIenH RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;plþ ;møb;
nigkarBarxül; . páarbs;va Ca RbPBkñgú karplitTwkXµMú .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 8, 9]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [5]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaTUeTA vaduHlUtlas; enAtMbn;Cti RbPBTwk (Tenø nigbwg ) tMbn;éRBCMruHsøkw s¶tÜ
éRBel,aH esIm nigvalesµA savanna . vaCasmasFatusxM an; sMrab;éRBCitmat;Twk Edllb;edayBBYk
Melaleuca EdlCakEnøgmindk;Twk . vak_CaRbePT EdlduHlUtlas;enAtMbn;éRBtUc²pgEdr .
CaFmµtavaduHlUtlas; enA CamYyBBYk Acacia mangium, A. aulacocarpa nig Melaleuca cajuputi .
RbePTenHduHlUtlas;elOn RtUvkarBnøWxaø gM nigGacpþl;CICatiGasUtdl;dI EdleFIeV Gayva CaRbePT
d_smRsbsMrab;cMkaréRBeQI . vaRtUv)annaMcUlRbeTskm<Cú a tamry³RbeTsevotNam
nigRtUv)andaMduHCamYy RbePTeRbgxül; sMrab;kar sþaéRBeQIeLIgvij . vamanlT§PaBduH BnøkeLIgvij
b:Eu nþminGacFn;nwgkarkat;eRcIndgeBk . vaminFn;nwg møb; nigesµA enAeBlkMBugduHlUtlas; .
[karduHeLIgvij edayFmµCati]: karduHeLIgvij edayFmµCatiekItmaneLIg enAeBlbnÞab;BIePøg
I eqH
nigkar rMxanBIBBYkesµA [1] .
[kardaMsakl,g]: TMrg;edImminRtg; nigtYedImmancMnn
Y eRcIn enAkñúgñ cMkareFVeI Gaykar eRbIR)as;eQI
RbePTenH mankMnt; dUcCaRtUv)aneRbICa begÁal nigsMNg;Fn;Fn¶ ; . kareRCIserIsedayRbugRby½tñ
nigkardaMsakl,g EdlGacTTYl)annUvedImRtg; Gackat;bnßyKuNvbtþirbs;eQIRbePTenH .
kardaMsal,genA xVnI eLn (GURsþalI) TTYl)annUvedImRtg;xs< ; nigkarduHlUtlas;elOn . RbeTsCaeRcIn
eFIkV arEklMGresenTicrbs; RbePTeQIenH edImykeTAdaMduHCa]sSah_kmµ sMrab;plitkmµ
eQIemSARkdas nigeQIGar [1] . (sMrab;Bt’manbEnßm GMBIkardaMsakl,g sUmemIlenAkñgú
'PaKxus²Kña nigkarbgáat; ' enAkñg
ú 'Miscellaneous' category)
[kardaMduH]: kardaMduHTTYl)aneCaKC½y edayeRbIkUneQI rW daMedayRKab;paÞ l; . kardaMedaykUn
KWmankMritrs; x<s; CaBiessenAkEnøgEdlmankarRbKYtRbECgx<s; dUcCaenAkñgú cMkarCaedIm . CaTUeTA
3-4 Ex [9] eRkay kUneQIGacdaMduH)an nigmankMBs; 25 cm [9] . kar)acRKab;BeI QIGakas
CYnkalGacTTYl)aneCaKC½y b:Eu nþkarerobcMdIeGay)ansmRsbk_RtUv)anTamTarpgEdr . enAkñgú cMkar
karRKb;RKgesµAmansar³sMxan; Nas;enAkñúgkMLúg 1-2 qñaMdMbgU [2] . brimaNtictYcrbs; CI NPK
enAqñadM MbgU GacCYyeGay vamankarduH lUtlas;elOn . cenøaHénkardaMduHRbePTeQIenH
GaRs½yeTAelIkareRbIR)as; nigkarRKb;RKg . cenøaH daMduHmanBI 1 x 1 m eTA 4 x 4 m [1] ( 2 x 2 rW 2 x 4
m [2], 2-4 x 2-4 m [9]) . cenøaH 1 x 2 m nig 1.5 x 1.5 m RtUv)aneRbIR)as;edayksikrenARbeTscin
sMrab;karplitbegÁal nigeQIfamBl . enA\NÐa kardaMduHRtUv )aneFIVenA rdUvmUsug edayerobcMreNþA

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

8

EdlbMeBjeTAeday l,ayxSac; nigsMNl;ksidæan CIKmI I nigfñasM lM ab;stVl¥it
edIm,IkarBarkeNþó [1] . enAeBldaMduH edImeQImankarRbKYtRbECg CamYyesµA . dUcenHkar
RKb;RKgesµAenAdMNak;kaldMbgU mansar³sMxan;Nas; BIeRBaHRbePTenH minFn;ngw møb; nigkar
RbKYtRbECgCamYyesµAeT . kUneQItUcGacmansøwk 2-3 EdlGacmanduHCabnÞab;nUvTgsøkw
Edlmanrag dUcsøwk . kUneQIduHlUtlas;elOn GacmankMBs; 25-30 cm enAry³eBl 3-4 Ex [1], 6 m
enAkñgú 2 qñaM [1] nig 6-12 m enA 3 qñaM [1] eRkamlkçxN
½ ÐsmRsb . karecjpáa
ekItmanenAeBleQImanGayu 2 qñaM [1] . kUneQIeTIblUtlas;fµI GacTTYl)ankMritmøb; 50% [9] .
enAeBlBYkvarwgmaMu vaGacTTYlkMritBnøW 70% [9] ya:gticbMput . vaEtduHedayFmµCatienAkEnøg
EdlvaRtUv)andaM .
[karRKb;RKg]: [1]
cMnYnénRbB½nr§ ukvç b,kmµCaeRcIn smRsbsMrab;Gakasüasøkw tUc . enA\NÐa
karGnuvtþCa jwkjab;KW karkab;eGayrhal (Gs;rlIg) RtUv)anGnuvtþenAeBleQImanGayuBI 10-15 qñaM
nig bnÞab;duH lUtlas;eLIgvijedayFmµCati rW sib,nimµti [1] . xYbrgVli CMu EdlsmRsbKW 4-5 qñaM
sMrab;eQIemSARkdas [2] nig 12-15 qñaM sMrab;eQIhb‘u [2] . karkab;rMelaH mYyeTABIr
dgRtUv)aneFIcV eBaHxYbry³eBlEvg GaRs½yeTAnwgcenøaHdaM KuNPaBtMbn; nigkarlUtlas; . eTaHbI
RbePTeQIenH manlT§PaBduHExñg vamin duHeRcIneT nigTamTareGaymankarRKb;RKg EfrkSa
edIm,I TTYl)an Exñgl¥ . kMBs;edIm CaktþasMxan;kgñú karduHBnøk nigpþl;nvU tYedIml¥ enAeBlkat; 60-100
cm BIépÞdI . Gayu rW Ggát;pi©tKl; nigrdUvénkarkat; man\T§B
i leTAdl;karduHExñg . RbePTenH
GacduHExñgeLIgvijbnÞab;BIkarkat;
.
Gakasüasøkw tUc
RtUv)an
daMsakl,layCamYyRbePTeQIRtUBki epSg²eTot
dUcCaRbePTeQIenAtMbn;éRBrgTwkePøóg
nigBBYkeRbg xül;pgEdr . eKalbMNgénRbB½ne§ nH KWeFIVeGayRbesIreLIgnUvGasUtkñúgdI
nigCMrujkarduHlUtlas; . kardaMduHenAtMbn;valesµA Imperata BYkvaGacrs; b:Eu nþrgeRKaH
fñak;edayePøgI eqH . Gakasüasøkw tUcGac begánI GasUt bnÞab;BIduHnUvkMBkrWs Rhizobium nig
Bradyrhizobium . enAhVl
I IBnI karbeBa©jGasUt 52-66% RtUvbgðajtamry³karbegánI GasUtkñúgdI .
karbegánI GasUt Gac)anlT§pll¥ enAeBl dImanCICatiCa BiesssMbrU pUsrV .
RbePTeQIenHmanBBYkpSit ecto- nig endo-mycorrhizal . pSit ecto-mycorrhizal (Thelephora spp.)
CaRbePT EdlmanRbeyaCn_ sMrab;rukCç atimansrésnaMdUcCa Glomus etunicatum nig Gigaspora
margarita
.RbePTdICaeRcIn EdldaMGakasüasøwktUc mankMritsarFatuciBa©wmTab nigRtUv)an

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

30

9

cm³

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

eRbICCI aCMnyY . Ca]TahrN_ kMritduHlUtlas;l¥ GacsMerc)anenARbeTs\NÐa edaykardak;CI mYyEx
eRkayBIkardaM . kMritCI 30 g énGasUt 25 g pUsrV nig 8 g b:UtasüÚm kñúgrukçCatimyY .
karkat;nUvEmkxag eRkamecj GacCYyeFIeV GayTMrg;edIml¥ b:Eu nþkarGnuvtþenA RbeTséf
min)anTTYleCaKC½yeLIy [1] .
[Tinñpl]: RbePTeQIenHmankMritlUtlas;l¥ eRkaykardaMduHCacMkar nigkMeNInkMBs;RbcaMqañ m
M anBI 2-4
m enABIreTAbIqañ d
M MbgU eTaHbIenAelIdImanCICatiTabk_eday . eRkaylkçxN
½ Ðl¥ RbePTeQIenH
GacmankMBs; 15-18 m nigGgát;pi©t 15-20 cm enAGayuBI 10-12 qñaM . cMeBaHdImanCICatienAcava:
kMritTwkePøóg 2,000 mm kMenInRbcaMqñamM an 15-20 m3/ha b:Eu nþdIminsUvmanCICatikMenInGacfymkRtwm 812 m³/ha . Tinñpl Gac kat;bnßy enAeBlkMritePøógTab rW karraMgs¶ÜtyUr .
kMenInRbcaMqañ M
edaymineRbICI enAelIdI Rkhm lateritic enAtMbn;raMgs¶ÜtmFümenA\NÐa KW 2-6 m³/ha .
enAelItMbn;valesµA Imperata nigdIminsUvmanCICati RbePT eQIenHduHlUtlas;elOnCag Albizia,
Eucalyptus, Leucaena nig Pinus . kMritlUtlas;xus²Kña GaRs½y eTAelItMbn; . tMbn;mn
i dk;Twk enAéf
EdlmankMritTwkePøógRbcaMqañ M 1,500 mm kardaMsakl,genA Balamuk (Papua New Guinea)
pþl;nvU kMritCIvma:se; nAelIépÞdI 135 t/ha enAry³eBl 3 qñaM cMEnkkardaMsakl,enA Springvale (GURsþalI)
)anRtwmEt 60 t/ha [1] .
[ksirukçkmµ]: eTaHbI vaminRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;RbB½n§ksirukk
ç mµ edaykarduHlUtlas;EbkEmkeRcIn nig
man karRbKYtRbECg nUvkarduHrWsnwgrukçCatiepSg²eTot kardaMdMNaMCacenøaHk_RtUv)anGnuvtþpgEdr
edaydaMduHCa mYy sENþk RsUv sENþk mung nig kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)
RtUv)anTTYlsÁal;faTTYl)aneCaKC½y EtkardaMduHCamYy eBatKWmin)aneCaKC½yeT .
vak_RtUv)aneRbICaedImeQI sMrab;EfTaM enAkñúgcMkarEtpgEdr . Gakasüasøkw tUc
CYnkalRtUv)andaMlayCamYy eRbgxül; nigRbePTeQIepSg²eTot edIm,ICyY begánI KuNPaBdI .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 9]

10

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

karbnþBUC]: Gakasüasøkw tUc RbePTGePT nigRtUv)andMeNIrlMGgeday stVl¥ti dUcCa Coleoptera,
Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera nig Lepidoptera [9] .
[karRbmUl nigrkSaTukRKab;BC
U ]: RbePTenH GacplitRKab;brimaNeRcIn enAdMNak;kaldMbgU .
RKab;mansMbkrwg enAeBlTMu nigGacrkSadMNuH)aneRcInqñaM RbsinrkSaTukenAkñgú FugbitCit nigRtCak; .
kareFIRV bRBwtþkmµCamun dUcCa edayemkanic eTAelIsMbkRKab; rW RtaMTwkekþA (1 naTI smRsbsMrab;karduH
[1], 1-2 naTI [9]) RtUvkareGaybMEbksMbkRKab; edayRtMaTwkRtCak;my
Y yb; rW RtaMTwkekþA 24 ema:g .
lT§pll¥ bMputKW karRClk;enAkñgú GasIuts‘ulpYric BI 6-30 naTI [1] . dMNuHekItmaneLIgya:gelOn (615 éf¶ [9]) bnÞab;BIkareFIRV bRBwtþikmµ EdlsmRsb nigdMNuHGacelIsBI 70% [1] (40-80% [9]) .
manRKab;CamFüm 71,600 RKab;/kg [1] (53,000–62,000 RKab;/kg [8], 55,000-75,000 RKab;/kg [9]) .
[karbnþBUC]: kUneQI EdlenAkñg
ú fñalminsUvTamTarkarEfTaMeRcIneT . kUneQIeTIbduHfµIKrY TTYl)anmøbB; I
50% [1] enAeBlvarwgmaMuvaGacTTYl)anBnøW
70%
[1] ya:gtic . viFs
I aRsþ bnþBCU edaysrIragÁ
rbs;Gakasüa edaykarkat; RtUv)anGPivDÆn_ [9] . edImeQIGacduHExñgeLIgvij enAeBlkat; .
bec©keTs Micropropagation GacRtUv)aneRbI . kardaMedayRKab;paÞ l; edayédTTYl)aneCaKC½ypgEdr
. cMkarRtUv)anbegátI edayeRbIkUneQI EdlbNþúHenAkñgú fñal . CaTUeTA BI 3-4 Ex [2]
eRkayedImeQIGac manTMhM smRsbsMrab;kardaMduH nigmankMBs; 25 cm [2] . karcak;bBa©Úl rhizobia
Gacpþl;RbeyaCn_dl; kUneQI enAeBlkUneQIRtUv)andaMenAelIdI Edl)ansMlab;emeraKrYc . RKab;BUC
EdlRtUvkarkñgú kar daMduHmYyhicta enARbeTskm<Cú a : 30,000 RKab;/kg cenøaHdaMduH : 2 x 2 m kUneQIsuT§
sMrab;myY hicta : 2,500 GaRtagab; : 3,000 (20% enAkEnøgdaM ), 3,334 (10% enAeBldwkCBa¢nÚ ), 4,168
(20% enAkñg
ú fñal) . kMritdMNuH : 60%. PaBsuT§ : 90% cMnnY RKab;srub : 0.27 kg" [10] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 8, 9, 10]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

11

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVl¥ti ]: manBBYkstVl¥itCaeRcIn EdleFVkI arbMpaø jedImGakasüasøkw tUc b:uEnþvamin)anb:HBal;dl;kar
lUtlas;rbs;RbePTenHb:nu aµ neT RbsinebIvaRtUv)andaMduHenAkEnøgsmRsb . CaBiess
edImEdllUtlas; yWtxøHGacrgkarvayRbharBIBBYkstVl¥it . xµtÚ (Sinoxylon sp.) sIubpM aø j CMvu ijedIm
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

nigEmk eFVeI GayBYkva )ak;eTotpg . RbePTstVenH RtUvykcitþTukdak; edayvaeFVIkarbMpøaj
edImeQICaeRcIn nigkat;bnßykarlUt las;RbEvgrbs; edIm .
enAGURsþalI
eQIrbs;vaRtUv)anvayRbhar edayBBYkecaHrun§ nigkeNþó nigstVl¥ti
manRskar
eFIkV arbMpaø jkUneQItUc² . karBiesaFn_ )anbgðajfa GakasüaGacFn;ngw keNþó . Gakasüa søwktUc
CaCMrkrbs; Xystrocera festiva éntMbn;BIr enAkñgú PaKxagt,ÚgsUma:Rta [1] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 9]
[CMgW]: manCMgWmy
Y cMnnY KWeFVIeGaymankarb:HBal;xøaMg eTAelIRbePTeQIenH eT . eTaHya:gNa
CMgWCaeRcInRtUv)aneFVGI tþsBaØaN
famanplb:HBal;dl;karlUtlas;rbs;RbePTeQIenH
CaBiess]sSah_kmµcMkarGakasüa. BYkvarYmman dMe)AedIm EdlbNþalmkBIBBYk Botryodiplodia
theobromae, Botryosphaeria spp. nig Hendersonula sp.) nigmanTak;TgnwgBBYkecaHedIm nig pink
disease (Corticium salmonicolor) enAkEnøgEdlmanePøógFøak;eRcIn nig phyllode rust (Atelocauda
digitata [1], Uromyces digitatus [9] ) EdleFIeV GaykarlUtlas;fycuH enA\NÐeÚ nsIu nigGURsþalI .
vaminrgeRKaHeday sarCMgW rlYybNþÚ (heart rot) EdlekItmanelIeRbgxül;enaHeT . CMgWpSitrlYyrWs
(Ganoderma sp.) RtUv)an segát eFIeV GayRCuHsøwk enAPaKxaglic ebnháal; RbeTs\NÐa . RbePT
Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae) RtUv)ankt;Rta faCa)a:ra:st
i énGaküasøwktUc enAPaKxaglicebnháal; [1]
. kUneQI enAkñgú fñalGacrgnUvCMgW powdery mildew (Oidium) CaBiessenAkEnøg Edlmanmøbx; øaMg .
kareCosevog nUvbBaða KWedaykareRbIR)as;nvU fñaMKmI I .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 9]
[epSg²]: edImeQImn
i Fn;nwgmøb; niggayrgeRKaH edayxül; nigsenSIm ehIyEmkGac)ak;enAeBlman
xül;xaø gM . edImeQI EdlnUvtUcgayrg nwgkarRbECgrbs;esµA nigePøgI eqH (eBlmanGayuRbEhl 20
Ex [1]) b:Eu nþeTaHedImeQImanGayu 10-15 qñaMk_GacRtUv)ansMlab;edayePøgI pgEdr [2] . RbePTpSit
Ganoderma lucidum RtUv)aneFIG
V tþsBaØa enAkñgú TIRkugPñeM Bj EdlEtgEteFIeV Gay edImGakasüagab;
. kenSamsøwkrbs;edImeQIcab;epþmI s¶Üt edayKµanehtupl nigmaneraKsBaØa epSg²eTot
EdlGaceFIeV Gay edImeQIgab;kúgñ ry³eBlBI bI eTAbYnEx . eTaHbI enAkEnøg Edl edIm
manrgkarbMpaø j; RtUv)ankat;TTwg CalikarxageRkA rW cambium GacRtUv)anemIleXIj ya:gc,as; .
Epñk EdlecjEpørbs;pSit EtelceLIg enAbnÞab;BI edImeQIgab; . karGegátbgðajfa
edImeQImyY rgnUvkarbMpøaj
nigcMEnkedImeQI EdlenACit enaHminmanecjeraKsBaØaGIeV T.

12

RbePTxñtÚ sIsu bM keQI ekItmaneLIgenAeBl edImeQIcab;epþmI s¶Üt rW gab;. pSitEteFIkV arraldal
tamry³dI nigEpñkEdlpþl;EpøénedImeQIRbePTepSg²eTot . cMeBaH Casuarina equisitifolia
EdlmankarduHlUtlas;rbs;pSit KW minsøab;eT rIÉ Popowia aberrans RtUv)aneFIeV Gay gab; eday
Ganoderma l. edaymanduHpSitecjmk enAry³eBlBIr eTAbIExeRkay . RbePTepSg eTotdUcCa
ém:sak; Tectona grandis duHlUtlas;enAtMbn; EdlmanRbePTpSit Ganoderma l. Gac
bgðajnUveraKsBaØaCMgW (CaBiesskat;bnßykarecjEmk rbs;kenSamsøwk nigduHlUtlas; Bnøk) nigGac
rgkarbMpøajBIRbePTpSitenHpgEdr . minmanviFsI aRsþkarBar rW Büa)alRtUv)anrk eXIjenA eLIyeT
. [J. Richter, Forestry Faculty, RUA]
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 9]

F> karGPirkS

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

kar)a:n;sµancMnnY
rbs;va
EdlRtUv)anKMramKMEhg
enAkñgú RbeTskm<Cú a
(
)ankMNt;enAkñúgsikçasalafñak;Cati eTAelIRbePTeQICaGaTiP§ aB erobcMedayrdæ)aléRBeQI
nigKMeragRKab;BCU eQIenAkm<Cú aenAqñaM 2000) KWmanedImeQIeRcInCag 10,000 edIm RtUv)anKMramKMEhg
edaykarkab;bpM aø j nig eRcInCag 1,000 RtUv)anKMramKMEhgedayePøgI eqH .
ÉksarBieRKaH [11]

13

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
r)a:yelIBiPBelak]:
[RbPBkMeNIt]: GURsþalI (PaKxageCIgGURsþalI nig
Moluccas) .
[

Queensland)

)a:BUjÚKeI n \NÐeÚ nsIu

(Irian Jaya,

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 8]
karnaMclU ]:
GasIu: (bg;køaeds Rb‘yu en km<Cú a cin étva:n; \NÐa \NÐeÚ nsIu Lav ma:eLsIu PUma en)a:l; hVlI IBnI sigðabUrI
RsIlgáa éf evotNam)
GaeRhVc : (ebnIn b‘rU a:n;DI kugeháa kUDIv½r háaNa eknya: lIebrI ma:daháasáa ma:LavI nIesrIya: ra:va:nd; a
esenháal; esra:eLGUn tg;sSanI esnsI)u a G‘yu ehánda sI)u aev: )
karIebon : (Kuy)a éhTI camIka esnvInesn nigeháNaDIn RTInIedt nigtU)aeháa )
GaemrikkNþal : (kUsaþ rIka)
GaemrikxageCIg: (shrdæGaemrik nig Hawaii)
Gaemrikxagt,Úg : (eRbsIul kULbúM ‘Í eGkVaD½r )
mhasmuRT : (GURsþalI hVICI )a:BUjÚKeI no sama:v ekaHsULmÚ ug evnUTU )
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3]
[

p> epSg²

:

Bakü]: eQµaHGakasüa )anmkBIBaküRkic ‘akis’ Edlmann½yfaRsYc rW karsMrYc nigBaküLataMg
‘auricula’- mann½yfaRtecokxageRkArbs;stV nig ‘forma- TMrg; rUb rW rag EdlbgðajnUvTMrg;EpøKYr [9] .
[kUnkat;]: A. auriculiformis Cab;Tak;Tgnwg A. polystachya A. Cunn. ex Benth., A. cincinnata F. Muell.
nig A. spirorbis subsp. solandri (Benth.) Pedley nigq¶ayBI A. aulacocarpa A. Cunn. ex Benth. nig A.
crassicarpa A. Cunn. ex Benth. (Pedley, 1975) . vaRtUv)anbgáat;CamYy A. leptocarpa A. Cunn. ex
Benth. nig A. mangium Willd. enAkñg
ú FmµCati nigkardaMduH . kUnkat;CamYy A. mangium
KWCakarrYmKñarvagem)aBIr TaMglkçN³rUbsaRsþ nigeQI . BYkvaTTYl)annUvTMrg;edImRtg;Cagmun
nigGacéRkEmkedayxøÜnÉg . kUnkat; mankarduHlUtlas;elOn nigFn;ngw CMgW rlYybNþÚ .
CaenHeTAeTot vaKWCakarrYmbBa©ÚlnUvlkçN³ BaNiCk¢ mµ EdleKcg;)an . TidæPaBénplitkmµRKab;
nigkarbnþBUCedaysrIragÁ rbs;kUnkat; RtUv)ansresr eday Carron nig Aken (1992) [1] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

14

PaBxus²Kña nigkarbgáat; ]: Gakasüa GaceFIVkarbgáat;ExVg nigmanlkçN³esenTicxus²Kña . karsikSa
Isoenzyme )anrkeXIjfa
manbNþMbú xI us²Kña éncMnYnrbs;va enATwkdIPaKxageCIg xVnI eLn
nig)a:BUjÚKeI no enAxVIneLn cMnnY rbs;vaRsedognwgcMnnY enA)a:BUjÚKeI no eRcInCagTwkdIPaKxageCIg .
karsikSabgðajfa 73% én isoenzyme manPaKxus²KñaenAkñcú nM nY rbs;va nigTMgn;RtUv)anpþl;TaMgBIr
intra- and inter-population genetic variability . BYkRkumtamtMbn;enH manlkçN³rUbxus²Kña .
PaBxusKañ RtUv)an)aneFIVkarBiesaFn_ enAry³eBl 12 Ex sMrab;tbM n;Bei saFn_ 28 kEnøgenAma:eLsIu .
RKb;tMbn;BiesaFn_kMritrs;KWeRcInCag 92% b:Eu nþvamanlkçN³xusKña cMeBaHkMritlUtlas; . enAGayu 5
qñaM enA Sabah kEnøgBiesaFn_cnM YnR)aMbI rYmTaMg RkumcMnnY bI Edl)anmkBI )a:BjU KÚ Ieno nig
R)aM)anmkBIxVIneLn RtUv)aneFIGV tþsBaØaN eTAelIkBM s; nig kar lUtlas;Ggát;p©it .
kardaMsakl,genAtMbn;bnY kMritCICatiTab tMbn;eFIVkarsal,g enA Zaire bgðajnUvkar lUtlas;xsu ²Kña
niglkçN³rUbsaRsþ enAeBleFIkV arvaytMél enAkMritGayu 3, 9, 15 nig 21Ex . kardaMsakl,g
mankMritFMeFgenA)a:BUjÚKeI no . kardaMsakl,gCaGnþrCati RtUv)anbegátI enAqñaM 1989 kñúg karRtYtBinitü
nUvesNUTIb nigGnþrGMeBIenAkñúgbrisßan . lT§plBIGURsþalI nigéf bgðajfaRbePT Edl)an
mkBIxVnI eLn mancMnYnedImRtg;eRcInkMritx<s; . enAkñgú karsakl,genAelIvalesµA Imperata
PaKxagt,Úg kalIma:nt; an; karlUtlas;manlkçN³xus²Kña bnÞab;BI
69
ExeRkayvabgðajnUvplitPaKx<s; cMeBaHedIm Edl)anmkBI)a:BUjÚKeI no (kMritkMeNInRbcaMqñaM 35.6 m³/ha)
xVnI eLn (kMritkMeNInRbcaMqañ M 30.3 m³/ha) nig TwkdIPaKxageCIg (kMritkMeNInRbcaMqañ M 30.2 m³/ha) .
manPaBxusKña
rvagKuNPaBedImeQI
Edl
manRbPB
BIxnVI eLn
EdlmancMnnY tYedImduHecjmkticCageK . RsedognwglT§plenH bnÞab;BI 8 Ex eRkayeBldaMduH
kUneQIenAPaKxagt,ÚgsUma:Rta mankMBs;l¥ nigGgát;pit© lUtlas;l¥ nigmancMnYnedIm
duHecjmkticRtUv)an bgðajedaycMkarsakl,g Wenlock River q¶ayBIxnVI eLn .
kardaMsal,genAevotNam enAtMbn;CaeRcIn RtUv)anraykarN_eday Nguyen Hoang Nghia nig Le Dinh
Kha (1996) . kardaMsakl,genA kEnøgman CatiéRb nigdk;Twk RtUv)ankt;sMKal; .
RbeTsCaeRcIneFIVkarEklMGr nUvesenTic EdleFIeV GayRbePTenH pþl;KN
u PaBRKab;BCU l¥
sMrab;kardaMduHeBlGnaKt . cMkarRKab;BUCRtUv)anbegátI enAekaH Melville enATwk dIPaKxageCIgGURsþalI
)anTTYlbraC½y . kareFIkV Únø RtUv)andMeNIrkar Edlpþl;nUvplitkmµRKab;BCU l¥ .
kareRbIR)as;edImeQIem)a EdlCakUnkat; rvag A. mangium k_manskþanuBlx<sp; g Edr.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

15

kUnkat;CaeRcIn bgðajnUvlkçN³BaNiCk¢ mµ Edlcg;)an dUcCakarduHlUtlas;elOn Emkl¥ nigedImRtg;
. Sedgley et al. (1992) rkeXIjfakarbgáat;ExVgrvag A. auriculiformis x A. mangium
KWTTYl)aneCaKC½y . karsMgYteday ma:snIu kMedAénlMGg nigrkSaenAkñgú PaBRtCak;
RtUv)anpþl;CaGnusasn_ edIm,IeGayzitenAry³eBlyUr (3 qñaM) sMrab;eRbIkgñú kmµviFI bgáat;RbePTeQIenH
. karBiesaFn_ rvag A. mangium x A. auriculiformis RtUv)an eFIeV LIgenA\NÐeÚ nsIu
edImbegátI nUvkmµviFIknøÚ éRBeQI . kUnkat; Edll¥RtUv)aneRCIserIssMrab;karbgáat;Ca RTg;RTayFM
enAevotNam . mCÄmNÐlRKab;BCU GURsþalI énéRBeQI CSIRO nigplitpleQIenA Canberra
enAGURsþalI)anrkSaTukRKab;BCU EdltMNageGaycMkarsakl,gnimYy² BITICrM gFmµCatirbs;RbePTenH
[1].

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Kamis Awang, Venkateswarlu P, Nor Aini AS, Ådjers G, Bhumibhamon S, Kietvuttinon B, Pan FJ,
Pitpreecha K, Simsiri A, 1994. Three year performance of international provenance trials of Acacia
auriculiformis. Forest Ecology and Management, 70(1/3):147-158; 31 ref.
[1]

Banerjee AK, 1973. Plantations of Acacia auriculaeformis (Benth.) A. Cunn. in West Bengal. Indian
Forester, 99(9):533-540 + 1 pl.

Boland DJ, 1989. Trees for the tropics. Growing Australian multipurpose trees and shrubs in
Developing Countries. ACIAR Monograph, No. 10:ii + 247 pp.; 11 pp. of ref.
[1]

Boland DJ, Pinyopusarerk K, McDonald MW, Jovanovic T, Booth TH, 1990. The habitat of Acacia
auriculiformis and probable factors associated with its distribution. Journal of Tropical Forest Science,
3(2):159-180; 32 ref.
[1]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[1]

16

Booth TH, Turnbull JW, 1994. Domestication of lesser-known tropical tree species: The Australian
experience. In: Leakey RRB, Newton AC, eds. Tropical trees: The Potential for Domestication and
Rebuilding of Forest Resources. ITE Symposium No. 29, ECTF Symposium No. 1. London, UK:
HMSO, 189-194.
[1]

dela Cruz RE, Umali-Garcia M, 1992. Nitrogen fixation and mycorrhizae in acacias on degraded
grasslands. In: Awang K, Taylor DA, eds. Tropical Acacias in East Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings
of a First meeting of COGREDA held in Phuket, Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: Winrock International
Institute for Agricultural Research, 59-71.
[1]

Doran JC, Guan BV, 1987. Treatments to promote seed germination in Australian acacias. ACIAR
Proceedings, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, No. 16:57-63; [In Australian
acacias in developing countries. Proceedings of an international workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 47 August 1986 [edited by Turnbull, J.W.]]; 5 ref.
[1]

Huang S, Zheng H, 1993. Coppicing of Acacia auriculiformis. ACIAR Forestry Newsletter No. 16, 3.
[1]

Ibrahim Z, 1991. Reproductive biology of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis. PhD Thesis,
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[1]

17

Le Dinh Kha, 1996. Studies on natural hybrids of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis in Vietnam.
In: Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM, eds. Tree Improvement for
Sustainable Tropical Forestry. Proceedings QFRI-IUFRO conference, Caloundra, Queensland,
Australia, 27 October-1 November 1996. Gympie, Australia: Queensland Forestry Research Institute,
328-332.
[1]

Marcar NE, Hussain RW, Arunin S, Beetson T, 1991. Trials with Australian and other Acacia species
on salt-affected land in Pakistan, Thailand and Australia. ACIAR Proceedings Series, No. 35:229-232;
3 ref.
[1]

Marcar NE, Ganesan SK, Field J, 1991. Genetic variation for salt and waterlogging tolerance of
Acacia auriculiformis.. ACIAR Proceedings Series, No. 35:82-86; 6 ref.
[1]

Nguyen Hoang Nghia, 1996. Climatic requirements of some main plantation tree species in Vietnam.
In: Booth TH, ed, Matching Trees and Sites. ACIAR Proceedings No. 63, 43-49.
[1]

Nguyen Hoang Nghia, Le Dinh Kha, 1996. Acacia species and provenance selection for large-scale
planting in Vietnam. In: Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM, eds. Tree
Improvement for Sustainable Tropical Forestry. Proceedings QFRI-IUFRO conference, Caloundra,
Queensland, Australia, 27 October-1 November 1996. Gympie: Queensland Forestry Research
Institute, 443-448.
[1]

Nor Aini AS, 1993. Recovery of Acacia auriculiformis from fire damage. Forest Ecology and
Management, 62(1-4):99-105; 9 ref.
[1]

Acacia auriculiformis provenances at Serdang, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural
Science, 17(2):95-102; 27 ref.
[1]

Nor Aini AS, Kamis Awang, Mansor Mohd Rashid, Abd Latib Senin, 1994. Provenance trial of Acacia
auriculiformis in Peninsular Malaysia: 12-month performance. Journal of Tropical Forest Science,
6(3):249-256; 25 ref.
[1]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Nor Aini AS, Kamis Awang, Venkateswarlu P, Abd Latib Senin, 1994. Three-year performance of

18

Pinyopusarerk K, 1990. Acacia auriculiformis: an annotated bibliography. Winrock International and
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
[1]

Turnbull JW, Awang K, 1997. Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth. In: Faridah Hanum I, van der
Maesen LJG, eds. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 11. Auxiliary plants. Leiden, the
Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 52-56.
[1]
Vuthy, C. C. 2004. Study of the effects of potting media on growth performance of Acacia
auriculiformis seedlings in the nursery of Svay Reang Forestry Triage. MSc thesis, Royal University of
Agriculture, Phnom Penh. 78 pp.
[10]

Yantasath K, Anusontpornperm S, Utistham T, Soontornrangson W, Watanatham S, 1993. Acacias
for fuelwood and charcoal In: Awang K, Taylor DA, eds. Acacias for Rural, Industrial and
Environmental Development. Proceedings of the Second meeting of Consultative Group for Research
and Development of Acacias (COGREDA). Udorn Thani, Thailand: Winrock International and FAO,
144-152.
[1]

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[1] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

19

[2] NFTA / FACT, 1989-1999: Agroforestry Species and Technologies - a compilation of the
highlights and factsheets. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association (NFTA), Waimanalo Hawaii.

[3] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning
Institute. Hanoi

[4] Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[5] Department of Forestry and Wildlife, 1988: Cambodian Forestry Law No. 35, 25th June
1988. Phnom Penh.

[6] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species. 7pp.

[7] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

[8] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep (Internet source)

[9]
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=
10 (Internet source)

[10] FA/CTSP, 2005: Guidelines for site selection and tree planting in Cambodia. 90pp.
Phnom Penh

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[11] FAO:
http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/005/AC648E/ac648e04.
htm (Internet source)

20

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa [4]

³

Golden Apple, Bengal quince, bael fruit, bael tree;[4,6,9,19]

³

Feronia pellucida,
Crateva marmelos [9]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

Oranger de Malabar (French) [4] bnau, (Cambodia); maja,
maja batu, (Indonesia); toum (Laos); bilak, bila, bel
(Malaysia); opesheet, ohshit (Burma); matum, tum, ma pin
(Thailand); trái mam (Vietnam) [6].

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

ePñA
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

1

phnëu [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Sapindales
RKYsar : Rutaceae
ePT : Aegle
RbePT : Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa

ÉksarBieRKaH: [11 ; 4 ]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: edImeQItcU CMruHsøwk mankMBs;dl;eTA 13 m manedImRsLÚn nigEmkFøak;mkeRkam
RBmTaMgkenSamsøwkFøak;ryak [5] . CaedImeQItUcCMruHsøwk EdlmankMBs;dl;eTA 15 m nigGgát;p©it
50 cm edaymanbnøa EdlmanRbEvg 1-2 cm enAelIEmk Edlcas;
. tYedImeRbH rW
RCYjenAEpñkxagKl; nigEmkmanbnøa (9) .
[sMbk]: manBN’etñatRsal rW RbepH relag rW eRbHCadMu² enAtambeNþayedIm nigmanbnøa
EdlmanRbEvg 1.2-2.5 cm bnøaGaczitenACaKU² manlkçN³RsUcY [5,9] .
[søwk]: mansøwkbI qøas;Kña zitenAelITgsøwk EdlmanRbEvg 2-4 cm . snøwknimYy² manTMhM 5-14 x
2-6 cm edaymanragmUl cugRsYl rW Tal nigKl;søwkmUl minmaneFµjsøwk rW maneFµjxø²
I .
søwkx©ImanBN’ ébtgRsal rW sICu MBUl maneram søwkcas;manBN’ébtgcas; nigrelag
mansrésEvncMnYn 4-12 KU enA RCugmçag² rbs;søwk EdltP¢ab;KñaenARtg;EKmsøwk . enAcugsøwmanTg
EdlmanRbEvg 0.5-3.0 cm enARCug mYyeTotmanTgsøwkxøI EdlRbEvg <0.2 mm [5] .
cugsøwkmanragmUl nigrIkFMbnþic (7.5 x 4.8 cm) [6] .
[páa]:manRbEvg 1.5-2.0 cm BN’ébtgRsal rW BN’elOg mankøinRkGUb CapáaBIrePT
duHCagkBa©MúekagcuH mkeRkam enAcuEmk nigG½kSsøwk EdlmansøWkx©I²duHpgEdr . RtbkpáasMEb:t
maneFµjtUc² 4(5) RsTab; cMnYn 4(5) RbEvg 6-8 mm zitenAKgelIBnøk . ekseQµal
mansrésxøICaeRcIn nigbMBg;eksmanBN’ etñatRsal TgeksxøI manragmUl nigBN’ébtgRss;
zitenACalkçN³sMEb:tdac;²BIKña [5] . kBa©úMpáa manRbEvg 4-5 cm zitenAelIG½kSCacegáam (9)
BIRCugrbs;søwk eTApáaEdlmanBN’ébtgRsal man Ggát;p©itRbEhl 2 cm [6] .
[Epø]:manRbEvg 5-12 cm ragmUl rW ragdUcEpøB½r Rkas; rwg eRKIm mineRbH rW Ebk . enAkñúgmancMnn
Y 815 snÞHx½NÐ EdlbMeBajeday sac;manBN’TwkRkUc nigmankøinRkGUb snÞH rW EpñkmYy² manRKab;BI 610 EdlmanragRTEvg manlkçN³Rkas; maneram EdlmanCatieQI
[5] . Epørelag ragmUl
mineTogTat; BN’RbepH rW elOg manGgát;p©it 5.0-12.5 cm mansMbk EdlmanCatieQIRkas; nigrwg
manRKab; 6-10 EdlrMuB½T§ edaysac;manBN’TwkRkUc s¥it nigrsCatiEp¥m [6,9].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

minmanB½t’manbec©kviTüalMGitGMBIRbePTeQIenHeT . eQImanlkçN³relag nigmanmuxkat;tUc [9] .
eQImankøinxøaMgenAeBlenARss; . vamanBN’sRbepH rwg b:uEnþminFn; nigRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eFIVreTH
nigsMNg; vaRtUv)anBt;sMrab;rMu nigeRbHenAeBlBt;xøaMg [20] .

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

manRbPBkMeNItenAPaKxageCIg GnuTVIb\NÐa ]bTVIb\NÐa PaKxagt,Úg Himalayas RtUv)andaMduH
enARKb;TIkEnøg dUcCa enA RsIlgáa en)a:l; PUma bg;køaeds éf evotNam Lav ma:eLsIu \NÐÚensuI nig
PIlIBIn [4,6,12] . ePñARtUv)ankt;RtanenAkñúgqñaM 800 munRKwsþraC . vaRtUv)andaMduHTUTaMg\NÐa
CaBiess enAkñúgsYnc,arkñúgvtþ edaysarEtvaCaedImeQIsMrab;bUrCa ehIyk_manenA)a:KIsßan
nigPaKxageCIgma:eLsIu tMbn;raMgs¶Ütén Java eTAdl;PaKxageCIf Luzon enAekaHhVIlIBIn EdlCakEnøg
ecjEpødMbUgenAqñaM 1914 . vaduHlUtlas;enAkñúgsYnrbs;BYkeGsIub nig enA Surinam nig Trinidad .
RKab;rbs;vaRtUv)anepJIBI Lahore enAkñúgqñaM 1909 [20] .
edImeQIduHlUtlas;enAkñúgéRBs¶Üt énGnuTVIb\NÐa nigPaKxagt,Úg Himalaya . enARbeTskm<úCa
vaRtUv)andaMdHu enAtamdgpøvÚ [4] . enA\NÐa ePñA (Epøe)a:mBN’mas) manduHenAkñúgéRBs¶Üt nigTIval
[4,5].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

3

:

manduHenAkñúgéRBs¶Üt nigéRBminsUvrgkarrukran CaRbePTeQI Fn; nwgsItuNPð aBBI-7 eTAdl; 49 ºC
duHlUtlas;enAtMbn;licTwk nigdIs¶ÜtpgEdr . vaecjpáa nigEpøenATIkEnøg EdlmanrdUvR)aMg vaCaRbePT
eQI EdlduHenAtMbn;raMgs¶Üt [6,9] . ePñA GacduHlUtlas;BI kMritry³kMBs; 0-1200 m
edaymankMrti Twk ePøógCamFümBI 500 - 4000mm/ m² edaymanr)a:yePøógesµIr TaMgBIrrdUv .
eTaHbIya:gNa RbePTeQIenHGacrs;)andl;ry³eBl
8
Ex enArdUvR)aMg .
enAeBlkMritsItuNðPaBRbcaMqñaMCamFüm man BI
13ºC
eTA 32ºC
kMritsItuNðPaBmFümenAExekþAbMputmanBI 30ºC-43ºC kMritsItuNðPaBenAExRtCak;bMputmanBI 4ºC
eTA 22ºC . sItuNðPaBdac;xat manBI - 1ºC eTA - 22ºC [12].

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTanmanTinñn½y .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

CaRbePT EdlFn; duHlUtlas;enAelIdIesIm nigs¶ÜtpgEdr [6] . ePñAcUlcitþduH enAelIdI
EdlmanvayPaBmFüm eTAF¶n; b:uEnþ mindk;Twk nigFn;nwgkardk;TwktamrdUv . dImanRbtikmµ
KYrEtmanlkçN³NWt rW manCatiéRbtic nigGacmanCMerAmineRCA . RbePTenH Gacrs;enAtMbn;raMgs¶Üt
møb; nigmansenSIm ry³eBlxøIpgEdr [12]. RbePTdI ePñAGacduHlUtlas;l¥ enAelIdIsMbUrCICati
mindk;Twk b:Eu nþ duHlUtlas; nigEpøl¥enAelIdI oolitic limestone énPaKxagt,Úg Florida .
vaduHlUtlas;)anl¥pg Edr enAelIdIlicTwk fµ rw manCatiéRb Edlman pH BI 5 eTA 8 . enA\NÐa
vamanPaBl,IeQµaHNas; edaysarvaGacduH enAtMbn; EdlRbePTeQIepSg² eTotminGac
duHlUtlas;)an [20].

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: eQIsmRsbsMrab;plit]bkrN_tUc² dUcCadgkan;CaedIm nigsmRsbsMrab;eFICV aGusdut [4,9,
17] . RbsinQIFMlm
µ vaGacRtUv)aneRbICabegáal srsr sMNg;eQImUl sMPar³eFIVBIeQI
enAkñúg]sSah_kmµ nigpÞH Rbdab;ekµgelg eRKOgsgðarwm ]bkrN_eFIVBIeQI eQIfamBl nigFüÚg
[12,17] . eRbIR)as;CaFmµ tasMrab;eFIVpÞaMgcMlak; dgsMrabkan; GERg nigRkas vagaydusxat;pgEdr
[27] .
[Gnupl]: CatiekAs‘U rW Catis¥it EdlmanenARKab; KWmankMriteRcInenAEpø EdlduHenAkñúgéRB CaBiessenA
eBl EdlEpøminTan;TMu . vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;Cakav ehIyCag rW GñkeFIVeKOgGlgáar cUl eRbIR)as;sMrab;
kargar rbs;eK . CYnkal vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;sMrab;CMnYssab‘U [27] . kareRbIR)as;epSgeTot
eRbIsMrab;bitCBa¢aMg sMrab;karBarTwk b:uEnþTamTareGayeFIVbEnßmnUvsIum:g;t_ eTAelICBa¢aMgpgEdr .
Gñksil,³layvaCamYyfñaMTwk BN’sMrab;karBarpÞHKMnUrrbs;BYkeK [27] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

4

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

5

vaRtUv)andaMdHu enATUTaMg\NÐa CaBiessenAtamvtþ edaysarEtvaCaRbePTeQIsMrab;eFIVkarbUCar
nigk_mandaM enA)a:KIsßan nigPaKxageCIgma:eLsIu . edImRtUv)andaMduHsMrab;ykEpøenATUTaMg GnuTVIb\NÐa
EpøTMuGacbriePaK )anTaMgenARss; eFIVCaePsC¢³ bEg¥mkk (sherbet) TwkesrU: dMNab; rWkat;CacMNit²
nighaleGays¶Üt sMrab;eRbIR)as;éf¶eRkay . Catis¥it EdlenACMuvijEpø EdlminTan;TMu
RtUv)aneRbIR)as;sMrab;Cakav enAkñúghag lk;eRKOgGlgáar . RbGb; d_Rss;s¥at GacRtUveFIVsMbkEpø
nigeQIrbs;va [6,9] .
EpøePñAGacRtUv)ankat;Bak;kNþal rW bMEbkedayfñm² nigsac;rbs;vaRtUv)anlayCamYysáetñat
nigeFIVkar briePaKsMrab;CaGahareBlRBwkpgEdr ehIyvamankareBjniymNas;enARbeTs\NÐÚensIu .
sac;rbs;va manlkçN³dUcTiwkdm . karlaysac;RKab;CamYyTwkedaHeKa nigsá k_CaePsC¢³ d_eBj
niympgEdr ehIyRtUv)anehAfa sherbet enAkñúgRbeTs\NÐa . ePsC¢³ k_GacRtUv)an
eFIVeLIgedaylaysac;EpøCa mYynwg GMBil [20] . Epøcas; EdlminTan;TMuGacRtUv)aneFIVCadMNab;
edaybEnßmnUvGasIutsIuRTic . dMNab; nigsár GacRtUv)aneFIVeLIgedaylaysac; CamYysá køúykUs
TwkedaHeKa nigsarFatuxøaj; Edlrlay kñúgGIuRdUEsn . Gñkbec©kviTüaGahar\NÐa
KitfakareFIVkarEkécñEpørbs;vamaneCaKC½ykMritx<s; [20] .
søwkenAx©I nigBnøkRtUv)anbriePaKTaMgenARss; sMrab;CabEnø enARbeTséf nigRtUveRbIR)as;
CaeRKOgpSMmðÚb enAkñúgRbeTs\NÐÚensIupgEdr . BYkvaGacCYykat;bnßykareRskXøan)an .
páarbs;vak_GaceRbIR)as;CaEt pgEdr . tMélGaharrbs;vakñúg 100 g énEpøRss;RtUv)anviPaKenA\NÐa
nighVIlIBIn : Twk 54.96-61.5 g, RbUetGIun 1.8-2.62 g, xøaj 0.2-0.39 g, kabUnGIuRdat 28.11-31.8
g, epH 1.04-1.7 g, carotene 55 mg, thiamine 0.13 mg, riboflavin1.19 mg, niacin 1.1 mg,
GasIut ascorbic 8-60 mg nigGasIut tartaric 2.11 mg [20] .
Pabhag rW hW EdlCaRbePTeRbg mycotoxic RtUv)ancMrajykBIsMbkEpø nigeRbIR)as;enAkñúgkar
eFIVTwkGb; nigsab‘U [9] . eRbgsMxan; EdlmanenAkñúgsøwk manCati d-limonene, 56% a-dphellandrene, cineol, citronellal, citral; 17% p-cyrnene, 5% cumin aldehyde . eRbgsMbUr
limonene RtUv)an cMraj;ykBIsMbkEpø sMrab;eFIVCaeRbglabsk;pgEdr [20] .
tanIn rW l½kç : sac;rbs;EpøeQI Edl)anmkBIéRBmanCatitanIn 9% eRcInCagRbePT EdlRtUv)andaMduH
. sMbkmanCatitanIndl;eTA 20% . tanInk_manenAkñúgsøwkrbs;vapgEdr . sMbkminTan;TMuGac
cMerjyk CatitanIn nigCatiBN’elOg sMrab;RClk;RkNat; nigsURt [9,20] . swøk

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

nigEmkx©IRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;CacMNI stVpgEdr [20]. vak_GacRtUv)aneRbIR)as;eFIVCarbgrs;pgEdr
edayvamanbnøaeRcIn [9] .
»sf : søwk sMbk sac; nigEpøRtUv)aneRbIR)as;Ca»sfenAtamtMbn;pgEdr . søwkGaceFVIeGayman
karrlUt kUn nigsMrab;sMlab;emeraKenAkñúgRsþIpgEdr . sMbkRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;CafñaMbMBlu RtI enA
Celebes . tanIn RtUv)anelb nigeRbIkñúgbrimaNeRcInhYsehtuenAkñúgry³eBlyUr KWeFIVekItCMgWmharIk
nig raMgsÞHkareRbIR)as;sarFatuciBa©wmenAkñúgragkay . søwkrbs;ePñA KWmansarFatu sMlab;stVl¥it
CaBiess kNþÚbsIurukçCatiBN’etñat (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) EdlCaRbePTstVl¥iteFIV
karbMpøajRsUv enAtMbn;GasIu [9,20] .
EpøminTan;TMu RtUv)anes¶arrMgas;layCamYy fennel nigxJI GacBüa)alb¤sdUg)at . vaRtUv)ansnñidæan
faCati psoralen EdlmanenAkñgú sac; GacbegáInnUvPaBFn;nwgBnøWéf¶rbs;Es,k . vaRtUv)an eRbIR)as;
kñúgkarBüa)al CMgWEs,k . Marmelosin cMerjBIsac; GaceRbIsrM ab;fñaMbBa©úH nig fñaMbBa©úH Twkenam.
enAkñúgkMritd_eRcIn vaGaceFIVeGaymankarBi)akdkdegðIm exSayebHdUg nigminGacedk)an .
sMrab;kareRbIR)as;Ca»sf Epøx©I minTan;rwgxøaMg RtUv)ancitdak;haléf¶ niglk;enATIpSar .
BYkvak_RtUv)annaM ecjeTAma:eLsIu nigGWuru:b .
Epø EdlminTan;TMu GaceRbIR)as;sMrab;Tb;sáat;CMgWraK nigeraKmYl EdlmanlkçN³TUeTAenARbeTs\NÐa
enAkñúgrdUvekþA [20] .
plitplepSg²eTot : sac;rbs;Epø RtUv)aneRbIsrM ab;e)akKk;sMelokbMBak; . sMbkEpøRtUv)aneRbI
sMrab;eFIVCaRbGb;dak;»sf nig RbGb;dak;fñaMCk; CYnkaleFIVkaEtlMGr edaymas nigR)ak;eTotpg .
TwkGb; RtUv)ancMerjecjBIpáarbs; va . enAkñúgvb,Fm’hiNÐÚ søwkRtUvpþl;eTAeGayRBHsiv 'Lord Shiva'
[20] . edImeQIRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;bUrCaenAkñúgsasnahiNÐÚpgEdr [4,5,6,9,12,19,20] .
ePñACaRbePT EdlmanPaBsMrbx<s; eTAnwgGakasFatuepSg²Kña . vapþl;sarFatutanIn nig]sf
nigEpøGac eRbIsMrab;CMnYsGahar)an . enHeFIVeGayRbePTenH CaRbePTeQIsmRsbsMrab;kar
eRbIR)as;dI kñúgRbB½n§ksikrukmµ [12].

6

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak; .

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

kardaMduHCacMkark_TTYl)aneCaKC½ypgEdr edayeRbI edIm rW kUnEdlduHecjBIedIm ehIyRbePT
eQIenHGac duHlUtlas;ExñgeLIgya:gelOneTotpg eTaHbIRbePTenHminRtUv)andaMduH CacMkarPaK
eRcInk_eday [12].

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

ePñARtUv)andaMduH edayRKab; enAkñúgkMritcMnYnd_Tab sMrab;ykEpø nigCaedImeQIvb,Fm’ EdlRKab;rbs;va
RtUv)ancat;TukfaCaRbePT recalcitrant [12] rW eFIVkardaMduHedayExñg EdlduHecjBIrsW [9] .
ePñARtUv)andaMduHedayRKab;enAkñúgfñal nigeRkaymkRtUv)anykeTAdaMduHTIval . kUneQIrbs;vamanTMhM
xus²Kña manlkçN³eRKIm KuNPaBEpø nigbrimaNsac; nigRKab;k_xus²KñapgEdr . rsCatimancab;BI
minl¥ rhUtdl;KuNPaBl¥
. dUcenH RbePT Edll¥GacduHlUtlas;eRcIn .
kareFIVkarbgáat;tamry³karkat;b:H eTAelIRbePT Afraegle nig Swinglea glutinosa Merr.
KWTTYl)aneCaKC½ypgEdr . CYnkal karbMe)A rW kat;rsW GacRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;karbnþBUC [20].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

7

:

EpøePñAminsUvmanBBYkstVl¥it nigCMgWmkbMpøajb:N
u ÑaeT elIkElgEtBBYkpSit EdleFIVeGayman
karxUcxat enAeBlrkSaTuk [20].

F> karGPirkS

:

minEmnCaRbePTrgeRKaHfñak; [9].

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

minTanmanTinñn½y .

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
GnuTVIb\NÐa PaKxagt,Úg Himalayas EdlCaRbPBkMenIt \NÐÚcin dl;\NÐÚensIu nighVIlIBIn
RtUv)annaMcUl nigeFIVeGayduHCalkçN³FmµCati [12].

p> epSg²

:

zitenAkñúglMdab; énRKYsarcMnYn 16 EdlrYmman Sapindales . Aegle zitenAkñúgGnuRKYsar
Aurantioideae EdlrYmmancMnYnbIePT (genera) Citrus, Fortunella nig Poncirus . Citrus CaePT
Edlmansar³sMxan; edaymancMnYnRbePT 60 EdlPaKeRcInRtUv)andaMduH kñúgenaHmandUcCa : RkUcqµa
(Citrus limon), the citron (C. medica), RkUcCU (C.aurantium), RkUcEp¥m (C.sinensis), the
mandarins, satsumas, nig RkUcXVic (C. reticulata), the limes (C. aurantifolia), nigRkUcføúg (C.
paradisi) . BBYk EdlminsUv)ansÁal;mandUcCa
qumquats EdlzitenAkñúgePT Fortunella
nigRkUcsøwkbI minGacbriePaK)an Poncirus trifoliata [11] .
manEtRbePTcMnYnKt;enAkñúgRKYsar Rutaceae EdlmantMélsMrab;eQIh‘ub nigpþl;TiñnpleQImantMél
enaHKW West Indian Silkwood, Xanthoxylum flavum[11]

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Ahmal,I., Kaur, A.1998: Study on minor seed oils. Journal of Oil Tech. Association of
India. 30(3), 114-116, 15 ref.
Alam, M.M., Siddiqui, M.B., Husain,W. 1990: Treatment of diabetes through herbal drugs
in rural India. Fitoterapia 61(3) 240-242, 2 ref.
Ganguli, L.K. 1994: Fungitoxic effect of certain plant extracts against rice blast (
Pyriaelaria oryzae) and brown spot pathogen (Helminthosporium oryzae): Environment
and Ecology 12(3) 731-733, 10 ref.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Rutaceae

8

Singh RV, 1982. Fodder trees of India. Fodder trees of India., xv + 663 pp.; 34 pp. ref.
Singh SP, 1989. Wasteland development. Wasteland development., xx + 227 pp.; 96
ref.
Troup RS, Joshi HB, 1981. Troup's The Silviculture of Indian Trees. Volume III. Delhi,
India; Controller of Publications.
Verheij EWM, Coronel RE, 1991. Plant resources of South-East Asia. No. 2. Edible fruits
and nuts. Plant resources of South-East Asia. No. 2. Edible fruits and nuts., 446 pp.;
[and fig.]; many ref.
Maikhuri, R.K., Semval, R.L., Singh,A.m and Nautiyal, M.C. 1994: Wild fruit as a
contribution to sustainable rural development - a case study from the Garhwal Himalaya.
Int. J. of Sust. Dev.& World Ecology 1(1) 56-58, 19 ref.
Singh, S.P. 1992: Budding in some frruit crops - a review. Advances in Horticulture and
Forestry 2: 84-97, 36 ref.

P> ÉksarBieRKaH
4)

:

Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House;

Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

5)
Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A
Field Guide to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept.
University of Chiang Mai, Thailand; 546 pp.

9

6)
Jensen, M. 2001:Trees and Fruit of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field
guide. Orchid Press, Bangkok; 224 pp.

9)
Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide
Encyclopaedic Guide. Thames& Hudson Ltd. London. 484 pp.

12)

CABI Forestry Compendium 2003 (on CD)

11)
Heywood, V.D. (Ed.) 1993: Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford
University Press, New York; 336 pp.

17)
Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant
Resources of Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea
Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859 pp.

19)
Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The cultivated Plants of the Tropics and
Subtropics. Josef Margraf Publ., Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552
pp.

20)
Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002:
Agroforestree Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD ).

27)http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/
BotanicList.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

asp

10

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib

³

minTan;manTinñn½y.

³

Afzelia siamica Craib. [1], Pahudia cochinchinensis Pierre [3]
Pahudia xylocarpa Kurz. [13], Afzelia cochinchinensis
(Pierre) J. Leonard [6], Afzelia siamica Craib [2]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

mai te kha, tae kha, kha, go ca te, kha te kha (Laos) [1, 6,
13]- go do, c[af]te, g[ox]d[or], g[ox]t[of]te (Vietnam) [1, 6, 13]makha-mong, makhaa-hau-kham, makhaa-laung, makhaamong, makhaa-yai (Thailand) [1, 6, 13]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

ebg
ÉksarBieRKaH : [9]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

1

beng [3], kheng [6]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Fabales
RKYsar : Fabaceae [2]/ Leguminosae [5]
/ GnuRKYsar : Caesalpinioidae [12]
ePT : Afzelia J.E. Smith
RbePT : Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib

ÉksarBieRKaH: [2, 5]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: ebgCaedImeQICrM uHsøkw EdlmansøwkFM nigGacmankMBs;rhUtdl; 30 m [1] (15-20
CYnkal 30 m [3, 4, 5, 6]). edImrbs;vaKµanEmkenAkMBs; 6-9 m [7, 13] nigGacmanGgát;p©it DBH
dl;eTA 80-150 cm [1] (Ggát;p©it DBH mFüm : 60-100 cm [5], 150-200 cm [7]GacelIsBI 100 cm [13])
. vamanragekag nigdUc cMBam nigEtgmanRBwgenAKl; . kenSamsøwkFM nigmUlCamYynwgEmkd_FM .
[sMbk]:sMbkxageRkAmanBN’elOgRbepH nigKeRKIm edaymanrunB
§ N’etñatCaeRcIn . sMbkxag
kñúgman BN’Rkhm nigmanTMrg;CacMNgenAeBlkat; .
[søwk]: søwkmanlkçN³qøas; mancMnYn 3-5 KU [1] ragmUl rWRTEvg nigKµaneramenAelIbnÞHsøwk Edlman
RbEvg 5-6 cm [3, 4] (5-9 cm [1, 7]) nigTTwg 4-5 cm [1].
[páa]:kBa©úp
M aá manpáatUcCaeRcIn ekseQµalcMnYn 7-8 (=male organs) manRbEvg 3 cm [1] nig
ekseQµalEdlminGacbgákMeNIt)an ¬Ga¦ cMnnY 3 xø²I . enARbeTsevotNam vaecjpáaenAkñgú Ex
mina-emsa .
[Epø]: ebgecjEpøenA ExkBaØa-FñÚ [1] (tula-FñÚ [13], mIna -]saPa [3]) . mankMLg
ú énkarecjEpøeRcIn
enArag ral; 2 qñaM . EpømanbeNþay 15-20 cm nigTTwg 7-9 cm [1] ragCaeGlIb køayCaeQIenAeBlTMu
nigman BN’exµA . vanwgeRbHEbkenAeBlTMu b:Eu nþGaczitenAry³eBlyUrmuneBleRbHEbk . RKab;rbs;va
FM ragdUc GUvul BN’exµArelag nigmansMbkRKab;Rkas; . manRKab;cnM nY 110-160 kñúg 1 kg [1] .
[

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

lkçN³eQI]: eQIebgmanlkçN³F¶n; nigrwg . eQIxwmø manBN’RkhmragelOg ERbCaRkhmcas; nig
man sñamqñtÚ ehIyGacmanlkçN³xusBIeQIRsay EdlmanBN’sragRbepH . sac;eQIman rune§ RcIn
nig man dg;seIu t 0.85-0.9 g/cm³ enAkMritsMeNIm 15% (TMnajEpndICak;lak;: 0.4-0.75 g/cm³ [12]) .
vaynPaB l¥mFüm nigeRKImbnþci . épÞsac;eQIrabesµI nigrelagl¥ . karsMgYtsac;eQI)anl¥
tamry³kareFIeV Gay sac;eQIRsk; ¬rYj¦ nigkarrMu . vamanlkçN³Bi)akkñgú kareRbIR)as; b:Eu nþgay
RsYlebIeRbobeFobeTAnwg RbePTeQI Edlmandg;seIu tx<se; pSg²eTot . eQImanlkçN³Cab;)anyUr
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13]

2

eRkamkardak;halvaenAkñgú lkçxN
½ ÐGakasFatutMbn;RtUvBic RbEhlry³eBl 10 qñaM . lkçN³d_éT
eTotrbs;eQImandUcCa enA sMeNIm 15% lkçN³sMelgqøgkat;man 95-125 N/mm² sMBaFRsbkñgú kar
TTYl 53-65 N/mm² nig karkat; RbEhl 17 N/mm²" [7] .
[7, 12]

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

kMritEdnkMNt; : 29°N eTA 10°N [6] ebgCaRbePTeQIEdlmanduHlUtlas;enAtMbn;dITMnab Edlmindk;
Twk rWtMbn;RBMRbTl;rvagRbePTéRBeRsag nigéRB dipterocarp s¶Üt EdlmanlayéRBel,aH latsn§wg
BIPaK xagekIt\NÐa qøgkat;PUma éf km<Cú a nigLav . RsTab;kenSamsøwkGacmankMBs;dl; 30 m
b¤xs< C; agenH RsTab;fañke; RkammankMBs; 10 eTA 20 m . kenSamsøwkEtg bitCitnigmanRbePT eQI
CMruHsøkw epSg²Kña b:Eu nþmanRbEhlCa 50% . ém:sak; (Tectona grandis) GacCaRbePTlb; EdlbegánI
nUvsar³sMxan; esdækic© dl;éRBeQI . RbePTepSgeTotdUcCa Xylia spp., Terminalia spp., Dalbergia
oliveri, Pterocarpus macropcarpus, Pentacme spp., Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Tetrameles nudiflora b¤
Lagerstroemia calyculata . vak_manduHenAtMbn;éRBTMnabpgEdr . edImeQIduHlUtlas;qa¶ yBIKañ
nigminduHCaRbePTsuT§ enaHeT (Pure stands) .
[3, 4, 6, 7, 14]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

3

:

enAkñgú r)a:ytMbn;FmµCati vaduHlUtlas;enAry³kMBs; 100-650 m a.s.l. [1] (100-600 m [7], 500–700 m
nig 900 m [3], RbEhl 900 m [4]) . vaduHenAtMbn; EdlmanrbbTwkePøóg 1,000-1,500 mm/qñaM [1, 6]
rdUvR)aMg 5-6 Ex [6] . kMritsItuNðPaBmFümRbcaMqañ M 20-32ºC [6] kMritsItuNðPaBmFümEdlekþAbMput
27-39ºC [6] nigkMritsItuNðPaBmFüm EdlRtCak;bMput 12 - 24ºC [6] . sItuNðPaBdac;xatTabbMput
>10ºC [6] . ebgKW CaRbePTeQIEdlRtUvkarBnøW b:uEnþmankarFn;ng
w møbe; nAeBltUc .
[1, 4, 6, 7]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

tMbn;eqñrPñRM kvaj (A), PaKxageCIgPñRM kvaj (B), TMnab;elcTwkbwgTenøsab
tMbn;TMnabPaKBayBü (D), TMnabkNþal (d), Annamites kNþal (G).

(C),

dIRkhm

(c),

TItaMgtMbn;RbPBRKab;BCU (Projection: UTM; Horizontal Datum: Indian coordinates)]:
esomrab (X:420907 Y:1498999), esomrab (X:422400 Y:1496105), esomrab (X:425135 Y:1492386)
kMBg;FM (X:556470 Y:1461143), kMBg;FM (X:572874 Y:1397114), RBHvihar (X:507787 Y:1517235), RkecH
(X:623145 Y:1419868), RkecH (X:601979 Y:1431509) RkecH (X:606212 Y:1452676), RkecH (X:621558
Y:1465905), RkecH (X:614679 Y:1442622), sÞwgERtg (X:571022 Y:1491570), RkecH (X:583722
Y:1425953), RkecH (X:587427 Y:1382032) kMBg;FM (X:528689 Y:1436007) )at;dMbg (X:271513
Y:1423836), )at;dMbg (X:295855 Y:1402670), rtnKIrI (X:711945 Y:1539248), rtnKIrI (X:710612
Y:1544801), rtnKIrI (X:709279 Y:1548799), rtnKIrI (X:733268 Y:1516148), rtnKIrI (X:734156
Y:1489717), rtnKIrI (X:687735 Y:1516148), )at;dMbg (X:254662 Y:1422695), )at;dMbg (X:236107
Y:1421490), )at;dMbg (X:260445 Y:1393055), )at;dMbg (X:250325 Y:1397393), esomrab (X:399052
Y:1513164), rtnKIrI (X:704001 Y:1504648), sÞwgERtg (X:641566 Y:1522661), sÞwgERtg (X:587469
Y:1496461), rtnKIrI (X:721623 Y:1515900), rtnKIrI (X:704001 Y:1504648), kMBg;FM (X:556986
Y:1403858), sÞwgERtg (X:661468 Y:1524695), kMBt (X:427602 Y:1215256), sÞwgERtg (X:589200
Y:1518300), eBaF×sat; (X:354350 Y:1348650), RBHvihar (X:513675 Y:1536861), mNÐlKIrI (X:714256
Y:1349031) .
[

[3]

:

vaduHlUtlas;enAelIdTI Mnabmindk;Twk rWtMbn;ceM nat EdlmandIl,ayrW xSac;enAelI\dæ nig dI
Edlman pH NWt .

laterite

[5, 6, 7]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan

:

eQI]: eQIrwg nigCab;)anyUr EdlmantMélx<s;enARbeTséf . eQIRtUv)aneRbIR)as;enAkñgú lkçN³xus²
Kña dUcCa eQImlU srsGaKar eQIGar CBa¢aMgGaKar sMNg;FnF¶n nigRsal Fñmw kMral CBa¢aMg bnÞHkþa
KMerag visVkmµ s<an pøÚvrfePøgI sMPar³eFIGV MBIeQI sMPar³EdlmandgeFIBV eI QI ]bkrN_ePøg
eQIsMrab;eFIRV kdas cMlak;eQI eRKOgsgðarwm kþavIna TUk tYyanynþ eQIfamBl nigFüÚg . Bkrbs;ebg
mantMélCaBiess eRBaHvamanTMrg;sa¥ tenAeBlkat; . Bkrbs;vaRtUv)anlk;edaykarføgw KitCa Kg.
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

4

[1, 3 ,5 ,6 ,7 ,13]

Gnupl]: sMbkrbs;ebgmanpÞkú sarFatKImI dUcCa catechol nig pyrogallol EdlmansarFatutanIn
EdleRbIsMrab;slM ab;Es,k . sMbkk_RtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;CafñabM UraN nigfñaBM üa)alstV . RKab;x©I
EdlsMbUr eTA edaykUTIeldug GacbriePaK)an nigRtUv)aneRbICaeRbgrukCç atieTotpg .
RkdasesþIgrbs;RKab; (seed pulp) RtUv)aneRbIR)as;CaC½rs¥itsMrab;bti )arI .
[

[4, 6, 7]

epSg²]: "ebgRtUv)andaMenAhan;NUy nig sYnstVhUCImjI CaRbePTedImeQIlMGr . vaGacmanlT§PaB
begánI GasUnenAkñgú dI nigsmRsbsMrab;ksirukçkmµ nigkarbegánI KuNPaBdI .
[

[1, 5, 6]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

eQIRbNit [3]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: ebgCaRbePTeQIEdlRtUvkarBnøW nigmanduHlUtlas;enAtMbn;dITMnab Edlmindk;Twk
rWtMbn; RBMRbTl;rvagRbePTéRBeRsag nigéRB dipterocarp s¶Üt EdlmanlayéRBel,aHlat sn§gw BIPaK
xagekIt \NÐa qøgkat;PUma éf km<úCa nigLav . RsTab;kenSamsøwkGacmankMBs;dl; 30 m
b¤xs< C; agenH RsTab; fañk;eRkammankMBs; 10 eTA 20 m . kenSamsøwkEtgbitCitnigmanRbePTeQI
CMruHsøkw epSg²Kña b:Eu nþman RbEhlCa 50% . ém:sak; (Tectona grandis) GacCaRbePTlb;
EdlbegánI nUvsar³sMxan;esdækci ©dl; éRBeQI . RbePTepSgeTotdUcCa Xylia spp., Terminalia spp.,
Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

Dalbergia oliveri, Pterocarpus macropcarpus, Pentacme spp., Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Tetrameles

b¤ Lagerstroemia calyculata . vak_manduHenAtMbn;éRBTMnabpgEdr . edImeQIduH
lUtlas;qa¶ yBIKañ nigminduHCaRbePTsuT§ enaHeT (Pure stands) . vaduHExñg)anl¥
nigbegánI GasUtenAkñgú dI sMrab;EklMGrdI .
[kardaMduH]: kardaMduHRtUv)aneFIeV LIgCaRTg;RTaytUc CaBiesssMrab;karGPirkSesenTic . kardaMeday
Kl; rW edIm RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;kardaMduH . enAqñaMdMbgU vamankarFnnwgmøb; .
[karRKb;RKg]: ebgmanlkçN³saksmsMrab;plitkmµeQIBaNiCk
¢ mµCacMkar b:Eu nþkarpÁt;pgÁ ;RtUv)an
kMNt; nigkarRsavRCavKYrRtUv)aneFIVsrM ab;karEklMGr nigRKb;RKgRbePTeQIenH .
nudiflora

[1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13, 14]

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

ebgbnþBUCtamry³karduHeLIgvijedayFmµCati kardaM nigpSaMu .
[karRbmUl nigsþúkTukRKab;BUC]: EpøTeMu nAEx mIna dl; ]sPa [3] . RKab;TMuenAeBlEdlEpøbÚrþ eTA
CaBN’etñat nigRKab;manlkçN³rwg edaymanBN’exµA . EpøGacRtUv)anRbmUlBI edImedaykareLIg
rIGRgunEmkeGayEpø Føak;mkelIdI EdlRkaledaypøas;siÞc . vaGaczitenAelIdI)anry³eBlCaeRcInEx
edayminmankarbMpøaj bnÞab;BIkarRbmUl EpøRtUv)ansMgYtedayBnøWéf¶ enAelIkrM al tarpaulin
rhUtdl;eRbHEbkGs; . RKab;RtUv)an ykecjedaykarrlak; rWvayenAkñúg)av rWfg; .
vaminmanlkçN³c,as;eT faetIvacaM)ac;RtUvkat;ecjk,al RKab;
(aril)
muneBlsúkþ Tuk
edIm,IkarBarkarbMpaø jBIsN
M ak;pSit . RbsinebIRKab;RtUv)ansþúkTukCamYy k,alRKab;
vamansar³sMxan;Nas;kgñú karsMgYtRKab;eGay)anl¥ . karkat;k,alRKab;ecjGackat;bnßy
TMgn;RbEhl 25%" [6] . RKab;rbs;ebgCaRbePT orthodox ¬RKab;st¶Ü ¦ nigGacRtUv)anrkSaTuk enAkMrit
sMeNIm 8-9% [6] . CaTUeTA lT§PaBdMNuHGacmanry³eBl 1-2 qñaM . enAeBlRKab;RtUv)anrkSa
enAkñgú kMrit sItuNðPaBTab . tamkarraykarN_BIRbeTsevotNam bnÞb;rkSasItuNðPaBGacrkSa
RKab;)anry³eBl 1 qñaM EtebIsItuNðPaBRtCak;dl; 5-10°C vaGacrkSa)andl;ry³eBl 2-3 qñaM " [6] .
RKab; 1 kg manRKab;cnM nY 110-160 [3] .
[1, 3, 4, 6]

fñalbNþúH]: "sMbkRKabénRbePTeQIenH rWg EdlRbRBwtþikmµCamun edayTwkekþAminGacbMEbkPaBrwg
nigsMgMrbs;va)an . CagenHeTAeTot k,alRKab;d_dMGacBnüadMNuH nig RtUvEtkat;ecj .
edayeRbIkaMbitd_ mut eTIbGackat;vaecj)anBIsMbkRKab; b:Eu nþkarkat;RtUveFIeV LIgedayRbugRby½tñ
kMueGayb:HBal;dl; Bnøk RKab;. RbsinsMbk;RKab;minRtUv)anqab enAeBlkat;k,alRKab;eT
RKab;KrY kat;eGaymanrun§enA cugmçageTot . bnÞab;BIkat; RKab;RtUvdak;RtaMgkñúgTwkry³eBl 12 ema:g .

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

6

stVl¥ti ]: RKab;gayrgkarbMpaø jBIstVl¥ti . BBYkstVl¥ti rYmman
Rhaphuma motschulskyi ganglbauere .
[

Aristobia spp., Batocera spp.

nig
[6]

CMgW]: CMgWpSitEdlbNþalmkBI Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora spp, Pythium spp. nig Rhizoctonia
spp .
[

[6]

F> karGPirkS

:

kMritd_x<sk; úgñ karkab;rukrkRbePTeQIenH nigkar)at;bg;CMrk)anKMramkMEhgRbePTeQIebg .
edImFM²kMrman nigBi)akkñgú karEsVgrk . dUcenH vaGacQaneTArkkarputBUC RbsinmankarkarBar
minRKb;RKan; . enAkñgú tMbn;EdlvaduHlUtlas; edImeQIEdlcas;RtUv)ankab;bpM aø jya:gFn;F¶
nigCYnkarvamankarBi)akkñúgkarRbmUlRKab;eTotpg . RbePTeQIenHrgnwgkarkab;eFIVGaCIvkmµya:g
F¶n;Fr¶ .kardaMRtUv)anGnuvtþenAkñúgkMritmYyd_TabbMput CaBiesssMrab;EteKalbMNgGPirkS .
eTaHbICaRbePTenH RtUv)ancat;TukCaRbePTrgeRKaHfñak; (EN A1cd [14]), eyagtam IUCN
(International Union for the Conservation of Nature) World List of Threatened Trees (='IUCN Red
Databook')

.

[1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 14]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

7

:

enAkñgú RbeTskm<Cú a RbePTenHmanduHenAkñgú extþ kMBg;FM RkecH sÞwgERtg RBHvihar esomrab )at;dMbg
rtnKIrI mNÐlKIrI kMBt nigeBaF×sat; .
[3]

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
r)a:yelIBiPBelak]
[RbPBkMeNIt]: km<C
ú a Lav PUma éf nigevotNam .
[

[1, 3, 6, 12, 13]

karnaMclU ]: cin (Guangdong,
)a:BUjÚKeI no nigekaHsULÚmnU .
[

Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan),

\NÐeÚ nsIu, hVlI IBnI ma:eLsIu Rb‘yu en

[6, 12]

p> epSg²

:

plitkmµ nigBaNiC¢kmµGnþrCati]: "plitkmµRbePTeQIebgenARbeTséf man 25,000 m³ kñgú qñaM 1985,
28,000 m³ qñaM 1986, 40,000 m³ qñaM 1987, nig 34,000 m³ qñaM 1988 . eQIRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;karplit
eRKOgsgðarwm nigkþaRkalenAkñgú Rsuk. tMélmFümrbs;eQIGar enARbeTséf KW US$ 430/m³ qñaM 1985
nig 1986, ekIneLIgdl; US$ 715/m³ qñaM 1988 . plitkmµ nigtYelxBaNiCk¢ mµ minTan;BIRbeTsd_éT
eToteLIy eQIebgminEmnCaRbePTeQIBaNiCk¢ mµsMxan;enAGasIubBU a’eLIy elIkElgEtRbeTséf .
[

[7].

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Choldumrongkul A, Wasuwanich P, 1994. Insect boring of Afzelia xylocarpa Craib seed and its effect
on seed germination. In: Proceeding of the Forestry Conference, Surat thani. Thailand: Royal Forest
Department, 179-189.
[6]

National Academy of Sciences, 1979. Tropical legumes: resources for the future. Tropical legumes:
resources for the future., 328pp., [ref. at ends of chapters].
[6]

[6]

Pitpreecha, K., Kiratiprayoon, S., Ganpinyo, S., Sornsathapornkul, P., 1993. Afzelia xylocarpa. In:
Forest tree species planting. Bangkok, Thailand: Royal Forest Department, 144-150.
[6]

Piananuruk C, 1994. Cutting position and coppicing ability of Afzelia xylocarpa seedlings. In:
Supplementary papers of the National Forest Conference, Surat thani, Thailand, 21-25 November
1994 (Boontawee B, ed.). Bangkok, Thailand: Royal Forest Department, 31-35.
[6]

Smittinand T, 1980. Thai plants (botanical names-vernacular names). Bangkok, Thailand: Royal
Forest Department.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Nagamura S, Pitpreecha K, Visaratana T, Kiratiprayoon S, Ganpinyo S, Phathong S, 1991. Growth of
Afzelia xylocarpa, Dipterocarpus alatus, Hopea odorata, Dalbergia cochinchinensis seedlings planted
under different relative light intensities created by artificial shading cages. In: Research Activities and
Achievements of the Forest Ecology Section, Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand, 93-102.

8

[6]

Switachart S, 1972. A study on seed germination of Makha Mong (Afzelia xylocarpa) by soaking in
different concentrations of sulphuric acid. Technical Bulletin, Royal Forest Department, Thailand, No.
R.138:5-10, 3 ref.
[6]

B> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

(You can also use your personal experience as a reference. Example:[1] Petri, Mathias (DED, 2006):
own observations)
[1] DANIDA, 2002: Seed Leaflet - www.dfsc.dk/pdf/Seedleaflets (Internet source)
[2] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep (Internet source)
[3] CTSP, 2003: Forest Gene Conservation Strategy - Gene Conservation Strategy, Species
Monographs, Gene Ecological Zonation, Species Site Matching Model. (CD-ROM).
[4] Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[5] Lehmann L. et al., 2003: Forests and trees of the central Highlands of Xieng Khounang, Lao
P.D.R.
[6] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).
[7] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).
[8]

FAO: The State of Forest Management and Conservation in Cambodia
http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/005/AC648E/ac648e04.htm
(Internet source)

-

[9] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species. 7pp.
[10] Omaliss, K. and Monyrak, M., 2006: Threatened Species Listing in Cambodia

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[11] Bertram, A., 2006: Own observations.

9

[12] Inside wood - http://Inside Wood_A.xylocarpa.htm (Internet source)
[13] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a
field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.
[14] Stibig, H-J. and Beuchle, R., 2003: Forest Cover Map of Continental Southeast Asia at
1:4,000,000. TREES Publications Series D: Thematic outputs no. 4.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Albizia lucidior (Steudel) I.C. Nielsen]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Albizia lucidior (Steudel) I.C. Nielsen]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg

³

Albizia lucidior (Steudel) I.C. Nielsen [4,5, 21]
Albizia gamblei Prain2

x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

minTan;manTinñn½y .

³

Albizia lucida Benth.,
Inga lucidior Steud. (basionym),
Mimosa lucida Roxb. Albizia meyeri Ricker,
Albizia gamblei Prain [22].

X> eQµaHepSg²
g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

minTan;manTinñn½y .

³

eBaF×ebg
ÉksarBieRKaH : [3]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

1

pôôh bé:ng [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Leguminales
RKYsar : Mimosaceae
ePT : Albizia Durazz. [17]

RbePT : Albizia lucidior (Steudel) I.C.
Nielsen [4,21]

:

ktþasMxan;KYeGaykt;sMKal;sMrab;ePT Albizia : KWvamancMnYn 150RbePT EdlduHlUtlas;enAGaeRhVk
ma:daháasáa tMbn;RtUBikénGaemrik nigGasIu . vamanduHenATUTaMgtMbn;RtUBikGasIu nig 20 RbePT
manRbPBkMeNIt enAtMbn; ma:eLs‘an (Malesian) . eBaF×EtgRtUv)andaMduHCaeQIpþl;møb; sMrab;
RbePTdMNaMdUcCaEt kaehV nigbegáInnUvCICatidl;dIeTotpg CYnkalRtUv)andaMduHCaeQIlMGrpgEdr .
manEtBBYkeQI EdlmanRbeyaCn_esdækic©eT EdlmanTiñn½ybec©kviTüa nigCIvsaRsþaeRcIn [17] .
[lkçN³TUeTA] : edImeQICMruHsøwkmanTMhMFM mankMBs;BI 30-45 m [4,5] mankenSamsøwkBN’ébtgcas; .
[sMbk] : esþIg BN’RbepH edaymanrn§CaeRcInenAelIsMbk [5] .
[søwk] : manBI mYyeTABIrKU énTgmçag² edayTgnimYy²mansøwkcMnYnBI mYyeTAbYn nigTMhM 5-10 x 2-4
cm kMrkmanTMhMdl; 14 x 5 cm Nas; kMBUlsøwkenAxagelIFMCageK nigrYmtUcenAcugTaMgBIr man
lkçN³relag manBN’ébtgcas; nigPøWenAEpñkxagelI [5] .
[páa] : ragCak,al manpáacMnYn 6-10 pþMúKñaCakBa©Mú enAcugkUnEmk EdlmanRbEvg 10-40 cm . RCugmaçg
rbs;páa manTg RbEvg 0.5-2.0 mm RtbkRbEvg 1.5-3.0 mm edaymaneFµjxøI² kenSampáa manRbEvg
5-7 mm ekseQµalmanRbEvgRbEhl 25 mm enAEpñkkNþalrbs;páamanlkçN³xusBIeK [5].
[Epø] : manTMhM 10-30 x 2.5-3.5 cm manBN’elOgRsal rW etñatTwkmas esþIg relag nig
manRKab;BN’etñatcas; BI 2-10 RKab; [5] .

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

tMbn;GakasFatuGasIu ³ extþ Cina Guangxi nig Yunnan[21] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

ÉksarBieRKaH: [5 ; 7]

2

tMbn;RtUBikGasIu ³ b‘Utan \NÐa en)a:l; \NÐÚcin Puma nigéf [21].
\NÐa nig ehma:l½y ³ PaKxagt,Úgcin PUma \NÐÚcin [5] PaKxageCIgéf [5]
eBaF×ebg duHlUtlas;enAéRBeRsag rW el,aH nigEtduHray)a:y CaRkumtUc² enATIval rW éRBbzm
éRBel,aH éRBmUsug valesµA nigtMbn;manrukçCatitUc²duH edaymankMritry³kMBs;dl;eTA 1700 m .
BYkvaduHenAtMbn; EdlmanGakasFatutamrdUv nigRbePTdIxSac; rW eRCobTwk)anl¥ [17].

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

eBaF×ebgminduHlUtlas;enAkMritry³kMBs; x<s;Cag 1200 m eT CaBiesséRBeRsag nigéRBel,aH .

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minRtUv)ankMNt; .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

eBaF×ebgGacRtUv)andaMduHenAtMbn;sMbUrfµ nigtbn;mandIrak; edaymanrdUvR)aMgcMnYnya:gehacNas; 4 Ex
.

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI] : eRbIsMrab;karsagsg; [4] smRsbsMrab;CaeQIfamBl [7] .
[Gnupl] :CaedImeQIpl
þ ;møb; CaBiessdaMenAkñúgcMkarEt EdlTukeGayduHlUtlas;sMrab;pþl;nUv kenSam
søwk nigCYyEklMGrKuNPaBdI . minsUvmanduHenAkñúgéRBeRsageT nigRtUv)anlb;edaysarkenSamsøwkd_
Rkas; rbs;éRB EtsmRsbcMeBaHcMkarEt . eBaF×ebg CaeQIEdlduHenARsTab;eRkam nigman
sar³sMxan;esdækci © tictYcenAeLIy .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

3

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
minmancMNat;fñak; .

:

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

minRtUv)ancat;bBa©ÚlCaRbePTrgeRKaHfañk;eT .

F> karGPirkS

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
e

p> epSg²

:

RbePTeQIenH CaRbePTmYykñúgcMeNamRbePTcMnYn
vaminEmnCaedImeQIsMbUrb:nu µaneT [5] .

118

EdlmanRbPBkMeNItenAtMbn;GasIu

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

GasIu nigGasIuGaeKñy_ BIRbeTs\NÐa dl;\NÐÚcin EdlCaRbPBkMeNItrbs;RbePTeQIenH .

4

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

PROSEA 5/3 p.58-60: Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998:
Plant Resources of Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea
Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859 pp.

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

4)
Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House;
Phnom Penh,. 915 pp.

5)
Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A
Field Guide to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept.
University of Chiang Mai, Thailand; 546 pp.

17)
Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant
Resources of Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea
Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859 pp.

20)
Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002:
Agroforestree Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD).

21)

Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN):

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?313246. Internet source

5

22)
International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS).
http://www.ildis.org/LegumeWeb?sciname=Albizia+lucidior. Internet source

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.

³

East Indian walnut, acacia amarilla, English woman's
tongue, fry wood, Indian siris, lebbeck, siris tree, woman's
tongue tree [2]

K> sTisn½y

³

Acacia lebbeck (L.) Willd. / Mimosa lebbeck L. [2] Mimosa
lebbek Blanco. / Mimosa sirissa Roxb. [8]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

kokko (Trade name) [8] - lebbek (Ethiopia) [8] - daqn elBasha, dign el basha, labakh, laebach, lebbek (Arabia) [8] sirish, sirisha (Bangladesh) [8] - kokko (Myanmar) [8] aninapla, langil (Philippines) [8] - bois noir, bois savane, tcha
tcha (France) [8] - siris, sirs, sirisha (India) [8] - kitoke, tarisi,
tekik (Indonesia) [8] - batai, batai batu, kungkur, oriang
(Malaysia) [8] - kalo siris (Nepal) [8] - acacia chach algarroba
de olor, amor plantico, aroma, aroma fracesca, cabellos de
gel, faurestina, florestina, lengua de mujer, lengua viperina
(Spain) [8] - mkingu (East Africa) [8] - vagai, vagei (Sri
Lanka) [8] - ka `sê (Laos) [8] - cha kham, chamchuri, kampu,
ka se, khago, phruek, suek (Thailand) [1, 8] - bô kêt tây,
h[owj]p hoan, lim xanh, s[os]ng r[aaj]n, trât (Vietnam) [1, 8]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

1

³

eRcs
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

chrehs [1], chreh [8]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae

fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Fabales
RKYsar : Fabaceae [2]/ Leguminosae [5]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]:CaedImeQI mankMritduHlUtlas;mFüm nigelOn CaedImeQICrM uHsøkw edaymankMBs;
rhUtdl; 30 m [2] enAeBlcas; nigGgát;pit© DBH dl;eTA 100 cm [2] (Gtibrima) . TMrg;edImKWmFüm
¬eBlduHenA kñgú éRB¦ nigminsUvl¥ ¬eBlduHenAtMbn;valesµA¦ .
[sMbk]:sMbkmanBN’RbepHRsal edaymanrn§xül;BN’etñateRcH eRKIm nigrbkecj .
[søwk]:søwksmas søabKUDub Kµaneram b¤maneramticenAelIekøók ¬cMnucP¢ab;rbs;Tgsøwk nwgEmk¦ .
mansøwktUcBI 2-4 KU nigKUnimyY ²mansøwktUc²BI 2-11 KU EdlmanTMhM 15-45 x 8-22 mm Edlman
TgxøI . RkeBj EdlKµaneramduHeLIg edayragCaeGlIb b¤mlU enAEpñkxagelIénTgCitKl; EdlenA
cenøaHKUrbs; søwktUc² .
[páa]:páaelceLIgya:gxøI bnÞab;BIsk
øw EdlduHfµI BN’s mankøni xøagM ekseQµalKµankBa©úMRsTab;páa
enAelIk,al RbEvgBiI 18-36 mm minKitBIeks TgFM RbEvg 5-7.5 cm duHeTal b¤CakBa©túM Uc² enAelI
ekøóksøkw ( leaf axils) nigzitCacegáam . eksmanBI 30-40 BN’ébtgragelOg enAEpñkxagelI
nigsenAEpñkxageRkam EdlmanRbEvgrhUtdl; 5 mm . RsTab;páamanRbEvg 1 cm . páaCaRbePT
páaBIrePT (=hermaphroditic). enAkñgú CMrkFmµCati RbePTeQIenHecjpáaenAEx kBaØa dl; tula .
rdUvpáaenA RbeTsevotNam nigLav KW mIna dl;kkáda nigEpøenAEx emsa dl;sIha .
[Epø]:EpøCaRbePTEpøKY EdlmanBN’TwkRkUcRBElt nigetñatRsal enAeBlTMu ragRTEvgTMhM 15-26 x 3-5
cm manRkdas dUcEs,k nigsMEb:t nigminduHeLIg b¤zitenAcenøaHRKab;eT . RKab;manBN’etñat sMEb:t
ragdUc eGlIb TMhM 8-10 x 6-7 mm zitenATTwgEpø EdlmanRKab; 6-12 kñúgEpønmi Yy² . EpøTmMu in
RCuHBIelIedIm eLIy KWzitenAelIedImry³eBlyUr nigTMeu nAEx ]sPa dl; kkáda .

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 8]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

eQIKmW anBN’etñatlayelOg edaymanExSx½NÐrvageQIxwmø nigRsay . eQIRsaymanBN’Esøk
cMEnk eQI xøwmmanBN’etñatcas; b¤exµAqñtÚ ² nigmanlkçN³Rss;sa¥ t . vaF¶n; nigrwgmFüm Fn;b¤
Cab;krM itmFüm edaymandg;seIu t 0.5-0.6 g/cm³ . eQIst¶Ü l¥ gayeRbIR)as; nigsMGat b¤duHxat; .

ÉksarBieRKaH [6, 8]

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

kMritRbEhl : 31°N to 16°S [5] . eRcsduHlUtlas;enAtMbn;RtUBci nigGnuRtUBci ¬subtropics)
énGasIu nigGaeRhVc b:Eu nþvaminRtUv)annaMclU nigdaMduHeGay)anTUlMTMlay enAtMbn;RtUBci eT .
eRcsCaRbePTlb; enAtMbn;éRBBak;kNþalCMruHsøwk microphyll vine thicket (monsoon forest)
enAelIRbePTdIfµxSac;tMbn;PñM nigmat;Tenø b¤ dMbUk Edlmanfµ)ayeRkomtic nigtameqñrsmuRT .
vak_duHenAkñgú éRBeRsagénRbePT rukçCatiswkø FM éRBtameqñr éRBel,aH éRBtMbn;esIm éRBrgTwkePøóg
nigéRBEdlEtmancenøaH b¤TIval .

ÉksarBieRKaH [3, 4, 5, 8]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

3

:

RbePTenHduHenAry³kMBs;BI 0-1,800 m a.s.l. [8] (0-750 m a.s.l. [4], 0-1,100 m a.s.l.) enAtMbn;
Edl mankMBs;TwkePøógRbcaMqañ M 1,300-1,500 mm [8] (500-2,500 mm [5]) nigmanGakasFatu
RtCak;ehIys¶Üt . sItuNðPaBmFümRbcaMqañ M : 19-35°C [8] (10-37°C [2]) . bnÞab;BIqañ MTI mYyvaGacduH
lUtlas;enA kñgú rdUv rga nigekþA Edlmanry³eBlyUr manry³eBlBI 2 - 6 Ex [2] (2-7 Ex[5]) .

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 5, 8]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

tMbn;eqñrsmuRT PñRM kvaj (A) TMnabkNþal (d), Central Annamites (G).

ÉksarBieRKaH [7]
[

tMbn;RbPBRKab;BCU (Projection: UTM; Horizontal Datum: Indian coordinates)]:

sÞwgERtg

(X:613356

(X:597481

Y:1469874)

rtnKIrI

(X:698999

)at;dMbg (X:269027 Y:1440093) RBHviha
(X:474543 Y:1582237) kMBg;FM (X:552057 Y:1410894) sÞg
w ERtg (X:662546 Y:1523018) ekaHkug
(X:332360 Y:1266062) sÞg
w ERtg (X:589200 Y:1518300).
Y:1507507),

rtnKIrI

sÞwgERtg

Y:1530728)

(X:704310 Y:1548543)

ÉksarBieRKaH [7]

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

eRcsduHlUtlas;l¥ enAdIRbePTxus²Kña dIeRCA manCICati mindk;Twk Edlman pH BI 5.5-7.5 b:Eu nþ
minsUv man\dæeRcIn . Fn;nwgdI GasIut nig)asxøaMg nigmankarhUreRcaH nigCaMTwk . ]TahrN_ ³
RbePTdI manxSac; rak; nig l,ay laterite. RbePTenHduH enAdIEdlmansila)asal; nig fµxSac;
enAtamTICrM al .

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 8]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan

:

eQI]: eRbIR)as;srM ab; veneer eQImlU eRKOgsgðarwm begÁal eQIGar b¤CaCBa©agM nigsMNg;Fn;Rsal
¬kMral nigkþa¦ RbGb; sMPar³eQIsMrab;]sSahkmµ nigeRbIkgñú pÞH tYrbs;yanþCMniH Rkdas nig FüÚg .
vak_RtUv)aneRbIR)as; sMrab;eFIVsMPar³ksikmµ nigrukrkEr: . eRcs pþl;nvU eQIfamBlya:gl¥
edaymantMél kMedA 5,200 kcal/g [8] .
[

Gnupl]: eRcspþl;nvU cMNIstVya:gl¥ . cenøaHrbs;kenSamsøkw GaceGayBnøwcUl)an
Edlpþl;eGayesµA GacduHlUtlas;)an eTaHCamankMritePøógtictYck_eday . søwkmanpÞúknUv 17-26%
RbUetGIun 100 kg énsøkw pþl; 11-12 kg RbUetGIun EdlGacrMlay)an nig 37 kg kabUnGIRu dat
EdlGacrMlay)an [8] . EpømanpÞkú nUv saponin nigminGacsIeu dayBBYkeComFM²eT eTaHbICaeKa
GacsI)u ank_eday . køinrbs;paá KWmanRbsiT§PaBx<s; sMrab;XúµM edaypþl;nUvTwkXµMú EdlmanBN’Rsal
edayTwkdmEdlvapþl;eGay . edImpþl;nUvC½r EdlmanBN’Rkhm sMrab;eRbICa C½rrbs;BYkGara:bG; MeBI
Gticriya ( adulterant of gum arabic) . sMbkRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;RClk;sMNaj;ensaTRtI enAkñgú
RbeTs\NÐa (man tanIn 7-11% [8]) . søkw nigEpø RtUv)aneRbIR)as;CafñaM EPñk nigsMbksMrab;
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 8, 11]

4

Büa)albUs . Saponin Edl)anBIEpø nigb¤s GacsMlab; emCIvit ¬ spermicidal activity) . enAeBl
s¶Üt nigbukbMEbk sMbkGaceRbIR)as;Casab‘)U an . vaRtUv)aneRbICaKMrb nigCIFmµCatipgEdr .

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 5, 8]
epSg²]:kaRKb;RKgkarhUreRcaH : "edaysarEtPaBsMbUr rbs;va RbB½nr§ WsEdlmineRCA eRcsCa
RbePTrukçCati EdlrkSadI)anl¥ nigRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;karBarkarhUreRcaH dUcCaenAtamRcaMgTenø
CaedIm .
[

[8]

møb; rW CMrk : "RbePTeQIenHRtUv)aneRbICa edImeQIpþl;mbø ; enAtMbn;vaesµA cMkar Et kaehV nigRkvaj
nigtam rukçvifIpgEdr . vaGacRtUv)andaMduH enAtameqñr nigCaRbePTrukçCatiplþ ;CMrk)anelOn
sMrab;rukçCatiepSg² eTot EdlminsUvrwgmaM . "
karbegánI GasUtkñúgdI : "A. lebbeck minEmCa Rhizobium nigRbePTenHGacmanlT§PaB
kñúgkarplitnUv kMBk b¤EpñktUc² ya:geRcIn " [8] .
GñkEklMGrdI : "søwkEdlsMbUreTAedayGasUt mantMélNas; sMrab;karRKb b¤KrM bdI nigCIFmµCati .
rukCatilMGr : enARbeTs\NÐa eRcsRtUv)andaMenAtampøÚv nigsYnc,a tampÞH .
RbePTenH CaRbePTsMxan;fµIsMrab;esdækic©sgÁm enAkñgú RbeTskm<Cú a (as defined on the National
Workshop on Tree Species Priorities organized by DFW and CTSP in 2000) [11] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

5

:

RbePTeQIRbNit .

ÉksarBieRKaH [3]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: A. lebbeck duHenAkñgú éRBeRsagénRbePTrukçCatiswkø FM éRBtameqñr éRBel,aH
éRBtMbn;esIm éRBrgTwkePøóg nigéRBEdlEtmancenøaH b¤TIval . vaCaRbePT EdlbegátI nUvGasUtkñúgdI
ehIyRtUv)aneRbI CaedImeQIpþl; møb; eTAdl;ckM arEt kaehV nigRkvaj .
[

kardaMduH]: cenøaHCaFmµtamsMrab;eQIfamBl 3 x 3 m nig 5 x 5 m [8] sMrab;eQIh‘ub . karpþl;Twk
(10 l/ edImeQImy
Y edIm [5]) GacRtUvkarenA rdUvraMgs¶tÜ enAqñadM MbgU bnÞab;BIkardaM .
[karRKb;RKg]: vaduHExñg)anl¥
(kMBs; : 1-1.5 m/mYyqñaM ; épÞmuxkat; : 4-6 cm/mYyqñaM [2])
gayduHeLIgvijeRkayBIkarkat; karéRkEmk nigenAeBlRseBan vaGacduHnUvRbePTrWsfµeI Totpg . kar
kab;rMlYs RtUv)aneFIeV LIgCaeTogTat; . karsMGatesµA CaeTogTat;kR_ tUv)anGnuvtþpgEdr . cMkareQI
famBl cenøaHBI 3 x 3 m nigGackab;enAkñúgxYb 10-qñaM Edlpþl;eQIRbEhl 50 m³/ha (= 5 m³/ha/qñaM
[5]) éneQIfamBl . " enA Queensland vaGacmankMBs;dl; 11 m in nigGgát;p©it 50 cm
kñúgry³eBl 30 qñaM . cMkareQIh‘ub enA\NÐa GaceFIVkarkab; bnÞab;BIry³eBlBI 25-30
qñaMedaypþl;pl 10-12 m³/ha kñgú mYyqñaM b:Eu nþeRkamlkçxN
½ Ð semi-arid nigdImineRCA kMeNIn Ca
mFüm KW 2-3 m³/ha" [8]. "A.lebbeck KWRbEhlCaminsUvpþl;pl sMrab;cMNIstV enAeRkamkarkat;
jwkjab;eBk (eRcInCag 2 dgkñgú mYyqñaM ) . vaminsUvpþl;CMrkeGayRbePTculøRBwkSeT dUcenH
kareGaystVcUleTAsIeu daypÞal; KWmni KYrGnuvtþne_ LIy . eTaHCaya:gNak_eday edImeQIFGM acRtUv)an
kat; CaRbcaMqañ M edayminkat;kenSamsøwkTaMgGs;enaH KWmni Gacb:HBal;dl;karduHlUtlas;
rbs;rukCç atieLIy .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 5, 6, 8]
:

kareFIeV GayduHeLIgvij GaceFIeV LIgedaykar kat; karpSaMEmk nigkardaMCalikar . kardaMkgñú fg;
KWsmRsb cMeBaHkardaMduHCacMkar eTaHbIkardaMedayKµanb¤ daMRKab;edaypÞal; nigkarkat;edIm RtUv)aneRbI
R)as;)anya:g eCaKC½yk_eday . kareFIRV bRBwtþikmµRKab;Camun mandUcCa karRtaMkúgñ TwkekþA karkat;
sMbkRKab; nigkarRtaM GasIutedIm,ICrM ujdMNuH . dMNuHGacRbesIreLIg bnÞab;BIkarrkSaTukRKab;ry³
eBlBI 2-4 qñaM [8] b:Eu nþdMNuH RtwmEt (50-60%) GacTTYl)anBIRKab;Rss; . karRbmUlRKab;Rss;
pþl;dN
M uHRbEhl 70% bnÞab;BI 1-2 ExeRkay . EpøRbEhl 880 manTMgn; 1 kg [8] nigpþl;
RKab;RbEhl 300 g RKab; " [8] .

ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 8]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

6

stVl¥ti ]: søwk nigsMbkRtUv)ansIuedaydgávÚ sIuCBa¢kb; NþlÚ ecaHeQI nigRKab; nigeFIeV GayRCuHsøwk dUcCa
psyllids GacbMpøajRbePTeQIenH . enARbeTsnIesrIya: stVl¥t
i EdlmanqñeÚ RKIm ( striped mealy
bug) Ferrisia virgata )anbMpøajedImeQIenHpgEdr . enAGasIuGaeKñy_swøkKWmn
i mankarbMpøajBIstVl¥it
eT . kardaMduHCacMkar k_mankarbMpøajedaykarkat;rbs;kNþlú TnSaynigRbePTstVéRBepSg²eTot .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [6, 8]
[

CMgW]: "rlYyrWs dMe)AedIm rlYybNþlÚ pSit EdlGacbMpøajedIm .

ÉksarBieRKaH [8]
[

epSg² ]: edImeQIKFW n;ngw xül;xaø gM nigePøgI eqH . karkarBarBIesµA RtUveFIeV LIgenAkñgú cMkardaM .

ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 8].

F> karGPirkS

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

enARbeTskm<Cú a manduHenA sÞwgERtg rtnKIrI ekaHkug )at;dMbg RBHviha nigkMBg;FM .
ÉksarBieRKaH [7]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :

7

r)a:yelIBiPBelak]:
[RbPBkMenIt ]: GURsþalI bg;køaeds \NÐa \NÐeÚ nsIu ma:eLsIu PUma en)a:l; )a:Ks
I aß n éf .
[karnaMcl
U ]: Gal;esrI Gg;ehÁaLa Gg;TIhÁa nig)ab‘dU a GasSg;TIn )a)adus eb‘nnIn bUlIevo bUsVaNa
eRbsIul bUKN
I ahVasU kaemrU exbv½d GaeRhVckNþal eqk QIlI kULbMú ‘Í kg;ehÁa kUsDIv½ Kuy)a kg;ehÁa
DIbUTI dUnImkI ar eGkVaD½r eGsIbu eGkVaD½rero hÁeI no GIru IRTa eRhVnKIeno hÁbI un hÁaNa hÁaebo hÁaNada
hÁaetma:La hÁeI no b‘sÍ ‘U camIka eknya: ma:dahÁasáa ma:lI micu siku U mUrku: U mUsg;bíu‘k nIC½ eb:rU ra:va:da s‘Udg;
tg;sanI tugehÁa G‘yu ra:hÁay evens‘yu eGLa . l.
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [8]

p> epSg²
[

:

ksirukçkmµ]: eRcspþl;paá l¥sMrab;karplitTwkXµMú .

ÉksarBieRKaH [2]

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

ICRAF. 1992. A selection of useful trees and shrubs for Kenya: Notes on their identification,
propagation and management for use by farming and pastoral communities. ICRAF.
[8]

MacDicken GK. 1994. Selection and management of nitrogen fixing trees. Winrock International, and
Bangkok: FAO.
[8]

NFTA. 1988. Albizia lebbeck - A promising fodder tree for semi-arid regions. NFTA 88-03. Waimanalo.
[8]

Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S. (eds.). 1998. PROSEA 5(3) Timber trees: lesser known
species. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
[8]

t Mannetje L, Jones RM. 1992. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. No. 4: Forages. Pudoc Scientific
Publishers, Wageningen.

Webb DB, Wood PJ, Henman GS. 1984. A guide to species selection for tropical and sub-tropical
plantations. Tropical Forestry Papers No. 15, 2nd edition. Commonwealth Forestry Institute, Oxford
University Press.
[8]

Williams R.O & OBE. 1949. The useful and ornamental plants in Zanzibar and Pemba. Zanzibar
Protectorate.
[8]

B> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] Sok, Sokunthet (RUA), 2006: Own obseravations.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[8]

8

[2] Species Fact Sheets (Module 9), 1994: Forestry / Fuelwood Research and Development Project.
Growing Mulltipurpose Trees on Small Farms (2nd ed.). Bangkok, Thailand. Winrock Interational.
320pp.
[3] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[4] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a
field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.
[5] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM)
[6] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM)
[7] CTSP, Cambodia Tree Seed Project-Institutional Capacity Building of the Tree Seed Sector, 2003:
Forest Gene Conservation Strategy-Part A: Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources. (CDROM).
[8] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database –
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicSearch.asp (Internet
source)
[9] CTSP, Cambodia Tree Seed Project-Institutional Capacity Building of the Tree Seed Sector, 2003:
Gene-Ecological Zonation of Cambodia. (CD-ROM)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[10] FA/CTSP-DANIDA, 2005: Farmers Tree Planting Manual - Guidelines for Site Selection and Tree
Planting. (CD-ROM)
[11] FAO:
http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/005/AC648E/ac648e04.htm (Internet
source)

9

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Albizia myriophylla Benth]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Albizia myriophylla Benth]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Albizia myriophylla Benth. [4]

³

minTan;manTinñn½y .

³

Albizia thorelii Pierre [4],
Albizia microphylla J.F. Macbr.,
Albizia myriophylla Benth. var. foliolosa Baker,
Albizia thorelii Pierre,
Albizia vialeana Pierre var. thorelii (Pierre)P.H.Ho,
Mimosa microphylla Roxb. [23]

X> eQµaHepSg²
g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

liane sucrée, bois sucré (French)

³

RtnMGaGUt eQIEGm
ÉksarBieRKaH : [3]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

1

aèm vör, aém chhë [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Leguminosales
RKYsar : Mimosaceae
ePT : Albizia Durrazz.

RbePT : Albizia myriophylla Benth.
ÉksarBieRKaH: [4]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

culøRBwkS duHRtg;eLIgeTAelI rW valeLIgmanlkçN³Cavlø× [4]lUtlas;)aneRcInqñaM minEmnCaRbePTvlø×
[21] .
eRkABIeRbIR)as;sMrab;Ca»sfKImI RbePTenHminRbeyaCn_GVIepSgeToteT cMeBaHB½t’manrukç
saRsþ nigbec©kviTüa .

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

GakasFatuRtUBik .

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
minRtUv)ankMNt; .

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

enARKb;tMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_ enAkñúgéRBeRsag rW CMruHsøwk enAtambeNþayTenø nigERBk [4] .
RtnMGaGUtman duHenAray)a:y rW CaRkumtUc² CaRbePTduHlb;enATIval éRBbzm rW ricril éRBel,aH
éRBmUsug valesµA nigtMbn;sMbUrBBYkrukçCatitUc² EdlmankMritry³kMBs;dl;eTA 1700 m
énnIv:UTwksmuRT . BYkvaduHlUtlas; enAtMbn;manGakasFatueTAtamrdUv CaBiess dIsMbUrxSac; rW
kEnøgeRCobTwk)anl¥ [17] . vamanduHenAkñúg tMbn;RtUBikGasIu énGnuTVIb\NÐa dUcCa \NÐÚcin PUma éf
nigma:eLsIu [23].

2

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

RbePTéneQIEGmrWRTnMGaGUtRtUv)andaMduHenAtMbn;sbM UrfµnigtMbn;mandIrak;edaymanrdUvR)aMgya:gehac
Nas; 4 Ex [17]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: eQIGacRtv)aneRbIR)as; sMrab;CaeQIfamBl [17] .
[Gnupl]:sMbkmanrs;CatiEp¥m nigRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;CaeRKOgeTs sMrab;karcMGn
i GaharpgEdr .
enAkarp¥ab;plitRsalGgár vak_RtUv)aneRbIR)as;pgEdr .
sMNl;Edl)anmkBIkarp¥ab; RtUv)aneRbIR)as;CafñaMk¥k nigeraKrlakTgsYt . søwkEdlbuk
rWTMBarRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;bBaÄb;karhUrQam [4] . eQIEGmKWCaRbePT EdlduHRKbdNþb;enARsTab;
xageRkam dUcCaenAeRkamedImeRcH b:uEnþsar³sMxan;esdækic© rbs;vaKWenAzitkMrittamtMbn;enAeLIy .
karBIburaN eQIEGmCaRbePTcaM)ac;sMrab;Ca sarFaKImFI mµCati nigkarsikSaRsavRCav»sf .
CalT§plvaRtUv)anraykarN_faenAkñúgTsSavdþIGasIuGaeKñy_ GMBIsuxPaB saFarN³ nig»sfRtUBik
(Sotheast Asian Journal of tropixcal Medicine and Public Health) enAqñaM 2006 [23] . .
[

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

minmancMNat;fñak;

3

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC
minTan;manTinñn½y .

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar
minTan;manTinñn½y .

:

:

:

F> karGPirkS

:

minRtUv)ancat;bBa©ÚlCaRbePTrgeRKaHfañk;eT

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
GasIuGaeKñy_

:

eQIEGmCaRbePTeQImYykñúgcMeNaa 118 énRbePT Albizias RtUBik EdlmancMnYn 9 RbePT
manduHlUtlas;enAPaKxageCIgRbeTséf . BYkvamanduHPaKeRcIn CamYyBYkeQICMruHsøkw
EdlmankenSamsøwkrIkFM . enATIenH RtnMGaGUt RtUv)ankMNt;faCaRbePTculø×RBwkS rW
CaRbePTedImeQIvlø× .
[sMbk]: sMbkrelag edayminmanbnøa . lkçN³epSgeTotrbs;RbePTenHKW:
[søwk]: søwkmanBIrkUnsøwk rW snøwk zitenA pÞúyKña nigduHecjenAtambeNþay Tg .
[páa]: manragdUck,al Tn; manekseQµalEvg ehIyeRcIn EdlduHeLIgya:gc,as;CagRtbkpáaeTAeTot
. enAcMkNþalpáa enAk,alKWmanlkçN³xus²Kña edaymanekseQµalxøI nigRkas;Cag . Epø CaEpøKYr
Rtg; nig sMEb:t edaymansMbkesþIg nigmanrage)agRKbelIRKab; EdleFIVeGayRKab;s¶Üt nigeRbHebIk
enAeBlTMu . ÉksarBieRKaH [5]

B> GMnanepSg²eTot
minTan;manTinñn½y .

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

p> epSg²

4

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

4 Di Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House;
Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

5)
Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A
Field Guide to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept.
University of Chiang Mai, Thailand; 546 pp.

17)
Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant
Resources of Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea
Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859 pp.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

23) National Agricultural Library (NAL)http:77agricola.nal.usda. gov/cgibin/Pwebrecon.cgi?Search-Arg=Albizia+myriophylla

5

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Albizia saman (Jack.) F. Muell]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Albizia saman (Jack.) F. Muell]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

Albizia saman (Jack.) F. Muell. [4]

³

cow tamarind, raintree, monkey pod, saman, French
tamarind, cow bean tree, saman tree (Engl.) [9,13,27], .

K> sTisn½y

³

Enterolobium saman Prain ex King, Samanea saman (Jack.)
Merr., Inga saman (Jacq.) Willd., Inga salutaris Kunth.,
Mimosa saman Jacq.; Pithecellobium saman (Jacq.
Benth.[4,6,8,12,27].

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

arbre parasol, saman, gouannegoul (French), Regenbaum
(German) [4,13]; kam kram, cham cha (Thailand); acacia
(Philippines); Sam sa (Laos); còng, me tây (Vietnam) [6,8],
algarrobo, carreto negro (Spanish) [26]..

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

GMBil)araMg
ÉksarBieRKaH : [4]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

1

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

âmpil´ barang´ [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Fabales
RKYsar : Mimosoideae
ePT : Albizia Durazz. [17]

(Samanea Merr.[8]

RbePT : Albizia saman (Jack.) F. Muell.
ÉksarBieRKaH: [4 ; 11 ; 7 ]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]:edImGMBil)araMg CaRbePTeQICMruHsøwkCaRbcaM b¤k¾Bak;kNþalsøwk EdlmankMBs;Gac
rhUt dl; 30 m nigmanGgát;p©it 100 cm cMeBaedImEdlFMmankMBs;GacrhUtdl; 45 (60) nigman
Ggát;p©it 200 cm mankenSamsøwkFM ragqRt½ EdlmanGgát;p©itrhUtdl;eTA 30-60 m.[6,8,13]
edImGMBilTwk)araMg CaRbePTedImeQIEdlmankarduHlUtlas;elOn ehIyEmkTImYyén edImduH
enAry³kMBs;Tab. CaerOy² EtgEtmanedImbeBaØIEk¥kenACab; edIm nig Emk.[13] EmkEdlenAtUc
CYnkalKµanduHeram b¤maneramtic.[8]
[sMbk]: sMbkedImGMBilTwk)araMg manBN’etñatERbexµA ehIyvivDÆn_eTACaRCYjeTAtamGayu.[6]
[søwk]: søwkrbs;edImGMBilTwk)araMg CaRbePTsøwksñitrYmKU RbEvg 15-30 cm nigmancMnYn 8-12KU.
søwknImYy² manbeNþayRbEvg 1.5-6.0 cm nigTTwgRbEvg 0.4-7.0 cm manragTalenAKl;
nigcugsøwk mansñamGuCRTEvgenAxagcug nigsñamGuCmUl²enAKl;énsøwk. xagcugTgsñitKUénsøwk
manTMhMFMCagenA xagKl; ehIymancMnYn 12-16 KU nigxageRkammancMnYn 6-10 KU.[6]
TgsñiténsøwkmanRbEvg 15-40 cm manRkeBjCaeRcInenAxageRkamRKb;cMncu RbsBVénKUsøwk
Edlmanrag CargVg; pt nig manGgátp; ©itRbEhl 0.5 mm ehIyKUswøkcMnnY 3-9KU RbEvg 11 cm
k¾manRkeBjCaeRcInenAcMnucRbsBVénKUsøwkEdr. søkw CaRbePTsøwkQm EdlKUsøwkenAeRkameK manrag
dUc s‘ut b¤ ragBgRkeBI cMENkKUEdlenAkNþalmanrag bYnRCugBñayesµIr cMeBaHKUsøwkEdlenAxag
cugmanrag BgRkeBIbBaäit EdlmanRbEvgBI 1.5-2.5 b¤ 3-5 cm nigelITgmYymancMnYn 2-10
EdlEpñkKl;manragCa knøHrgVg; nigkMbut cugmanragmUlb¤Tal EdlCajwkjab;tYswøkmanragkat;rwm
b¤ragcugRsYcbnþic RTnug kNþalénsøwkmanragbBaäit cMEnkRTnugbnÞab;EbgCaRkLabNþajd¾jwk
ragekageLIg ehIyépÞsøwkxagelI relagKµaneram nigépÞsøwkxageRkammaneramxøI²Rkas;Xµwk.[8]
søwkrbs;GMBilTwk)araMg CaRbePTsøwksñitrYmKU manTMrg;ragCaBg ehIyvabt; b¤x©b;cUlKñaenAeBlyb;
b¤ePøógFøak;.[13]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

páa]: edImGMBilTwk)araMg CaRbePTpáasmas manBN’páaQUk GacduHEtÉgkñúgTMrg;CaknøHrgVg;
enAekonkenSamsøwkEdlmanGgát;p©itRbEvg 5-7 cm .[6 ]
TgénkBa©Múpáa Rkas;ehIyxøI manduHeram nigmanBN’elOgx©I ehIytMerobenAelIGkS½mineTogTat;cMnYn 2-5
mancMgay 5-10 cm EdlenAxagcugmanragCacegáamRtwm. páarbs;vaCaFmµtamanragCaeRcInEbb
b¤BhusNæan manRbEvg 3 cm manTgtUc manpáaenAkNþalEdlmanRtbkcMnYn 7 b¤ 8.
RtbkpáamanRbEvg 5-7 mm EdlRKbeTAedayeram manragRtIekaNGgáaj;RsYc²dUceFµjcMnYn 5
manRbEvg 0.5-1.0 cm. RsTab;páamanBN’Rkhm b¤elOgx©IEbkRkhm manargdUcCILÚv
EdlmanRbEvg 10-12 mm nigRKbdNþb;eTAedayeram. TgpáamanragRtIekaNRTEvg EdlmanRbEvg
2
mm.
Kl;eksr eQµalmanBN’s nigEpñkxagcugmanBN’sVay 20-35 mm
EdlmanRbEvgxøICagRsTablpáa. GUEv sßitenAkNþalpáaehIyrelag. Rtbkpáa manRbEvg 8-9 mm
manragdUcbMBg;ya:gTUlay RKndNþb;eTA edayeram eFµjcMnYn 7-8 manRbEvg 0.5-1.0 mm
ragRtIekaN ehIyRsYc. RsTab;páamanRbRvg 12 mm manragdUcCabMBg; EdlxagkñúgKµaneram
EtxageRkARKb;dNþb;eTAedayeram. eksreQµalmanragCabMBg; ehIyEvgCagRsTablpáa.[8]
páavaragCaséstUc²l¥it ehIyRtwmcugEdlrMelcedayedayeksreQµalBN’s nigfg;lMGgBN’
páaQUk.[13]
[Epø]:EpøGMBil)araMg CaRbePTEpøkYr manRbEvg 12-25 cm nigTTwg 2 cm EdlmanrsCatiEp¥m
nigmansac;BN’etñat.[6] EpøCaRbePTEpøTMumineRbH EdlmankYrRtg;manRbEvg 15-30 nigTMhM 1.5-2.3
cm enAeBlTMusMbkxageRkA manBN’exµA nig xagkñúgmansnÞHxNнTTwg². RKab;manragCaeGlIb
e)a:gxag² manBN’etñat TMhM 8 b¤ 5 b¤ 4 mm.[8] EpøGMBilTwk)araMg CaRbePTEpøkYrknøak;²dUcq¥wgCMnI
ehIyRKab;bgáb;enAkñúgsac;d¾Ep¥m.[9] GMBilTwk)araMg cab;epþImEpø nigpáa BIExmifuna dl; mkra.[8]
vacab;epþImpáa BIEx mina dl; ]sPa nigbnþehUtdl;cugqñaM. páa nig søwk mYyqñaMlas; 2dg.[13]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

3

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

sac;eQIRsayesþIg manBN’elOgx©I ehIyeBlkab;Pøam² sac;eQIxøwmmanBN’etñat bnÞab;mkERbeTACa
BN’etñatEbkmasPøW. sac;eQIs<Út nigmanTMgn;Rsal ehIymanPaBFn;)anl¥nUvkarBukpuy nig
karbMpøajBIkeNþór.[9]

sac;eQIrbs;edImGMBil)araMgrwg Fn; b¤Fn;)anl¥ nigmanTMgn; 420-640 kg/m³ mansac;eQIRsayBN’
elOgx©I nigeQIxøwmBN’skU ULaRkem:AEbketñat. sac;eQIxøwm manBN’PøWRss;s¥at manBN’dUcedIm
Juglans nigra BN’exµA EdlCaktþamYyeFVIeGaysac;eQImantMélx<s;sMrab;eFVIsgðarwm (Ca]TahrN_
dUcCaenA RbeTs ma:eLsIu Trinidad) bnÞHkþar vIeno cansmø canBgRkeBI nig
]bkrN_EdleFVIedayédepSg²eTot. enA Hawaii nigRbeTséf sac;eQIrbs;edImGMBil)araMg
cUlcitþeRbIsMrab;eFVICacandak;)aysVa. sac;eQI rbs;edImGMBil)araMg mansésGgáaj;²
EdlBi)akkñúgGar eTaHbICavaenAx©I.[12]
sac;eQIenARss; GacBt;)an eBlEdls¶ÜtminGacBt;eGayekag)aneT eRBaHsac;eQIrYj.[12]

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

edImGMBil)araMg manduHenAtMbn;eqñrxSac;mat;smuRT tamdgvifI Edlmanry³kMBs;rhUtdl; 13001500- 1800[27,12,8] rhUtdl; 700 m [6] enAsIutNðPaB 22 ºC ry³kMBs;TwkePøógcenøaH 600 nig
2500(-3000) mm rdUvR)aMgmanry³eBlticCag 6 Ex vaRtUvkarBnøW b:uEnþRtUvkardIEdlTUlay.[6,27]
GMBil)araMg duHenAry³kMBs;cab;BI 0-1500 m RtUvkarkMBs;TwkePøógCamFüm 600-3,000 mm/ m²
énrbbTwk ePøógrdUvR)aMg. vaRtUvkarsItuNðPaBmFüm 20-28ºC, (20-35ºC) nigsItuNðPaBGb,rma
minTabCag 8ºC [12,26].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

GMBil)araMg manRbPBkMeNItenAtMbn;valesµA énPUmiPaKkNþal nigPaKxageCIgén Gaemricxag
t,Úg.[4,8,13,20]vamankardaMduH nigduHedayFmµCatiya:geRcInenA GasIu GasIuxagt,ÚgeqogxagekIt
GasIu xagekIt[6] nigGaRBic.[4] b:uEnþnaeBlbc©úb,nñ vamankarduHlUtlas;RKbdNþb;esÞIrEtBaseBj
tMbn;GasIu RtUBic enA\NÐa b‘Uma: \NÐÚcin éf ePnIs‘ULaRbeTsma:eLsIu.[8] enAGaemrickNþal
nigGaemricxageCIg vamanr)aydMNuHeday stVesH nigeKaEdlCaPñak;garEckcayRKab;BUC.[12]
edImGMBil)araMg manduHenA kñúgéRBeRsagsøwkFM éRBel,aHs¶Üt tMbn;valesµA nigéRBvalesµA. vaKWCa
RbePTEdlduHlUtlas;)anya:gl¥ enAtMbn;RtUBicenArdUvR)aMg nigtMbn;dIesIm b:Eu nþvaduHlUtlas;elOn
enAtMbn;Edlmantur)at 1,000 mm/ m². vamanr)aydMNuHenAkñúgéRBeRsagrdUvR)aMg nigéRBBak;
kNþaleRsag k¾dUcCaéRBeRsagesIm.[12] vamanduHenAtMbn;PUmisaRsþkMNt;KW 15º N-3º N [12].

4

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

edImGMBil)araMgduHenAtMbn;valxSac;mat;Twk[8] vamankarFn;RTaMenAelIdIvallðelðv .[6,9]
edImGMBil)araMg RtUvkardIl,b;EdleRsaHTwkl¥ dImanCICati dImanCatiGasIutlµm (>pH 4.6)
sMrab;karduHlUtlas;l¥ (Franco et al., 1995) b:uEnþvak¾GacduHlUtlas;enAelIdI\dæ (vertisols)
nig\tCICati b¤ dIEdldk;Twktam rdUvkal.[12] GMBli )araMg duHenAelIdIl,b; cambisols, regosols,
vertisols nigdItMbn;RtUBic. [12]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

sac;eQI]: edImGMBil)araMg mansac;eQIrwg ehIyF¶n; EdleRbIR)as;sMrab;karsagsg;epSg² eFVICadg
]bkrN_epSg² eFVILaMg RbGb; eRKOgcMlak; sgðarwm TUk vIenor nigkþarbnÞHCaedIm.[6,8,17]
vamanBN’exµArelag nigmanRkeyAc,as;² EdlCaeQImantMélsMrab;EkécñeFVICa eRKOgcMlak; sgðarwm
nigkþarBas. sac;eQIrYj dUecñHkarEkécñTamTareGaykat;ecalnUvsac;eQIEdlmansñameRbH b¤Ebk
e)ar b¤ekagenAeBlEdleQIs¶Üt. enA Hawaii eKyksac;eQIGMBil)araMgeFVICacansmø
nigplitplEdlEkécñ
edayédepSg²eTot
edayenAkñúgRsukmantMrUvkareRbIR)as;xs< ;
ehIyrbs;eRbIR)as; PaKeRcInnaMcUlmkBI RbeTs\NÐa nig hVIlIBIn. sac;eQImankarFn;lµm
nigeRbIsMrab;eFVITUk. sac;s¥at manKuNPaBx<s; eRbIsMrab;CaeRKOgtubEtg eRKOgcMlak; RbGb; vIenor
kþarbnÞH nigkarsagsg;TUeTA.[20]
[GnupléRBeQI]: GMBil)araMg daMsMrab;eFVC
I aeQIlMGr b¤ eQIGmsgxagpøÚv sMrablpþlm; øb;
b:uEnþvak¾sMrab; CaeRKOgEtglMGrsMrab;rdUvkalepSg². enAkñúgtMbn;RtUBicesIm GMBil)araMgCaeQIEdl
daMduHsMrab;pþl;møb;dl;dMNaMdéTeTot ]TahrN_dUcCa³ kakav kaehV Et b¤k¾cMkareRmc.[13]
Epø CaRbePTEpøkYr manRbEvg 20-30EdlRKab;rbs;vasMrab;eFVICacMNIstV eKa RCUk nig ecom[8,13]
EdlCaedImehtueFVIeGayRbeTsGg;eKøs ehAedImGMBil)araMg faedImGMBileKa. EpøCaRbePTEpøkYr
EdleBlTMuvaFøak;cuHmkdI manpÞúkCatiRbUetGInu 12-18% (ma:ss; ¶Üt ) sMrab;BEB GacmanlT§PaB

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

:

rMlaywith 41% ehIyeKa esH BEB nigstVepSg²eTot cUlcitþsIuNas;. RbeTsmYycMnYnenA
GaemricxageCIg
cab;epþImeFVIkarnaMecjEpøGBM il)araMg.
eTaHbICasøwkrbs;vasMbUrCICati
EteKmincat;Tku fa vaCacMnsI tCEdlsMxan;enaHeT.[20]
famBl: BitNas; GMBil)araMgCaRbePTeQIEdlpþlf; amBl 5200-5600 kcal/kg enAeBlEdleKdut
ehIyvamankarduHlUtlas;ya:gelOn bnÞab;BIkat;ecal b¤kMbutcug eFVIeGayvakøayeTACaFnFan
d¾mantMél nigmanKuNPaBx<s;sMrab;eFVIGus b¤FüÚg. eTaHCaya:gNak¾eday vamantMélsMrab;eFVICa
eQIfamBl nigmanTIpSarya:gxaøMgsMrab;eFVIkarkab;lk;.[20]
Epørbs;vasMrab;briePaK søwkrbs;vaRtUv)anjaMueqA enAeBlEdlmankgVHxatGahar.[4] cMEnkÉsMbk
manpÞúknUvCatiCr½ nigekAs‘U.[6,20]
cMeBaH»sfburaN eKes¶arsMbkxagkñgú nig søwkRss; sMrab;eFVICafñaMraK nigqugsMbkbnþicjaMu
sMrab;Büa)alkarQWeBaH. CatiTwk b¤CatiGakulenAelIsøwk CYykarBar nigTb;sáat;)ak;etrIeraKrebg.

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

BMumancMNat;fñak;eT.
:

RTg;RTay b¤lkçN³rbs;edImGMBil)araMg KWmantYedIm¬cab;BIKl;dl;EmkTImYy¦xøI manEmksaxaeRcIn
kenSamsøwkRtdag EdlBMumanlkçN³smRsbsMrab;daMCacMkar nig kardaMduHnegminTTYleCaKCy½eT
ebIdaMenAekok b¤Cit²KñaeBk (Raintree, 1987; Little and Wadsworth, 1989; Roshetko, 1995)
[12]. vaRtUvkarcenøaHedIm,IRsUbBnøW ehIyCaTUeTA vamanRbBn§½latsn§wgFMehIyrak;. eTaHCaya:gNa
k¾eday vamanPaBFn;nwgesµA nigvaRtUvkarRbBn½§daMdHu EdlTUlay EdleGayGMBil)araMgman skþanuBl
kñúgkardaMduH. vaFninwgrukCç atitUc²\tRbeyaCn_ dUcCaesµA qab;duHeLIgvijcMeBaHedImEdlkMbutcug
nigEkERbGIuRdUEsneGaymaneLIgvij.(Raintree, 1987; Escalante, 1985; 1997; Roshetko,
1995). kardaMduHRtUvkarTIFøaTUlay (10 to 20 trees/ha) vapþl;møb; nig eFVICacMnIstVenA
edUvR)aMg.[12]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

6

GMBil)arMag RtUvkarTIFaø FMkñúgkarlUtlas;edIm,Ipðl;nUvpl;eQI)anl¥. vapþl;nUvsac;eQIxøwmRss;s¥at
manTTWgFM BiessCaeQIsMrab;eRbIR)as;. manTIFøaFMenACMuvij CaktþamYYyEdl eFVIeGay Ggát;p©itva
mankarduH lUtlas;elOn eFVIeGayedImvaRkas;ehIymansac;eQIxøwmeRcIn. Cajwkjab; Emkrbs;
edImGMBil)araMg k¾manGgát;p©itsmRsbGaceRbIR)as;)an. edImGMBil)araMgrwgmaM nigGaceRbIsMrab;
eFVICaeQIfamBleday sartMbn;ksikmµeFVIeGaymanGgÁt; dUcCaenAhVIlIBInCaedIm(Raintree, 1987)
[20].
RbsinebIedImdaMenAcenøaCit²Kña ]TahrN_ 1.5-2 m x 2 m
eKnwgeFVIkaréRkEmkedIm,IeGayedImmanTMrg;l¥. enAeRkamlkçxNÐGakaaFatuGnueRKaH edImGMBil)araMg
GacmanGgát;p©it DBH (Ggát;p©itenAkMBs;edImRTUg)18cm kñúgry³eBl 5 qñaM. tamkar)a:n;
RbmaNCamFüm valatsn§wgRbEhl 25m³/ha. GaRs½ynwgsarFatusirIragÁenAeRkamedIm
esµAmin)at;bg; ma:ss¶Üt b:uEnþpÞúknUvRbUetGInu . edImGMBil)araMgduHlUtlas;l¥ nigGgÁt;eQI
mankarduHlUtlas;elOn dUecñHva CaFn;FanEdlGacRKb;RKg)ansMrab;eFVICaeQIfamBl.[26]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

7

:

RKab;rbs;GMBli )araMg CaRbePTRKab;FM ehIygayRsYlkñúgkarRbmUl. edIm,IykRKab;ecjBIEpø TamTa
eGayvaybMEbkEpøs¶Üt bnÞabkeFVIkarGMusMGatnUvsnÞHxNÐrbs;RKab;eRkayeBlbMEbk. vamancMnYnRKab;
RbEhl 4,400 eTA 7,700 seeds/kg. RKab;rbs;vaTamTareGayeFVIRbRBwtþikmµ b¤rMunegRkNat;TTwk
munnwgykeTAsab. viFIeFVIRbRBetþikmµRKab;GMBli )araMgEdleKniymeRbIbMputKW kareFVIRbRBwtþikmµeday
es¶arnwgTwkekþA (brimaNTwkeRcInCagRKab; cMnYn 5 dg) ry³eBl 2 naTI bnÞab;mkcakTwkekþAecal
ehIyRtaMRKab;nwgTwkRtCak;ry³eBlmYyyb; muneBlykeTAsab (Nitrogen Fixing Tree
Association, 1989). GaceFVIRbRBwtþikmµedayéd dUcCa rus b¤kab;RKab;(Roshetko, 1997)
edayeRbIEdkekþAcak;elIRKab; (Robbins, 1986; Poulsen and Stubsgaard, 1995) b¤eRbIkaMePøIg
(Poulsen and Stubsgaard, 1995) EdlTTYllT§pl)aneRcInesµI²Kña (Roshetko, 1997)
eTaHbICava mankarenOyht; nigcMnayeBlevla. cMeBaHkarrkSaTukRKab;CaFmµta eK
eFVIkarrkSaenAkñúgRbGb; Fugb¤kMb:ug. RtUvkarfñalsabmanTMhMFM (10 x 20 cm) Edlmanl,aydI
3RbePT KWl,b; xSac; nigCIkMb:usþ. enA 2-4 s)aþh_dMbUg kUneQIRtUrkSakñúgmøb.; CaTUeTA
kUneQIRtUvkarry³eBl 3-5ExedIm,IlUtlas;)ankMBs; 20-30 cm.[20] CaTUeTAkar
daMduHRtUv)aneFVIedaydaMkUnenAkñúges,ag eTaHbICabMe)A b¤sÞMú.[20]

edImGMBil)araMgGacCYybegáItnUvFatuGasUt. enA Hawaii RbeTsma:eL nig hVIlIBinsac;
eQImanBkeRcIn b:uEnþvamanRbBn½§b¤sRtg;ehIyEbksaxaFM (reviewed by Allen and Allen, 1981).
dUecñHkUneQI BMuman karTamTareGaymankarbgáreGaymanb¤sRtg;enaHeT.[20]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

enAtMbn;mYycMnYnedImGMBil)araMg minTTYlrgnUvkarbMpøajBICMgW nig stVl¥iteT. mankarCMruHsøwk
rYmmandUc Ca³ Leucaena leucocephala psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana vaGaRsy½
eTAnwgRbePTeQIénRbeTsxusKña² b:uEnþkrNIenHeKBMucat;TukfaCabBaðasµúKsµajeT. stVérk¾eFVIkar
ciBa©wmCIvitenAelIedImGMBil)araMg Edr.[20] mancMnYnstVl¥itticNas;EdlbMpøajedImGMBil)araMg
enAtMbn;xus²Kµña b:uEnþkñúgcMenamstVli¥tTaMgGs;enaH manstVl¥itxøHbgárCabBaðaF¶n;F¶rEdlKYreGay
RBYy)armÖ. dUcCa dgáÚvsENþk Hylemya platura [manragsMEb:t] bMpøaj
elIkUTIeLdUnrbs;kUnGMBil)araMg ehIynwgeFVIeGay kUneQIgab;enAkñúgfñal enA Haiti (Timyan,
1996). enA Costa Rica kñúgeskmYyk,al GacRbmUlyk EpøGMBil)araMgx©IcMnYn RbEhl3 (Janzen,
1982). [12]
stVl¥itbMpøajmandUcCa³ Acizzia acaciaebaileyanae, Delia platura, Delia platura,
Heteropsylla cubana, Merobruchus columbinus (1), Pammene theristis (2), Psylla
acaciabaileyanae (3), Rastrococcus iceryoides (4), Stator limbatus (5)
Nematodes: Meloidogyne incognita (6)

pSitbgárCMgWmandUcCa³ Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. passiflorae (7), Fusarium pallidoroseum
elxerogTI 1 bMpøajRKab; TI 2 enA Maharashtra RbeTs\NÐa TI3 BMukMNt;elIeQµaHén Acizzia
acaciaebaileyanae TI4 enAGaRBic nigGasIu EdlBBYkstVTaMgenHmankarvayRbharelI kakav sVay
kb,as nig A. lebbek k¾dUcCa GMBil)araMg TI5. stVEdlmaneramehIybMpøajRKab; TI6
bMpøajkUneQIenAkñúgfñal enAKuy)a EdlTTYlrgnUvkarbMpøajya:gF¶n;F¶r TI7 krNIdMe)AedIm nig
eFVIeGayedImecjCr½ enA Orissa RbeTs\NÐa TI8 BMukN
M t;EtelIeQµaHén F. pallidoroseum [12].
b¤sTTYlrgnUvkarbMpøaj edayeFVIeGayb¤sekagcak;fñl; nigcieBa©Imfñl;.[9]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

(8)

8

F> karGPirkS

:

GMBil)araMg minEmnCaRbePTEdlrgnUveRKaHfñak;.[9]

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

manduHenAtMbn;TMnab.

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
mankMeNItenAPUmiPaKkNþalénGaemricxagt,Úg EdlmanduHenA Guatemala, Peru, Bolivia
RbeTseRbsIul b:uEnþvaRtUv)annaMeTAdaMduHenARbeTsmYycMnYn enAtMbn;RtUBic [5] ]TahrN_dUcCaenA
GURsþalI Fiji, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Samoa,ekaH Solomon enA Tonga, enARbeTs
Africa enA Tanzania nig Kenya vak¾manduHenA GasIuxagt,ÚgeqogxagekIt enARbeTs\NÐa b‘Uma: éf
\NÐÚeNsIu Peninsular RbeTsma:eLsIu hVIlIPIn .l.[26]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

p> epSg²

9

:

edImGMBil)araMgGacehAmüa:geTotfa edImeQITwkePøóg "raintree" BIeRBaHebIQrenAeRkamkenSam
søwkva éf¶minePøógk¾manTwkFøak;Edr. TwkenH )anmkBIstVérbMe)agxøÜn edIm,IkaBarxøÜnva naMeGay
mankarekIneLIg nUvcMnYnBBuHTwkEdlFøak;cuHmk. stVl¥itecaHEmkedIm,IRsUbykCatiTwk ehIybnÞab;mk
eFVIeGaybrimaNCati TwkenaHhUrmkeday\tRbeyaCn_. TaMgGs;enHehIy EdlCakrNIenA eRkam
edImGMBil)araMgmanRsk;Twk. [13]

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Hensleigh, T.E.& HolawayB.K. 1988: Agroforestry species for the Philippines. AJA
Printers, Malabon, 404 pp.
Akkasaeng,R, Gutteridge,RC, Wanapat, M,1989: Evaluation of trees and shrubs for
forage and fuelwood in northeast Thailand. Int. Tree Crops Journal 5(4): 20-220; 3 ref.
Hunter, IR, Stewart, JL ,1993: Foliar nutrient and nutritive content of Central American
multipurpose tree species growing at Comayagua, Honduras. Comm. For. Review 72(3):
193-197; 19 ref.
MacDicken GK, 1994: Selection and management of nitrogen-fixing trees. Winrock
International and FAO Bangkok.
Perry LM 1980: Medicinal plants of East and South East Asia: attributed properties and
uses.; MIT Press. South East Asia.
Poulsen, KM, Stubsgaard, F 1995: Three methods of mechanical scarification of
hardcoated seeds. Tech. Note 27, DANIDA Forest Seed Center, Humlebaek, Denmark
Roshetko, JM 1995:Albizia saman: Pasture improvement, shade, timber and more NFT
highlites. No. 95-02. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association, Arkansas; USA. Winrock
International
Ahn JH, Robertson BM, Elliott R, Gutteridge RC, Ford CW, 1989. Quality assessment of
tropical browse legumes: tannin content and protein degradation. Animal Feed Science
and Technology, 27(1-2):147-156; 25 ref.
Sunand, C., Sharmiastha, D, Bhaduri, SK, Dharmadas, S, 1993: Chemical evaluation of
leaf fibre from 4 tropical trees; a social forestry resource. Bioresource Technology

Takeda, S, 1990: Lac cultivation and host tree plantations in northern Thailand. South
East Asian Studies 28(2): 182-205; BIDC
Taylor DH and MacDicken KG 1990: Research on multipurpose treespecies in Asia.
Proceedings Int.Workshop, November 19-23, 1990, Los Banos
Thole, NS, Joshi, AL, Rangnekar, DV 1992: Nutritive evaluation of raintree (Samanea
saman) pods. Ind. J. of Animal Sciences 62(3): 270-272; 6 ref.
Chicco CF, Garbati ST, Muller-Haye B, 1973. A note on the use of saman fruit
(Pithecellobium saman) in pig food rations. Agronomia Tropical (Maracay, Venezuela),
23: 263-267.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

46(3):259-261; 19 ref.

10

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

4)
Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House;
Phnom Penh,. 915 pp.

6)
Jensen, M. 2001: Trees and Fruit of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field
guide. Orchid Press, Bangkok; 224 pp.

8)
Sam, H. V., Nanthavong, Kh. and P.J.A. Kessler 2004: Trees of Laos and
Vietnam: A field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species.
BLUMEA J. Plant Tax. and Plant Geogr. , Nat. Herbar. Nederlande, Univ. Leiden,
Branch. Leiden The Netherlands, 349 pp.

9)
Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide
Encyclopaedic Guide Thames & Hudson Ltd.,London. 484 pp.
11)
Heywood, V.D. (Ed.) 1993: Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford
University Press, New York; 336 pp.

12)

CABI Forestry Compendium Edition 2003 (on CD ROM)

13)
BAERTELS, A. 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen
(Color Atlas Tropical Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ.,

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Stuttgart,Germany, illustrated, 384 pp.

11

17)
Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant
Resources of Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea
Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859 pp.

20)
Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002:
Agroforestree Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD ROM).
26)
World Agroforestry Centre:
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Oroducts/AFDbases/AF/asp/
BotanicList.asp? (Internet source).

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Anacardium occidentale L.]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Anacardium occidentale L.]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Anacardium occidentale L.

³

cashew [1] , cashew nut [2]

³

Cassuvium pomiferum [4],
Acajuba occidentalis Gaertn. [7]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

cajou, anacardier, acajou, cachou, pomme de

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

cajou (France) [1, 2] - jambu monyet, jambu
mede (Indonesia) [1] - gajus, jambu monyet
(Malaysia) [1] - kasoy, balubad, balogo, kasui
(Philippines) [1, 2] - thiho thayet si (Myanmar)
[1] - mamuang himmaphan, yaruang, mamuang
letlor (Thailand) [1] - [dd][af]o l[ooj]n h[ooj]t,
[dd]i[eef]u, cay dieu, dao lon hot (Vietnam) [1,
2] - anacardo, casa, maranjon, merci, pajuil
(Spain) [2] - kazu badam (Bangladesh) [2] yao
kuo
(China)
[2]
andipapuppa,
andiparuppu, balia, bojan, gera-bija, gerybija,
godambe, hijali-badam, hijuli, jidi-mamidi,
jidivate, kaju, kashu-mavu, kempu geru bija,
lanka-ambo, mindiri, mundri, muntha-mamidi
(India) [2] - kashu nattsu (Japan) [2] - caju,
kaju, montinkai (Sri Lanka) [2]

1

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

sVaycnÞI
ÉksarBieRKaH : [9]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati
rC¢³ : Viridiplantae

³

svaay chantii [1, 11], chanty, kchov [3]

saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Sapindales
RKYsar : Anacardiaceae
ePT : Anacardium
RbePT : Anacardium occidentale L.
ÉksarBieRKaH: [2]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaedImeQIébtgCanic©manTMhMtUc eTAmFüm edaymankMBs; 12 m [1] (6-15 m
[2], 4-10 m [4], 2-8 m [14], 0-6 m [12]) . edImb:unefñalmankBs; 0.5-1.5 m [1] man
TMhMFM edaymanGgát;p©it DBH dl;eTA 25 cm [2] (30-45 cm [13]) nigmanEmk
duHlUtlas;mni eTogTat; CaBiessenACitKl; EdleFVeI GayvamanemIleTAmanEbkEmkeRcIn .
sMbkmanC½r BN’RbepHRsal rW etñat manlkçN³relagenAeBlenAtUc b:Eu nþeTACaeRKImenAeBlcas; .
EpñkkNþalrbs;sbM kmansñam EdlmanBN’etñat CamYysréseQI BN’Rkhm EdlgaynwgeqH .
b¤sEkvGacmanCMerAdl;eTA 3 m nigmanlkçN³Fn; . b¤sryagduHecjenAxageRkam cMenal
kenSamsøwk (crown projection) EdlGacmanCMerAdl;eT 6 m [1] . kenSamsøkw ragdUcRkLÚb
(dome-shaped) FM manEmkEdlsMbUr eTAedaysøk
w Rkas; . søwkPaKeRcINRbmUlpþeúM nAcugEmk .
[søwk]: søwkeTalqøas; Rkas; nigdUcEs,k Kµaneram ragdUcs‘utbRBa©as; rW mUlRTEvg mansñamenAxagcug
BN’ébtgsIuCm<Ú rWRkhmetñatenAeBlenAtUc nigBN’ébtgcas; enAeBlcas; . bnÞHsøkw manTMhM 6-24
x 4-15 cm [2] (6-25 cm × 5-15 cm [8]) edaymanEKm nigsréslyecj Edlman
sréscMnYnBI 10-20 [2] duHCaKUr . TgsøwkxøI (1-2 cm [2]) ragsMEb:tenAépÞxagelI .
[páa]:kenSampáaBhuePT edayman ca. 60 GePT nig 10 CapáaeQµal [8] .
kenSampáamanlkçN³CaEmk Føak;cHu EdlmanpáaCaeRcIn nigmanEmkEkgnwgG½kS . vamanRbEvg 25
cm edaymanpáaeQµal nigpáaGePT . páamanlkçN³tUc eTogTat; køinRkGUb manBN’seTA
ébtgRsal nigbnÞab;mkERbCaBN’RkhmsICu m<Ú . TMhMpáaxus²Kña 1-2 mm sMrab;páaeQµal nig 6-

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

sMrab;páaGePT [2] . TMrg;páaTaMgBIrRbePTenH manlkçN³dUcKña elIkElgEtsrIragÁpáaeQµal
GacmanrW manenAkñgú lMGgpáa . RsTab;páamancMnYn 5 BN’ébtg ragdUces<ó rW RTEvg TMhM 4-15 mm
x 1-2 mm [8] nigmaneram . RtbkpáamancMnYn 5 zitenACabnÞat; ragdUces<ó manTMhM 7-13 mm
x 1-1.5 (-2) mm [2, 8] Gacbt;EbnenAeBlpáarIk BN’ébtgRsal nigsñamqñt
Ú Rkhm .
manekseQµalcMnYn 10 . páaeQµalmancMnnY BI 7-9 xøI (2-3 mm [2], 4 mm [8]) nig 1-3 Evg
(6-9 mm [2], 6-10 mm [8]) páaGePTman 9 xøI nig 1 Evg zitenAelIRtbkpáa . páaRkBMu
nigrIkenAelIedImEtmYy . CaTUeTA páaecjenAedImrdUvR)aMg nigmanPaBxus²KñaGaRs½yeTAtamtMbn;
(rdUvpáaenAGasIuGaeKñy_: mkra-]sPa [12]) . dMeNIrlMGhpáaRtUv)aneFIeV LIgedaystVl¥t
i (XµMú ruy
nigRsemacpgEdr) . TaMgdMeNIrlMGgkat; nigxønÜ ÉgGacekItmaneLIg b:Eu nþmanP½sútþ ag
xøHbgðajfaGMBPI aBminRtUvKñaéndMeNIrlMGgedayxønÜ Ég . EpøecjenAExemsa [12] .
[Epø]: EpømanragdUcCgÁg; EdlmanTMhM 3 x 1.2 cm [1] (3-5 x 2-3.5 cm [2], 2-3 x 1 cm
[4], 2-3 x 1.5-2.5 cm [8]) edaymanBN’ébtgRbepH eTAetñatcas; sMbkEpørwgmanCatiC½r .
EpøduHBITgpáa EdlFM EdlRtUv)anehAfa EpøsaV ycnÞI cashew apple (false fruit)
EdlmanragdUcEpøBr½ TMhM 10-20 cm x 4-8 cm [1] relag BN’RkhmeTAelOg Tn; nigsMbUrTwk .
RKab;ragdUcCgÁg; mansMbkRKab;BN’etñatlayRkhm mankUTIeLdun 2 nigGMRb‘yÍ :ugtUc . sac;
EdlenAsl; bnÞab;BIkarkat;yksMbkecjKWCaRKab;saV ycnÞsI rM ab;eFIBV aNiCk¢ mµ .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14]
12 mm

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

lkçN³eQI]: eQImanBN’Rkhmetñat Rsal nigrwgb:Eu nþRsYy . eQImanlkçN³Fmµta
edaydg;sIeu teQI nigRbEvgsréseQIFaø k;cuHeTAtamGayurbs;edImeQI .
ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 13]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

3

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

RbEhl : 27°N eTA 28°S [2] (20°N eTA 24°S. [5]) . sVaycnÞmI ankarsMrbxøÜnx<s; edayman
duHenAesÞrI RKab;TIkEnøg . vaCaRbePTnaMcUl EdlmanduHenAkñgú éRBs¶Üt BMntU xüac; vaesµA éRB savanna
tMbn; savannas tMbn;eqñr nigenAkñgú éRBd_éTeTotpgEdr . sVaycnÞICaRbePT l,IeQµaHfaCa
RbePTedImeQIsMrab;daMenAeRkaypÞH enAkñgú tMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_ .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 5, 12]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

duHlUtlas;enAry³kMBs; 700 m a.s.l. tMbn;EdlmansMeNIm edaymankMBs;TwkePøógmFüm 1,5002,200 mm sMenImRbcaMqañ m
M Füm 75-85% . sItuNðPaBRbcaMqañ CM amFüm 25-27°C . enArdUvR)aMgEdl
manry³eBlBI 4-6 Ex .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 11]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .
:

sVaycnÞIduHlUtlas;)anl¥enAry³kMBs;BI 0-1,200 m a.s.l. [2, 8] (0-1,000 m [5, 7]
b:Eu nþry³kMBs; EdlsmRsbbMptu KWTabCagenH . ry³kMBs;CaFmµtaKW 600 m a.s.l. [5, 13]
EdlRtUv)ankMNt;srM ab;kardaMduHCalkçN³BaNiCk¢ mµ . vamankarFn;nwgGakasFatu EdlmanlkçN³
mineTogTat; EtsmRsbcMeBaHGakasFatu EdlmanBIrrdUv . r)a:yTwkePøóg KWmansar³sMxan;
CagbrimaNTwkePøóg . eTaHbICa vaGacduHlUtlas; EdlraMgs¶Üt nigekþA ehIys¶Üt
EdlmankMritTwkePøógBI 500-3,500 mm/yr [7] (500-3,700 mm [2], 500-4,000 mm
[5], 800-1,500 mm [8], 1,200-2,200 mm [13]) . GakasFatu EdlmanePøógFøak;xøaMg
nigBBkeRcIn enAeBlrdUvecjpáaGacmanplb:HBal;dl;Tinñplrbs;Epø . rdUvR)aMg EdlmankMLúgBI 35 Ex [8] (4-5 Ex [5], 4-6 Ex [2]) smRsbsMrab;karecjpáa Epø nigkarlUtlas;rbs;rWs .
vaGacsMrbeTAnwglkçxN
½ EdlekþAxøaMg rhUtdl;RbB½nr§ WsGacduHeTAdl;dI EdlmansMeNIm .
sVaycnÞITamTarsItuNðPaBx<s; EdlmankMritx<sb; MputsMrab;karlUtlas;KW 22-26ºC [8] .
vaGacFn;ngw kMritsItuNðPaBRbcaMqñaxM <sb; MputKW 22-35ºC [2] (17-38 ºC [7]) sItuNðPaB
mFümx<sb; MputKW 35-48ºC [2] enAkñgú ExekþAbMput nigTabbMput BI 16-24ºC [2] enAExRtCak;bpM tu
. sItuNðPaBTabbMputdac;xatKWx<s;Cag 0ºC [2] BIeRBaHsVaycnÞgI ay rgeRKaHfñak;ngw TwksenSIm .
RbPBxøHeTot)anbBa¢ak;fasVaycnÞCI aRbePT EdlFn;ngw senSIm . vaCaRbePTEdlRtUvkarBnøWxaø gM
nigminFn;ngw møbx; øaMg . eTaHya:gNa vak_Fn;xül;xøaMg nigkeNþór .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 13, 15]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

4

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

eQI]:sVaycnÞI minEmnCaRbePT sMrab;eFIVeQIhn‘u eT edayEtvamanKuNPaBTab .
luHRtaEtedImeQIman nigElgmanEpø BYkvaRtUv)ankab;rMlMsrM ab;eFICV aeQIhu‘b rW eQIfamBleT .
eTaHvaminplitnUveQI EdlGaceRbIR)as;srM ab;pliteQImlU kþa nigsMng;Fn;Rsal begáalrbg
nigsagsg;TUk . vaGacpþl;nvU eQIfamBl nigFüÚgya:gl¥ . eQIesþgI RtUv)aneRbIR)as;
edIm,IeFIVkþasMrab;bti P¢ab; nigRbGb; rWLaMg .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 5, 13]
[Gnupl]: Gahar :sac;Epø (=RKab;) KWCaplitpl sMxan;sMrab;esdækic© ehIyBNiCk
¢ mµ
eQIRKab;saV ycnÞImancMNat;fñak;TI 3 elIBPi Belak bnÞab;BI almond nig hazelnut .
EpøRtUv)ancat;TukCaGaharya:gsMxan; enAeBllIgrYc . RKab;saV ycnÞIRtUv)aneRbIR)as;CaGahar
TaMgCadMNab; niglIgrYc . BYkvaRtUv)anlk;enAkñgú kMbg:u layCamYyRKab; . EpøsaV ycnÞICaRbPBya:gl¥
énvItamIn C nigRtUv)anbriePaKRss; nigRc)ac;ykTwk . enARbeTskm<Cú a EpøRtUv)anbriePaK
Rss;CamYyGMbil . søwkx©I nigBnøkRtUv)anbriePaKCaGnøk; rW smør CaBiessenAeBlmankarxVHxat .
TwkEpøsaV ycnÞI RtUv)anp¥ab;edIm,IeFIRV sa enARbeTseRbsIul háaetma:La \NÐa nigmUsSg;bcíu‘ .
eRbg: RKab;manpÞkú nUveRbg EdlmanKuNPaBx<s; nigkak;sN
M l; Edlsl;B; kI arcMraj; eRbg
RtUv)aneRbIR)as;CacMNIstV . eTaHbICaya:gNak_eday karcMraj;ykeRbgminRtUv)aneFIeV LIgeT eday
sarRKab;mantMél x<s; . plitpl Edlsl;BIkarRbmUlRKab; KW sMbkRKab; EdlGacRtUv
)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;CacMNIstV nigsMbk EdlrwgRtUv)andusCMnYsGus nigcMerjykeRbg
sMbkRKab;saV ycnÞI (CNSL) . CNSL RtUv)aneRbIR)as;Ca sMPar³karBarTwk dUcCa karBarsac;eQI
nigsMNaj;ensaTRtI nigGacplitCaplitpl]sSah_kmµeRcIneTot . karcMraj;eRbgRtUv)ankñúg
kardkyk varnishes nig karplitdMmu UlsMrab;vayGkSr (typewriter rolls) suImg: ;eRbg
nigFn;ngw Twk Es,kR)aMg TwkfñaM CaedIm . CNSL RtUv)aneRbIR)as; sMrab;plitfñaMsMlab; stVl¥ti Ca
eRcInRbePT l½kç nigfñaM .
»sf: RKb;EpñkTaMgGs;rbs; edImeQIRtUv)aneRbIR)as;CafñaMbrU aN edIm,IBüa)alrbYs karQWeFµj
eraKmYl scurvy karQWcab; warts nig ERsg . søwkrbs;vamanpÞkú flavonoids sMbrU glycosides
én quercetin, kaempferol nig hydroxybenzoic GasIut . sMbkmanpÞúkGasIut anacardic,

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

:

nig ginkol . sarFaturav EdlmanenAkñgú sMbkmanpÞkú 39% énGasIut
anacardic EdlCal,ayrbs; alkyl salicyclic GasIut . søwk nigsMbk EdllaybBa©ÚlKña RtUv)an
eRbIR)as;srM ab;Büa)aleFµjQW nigGBa©ajeFµj . l,ayenHk_RtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;eFIVCafñaRM Kuncaj;pg
Edr . GasIut Anacardic Ca)ak;etrIRbcaMgnwg Staphylococcus aureus k_CaRbePTpSitpgEdr .
karcMraj;søkw )anbgðajfamankMritsarFatu hypotensive. søwkEdls¶ÜtmanRbsiT§kñúgkarRbqaMg
hyperglycaenic nig dMe)A [4] . C½rEpøRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;Cafñas
M rM ab; leucoderma . Epø
nigRKab; GacRtUv)aneRbIR)as;Ca antidote RbqaMgnwgCMgWEs,k nigeraKXøg; .
tanIn nigl½kç:sMbkRtUv)aneRbIR)as;enAkñúg]sSah_kmµtanIn nigC½rEdl)anBIedImeFICV aTwkexµA .
sMbkEdlmanrbYs beBa©jnUvC½rBN’elOg EdlmansarFatuslM ab;stVl¥it nigGacRtUv)an
eRbICasarFatusit¥ (kav) pgEdr .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15]
[epSg²]:karBIGtIt enARbeTskm<C
ú a sVaycnÞRI tUv)andaMduHCarukCç atieRcInCagedImeQIhUbEpø .
vaRtUv)andaMduHCaedImeQIpþl;mbø ; daMCaCYl nigTb;karhUreRcaH . vasmRsbsMrab;CaExSRkvat;karBar
nigr)aMgxül; sMrab;kardaMduHéRBeQIeLIgvij kñúgksidæan nigtMbn;eqñr nigsMrab;daMedImeQIeLIgvij .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 8, 14]
anacardol, cardol

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: sVaycnÞdI uHlUtlas;enAkñúgéRBs¶Üt dMbkU valesµA éRB savanna eqñrsmuRT
nigkñúgéRB . vaCaRbePT EdlRtUv)anTTYlsÁal;enAkñgú ksirukçkmµ edaydaMCacenøaHCamYy dUg RkUc eck
dMLgÚ mI nigeBat . sVaycnÞCI aRbePTeQIeRbIR)as;eRcInya:g smRsbsMrab;CaExSRkvat;karBar nigr)aMg
xül; sMrab;kardaMduHéRBeQIeLIgvij ksikmµBencr nigdIéRbtMbn;eqñr nigsMrab;saþ rCICatidIeLIgvij .
edImeQImanlkçN³gayRsYlkñgú kardaMduH rwgmaM nigRtUvkarkarEfTaMtictYc . vaRtUvkarBnøWxaø gM
nigminFn;ngw møbx; øaMg nig vagayduHExñg .
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

minmancMNat;fñak; . ÉksarBieRKaH [6]

6

kardaMduH]: sVaycnÞIGacRtUv)andaM enAkñgú BnøéW f¶eBj . CaTUeTA reNþAsMrab;daMRtUv)anCIkTMhM 30 x
30 cm [2] . enAelIdIrwg reNþAKYrmanTMhM
50 x 50 x 50 cm [5] nigbMeBjedaydI
niglayCamYylamkstV . RKab;BCU BIr eTAbIRtUv)andak;kgñú mYyreNþA enACMerA 5-8 cm [2] .
bnÞab;BIkarduH manEtkUneQImyY b:eu NÑaHRtUv)anrkSaTuk . sMrab;cenøaHdMbgU KW 3.4 x 3.4 eTA 5 x 5 m
[5] (6 x 6 m to 10 x 10 m [2]) RtUv)anGnuvtþ edIm,Ikat;bnßykarlUtlas;rbs;esµA nigrkSa
sMeNImdI. kUneQIduHeLIgenAkñgú ry³eBl 3 s)þah_ bnÞab;BIkarsab . b¤seFIkV arduHlUtlas;ya:g
elOn edaymanCMerA 1.5 dg énkMBs;knU eQI . BnøkduHlUtlas;CabNþMú CaBiessenArdUvvsSa .
kUneQI nwgduHecjEmk ya:gqab;rh½s ehIykaréRkEmkRtUv)aneFVeI LIg edIm,IeGayedImmankMBs;BI
0.5-1.5 m [1] . kareRbIR)as;CImn
i RtUv)aneFIeV LIgeT . kMriteBjv½yrbs;edIm Gacmanry³eBlBI
3 rW 4 qñaM .
[karRKb;RKg]: edIm,IFananUvTMrg;edIml¥ sMeNImRtUv)anrkSa
(tamry³ karRKb eFIf
V ñak; føúk)
runx§ ül;rbs;dIRtUv)anEkrlMGr edaykarP¢rÜ as; edIm,IeGayrWsGacduH)an . sMGatesµA edayRbugRby½tñ
sMGattMbn;enACMuvijkñgú cMgay 1 m BIedIm nigdutecal rhUtdl;edImeQIGacmanmøb;RKbelIesµA .
karRKb;RKgesµA nigkarkarBarkarhUreRcaH RtUv)aneFIVeLIg edaykarRKb dMNaM (eRbIR)as;rukCç ati
legumes dUcCa Pueraria phaseoloides, Calopogonium mucunoids, Mucana sp.,
Mimosa
invisa
etc.)
[5].
cenøaHdaMFMGaceGayeyIgdaMnvU RbePTdMNaMdéTeTot
EdleFIeV GayRbePTenH manlkçN³smRsbbMptu sMrab;ksirukçkmµ CaBiessRbB½n§ hedgerow .
CIGac CYyCMrujkarlUtlas;rbs;kUneQI nigeFIeV GayedImqab;ecjpáa b:Eu nþvamincab; )ac;eRbIenAeBl
RbmUlpleLIg . edayEt sVaycnÞImni sUvmanEmkTab² enAeBlGayu 2 qñaM edImeQIGac
RtUv)anéRkEmk edIm,IeGayman TMrg;l¥ nwgkat;Emk Edlgab; minl¥ nigmanCMgWecj . edImeQI
RtUv)ankat;tMrwm edaykat;EmkTab² nigBnøk EdlduHenAKl;ecj enAeBledImmanGayu 3 qñaM .
eRkammkkaréRkEmkRtUv)anbBaÄb; rWeFIeV nAkMrittictYcbMput . 5 qñaMeRkay karkat;rMelaHRtUv)aneFIV
edIm,Ikat;karRbKYtRbECg . enAkñgú cenøaH EdlCit²KñaenAkñúgcMkar karkab;rMelaHRtUv)aneFIeV LIg
edIm,ITTYl)an 120 edIm/ha [2] (44-69 edIm/ha [1]) . cenøaHdaMduH
cugeRkaymanlkçN³xus²KñaBI 8 x 8 eTA 20 x 20 m [5] (12 x 12 to 15 x 15 m) .
cenøaHdaMBei saFn_ )anbgðajfa enAGayu 10 qñaM plitPaBenAkñgú LÚt× 44, 69, 111, 135 nig 278
edIm/ha KWRbEhl 450 kg/ha . edImEdlmanTMhMFMRtUv)anTUTat;srM ab; edImtUc . dUcenH

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

7

th

th

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

manEtépÞkenSamsøwk Etb:ueNÑaHEdlGackMnt;plitPaBrbs;edImeQI . edImeQI EdlRtUv)andaMCaCYr
enAcenøaH 2-3 m x 12-15 m esÞrI EtbegánI kenSamsøwkBIrdg kñúgmYyhicta nigbegánI Tinñpl
enAry³eBl 10 qñaMdMbgU . TTwg EdlFMbpM tu éncenøaH GaRs½yeTAelI GakasFatu nig
kUnEdlykmkdaM . karlUtlas; elOn nigedImeQIcab;epþmI ecjEpø enAeBlmanGayu 4 qñaM .
edImeQIGacpþl;nUvTinpñ lx<s; bMputenAeBlmanGayu 10 qñaM [2] nigkMritplitkmµbnþdl;Gayu 20 qñaM
[2] (25 qñaM [1]). kardaMduHeLIg
vijKWTamTarnUvkarcMNayeRcIn nigGac)at;bg;nvU cMnlU enAry³eBl 5 qñaMdMbgU . dUcenH sVaycnÞI
GacRtUv)andaMCaCYr eGay)anl¥ . Tinñplx<s;KGW aRs½yeTAelIkarEfrkSaExñg enAkMritBI 50-75 cm
enAeBlCYrRtUv)ankat;tMrwmeGayenA 1 m BIKña . edImeQIenAkñúgCYrGacRtUv)andkecj
nigdaMCMnYsnUvedIm Edll¥ . kardaMduHeLIgvijenAkñgú CYrGacRtUv)aneFIeV LIg bnÞab;BIry³eBl 5 qñaM .
eTaHya:gNa enAeBledImeQIduHenAkñgú CYr vaGacpþl;plx<sp; gEdr . enAeBlcenøaHrvagCYr
mancMgayticCag 1 m edImEdlenAeRkACYrRtUv)ankat;ecj edIm,Ipþl;cenøaH dl;edImepSgeTot .
RbB½ne§ nHGaceGay eQIduH)anx<s; nigpþl;pleRcIn . bnÞab;BIedImeQIpþl;pl
vamansar³sMxan;Nas;kgñú kardak;CI nig)aj;fñaM sMlab;stVl¥it nigCMgW .
[karRbmUlpl]: rdUvRbmUlpl Gacmanry³eBldl;eTA 2-3 Ex [1] . KuNPaB Edll¥bp
M tu
KWTTYl)annUvEpø EdlFøab;BeI dIm nigeFIkV arsMgYt ehIyrkSaTukeGay)abelOn . EpøRtUv)anRbmUlya:g
ehacNas;enAkñúgry³eBlmYys)þah_ . tMbn;EdlenAeRkamedImeQI RtUv)ansMGat
CaBiesskMeu GaymanesµA edIm,IeGaykarRbmUlRKab;manPaBgayRsYl . bnÞab;BIkat;sac;Epøecj
RKab;RtUv)andak;haléf¶ edIm,Ikat;bnßysMeNImBI 25% eTAeRkam 9% [1] . CamYynwgkarsMgYt
d_RtwmRtUv RKab;GacrkSaKuNPaBrbs;va . RKab;minKYrmansMeNImenAeBlrkSaTukeT . tulüPaBsMenIm
KW 9% enA 27ºC nigkMritsMeNIm 70% [1] . EpøsaV ycnÞI TMmu uneBlRKab;cab;epþImcas; . EpøEdlTMu
sMrab;kareRbIR)as;Rss;KYrRtUv)anRbmUlCaRbcaMéf¶ .
[Tinñpl]: TinñplmankMritTabenAkñg
ú tMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_ CaTUeTA 400-600 kg/ha/qñaM [1]
TinñplmFüm elIBiPBelakKW 670-1,350 kg/ha/qñaM [2] . TnñplkñúgmYyedIm ekIneLIgBI 3 kg
enAGayu 3-5 qñaM 4 kg enAGayu 6-10 qñaM 4.7 kg enAGayuBI 11-15 qñaM nig 5.3 kg BIGayu
16 -20
[1] . ksikrenAPakxagt,ÚgPUma )anraykarN_faplitPaBmankMrit 6.1 kg/ edIm

8

. CaTUeTA edImeQIeBj v½yGacpþl;Tinñpl
(edImxøHGacdl; 45 kg [2]) énRKab;RbcaMqañ M .
[1]

45-100 kg [2]

énEpø nig

9-8 kg [2]

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 5, 7, 12]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

9

:

karduHeLIgvijedayFmµCati ekItmaneLIgenAeBlEdlstVRbecovsIuEpø nigeFIkV arBRgayRKab;rbs;va .
sVaycnÞIk_duHlUtlas;Exñg)anl¥ nigkUnEdlduHBIrWspgEdr dUcenHkarduHeLIgvijedayFmµCati
ekIteLIgBI Exñg nigkUnEdlduHBIrWs . eTaHbI karduHExñgmindUcenAkñgú TIvalFM²k_eday .
sMrab;plitkmµsaV ycnÞI sMrab;BaNiCk¢ mµ RtUv)aneFIeV LIgtamry³kardaMedayRKab; . RKab;RtUv)an
RbmUlBI edImEdlEpøeRcIn nigeTogTat; EdlRtUv)ansÁal;fa CaRbePTdUcKña (parentage) .
manEtRKab; EdlTMu TMhMmFüm nigTMrg;l¥eT RtUv)aneRbIR)as; . vaCakarFmµtakñgú kareRCIserIs
nUvRbePTRKab; EdlminGENþtenAelITwk rW sUrRkwk² (RKab;sú¥y) . BYkvapþl;nUvkUneQI
EdlmandMNuHx<s; nigkMritlUtlas;elOn . RKab;BCU RtUv)anRbmUlenAkMLgú Ex emsa nig]sPa .
RKab; EdlmansMeNImTab manlT§PaBdMNuHry³eBl 12 Ex
[10] RbsinebIvaRtUv)anpÞúkenAkñg
ú kEnøg Edlminmanxül;clU . eRkayry³eBl 14 Ex
RKab;BCU )at;bg; nUvdMNuHrbs;vaTaMgRsug . TMgn;RKab;mYyKILRÚ kam manRKab;cnM nY BI 120 eTA 250/kg
[2] (120-125/kg [5], 150-200/kg [10]).
PaKryPaBsuT§: 100% [10] .
PaKrysMeNIm: 6.5% [10] PaKrydMNuH: 80-90% [10] PaKrykUneQI: 50% [10]
cMnnY kUneQIkgñú RKab;BCU mYyKILÚRkam : 150 [10] . kareFIRV bRBwtþikmµCamunmincaM)ac;eLIy .
RKab;BCU RtUv)ansabenAkñgú fg; edaydak;TgRKab;eLIgmk elI . RKab;BCU BI 3-4kg/ha
RtUvkarsMrab;kardaMenAcenøaH 7 x 7 m [4] . dMNuHcab;epþmI kñgú ry³eBlRbEhl 10-30 éf¶ [2]
(10-20 éf¶ [10]) nigbBa©b;enAkñúgry³eBl 2 Ex . enAeBledImeQIRtUv)an bnþBC
U edayRKab;
kMritdMNuHKWmanPaBxus²Kña GaRs½yeTAelIkarbgáat;ExV karbnþBUCedaysrIragÁ GaceRbIsMrab;plitnUvkUn
eQI BIedImem rW KMrUedImEdlmanKuNPaBl¥ . bec©keTs eRbIR)as; rYmman karkat;bMEbk nig karbit
nigbMe)A (viFsI aRsþ EdlTTYl)aneCaKC½ybMput) karb:H nigpSaMBu nøk (RbEhl 30% GacTTYl)an)
nigkarbgáat;epSgeTot . fµ²I enH CamYynwgkarbgáat;tamry³daMCalikar(tissue culture)
k_TTYl)aneCaKC½ypgEdr enA Gembloux RbeTsEbsiuc (Belgium) [1] .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 5, 7, 10]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVl¥ti ]: Helopeltis bug or tea mosquito (Helopeltis antonii) CaRbePTstVl¥ti sMxan;
nigeFIkV arbMpaø jya:gFn;F¶r dl;Bnøk nigkBa©úpM aá EdleFIeV GaykBa©púM áas¶tÜ nigRCuHEpø .
EdlGaceFIeV Gayb:HBal;dl;esdækic© . vaGackMcat;)anedayeRbIR)as;fñasM lM ab;stVl¥it . kareRbIR)as;
endosulfan nig dimethoate enAeBlmanstVl¥itelceLIg . eTaHya:gNa edayehtufa
sVaycnÞIRtUv)andMeNIrlMGgedaystVl¥it kareRbIR)as;fñasM lM ab;stVl¥iteRcIneBk minRtUv)anGnuBaØat
eLIy . RbePT EdlFn;RtUv)ansegátenAkñúgRbeTs\NÐa . RbePTstVl¥ti EdleFIkV arbMpaø j
enAkñgú tMbn;mandUc Ca stVl¥ti ecaHeQI stVl¥ti CBa¢k;edIm dUcCa thrips . RbePTdéTeTotmandUcCa
[

Acrocercops syngramma, Conopomorpha syngramma Meyrick, Crimissa cruralis,
Hypatima haligramma Meyrick, Lamida moncusalis Walker, Nephopetryx sp.,
Metanastria hyrtaca Cramer, Monolepta longitarsus Jac., Oligonychus mangiferus
Ratman, Paradasynus rostratus Distant, Plocaederus ferrugineus, Rhynchothrips
raoensis Ramakrishna, Selenothrips rubrocinctus
Meyrick

nig

Thylocoptila panrosema

.
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2].

CMgW]: enAkñgú GakasFatuekþA ehIyesIm anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)
bMpøajnUvBnøkx; ©I nigpáa EdleFIeV Gays¶tÜ nigRCuH . karraldaleTAelIEpø k_bNþalmkBI necrosis
nigRCuH . RbePTCMgWenH manCab;Bak;B½n§ngw stVl¥ti nigpSit . karRKb;RKgRtUv)aneFIeV LIg
edaykat;ecjvnigdut bMpøajnUvEpñk EdlrgCMgW nigeRCIserIsRbePT EdlFn;nwgCMgW
eRbIR)as;fñasM lM ab;pSit . RbePTepSgeTot KW powdery mildew (Oidium anacardii)
EdlekItmaneLIgenAkñgú cMkar CaBiess brisßanesIm nigsMbUredImeQIeRcIn . EpñkEdl rgCMgW
RtUv)anRKbdNþbe; day pSitBN’s . søwk nigpáaRtUv)aneFIeV Gay
s¶Üt nigRCuH . vaGacRtUv)anRKb;RKg edayeRbI sulphur . RbePTpSitepSgeTot dUcCa Capnodium
sp. (Sooty Mould), Corticium salmonicolor, Cylindrocladium scoparium (Seedling
Blight), Diplodia natalensis Evans. (Gummosis), Glomerella cingulata,
Gloeosporium mangiferae P. Henn., Oidium anacardii (Powdery Mildew),
Phomosis anacardii, Phytium ultimum Tron. (Seedling Root Rot), Pestalotia

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

10

paconiae Servazzi (Leaf Spots), Pestalotia dichatae (Leaf Spots), Phytophthora
palmivora (Damping off)

RtUv)ankt;Rta .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 5]

F> karGPirkS

:

karGPirkSkñgú ]:TIkEnøgrkSaTukEsnl¥manTItaMgenARbeTseRbsIul (130 accessions) \NÐa (
NRCC rkSaTuk 213 kEnøg eday 600 zitenAkEnøgepSgeTotén\NÐa) mUsSg;bc
íu‘ (530 clones),
éf (744 RbePTénsVaycnÞI) nigPIlIBIn 1,300 kEnøg [2].
[

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

sVaycnÞIRtUv)andaMduHya:geRcIn enAesÞIrRKb;tMbn;énRbeTskm<Cú a sMrab;CaplitplBaNiCk¢ mµ .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4]
vamanenA PñeM Bj mNÐlKIrI rtnKIrI kMBg;cam kMBg;FM kNþal sVayerog kMBg;esam )at;dMbg esomrab
eBaF×sat; nigéRBEvg .
ÉksarBieRKaH [16]

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
RbPBkMenIt]: eRbsIlu
[karnaMcl
U ]: GasIu (bg;køaeds Rb‘uyeN km<Cú a cin \NÐa \NÐeÚ nsIu ma:eLsIu PUma en)a:l; )a:KsI aß n
hVlI IBnI sgðabUrI RsIlgøkar éf evotNam),
GaeRhVc (Gg;ehÁaLa emnIn British Indian Ocean Territory ebIKN
I ahVasU kama:rU extvWt kugehÁa
kUedv½r hÁeI nob‘sÍ U eknya: eLsUtU ma:dahÁasáa ma:LavI mUsüg;bcíu‘ nIesrIya: esenhÁal; esra:eLGUn
GaeRhVcxagt,Úg s‘dU g; tg;sanI tUeháa G‘yu ehÁnda sImu ebo),
Caribbean ()a)adU Kuy)a dUmn
I eI xn éhTI camIka eBrUrIkU RTInIedt nig tU)aeháa ),
GaemrikkNþal (kUsþarIka eG savad½r háaetma::La hugdUra:s; nIháara:hrÁ½ )a:Nama:),

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

11

GaemrikxageCIg (misciu kU),
Gaemrikxagt,Úg (hÁyÚ a:Na eb:rU sYrIenm evens‘yu eGLa)
mhasmuRT (GURsþalI hVICI )a:BUjÚKeI no)
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 5, 11]

p> epSg²

:

Rbvtþi]: vaCaRbePTrukCç atihUbEpø EdlRtUv)annaMcUledayCnCatibT:u uyháal; nigeGs,aj
enATUTaMgtMbn;RtUBki .
[sarFatuciBa©wm]: CamYypl 420 kg énRKab;sVaycnÞIkg
ñú mYyhicta 13 kg énGasUt 4 kg én
P2O5 nig 3 kg én K2O RtUv)andkecj . ÉksarBieRKaH [1]
[sarFatuenAkñúgRKab;]: RKab;manpÞk
ú RbUetGIun 21% nigeRbgBI 35 eTA 45% . ÉksarBieRKaH [2]
[karEkécñRKab;enAtMbn;GasIu]:plitkmµCaRTg;RTaytUc enAtMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_ eFIk
V arEkécñ kareRCIserIs
nigvicu x©b; edayeRbIR)as;éd .
[dMenIrlMGg nigkarray)a:yrbs;RKab;]:dMeNIrlMGgRtUv)aneFIeV LIgedayXµMú (Apis mellifera).
Rsemac nigruyénePT Ligyra nig Helophilus k_clU rYmkñgú dMeNIrlMGgpgEdr . xül;GacBRgay
lMGg eTaHbIvarYmcMEnktictYcenAkñgú dMeNIrlMGgk_eday . vaCaRbePT EdlGaceFVkI arbgáat;ExVg
edayxøÜnÉg . eTaHbI dMeNIrlMGgminmanRbsiT§PaBk_eday CamYynwgkarRbmUllMGgBIpáa staminoid
. sVaycnÞIplitpáa kBa©úM nigTwkdm . karecjEpøRtUv)ankMnt; edaylkçx½NÐFmµCati EdlmankMritBI 5
to 10% . enA\NÐa dMeNIrlMGg minsUvmanRbsiT§PaBeT nigkarecjEpøekIneLIg edaysar
dMeNIrlMGgsib,nimtµi dUcCaenAtg;sSanI (Tanzania) karecjEpø nigdMeNIrlMGg manRbsiT§PaB
nigminkMNt;nUvbrimaNTinñpleT . karray)a:yrbs;RKab;ekItmaneLIg edaysarTwk (eqñrsmuRT
edaycrnþTwksmuRT) edaystVsaø b EdlsIuEpø (dUcCa ekgkg nig Ramphastidae)
edaystVRbeCov RbePT Epomophorus wahlbergi .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

12

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Aiyadura SG, Premanad PP. 1965. Can cashew become a more remunerable
plantation crop? India Cashew Journal. 4(1):2-7.
[7]

Food and Agriculture Organization, 1982. Fruit-bearing forest trees: technical
notes. FAO Forestry Paper, No. 34:v + 177 pp.
[2]

French JH, Tingsabadh C, Taylor D, Byrnes F, Pan FJ, Wood H, Chung HH, Kamis
Awang, Lasco RD, Bhumibhamon S, Latimer W, 1994. Growing multipurpose
trees on small farms. Growing multipurpose trees on small farms., Ed. 2:li + 315
pp.; 69 ref.
[2]

Gupta RK, 1993. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation.
Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation., xv + 562 pp.; [18
pp. of ref + refs in text].
[2]

Johnson DV, 1973. The botany, origin, and spread of the cashew, Anacardium
occidentale L. Journal of Plantation Crops, 1:1-7.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[2]

13

Nayak MG, 1996. Training and pruning practices for cashew. Cashew, 10(2):5-9;
[3 pl.].
[2]

Ohler JG, 1979. Cashew. Communication, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam,
No. 71:260 pp.
[2]

Northwood PJ. 1966. Some observations on flowering and fruit setting in the
cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.). Trop. Agriculture, Trin. 43(1).
[7]

Verheij E.W.M. Coronel R.E. (1991) PROSEA - Plant Resources of South-East
Asia; 2 - Edible fruits and nuts.
[8]

Villachica H. Carvalho J. E. U. de. Müller C. H. Camilo Diaz, S. Almanza M.
(1996) Promising Amazonian Fruits and Vegetables.
[8]

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4,
5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).

[2] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[3] FA/CTSP-DANIDA, 2005: Farmers Tree Planting Manual - Guidelines for Site
Selection and Tree Planting. (CD-ROM).

[4] Kham, L., 2004: Medicinal Plants of Cambodia - Habitat, Chemical
Constituents and Ethnobotanical Uses.

[6] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia,
Trade Names of Commercial Woods, unpublished.

[7] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicSe
arch.asp (Internet source).

[8] ECOPORT:
http://ecoport.org/ep?Plant=401&entityType=PL****&entityDisplayCategor
y=full (Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[5] Mandal, R.C., 2000: Cashew - Production and Processing Technology.

14

[9] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species.

[10] Andhra Pradesh Forest Department: http://forest.ap.nic.in/Silviculture
(Internet source).

[11] ARCBC BISS Species Database: http://arcbc.org/cgibin/abiss.exe/spd?spd=352&tx=PL&sub=0 (Internet source).

[12] Auroville TDEF: http://www.auroville-tdef.info/Individual.php?id=447
(Internet source)
[13] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and
Planning Institute.

[14] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[15] Purseglove, J-W., 1968: Tropical Crops - Dicotyledonae 1. London. 332 pp.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[16] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

15

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Anisoptera costata Korth.]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Anisoptera costata Korth.]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Anisoptera costata Korth. [1]

³

minmanTinñn½y ..

³

Anisoptera cochinchinensis Pierre (1886),
Anisoptera marginatoides Heim (1902),
Anisoptera mindanensis Foxw. (1918) [1],
Anisoptera oblonga Dyer,
Anisoptera cochinchinensis Pierre,
Anisoptera robusta Pierre,
Anisoptera glabra Pierre,
Shorea nervosa Kurz. [4]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

mai bak, mersawa (Trade Name) [12] - mersawa kesat

(Brunei) [1] - masegar, mersawa daun lebar, ketimpun
(Indonesia) [1] - mersawa kesat, mersawa terbak,
pengiran kesat (Malaysia) [1] - Mindanao palosapis,
balingan (Philippines) [1] - kaban-thangyin (Myanmar)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[1] - bak, maiz bak (Laos) [1] - krabak, krabak khok,

1

krabak daeng (Thailand) [1] - v[ee]n v[ee]n, v[ee]n
v[ee]n tr[aws]ng, v[ee]n v[ee]n xanh (Vietnam) [1]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

epþók
ÉksarBieRKaH : [8]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

³

phdiek, phdiek krâham, phdiek sâ [1]

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Malvales
RKYsar : Dipterocarpaceae
ePT : Anisoptera Korth.
RbePT : Anisoptera costata Korth.
ÉksarBieRKaH: [1, 4]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaedImeQIFM EdlmankMBs;dl;eTA 50 (-65) m [1] (-20 m [10], 30-40 m [12]) .
edImragdUcsIuLaMg Rtg;l¥ KµanEmkenAkMBs; 35 m nigGgát;p©it DBH dl;eTA 150 cm [1] (100 cm [10],
170 cm [5], 200 cm [2], 50-80 cm [12]) . manRBWgBIr eTAbI EdlmankMBs; 4 m kMras;Rkas; mUl
Rtg; nigenACMuvijkMBs; 2.5 m bnþduHrhUtdl;kMBs; 10 m [5] ; (minmanRBwgeT [2]). EmkRkas; sMEb:t rW
RCug nigmaneramBN’elOgRkas; .
[sMbk]: sMbkmanBN’etñatcas; rW elOgx©I relag nigKµaneramenAeBltUc eRbHtambeNþay
enAeBlcas; nigrbkCaragctuekaNEkgtUc² . sMbkxagkñúgdUcEs,k nigzitenACabnÞH ² kMras;dl;eTA
3 cm [5] (1-2 cm [12]) edayman BN’Bgman; nig BN’elOgrW elOgcas; .
[søwk]: søwkeTal qøas; dUcEs,k edaymanBN’elOg rW ébtgenAxageRkam . søwkmanrageGlIb
rWmUldUcs‘tu manTMhM 6-20 x 3-11 cm [5] (6-18 cm x 7-11 cm [1], 10-15 x 5-8 cm [2]) . cugsøwkxøI
minRsYc manragmUl rWdcU ebHdUgenAKl; KµaneramenAEpñkxagelI EtmaneramragdUcpáayenAEpñk
xageRkam manrun§xül;zitenAqøas;Kña srésEvn TIBIrmancMnnY 15-20 KU [5] (8-22 KU [1]) .
[páa]: kBa©úp
M aá ragdUcekan zitenACaG½kS rW duHenAxagcug manRbEvg 10-15 cm edaymaneramragdUcpáay
. páamanBN’Bgman; . RtbkpáamancMnYn 5 maneram nigragRtIekaNmUl . RsTab;páak_man 5 ragTal
nig dUceGlIb . eksreQµalmancMnnY 25-35 [5] (30-35 [2]) . eksrjI ragsILu aMg manrun§ 2 (2
GUvul = RKab;mni Tan;TMu ) . ecjpáaBIEx vickäi ar dl; mina [5] (kum³Ö -mina [2], Fñ-Ú mina [12]) .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Epø]: ecjEpøBEI x kumÖ³ dl; ]sPa [5] (emsa-]sPa [2]) . EpømUl BN’etñat Ggát;p©it 1-1.5 cm
edaymansøabFM²BIrmanTMhM 10-12 x 1.5-2 cm [2] (10-16 x 1-1.5 cm [5]) nigsøabtUc²bI 1.5-2.5 x
0.2-0.5 cm.
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 5, 10]
[

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

TMng;Fn¶ m; Füm cMeBaHeQIxwmø edaymanBN’elOgRsal nigminGacEckdak;rvageQIRsay nigeQIxwøm
. eTaHbICa RbPBxøH)anBiBN’naBIlkçN³xusKña rbs;eQIRsay nigeQIxwmø edaymanBN’elOgRsal
nigeQIxwømmanBN’elOgRsalCamYynwgsac;eQIrelag . rgVg;lUtlas;RbcaMqañ M manlkçN³minsUv
c,as; nigCaTUeTAmanTTwg 5-7 mm . C½rnaMecjedaybMBg; nigsés EdlzitenAray)a:yCaeRcIn .
eQIEdlmanC½rmanlkçN³Tn;enAeBldMbgU nig køayCarwg BN’RbepH CamYynwgkøwnd¾xaø gM .
dg;sIeu teQI 0.46-0.85 g/cm³ [1] enAsMeNIm 15% . dg;seIu tCak;lak; éneQIst¶Ü KW 0.64 g/cm³ [2]
(0.61-0.71 g/cm³ [12]). emKuNénkMritrYj 0.49, kMritsés 28% . kMlaMgsgát;man 504 kg/cm² .
kMriténkarbt; 1,150 kg/cm² . kMriténkarbMEbk 17.5 kg/cm . emKuNkMriténkarbt; 1.17 .
eQIgayRsYlkñgú karGa b:Eu nþeFIeV GayrNaril BIeRBaH sac;eQImanpÞkú kal;süÚmGuks‘Íut (calciumoxate) enAkñg
ú eQIxwmø .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 5, 12]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

3

:

RbEhl: BI 15°N eq<aHeTAxagt,Úg . duHlUtlas;enAtMbn;éRBeRsagtMbn;RtUBci esIm éRBBak;kNþal
eRsag nigéRBeRsags¶tÜ éntMbn;TMnab . enAkñúgéRBFmµCati vaduHlUtlas;CamYyRbePTdUcCa
Diperocarpus alatus, D.kerri, D. jourdanii, Hopea odorata, Hopea ferrea, Shorea spp.,

nig
. CYnkal vaduHlayCamYyb¤sSI . epþókCaRbePTlb;

Lagerstroemia spp., Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Xylia xylocarpa, Afzelia xylocarpa
Peltophorum

ferrugincum

nigduHlUtlas;CaRkumsuT§ .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 5, 7, 11, 12]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

duHlUtlas;enAry³kMBs; 700 m a.s.l. tMbn;EdlmansMeNIm edaymankMBs;TwkePøógmFüm 1,5002,200 mm sMenImRbcaMqañ m
M Füm 75-85% . sItuNðPaBRbcaMqañ CM amFüm 25-27°C . enArdUvR)aMgEdl
manry³eBlBI 4-6 Ex .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 11]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

vasmRsbnwgdI EdlmanBN’RbepH rWBN’elOgetñat CaRbePTdIl,b;cas; rW)asal; EdlmanCICatikMrit
TabvaduHlUtlas;enAtMbn;smuRT tMbn;PñM nigtammat;swgÞ nigTMnab . vaminFn;dI Edldk;Twk
cMEnkdIEdlrgkarrukranEtgmanCICatikrM itTab . vaduHlUtlas;CaRkumpgEdr enAtMbn;EdlmanrdUvR)aMg
EdledImeQIGacCMruHsøkw nigmanTMhMtUc .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 11]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

lkçN³eQI]: eQI (eQµaHBaNiCk¢ mµ 'mersawa') KWmantMélBaNiCk¢ mµxs< ; nigsmRsbsMrab;eFIV
veneer, kþabnÞH eRKOgsgðarwm kþaRkal kþaRkalnava sMng;TUeTA begáalTUrs½BÞ nigFugeQI .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 5, 10, 12]
[Gnupl]: EpøGacbriePaK)an .
ÉksarBieRKaH [11]
[epSg²]: CaRbePTeQIpþl;mb
ø ; nigCMrk . CaRbePT EdlmanskþanuBlsMrab;karGPirkSdI nig Twk .
RbePTenHRtUv)ancat;Ca RbePTeQImansar³sMxan;sMrab;esdækic©sgÁm enAkñgú RbeTskm<Cú a (edaysikça
salafñak;CaeTAelIRbePTeQIGaTiPaB erobcMedayrdæ)aléRBeQI nig CTSP kñgú qñaM 2000) .
ÉksarBieRKaH [9]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

4

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

eQIRbePTelx 2 .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: epþókduHlUtlas;enAkñúgéRBeRsagesIméntMbn;RtUBci éRBBak;kNþaeRsag nigéRBeRsag
s¶Üt éntMbn;TMnab EdlsMbUreTAedayRbePTeQICrM uHsøkw (20-50%) éRBEdlmanedImeQIkMBs;BI 25-30
m edaymankenSamsøwkCit nigmankMBs;Tab 5-17 m . enAkñg
ú éRBFmµCati vaduHCamYyBBYk
[

Diperocarpus alatus, D.kerri, D. jourdanii, Hopea odorata, H. ferrea, Shorea spp.,

nig
Peltophorum ferrugincum . CYnkalvaduHlUtlas;layCamYyb¤sSI . epþókCaRbePT Edlman
lkçN³eGkULsÚ uIlb;elIRbePTdéT . CYnkal vaduHlUtlas;CaRkumsuT§ rW ÉkRbePT .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 5, 7,11]
[kardaMduH]: sMrab;kardaMduH vaRtUv)anpþl;db
M Unµan eGaydaMenAelIRbePTdIRbepH Edlmanl,b;cas; rW
)asal;enAdIEdléRBeQIRtUv)anrukran edaymanedImeQIduHxøH²pgEdr . karbegátI cMkarsuT§ Gac
RtUv)aneFIeV LIg enAeRkamkenSamsøkw rbs;RbePT Indigofera teysmanii Edlman 600 edIm/ha dg;sIeu t
(3-6 m) rWGacdaMlaycMruH enATTwgrgBI 15-20 m edaylayCamYy Dipterocarpus alatus nig Hopea
odorata . enAdMNak;kaldMbg
U rbs;cMkar vaTamTarnUvmøb; dUcenH Indigofera teysmanii nig Hopea
odorata RtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;pþl;mb
ø ;dl;RbePTenH . kardaMRtUv)aneFIeV LIgenAkMLgú rdUvvsSa (mifunakkáda enAkñúg RbeTsevotNam) .
[karRKb;RKg]: karEfrTaMRtUv)aneFIeV LIgenAkñg
ú ry³eBl 7 qñaM . enAqñaTM ImyY dl;TIbI
kargarsMxan;KsW GM atesµA BUnKl; kat;vlø× (BIrdgkñúgmYyqñaM elIkTImyY mun nig cugeRkaybnÞab;
BIrdUvvsSa ) . enAqñaMTI 4 -5 :karkat;rMelaHBnøk nig tMrg;edImeGayl¥ . enAqñaMTI 6 -7 : karebIk
kenSamsøwk kat;srM YlnUvdg;seIu t (dg;seIu tcugeRkayKW 300 edIm/ha) . RtUvEteFIVkarRKb;RKgePøgI
eqHenAkñgú rdUvR)aMg .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Lagerstroemia spp., Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Xylia xylocarpa, Afzelia xylocarpa

5

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

páa nigEpørbs;vamineTogTat; (mþg enAragral; 3-4 qñaM ) . dUcenH RKab;RtUv)anrkSaTuk nigkUneQIRtUv
)ansabedaypÞal; BIeRBaHdMNuHrbs;vagaynwg)at;bg;ya:grh½s . RKab;GacRtUv)andaMsabenAkñgú fñal
nigdaMkúgñ fg; (20 x 25 cm) (karlaydI KW dIRsTab;elI (80%) nigkMbs:u ×þ (20%) ) . kUneQIRtUv)andaM
enAeBlBYkvamankMBs;mFüm 0.6-0.8 m nigGayu 12-14 Ex .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

F> karGPirkS

:

epþókCaRbePTkMr nigRbePTKMramkMEhg eyagtam IUCN -1994 EN-category . RbePTeQIenH
RtUv)anKMramkMEhg edaykarkab;bpM aø j enARbeTskm<Cú a nigmancMnnY eRcInCag 10,000 [9] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [6, 9, 10]

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
RbPBkMenIt]: Rb‘yu eN km<Cú a \NÐeÚ nsIu (s‘Uma:Rta cava bUenGU ) Lav ma:eLsIu PUma hVlI IBnI sgðabUrI éf
evotNam (evotNamxagt,Úg) .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 5, 10]
[

karnaMclU ]: minTan;manTinñny½ . .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

minTan;manTinñn½y .

6

p> epSg²
[

:

esenTicéRBeQI]: "epþókmanRbePTxus²Kña EdlGacRtUv)anbgáat;CamYy A. curtisii" [1] .

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêtnam (various editors), 1960. Muséum National
d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
[1]

Masano, A.H., 1988. Perkecambahan benih Anisoptera costata Korth. [Seed germination of
Anisoptera costata Korth.]. Buletin Penelitian Hutan 498: 11-21.
[1]

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8.
(CD-ROM).

[2] JICA, 2003: Use of indigenous tree species in reforestation in Vietnam.

[3] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names
of

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Commercial Woods, unpublished.

7

[4] Gardner,S.; Sidisunthorn, P.; Anusarnsunthorn, V., 2000: A Field Guide to Forest Trees
of Northern Thailand.

[5] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and
Vietnam: a field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.

[6] Keo Omaliss and Meng Monyrak: Threatened Species Listing in Cambodia: Status,
Issues and Prospects

[7] Stibig, H-J. and Beuchle, R., 2003: Forest Cover Map of Continental Southeast Asia at
1:4,000,000. TREES Publications Series D: Thematic outputs no. 4.

[8] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species.

[9] FAO:
http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/005/AC648E/ac648e04
.htm (Internet source)

[10] ARCBC BISS Species Database: http://arcbc.org/cgibin/abiss.exe/spd?SID=1869852&spd=5062&tx=PL (Internet source)

[11] Dipterocarpaceae in Thailand - Taxonomic and Biogeographical Analysis:
http://www.forest.go.th/Botany/main/Research/RP_thesis/taxonomy/Anisoptera.htm
(Internet source)

[12] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning
Institute.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[13] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

8

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Annona muricata L]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Annona muricata L]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Annona muricata L. [4]

³

soursop, custard apple, [4,9]

³

Annona bondplaniana Kunth ;
Annona cearaensis Barb. Rodr.;
Annona macrocarpa Werkl.;
Guanabanus muricata (L.) Gomez. [26]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

guayabano, soursop (Engl.) anone, cachiman épineux,
corossol, corosselier, (French); tiëp bânla, tiep barang
(Cambodia); sirsak, nangka belanda, nangka seberng
(Indonesia); khan thalot, khièp thét (Laos); durian belanda,
durian benggala, durina makkah (Malaysia); duyin awza
(Burma); guayabano, atti (Philippines); thurian thet, rian nam,
thurian khaek (Thailand); mang câu xiêm (Vietnam) [6,26].

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

eTob)araMg
ÉksarBieRKaH : [3]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

1

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

tiëp barang, tiëp bânla [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Magnoliales

RKYsar : Annonaceae [4]
ePT : Annona
RbePT : Annona muricata L. [4]
ÉksarBieRKaH: [4 ; 6]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaedImeQI mankMBs;
5-9
m
manEmkenACitKl;
[6]
.
edImeQIGacmankMBs;dl;eTA 7 m [9] . ragRsLÚn ébtgCanic© mankMBs; 5-10m manGgát;p©it 15
cm edImRtg; [26] .
[sMbk]: relag BN’RbepH rW etñatRbepH eRKIm nigeRbH sMbkxagkñg
ú BN’sIuCm<Ú nigKµanrs;Cati
EmktMerob tamkenSamsøwk begáItCaTMrg;ekan nigrIkFM kenSamsøwkcas;manrages<ó
EmktUcmanBN’etñat
rW
RbepH
ragRTEvg
manRbB½n§rWsrIklUtlas;xøagM
duHenAxageRkamGgát;p©itrbs;kenSamsøwk rWsmanlkçN³rak; . rukç CatieBlv½y manrWsEkv
EdleRkammkRtUv)an)at;bg; [26] .
[søwk]: qøas; TgxøI ragRTEvg minmaneFµj manRbEvg
7-20 cm nigTTwg 2-5 cm
RsYcenAcugTaMgsgçag BN’ébtgcas; nigPøWrelagenAEpñkxagelI nigBN’elOgébtgenAxageRkam
mankøinminl¥enAeBl jIeGay xÞic [6] . søwkmankøin BN’ébtg sMEb:t [9] . søwkqøas; manRbEvg
7.6-15.2 cm
nigTTwg 2.5-7.6 cm ragdUcEs,k mUl rW eGlIb maneramenAelI
nigKµaneramenAxageRkam samBaØ minmanxñaysøwk bnÞHsøwk rag RTEvg BN’ébtgenAxagelI
nigRsGab;enAxageRkam edaymanRbEvg 3-10 mm long mansrés mankøin xøaMg nigmanTgxøI [26]
.
[páa]: FM manBN’ébtgelOg mankøinxøaMg mancMnYnBI 1 rW 2 Cab;Kña TgpáaxøI maneram [6] .
páaragdUcpáaés,
duHenAelIedIm
nigEmk
manragCagRtIekan
Rtbkmansac;
EdlRCuHecjeRkayeBldMeNItlMGg . páaman køinminl¥ EtGacTak;TajstVl¥it nigruy
EdlCaGñkCYykñúgdMeNIrlMGg [9] . páaenAelIG½kS FM manTgFM BN’ébtg manRbEvg 1.3-1.9 cm
manRtbkcMnnY 3 tUc² Bi)aksegát FM BN’ébtg RbEvg 3mm ragRtI ekan

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

manRsTab;BN’elOgébtg manragdUcKUTxüg 2 kñúgcMeNam 3 RsTab;xageRkAFM ragmUl minKgKña
RsYcenAxagcug (ragdUcebHdUg) TMhM 4-5 x 3.4 cm, 3 mm Rkas; nigmansac;
zitenACitKñaenAcugBnøk eRKImenAxageRkA RsTab;xagkñúg 3 tUc manRbEvg 3.8 cm esþIgCag mUl
ragekancuH ragdUcRkckéd enAEpñKl; nig RtYtsIuKñaenAEpñkCay manekseRcIn ragdUcExl pþúMKña
manbMBg;eksRsb nigebIktambeNþay maneksjIeRcIn zitenAelIekseQµal EdlmanGUvul 1
kñúgmYyft s,Únpáa manBN’ s tUc manRbEvg 5 mm edayman stigmata s¥it [26] .
[Epø]: sVit manlkçN³dUcEs,k nigmanbnøaTn; ragekag . sac;manBN’s sMbUrTwk nigrwg RKab;man
BN’etñatcas; [6] . EpøCaRbePT syncarp EdlEpøRtUv)anRbmUlpþúMBIeksCaeRcIn
nigbnøanimYy²lUtlas; mkBITgeks Edlcas; . Epømansac;BN’s manrs;Cati nigkøinRkGUb
EdlmanpÞúkRKab;cMnYnmYykñúgmYy ft nigRKab;manBN’exµA PøWrelag . EpøFM mansMbkesþIg
manBN’ébtgRsal rW PøW manragdUcCgÁg; rW ebH dUg TMgn; 3 kg manRbEvg 35 cm [9] . EpømanTMhM
14-40 x 10-18 cm TMgn;dl;eTA 7 kg ragmUl rW dUcebHdUg manragRTEvg EdlekItBIeksCaeRcIn
manbnøaxøI ² EdlmanlkçN³Tn; EdlmanRbEvg 1.5 mm rW EvgCagenH EdllUtlas;BITgeks
minsIuemRTI edaysarkarbgárkMeNItmineBjelgrbs;GUvul . sMbkesþIg BN’ébtgcas; manbnøaxøI
mansac;BN’s manCatisrés nigmanTwk RKab;BN’exµA relag rag RTEvg RbEvg 2 cm nigTTwg 0.7
cm [26].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

3

:

eQIsmRsbsMrab;eRbICaGus . eQImanlkçN³Tn; BN’s CYnkarGaceRbIsMrab;karsagsg;pgEdr .
eQIRsaymanBN’s nigeQIxøwm manBN’etñat . eQImanlkçNTn; Rsal (TMnajEpndI 400kg/m³)
minFn; nigkMrRtUv)aneRbIR)as;sMrab;CaeQIsMNg; b:uEnþGaceRbIsMrab; eFIVnwgrbs;eKa rW RkbI [26] .

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

Tab)araMg CaRbePTeQImanRbPBkMeNItBItMbn;RtUBik Gaemrik EdlrYmTaMgPaKxaglic Indies
eTaHbICaRbPBedImCak;lak;minRtUv)andwgk_eday . vamanduHray)a:yenAtMbn;TMnabRtUBik [6] .
RtUv)andaMduH enAtMbn;RtUBik nigGnutMbn;RtUBikénGaemrik \NÐÚensIu ma:eLsIu hVIlIBIn éf GURsþalI

nigmankMritPUmisaRsþBI 23º N nig 25º S [12] . Tab)araMg GacduHlUtlas;enAtMbn;RtUBik
nigGnutMbn;RtUBikesIm . vamanduHenAtameqñrsmuRT nigTICMralpgEdr . vaRtUv)andaMduHsMrab;ykEpø
ehIyGacduHenAkñúgéRBedayFmµCati enAtamKem<aéRBRkas; valesµA nigtamdgpøvÚ [26] .

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

Tab)araMgmanduHenAtMbn;GakasFatuRtUBki Edlmanry³kMBs;TabCag 1000 m a.s.l.
edaymankMrti TwkePøóg RbcaMqaMTabbMput 1000 mm/m² eTaHbI vaGacFn;nwgkarraMgs¶tÜ rhUtdl;
ry³eBl 6 Exk_eday [6] . Tab)arMag duHlUtlas;enArvagry³kMBs; 0-1000 m kMritTwkePøógRbcaMqñaM
1000 eTA 2500 mm/m² kMritsItuNðPaBmFümRbcaMqñaMBI 18ºC-25ºC sItuNðPaBTabbMput >5ºC
[12] . RbePT enH RtUv)andaMduH enAkñúgsYnkñúgpÞH nigtamc,ardMNaMenACnbT enAelIdIekaHPñMePøIg nig
RbePTdI limestone EdlvaduHlUtlas;CaFmµCati . edImeQIminmanduHenAelIekaHpáafµeT .
BYkvaGacFn;nwgsenSImtictYc b:ueNÑaH . Tab)araMg manduHenA PaKxaglic Indies elIkElgEtenA
Bahamas nigBI Mexico eTA Brazil [26].

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minRtUv)ankMNt; .
:

Tab)arMagminFn; nwgkarCaMTwk b:uEnþRtUvkarkEnøgmindk;Twk nigminmanCatiGasIuteRcIneBk (6) Fn;dI)as
EdlmanvaynPaBRsal [9,12] .

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: GacRtUv)aneRbICaeQIfamBl [17] .
[Gnupl]:Tab)arMag CaeQIhUbEpø EdlGacbriePaK)anTaMgenARss; rW eFIVCaTwkePsC¢³ dMNab; rW
ecAhYy . RbePTenH CaRbePTmYykñúgcMenamBBYk Annona EdlGaceFIVkarEkécñedIm,IrkSaTuk)anyUr
. vamankMritvItamIn B nig C x<s; nigmansarsMxan;sMrab;RbeTsGasIuGaeKñy_ EdleRbIEpøminTan;TMu
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

4

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

5

layCamYy xÞiHdUg ( coconut milk) . Tab)araMg RtUv)aneRbICabEg¥mRss; enAeBlTMu rW
layCamYykaer:m rW TwkedaHeKa eGaymanrs;Catiq¶aj; dUcCaenAekaHcava:CaedIm nigenAKuy)a
RBmTaMgtMbn;xøH
enAGaemrik
.
eTaHbI
sac;RtUv)aneRcaHsMrab;ykTwk
ehIyvak_GacykmkeFIVCaecAhYy nigesr:U (syrup) pgEdr . enA \NÐÚensIu nMEp¥m (‘dodol sisrak’)
RtUv)aneFVIeLIgedayes¶arsac;Tab)araMg nigbEnßmCamYysár rhUtdl;rwg . enAhVIlIBI Epøx©I CamYyRKab;
EdlenATn;RtUv)aneRbICabEnø . Epøcas; GaceRbIsMrab;eFIVsárRKab; Edlmankøin nigrs;Catiq¶aj; .
Tab)araMg manpÞúknUvsac;cMnYn 67.5% EdlGacbriePaK)an sMbk 20% RKab; 8.5% nigbNþÚl 4%
KitCaTMgn; . sármankMrit 68% énsarFaturwg . EpøCaRbPBénvItamIn B (0.07 mg/100g) nig C (20
mg/100 g) nigmantic rW eRcInnUvkal;süÚm nigpUsVr . sar³sMxan;rbs;Epø KWmanrs; CatiEp¥m
nigkøinRkGUb [26] . enAkñúgkareRbIR)as;Ca»sfburaNmandUcCa : søwkEdlbukkMTic RtUv)anlab
eTAelIbUs nigeRbIsMrab;kat;bnßykarehIm nig karBi)akrMlayGahar Rkmr nigCMgWEs,k eraKsnøak; k¥k
nigpþassay . søwkGaceRbIsMrab; es¶arrMgas; TTYlTan CamYyGMbil sMrab;kat;bnßykarQWcab;RbB½n§
rMlayGahar nigkarGs;klM aMg . søwk nigRKab;RtUv)anes¶ar sMrab;briePaK Büa)alCMgWeBaHevon .
kareRbI søwksMrab;ma:sSa manRbeyaCn_sMrab;karP½yxøac søwk nigsMbkEdles¶ar
GaceRbIsMrab;kat;bnßykar P½yxøac . páa nigBnøkpáaEt RtUvlayKñaCamYyTwkXµúMBüa)alpþasay
QWRTUg nigCMgsrésrR)asaT nigsMbk RBmTaMgEpøx©ImanpÞúksarFatutanIn EdleRbIsMrab;CMgWraK
nigraKmYl . sMbkmanBN’ébtg RtUv)aneRbIsMrabbBaÄb;karhUrQam [26] .
Tab)araMg CaRbePT EdlsmRsbsMrab;dMNaMqøas; CamYysVay rW eb‘Í (avocado) .
enAeBlvamankenSam søwkCit TabRtUv)ankat;ecj . Tinñplrbs;Epø CamFümTab
EdlmanEpøBIminelIsBI 12 - 24 kñúgmYyedIm eTaHbI cMkar EdlmanGac 35 qñaM enA Hawaii bgðajfa
cMnYnEpøCamFümkñúgmYyedIm eRcInCagenH KW 33, 34, nig 70 Epø/edIm enAqñaM TI 4,5,nig 6 CabnþbnÞab;
[12] .
søwk nigrWsRtUv)aneRbICa»sfbUraN [6] . søwkGaceRbICafñaMeFIVeGayedk [9]. sac;Epø
nigsøwkRtUv)aneRbI sMrab;Büa)al raK RKun nigkgVHvItamIn [9] .
Epøx©I søwk nigRKab;mansarFatusMlab;stVl¥it RKab;RtUv)ancat;faGaceFIVeGaymnusSBul [9] .
Annonaceae CaGMbUr EdlmancMnYneRcIn nigCaRbePTeQIhUbEpø EdlmanedImtUc² . RbePTénePT
Rollinia mansar³sMxan;EtenAtamtMbn;b:ueNÑaH b:uEnþePT Annona, A. muricata L., soursop, nig A.

RtUv)andaMduHya:geRcInenA GaemrikkNþal nigxaglic Indies . mkdl;sBVéf¶
manEtRbePT 2 Edlmansar³sMxan;sMrab;BaNiC¢kmµ KW A. cherimola Mill., cherimoya, nig A.
squamosa L., the custard apple, nigkarbgáat;KñarvagRbePTBIrenH RtUv)anehAfa atemoyas .
Cherimoya manRbPBBI x<g;rabeBrU nigeGkVaD½r niglUtlas;enAtMbn;x<g;rabRtUBik nigGnutMbn;RtUBik .
Cherimoya RtUv)anlk;enAGWru:b EdlPaKeRcInykmkBI RbeTseGs,aj nigGIuRsaEGl [19].
reticulata L.,

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
[18]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

RKab;GacRtUv)ansab edaypÞal;enATIval rW enAkñúgfñal . enAkñúgry³eBl 20-30 éf¶ 85-90%
énRKab; GacduHeLIg nigkUneQIGacRtUv)andaM enAbnÞab;BIry³eBl 6-8 Ex . cenøaH enAkñúgkardaM manBI
3 x 4 m eTA 4 x 6 m [26] . cMkarBaNiC¢kmµ enAeRbsIul RtUvTTYlbraC½y .
vaminmanehtuplc,as;las;fa mkBImUlehtu énTinñplTab rW karBi)akkñgú karrkSaTukenaHeT .
r)aykarN_rbs;BYkeK epþateTAelI dMeNIr lMGgminRKb;RKan; nigTinñplTab . minEtb:ueNÑaH
GtifiCn)ant¥ÚnEt¥GMBI EpømanRKab;eRcIneBk . karsikSa eTATinñpl x<s;
nigcMnYnRKab;eRcInKYrEtRtUv)aneFIVeLIg [12] . kardaMduHCacMkarGaceFVIeLIgtamry³ kardaM
edayRKab;pÞal; b:uEnþebIl¥KYrdaMBIkUneQI [12] . kEnøg EdlenACMuvijKl; KYrEtkMueGaymanesµA rW
RtUv)an RKb edIm,IrkSasMeNImenArdUvR)aM . Annona muricata GacFn;nwgdI s¶Üt b:uEnþ
edImeQIGacCMruHsøwkCaeRcIn edIm,IFn;)an nigvaRtUvkarTwkbEnßmpgEdr . GaceRbICI
niglamkstVedIm,IbegáInTinñplEpø . vamansar³ sMxan;enAdMNak;kallUtlas; dMbUg
edaybegáInnUvkMritlUtlas; . edImeQImanTMrg;l¥ b:uEnþkñúgkrNIxøH va mansar³sMxan;kñúgkarrkSaTuk
EttYedImEtmYyKt; edaykat;ecjnUvedIm nigEmkepSg²eTot kMueGayman karRbKYtRbECg [26].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

minmancMNat;fñak; .

:

6

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

páaCaRbePT protandrous nigmanlMGgFøak;cuH enAeBlRsTab;páaebIk enAeBll¶ac . RsTab;xagkñúg
ebIk enAeBleRkay nigtic edIm,IeGaystVl¥itcUl tamry³karTak;Tajedaykøinrbs;va .
RbePTxñÚtCaeRcIn mansar³sMxan;Nas;kñúgdMeNIrlMGg edayFmµCati . stVTaMgGs;enH
k_GacCYyeGaymandMeNIrlMGgkat; pgEdr enAeBldMeNIrlMGgminRKb;RKan;eFIVeGaypáamYycMnYnmin
Gacvivtþn_eTACaEpø)aneT . kareFIVdMeNIr lMGgedayéd k_GacbegáInKuNPaB nigbrimaNEpøpgEdr .
Epøcab;ecj enAqñaMTIBIr nig edImmanGayu
5
qñaM Gacpþl;EpøBI 10-50
GaRs½yeTAelIRbsiT§PaBéndMeNIrlMGg nigsarFatuciBa©wm . páa nigEpøGacecjeBj mYyqñaM
Rbsinlkçx½NÐl¥ [26] . karrkSaTukRKab;CaRbePT orthodox nigRKab; Fn;nwgkarsMgYtdl;eTA 5% .
karrkSaTukry³eBlyUr GaceFIVeTA)anenAeRkamlkçx½NÐ smRsb [26] . edImeQIGaceFVIkarbgáat;
edaykøÚn karb:HBnøk nigkarkat;pSaMu EdkRtUv)anGnuvtþenAtMbn;xøHénGaemrik . manEtedImeQI Edlman
plitPaBx<s;eT RtUv)anykmkbgáat; ehIyRtUv)anykeTAdaMenAcenøaH 5 m . eTaHbI Tab)arMag
RtUv)andaM edayRKab;PaKeRcInk_eday . kUneQIGacTTYlyk)an edaycMnYnRKab;énRbePT
Edlmanrs;Cati Ep¥m manlkçN³minxus²Kñab:unµaneT edaysarenAdMNak;kaleBjv½y
KWmanRtwmEtry³eBlBI 2-4 qñaM . RKab; GacRtUv)andaMedaypÞal; enATIval rW kñúgfñal [26] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

7

:

Tab)araMg gayrgeRKaHedaysarBBYkstVl¥itecaHrun§ EdlecaHcUleTAkñúgRKab; rbs;Epø .
RbePTstVepSg eTot mandUcCa RbePTstVmanRska nig»ma:l; [9] . dgáÚv (Diacotrichia, Pingasa
nig Pseudoterpna) eFIVkarvaRbhar eTAelIpáa nigsøwkx©I² [26] . stVl¥it rYmman Bephata
maculicollis, Ceconata annonella, Talponia backeri, Thecla ortygnus, BBYkstVmanRska
nigruyEpø Mediterranean . BBYkecaHedIm Cratasomus spp k_eFIVkarbMpøajxøaMgpgEdr
nigmanRbePTepSgeTotdUcCa GMbUr Coleoptera, Diptera nig Lepidoptera . Mousebirds
eFIVkarvay RbhareTAelIedIm . enAtMbn; Caribbean Tab)ayrgnUvkarbMpøajBIBBYkpSit
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides enA Manaus RbeTseRbsIul .

F> karGPirkS

:

minRtUv)ancat;bBa©ÚlCaRbePTrgeRKaHfañk;eT

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

RtUv)andaMduHenAkñúgsYnCitpÞH nigCacMkartUc² .

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
tMbn;RtUBikGaemrikkNþal nigPaKxaglic\NÐa CakEnøgkMeNIt nigRtUv)annaMcUlGasIuGaeKñy_pgEdr
[26]

p> epSg²

:

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Verheij E.W.M. & Coronel, R.E. (Eds.) 1991: Plant Resources of Southeast Asia. No.2,
Edible fruits and nuts. Pudoc, Wageningen, 446 pp.
Trinh Thuong Mai, 1995: Fruit trees in Vietnam. Chronica Horticultura 35(3): 8-9; 3 pl.
Granadino CA, Cave RD 1994: Inventory of arthropods and pathogenic fungi Annona in 4
localities of Honduras. Turrialba 44(3): 129-139; 5 ref.
Chan, YK 1992: Breeding and varietal improvement of tropical fruits at MARDI. Acta
Horticulturae No. 321:138-151; 12 ref.
Williams, L.O. 1981: The Useful Plants of Central America. Ceiba 24(1-4):1-381.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

RKab;manpÞúknUvsarFatuBul dl;mnusS nigeFIVeGayrlakEPñk [9] . emSArbs;søwk Edls¶Üt nigC½rRss;
GaceRbIsMrab;sMlab;dgáÚv rWstVl¥it . emSA rW eRbg Edl)anBIRKab; RtUv)aneRbIsrM ab;sMlab;xñÚt nigéc .
RKab;EpñkTaMgGs;rbs;edIm mansarFatusMlab;stVl¥it nigGaceRbI EpøCanuy edIm,IsMlab;RtIpgEdr
[26].

8

Fouque,A.

1976:

Espèces

Fruitières

d´Amérique

Tropicale.

Institut

Franais

de

Recherches Fruitières Outre-Mer, Paris.
Carbajal D, Casaco A, Arruzazabala L, González R, Fuentes V, 1991. Pharmacological
screening of plant decoctions commonly used in Cuban folk medicine. Journal of
Ethnopharmacology, 33(1-2):21-24; 7 ref.

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

4)
Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House;
Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

6)
Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. Orchid Press,
Bangkok, 234 pp.

9)
Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide
Encyclopaedic Guide. Thames & Hudson Ltd., London, 484 pp.

13)
Baertels, A., 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen
(Colour Atlas Tropical Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ.
Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

19)
Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and
Subtropics. Josef Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552
pp.

9

26)
World Agroforestry Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp
?
(Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Annona squamosa L]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Annona squamosa L]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Annona squamosa L. [4]

³

sweetsop, custard apple, sugar apple [4,6,9]

³

Annona biflora Moç & Sessé,
Annona cinerea Dunhal.,
Annona forskahlii DC. [26].

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

pomme cannelle, achiman cannelle, attier (French);
chirimoya, anona (Spanish); tiep baay, tiep srok (Cambodia);
sirkaja, sarikaja, atis (Indonesia); khieb (Laos); non sari kaya,
buah nona, sri kaya (Malaysia); awza (Burma); atis
(Philippines); noina, mak khiap, lanang (Thailand); na mang
câu ta, na (Vietnam) [4,6,9,26].

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

Tab)ay TabRsuk
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

1

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

tiëp ba:y, tiëp srôk [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Magnoliales
RKYsar : Annonaceae
ePT : Annona

RbePT : Annona squamosa L.
ÉksarBieRKaH: [4 ; 11]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: edImeQImanTMhMtUc mankMBs; 3-6 m [6] edImeQICMruHsøwk manTMhMtUc manEmkRkas;
nigKµaneramenAeBltUc [12] . edImeQItUcBak;kNþalCMruHsøwk EdlmankMBs; 3-7 m
mankenSamsøkw FM nigEmkmineTogTat; [26] .
[sMbk]: sMbkmanBN’etñatRsal nigsñam EdlGacemIleXIj manlkçN³relag nigeRbHtic² CadMu²
sMbkxagkñúgmanBN’elOgRsal
nigmanlkçN³lVIg
.
EmkmanBN’etñat
edaymansñamGuC²BN’etñat RsalenAelIEmk [26] .
[søwk]: ragRTEvg eTAeGlIbsþÜt EdlmanRbEvg 7-17 cm nigTTwg 3.5-5.0 cm maneramtic² rW
relag enAEpñkxageRkam [6] . søwkqøas; manragRTEvg rW eGlIb esþIg ragekagcuHeRkam
manBN’ébtgcas;enA EpñxagelI manRbEvg 8-15 cm nigTTwg 2-5 cm . maneramenAeBlenAtUc
nigmankøinEbøk enAeBljIeGayxÞic . TgsøwkmanRbEvg 1.0-1.5 cm [12] . søwk CasøwkeTA manTMhM
6-17 x 3-6 cm, manragRTEvg manBN’ébtgRsal enAelIépÞTaMgsgçag nigKµaneram
CaysøwkminmaneFµj maneramenA eBltUc nigmansñamGuC²tUc² enAeBlemIledayEkvBRBIk
manBN’ébtgRsGab;eTA ébtgcas;enAépÞ xagelI nigexovébtgRsal enAEpñkxageRkam mankMBUlxøI
rW Evg RsYc Kl;søwkxøIRsYc rW mUl EdlmanTg RbEvg 0.6-1.3 cm BN’ébtg nigmaneramtic² [26] .
[Epø): EpøCacegáam Edlman 2-4 rW EpømYy² enAelITgEdlmanragRTEvg EdlzitenAelIEmk Edlx©I .
Rtbk xageRkA 3 ragRTEvg manRbEvg 2.5 cm manBN’ébtg edaymanKl;BN’sIuCm<Ú
EdlRtbkTaMgbI RtUvRCuH rW minman [6] . páatUc maneramtic² zitenAelIG½kS énBnøk EdlenAx©I rW søwk
EdlQmKña . manTgRbEvgBI 1.5-2.5 cm maneram ehIyRtbkTaMgbI xøI GacRCuH manlkçN³Rkas;
nigmaneram RbEvg 0.2-0.3 cm . RsTab;páamancMnYn 6 manlkçN³Ca biseriate RsTab; 3
xageRkAmanragRTEvg Rkas; mansac; manragCaRtIekankat;Kña maneram BN’elOgébtg enAxageRkA
nigelOgRsalenAxagkñgú EdlmanRbEvg 2.0-2.5 cm nigTTwg 0.5-1.0 cm . RsTab;TaMgbI qøas;Kña
nigEpñk EdlenAxageRkAman TMhMtUc ragmUl nigmanRbEvg 0.5-1.0 cm . ekseQµal maneRcIn

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

3

BN’elOgRsal zitenACaCYr minmaneram duHeLIgecjBITMr EdlmanRbEvg 0.12-0.15 cm
nigmanragkYc dUcKUTxüg enACMuvij gynoecium . eksjImaneRcIn BN’sVaycas; maneram
zitenAelIekseQµal . Stigmas zitenACabNþMú nigRCuHenAeBleRkay . ekseQµal
nigjIbegáIt)anCaTMrg;ragekan enAkNþalpáa [12] . páamanBN’elOg ébtg mankøinRkGUb ragRTEvg
Tgpáamaneram duHelIgxøI manRbEvg 2.5 cm nigmanpáa 2-4 b:Eu nþminmansøwkenAKl;eT RtbkRsYc
maneram BN’ébtg RbEvgRbEhl 1.6 cm RsTab;TaMg 3 manragRTEvg mankMras;Rkas;
nigmancugragmUl mansac; manRbEvg 1.6-2.5 cm manTwg 0.6 cm manBN’elOgébtg
maneramtic² nigBN’elOgRsalenAEpñkxagkñúg mansñamGuC²BN’Rkhm rW sIuCMBUr enAKl;
EdlmanlkçN³rIkFM RsTab;mancMnYn 3 tUc² manragmUl RsYc manekseRcIn manBN’s
manRbEvgxøICag 16 mm GUvarI manBN’ébtgRsal TgeksmanBN’s duHenAelIG½kS [26] .
[Epø]: CaRbePTEpø
syncarp EdlmanGUvarIeRcIn . vamanragmineTotTat; rW ragdUcebHdUc
EdlmanGgátp; ©it BI 5-20 cm . EpøTMumanBN’elOgébtg rW sVay . sac;manBN’s Tn; sMbUrTwk
manrs;Cati . manRKab;eRcIn ragmUl rW eGlIb BN’etñat rWexµAcas; PWørelag manRbEvg 1.0-1.5 cm
nig TTwg 0.5-0.8 cm rMuB½T§ edaysac; EdlGacbriePaK)an [12] .
EpøragmUl manGgát;p©it 5-10 cm manBN’elOgébtg edaymanépÞdUcemSA [6] . EpøragmUl
ragdUcs‘ut Tn; nigsMbkBN’ébtgcas; ERbCaBN’exµAPøamenAeBlcut rW Rc)ac;elIva .
EpømanBN’Bgman; rW elOg man køin nigrs;CatiEp¥m [13] . EpømanEpñk Edlvivtþn_BIeksjIeRcIn
manlkçN³Tn; nigGacEckdac;BIRbePT epSgeTot . s,Únpáa (pistil) zitenAdac;²BIKña manRbEvg
1.3-1.9 cm nigTTwg 0.6-1.3 cm [26] . EpømUl manragdUcebHdUg ragdUcekan manGgát;p©it 5-10
cm edaymanftCaeRcIn BN’elOgébtg enAeBlTMu edaymanCaemSABN’senAelIenaH . sac;BN’s
GacbriePaK)an nigmanrs;CatiEp¥m nigmankøin RkGUb enAkñúgeksnimYy² manRKab;enAkñúgenaH
ragRTEvg PøWrelag BN’exµA rW etñatcas; manRbEvg 1.3-1,6 cm nigmancMnYneRcIn [26] .
kUneQI EdlRtUv)anbgáat; CamYy A. cherimola RtUv)anehAfa atemoya rW custard apple [6](
eQµaH custard apple manlkçN³pÞúy rW RbTajRbTg;KñanwgeQµaH EdlRtUv)aneRbIsMedAeTAelI A.
squamosa)

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

eQIRsaymanBN’elOg nigeQIxøwmmanBN’etñat ehIymanlkçN³Tn; Rsal nigminrwgmaMu

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

[12,26]

.

:

manRbPBkMeNItBItMbn;RtUBikénGaemrik nigPaKxaglicekaH Indian rhUtdl;\NÐa nigtMbn;GasIu
GaeKñy_ mkdl;sBVéf¶ ray)a:yTUTaMgBiPBelak enAtMbn;TMnabRtUBik CaBiessGasIu nigxagt,Úg
)a:sIuPik . lkçN³PUmisaRsþ KWenAkMrit 16ºN -18º S . TabmanRbPBkMeNItBItMbn;RtUBikGaemrik
nigPaKxaglic Indies b:Eu nþRbPBkMeNItdMbUgbMputenaHKWminRtUv)andwgCak;lak;eT [26] .
:

duHlUtlas;enAkñúgGakasFatuRtUBik Edlmanry³kMBs;eRkam 1,000 m
a.s.l.
mankMritTwkePøógTabbMput 1,000 mm/m² [6] . manlkçx½NÐdcU xageRkam : ry³kMBs; 0-1200 m
a.s.l. kMrittu)atRbcaMqñaM 750-4500 mm/m² manrdUcR)aMg2-5 Ex mansItuNðPaBRbcaMqñaMmFüm 2932ºC sItN
u ðPaBTabbMput >18ºC [12] . dUcedImeQItUc²epSgeTot EdlvaRtUvkarmøb;
b:uEnþGacTamTaBnøW enAeBlFM . edImeQIduHlUtlas; )anl¥enAtMbn;ekþA nigmanGakasFatus¶Üt
dUcCatMbn;TMnabenARbeTstMbn;RtUBki . TabmaneQµaHl,I CaBiess enA\NÐa edaysarvaFn;
nigCadMnaMFn;nwgPaBraMgs¶tÜ
. vaRKab;EtCakarRtwmRtUvmYyEpñkb:ueNÑaH . eTaHbI
søwkrbs;vaRCuHenArdUvR)aMg vaRtUvkarsMeNIm enAkMLúgeBlrdUvduHlUtlas; EdlTamTareGayman
kareRsacTwk . sar³sMxan;rbs;sMeNIm RtUv)anbgðaj enA\NÐa nigGasIuGaeKñy_ EpøGacGaRs½yeTA
nwgkMritrbs;ePøóg nigminGacBnüaeBlénrdUvecjpáaeT [26].

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
minRtUv)ankMNt; .

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

4

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

TabCaRbePT EdlduHenAkñúgtMbn;raMgs¶Üt nigFn;nwgkarraMgs¶Ütry³eBlyUr b:uEnþmincUlcitkþ Enøg CaMTwg
nigRtUvkarkEnøgEdleRCobTwk)anl¥ [6] b:uEnþminmanCatiGasIutxøaMgeBk [9] . vaCaRbePT
minsUverIsRbePT dIb:unµaneT . smasPaBdI KWmindk;Twk manlayxSac; nigl,ay\dæ .
RbePTenHpþl;pl l¥enAelIdI l,ayxSac; rW dImanCatiGasIut Edlman pH 5.5-6.5 [19,26] .
RbB½n§rak; minTamTadI EdlmanCMerAeRCA . enA\NÐa TabCaRbePT Edllb;enAtMbn;x<g;rab
EdlmandIRKYs nigdIminsUvmanCICati [12].

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

eQI]: edImeQI Edlgab; rW EmkEdl)ak; GacRtUv)aneRbIR)as;CaeQIfamBl [17,20] .
eQIRsayman BN’elOg nigeQIxmøw manBN’etñat nigmanlkçN³Tn; Rsal nigminrwgmaMu b:uEnþ
enHCamUlehtu EdlvakMrRtUv)aneRbIR)as; edayvakMrmanmuxkat;FMsmRsb [26].
[Gnupl]:
TabmanduHenATUTaMgtMbn;RtUBik nigCabEg¥melxmYy . EpøFMGacmansac;eRcIn
EdlGacbriePaK )an manEtEpñktUcb:eu NÑaH EdleRbIR)as;sMrab;plitTwkdm [6] . TabCaRbePT
EdlRtUveFIVBaNiC¢kmµ eRcInCageK ebIeRbobeTAnwgRbePT
Annona
epSgeTot .
vaRtUv)andaMdHu sMrab;eFIVBaNiC¢kmµ enARbeTséf ma:eLsIu nighVlI IBIn b:uEnþk_manenAcin rW \NÐapgEdr
EdlCaTIpSard_FM . enA\NÐa EpøPaKeRcInRtUv)anRbmUl BIéRB [19] . sac;GacbriePaK)an
nigeRbIsMrab;bEnßmrs;Catidl;kaer:mpgEdr . manEpñkBI 50-80% rbs; EpøGacbriePaK)an .
vamanpÞúksarFatu dUcCavItamIn C (35-42 mg/100 g) EdlmanbrimaN eRcInCagTMBaMg)ayCUr .
mansarFatuciBa©wm EdlmandUcCa thiamine, potassium nigsarFatusrésr [26] .
kareRbIR)as;CafñaMbUraN edayyksMbklayCamYyRsas sMrab;Büa)alCMgWraK søwk EdlvayeGayxÞic
layCamYyTwk GacBüa)alCMgWRKuncaj; (20 snøwk sMrab;mnusSeBjv½ymñak; nig 10
snøwksMrab;knU ekµgmañk;) [4] . søwk Bnøk sMbk nigrWs KWmanpÞkú nUvsarFatufñaM . Epø EdlminTan;TMu
CafñaMTb; karraK nigeFIVeGaymankarrYj rW sVit nigrWsGaceRbICafñaMbBa©úHpgEdr [12,20] . Epøx©I RKab;
nigsøwkGac eRbICafñaMsMlab;dgáÚv nigstVl¥it [20] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

:

TabRsukRtUv)andaMduH CaedImeQIplþ ;møb; rW eQIlGM r EdlmankarTak;TajsMrab;sYnc,arpgEdr .
edImeQI duHlUtlas; enAcenøaHedImsVay eck nigkaehV [26].

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak; .

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

karrkSaTukRKab;CaRbePT orthodox . RbsinebIrkSaTaMgenAs¶Üt RKab;GacrkSadMNuHrbs;va)aneRcInqñaM
. minmankar)at;bg;dMNuHenAkñúgry³eBl 6 ExeT RbsinRtUv)anrkSaenAkMrit -20ºC nigsMeNIm 1.5%
m.c. b:uEnþGac)at;bg;GRtadMNuHRbsinrkSaTukenAkñúgbnÞb;sItuNðPaB [26] .
TabGacRtUv)andaMedayRKab;pÞal; . RKab;EdleTIbRbmUl)anRss;BIedImem RtUv)anlaysMGateday
Twk nigsMgYt nigsabeTAkñúgRbGb; rW fñal EdlmanCMerA 1 cm nigcenøaH 2-3 cm BIKña
edaydIRtUv)anlayCamYyCIkMb:usþ× xSac; nigdIkñúgsYn . GaRtadMNuHGacmandl; 90-95% bnÞab;
BIry³eBl 20 éf¶ . enAeBlEdlsøwkmanBI 4-6 KUr vaGacRtUv)anykeTAdaM ehIysøwkRtUv )ankat;

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

enAGURsþalI nigtMbn;epSgeTot TabRtUv)ankat; eTAbgáat;nwg A. glabra edIm,IeCosevogkarvayRbhar
rbs;stVl¥it . eTaHbI A. glabra CaRbePTnaMcUrl rW runran enAPaKxageCIgeQogxagekIt
Queensland
[9]
. edImeQIRtUv)andaMcMgay 5-6 m rW 10-12 m BIKña
enAeBlvaRtUv)andaMduHCamYyedImsVay . edImeQI EdlduHlUtlas;enHRtUvEt)ankarBarBIkarCan; rW
sIuBIBBYkstV . RbsinvaRtUv)anEfrkSa)anl¥ vaGacpþl; Epø bnÞab;BIry³eBl 2 qñaM . kareRsacTwk
nigkMcat;esµACaeTogTat;RtUv)aneFVIeLIg sMrab;plitkmµEpø . dIRtUv)andak;CI edIm,ITTYl)anpll¥ .
CImanpÞúknUv GasUt 3% GasIupUsVrIc 10% nigb:UtasüÚm 10% . edImeQIcas;mankMBs; 5 m
edImpþl;nUvEpø CaeRcInLÚ (12) kñúgmYyrdUv . karRKb;RKgedaylkçN³CIvsaRsþ nigKImI EdlrYmman
malathion nig dimethoate acephate RtUv)aneRbI sMrab;karBarstVl¥it . edImRtUv)an)aj;eday
bordeaux, fermate, phygon, nig zerlate edIm,ITb;sáat;CMgW anthracnose [26].

6

ecj Bak;kNþal edIm,Ikat;bnßykarrMhYtCatiTwk nigcugrbs;rWsEkv RtUv)ankat; edIm,IeGayvaduHrWsfµI .
karbnþBUCedaykar kat;mni TTYl)aneCaKC½yeT [12].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

7

:

RbePTstVl¥itecaHRKab; EdlCabBaðacMbgsMrab;Tab nigBBYkstVl¥itepSgeTot . dgáÚvrbs;BBYk
Anonaepestis bengalella GacecaHcUleTAkñúgeQI nigBBYkbMpøajrWsdUcCa Ferrisia virgata, nig
Planococcus
lilacinus
vak_GacmanpÞúknUvsarFatusMlab;stVl¥itpgEdr . CagenHeTAeTot
RbePTpSitBIr EdleFIVkarbMpøajpáa nigsøwk b:uEnþBYkvaGacRtUv)ankMcat;edaydus rW bMpøajEmkEdlrgCMgW
[12].
RbePT A. squamosa CaxñÚt (Planococcus spp.) ruyEpø (Dacus spp.), stVl¥iteFIVmansñamGuC²
(Amblypelta
spp.)
nig eFIVeGayrbkedIm (Parasaissetia spp.) .
RbePTstVTaMgGs;enHGaceFIVkarRKb; RKg edayeRbIkmµviFI IPM ( Integrated Pest Management) .
enAhVIlIBIn ruyecaHEpø (Annonaepestis bengalella) KWCaRbePT EdleFIVkarbMpøajya:gF¶n;F¶rbMput
nigRbePT»ma:l; eurytomid EdldgáÚvrbs;va eFIVkarecaHEpø . stVl¥it rYmman Bephata maculicollis,
Ceconata annonella, Talponia backeri, Thecla ortygnus, stVl¥iteFVIeGay rbk nigruyEpø
Mediterranean
. BBYkecaHedIm Cratasomus spp k_eFIVkarbMpøajxøaMgpgEdr
nigmanRbePTepSgeTotdUcCa GMbUr Coleoptera, Diptera nig Lepidoptera . Mousebirds
eFIVkarvay RbhareTAelIedIm . enAtMbn; Caribbean Tab)ayrgnUvkarbMpøajBIBBYkpSit
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides enA Manaus RbeTseRbsIul .
edImeQIgayrgeRKaH edaysar Colletotrichum gloeosporioides nigRtUv)anvayRbhareday
Aleurocanthus woglumi . CMgWrlYyrWs edaysarBBYk)ak;etrI (Pseudomonas solanacearum)
. eraKsBaØa mandUcCarlYykrrWs exµArWs nigCalikaeQI edImeQIcab;epþImcuHexSay niggab; .
kareRbIR)as; fñaMKImIKWmni GaceFIVeTA)aneT . rWsrbs;va KWgayrgeRKaHNas; . CMgWEpø
EdlsMxan;mandUcCa dMe)AmanBN’ exµA (Phomopsis spp.), CMgWrlYy diplodia (Botryodiplodia
spp.)
nigsñamCaMBN’saV y (Phyphthora spp.) . CMgWTaMgenH GacekIneLIgx<s;
enAeRkamsßanPaBesIm rW mansMenIm . BYkvaTaMgGs;GacRtUv)an kMcat;edayeRbIkar)aj;fñaM
mancozeb rW copper oxychloride [26].

F> karGPirkS

:

minRtUv)ancat;bBa©ÚlCaRbePTrgeRKaHfañk;eT .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

RtUv)andaMduHenAkñúgsYnCitpÞH nigenAtamcMkartUc² .

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
GaemrikkNþal

West Indies

ma:eLsIu \NÐÚensIu hVIlIBIn nigéf

p> epSg²

miucsiukU EdlCaRbPBkMeNIt nigRtUv)annaMcUl GURsþalI cin \NÐa
[26]

.

:

dUcxñúrsmø Edr Tab)araMg nigTab)ay KWmanlkçN³Bi)akkñúgkarrkSaTuk nigdwkCBa¢Ún edayEtTMgn;
nigPaBTn;rbs;sMbkva . EpøTMuKWgayrgkarxUcxat nigqab;xUcKuNPaB .

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

US Peace Corps, Manila, Philippines.
Purseglove, J.W. 1974: Tropical Crops-Dicotyledons. Longman, Essex, England
Verheij E.W.M. & Coronel, R.E. (Eds.) 1991: Plant Resources of Southeast Asia. No.2,
Edible fruits and nuts. Pudoc, Wageningen, 446 pp.
Joughin, J.1986: The Market for Processed Tropical Fruit. G 196. Trop. Devel. Res. Inst.
London
Joy, C. 1987: Selected European Markets for Specialty and Tropical Fruit and
Vegetables.G 201, Trop.Devel. Res. Inst., London

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Hensleigh, T.E. and Holaway, B.K. (Eds.) 1988: Agroforestry Species for the Philippines.

8

Broughton, W.J. and Tan, G. 1979: Storage conditions and ripening of the custard apple
Annona squamosa L.. Sciencia Hortic. 10:73-82.
Hocking,D. 1993: Trees for Drylands. Trees for drylands. xiii+370 pp. Oxford and IHB
Publishing, New Delhi
Filipino Farm 1954: How to plant santol, atis, soursop and tamarind. Filip. Farm 1(7):17
Verkataratanam L, Satyanaranaswamy G, 1956. Studies on genetic variability in Annona
squamosa. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 15:228-238.
Little EL, Wadsworth FH. 1964. Common trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
Agricultural Handbook. No. 249. US Department of Agriculture. Washington DC.
Mbuya LP et al. 1994. Useful trees and shrubs for Tanzania: Identification, Propagation
and Management for Agricultural and Pastoral Communities. Regional Soil Conservation
Unit (RSCU), Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).
Popenoe W. 1974. Manual of the tropical and subtropical fruits. The Macmillann
Company.
Smith JHN et. al. 1992. Tropical forests and their crops. Cornell University Press.
Viñas RC, 1972. Atis (Annona squamosa L. Annonaceae). In: Cultural directions for
Philippine Agricultural Crops. Vol. 1 (Fruits). Manila, Philippines: Public Affairs Office
Press, Bur. Plant Indus, 31-36.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

9

:

4)
Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House;
Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

6)
Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. Orchid Press,
Bangkok, 234 pp.

9)
Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide
Encyclopaedic Guide. Thames & Hudson Ltd., London, 484 pp.

11)
Heywood, V.D. (Ed.) 1993: Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford
University Press, New York; 336 pp.

12)

CABI Forestry Compendium Edition 2003 (on CD ROM)

13)
Baertels, A., 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen
(Colour Atlas Tropical Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ.
Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.

19)
Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and
Subtropics. Josef Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552
pp.

20)
Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002:
Agroforestree Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD ).

26)
World Agroforestry Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp
?

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

(Internet source)

10

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lecomte ]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lecomte ]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lecomte [1]

³

agarwood, aloeswood, eaglewood, Indian aloewood [2],
argar wood, aloe wood [3]

K> sTisn½y

³

Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. [1],
Aquilaria malaccensis Lam.,
Agallochum malaccense (Lam.) Kuntze,
Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.,
Aquilaria ovata Cav.,
Aquilariella malaccensis (Lam.) Tiegh. [2],
Aquilaria crassna Pierre [3],
Aloexylum agallochum Lour.,
Aquilaria secundaria DC. [7]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

bois d' aigle, bois d'aloès (France) [11] - ketsana (Laos)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[1] - tram, tram huong, do do bau [1], kanankoh [2] (Vietnam)
- agor (Bangladesh) [2] - alambac, tengkaras, alim, halim,
karek (Indonesia) [2] - agaru, sasi (India) [2] - akyaw
(Myanmar) [2] - gaharu, karas, calambac, tengkaras,
calambac, tengkaras (Malaysia) [2]

1

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

c½nRÞ ksña
ÉksarBieRKaH : [12]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

chan crassna, changkrassna, chankrosna [3], daem chan
kroessnäa [6]

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati
rC¢³ : Viridiplantae

³

saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Thymelaeales
RKYsar : Thymelaeaceae
ePT : Aquilaria
RbePT : Aquilaria crassna
ÉksarBieRKaH: [1, 4]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaedImeQITMhMmFümeTAFM CaeQIébtgCanic© EdlmankMBs; 15-20 m [3]
b:Eu nþCYnkalGac dl; 30 m [1] (-40 m [2]) . edImRtg; edaymanGgát;pit© DBH BI 40-50 cm [3] ( -60
cm [7], -100 cm [1]) . kenSamsøk
w esþgI nigesÞIEtzitenAepþk .
[sMbk]: sMbkmanBN’RbepHetñat eRbHCadM²
u . sMbkxagkñúgBN’elOg mansMeNImsMbUredayTwk
nigman køni RkGUb ehIyedImcas;manhUrecjnUvC½r EdlmanBN’exµAeTotpg .
[søwk]: søwksamBaØ ragCaes<ó nigqøas; tMerobCaragGUvul manTMhM 5-11 x 3-6 cm Kl;sk
øw FM
Caysøkw man ragCaTwkrlk kMBlU søwkRsYc . épÞxagelIrelag nigmanBN’ébtgcas; rW ébtgsVay PøW
EpñkxageRkam BN’Rsal nigKµaneram . srésmancMnYn 15-20 KU gaynwgemIleXIjBIxageRkam
srésr EvnsþcÜ . TgsøwkmanRbEvg 3-7 mm maneram .
[páa]: páaCacegáam zitenAelIGk
½ S . páatUc² nigmankøni manBN’elOgébtg [1] (BN’s dUcRBil [7]
BN’ elOgRsal [9]) . TgpáamanRbEvg 5-6 mm maneramBN’elOgRbepHRkas; . Rtbkpáa
ragCabMBg; rW kNþgw tUc RbEvg 5-6 mm eramRkas;enAelIépÞTaMgsgçag manrun§cMnYn 5 ragdUcs‘ut .
RsTab;páa mancMnYn 10 ragdUcCBa¢gI duHcak;ecjBIbBM g;Rtbk maneramRkas; . ekseQµal mancMnYn
10 zitenABIrCUr filaments RbEvg 1 mm
nig anthers ragRTEvg . eksjImanragmUl
maneramBN’RbepHRkas; manBIrft nigxøI ehIy stigma ragdUck,al . edImeQIcab;ecjpáa
enAeBlmanGayu 6-8 qñaMBIEx emsa-mifuna [1] (mina-emsa [3]) . EpøenAExkkáda dl;kBaØa [1] (mifuna kkáda [3]) .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Epø] Epø (=capsule) manBN’ébtg nigragdUcs‘ut manTMhM 3 x 4 cm [9] (2-4 x 2-3 cm [1], 3.5-5 cm
[7]) rWgenAeBls¶t
Ü edaymaneramxø²I BN’elOgcas; . RtbkpáaminRCuH edayzitenAKl;páa .
EpømYyman RKab;BI 1 rW 2 EdlmanTMhM 5 x 10 mm manragdUcs‘ut nigBN’etñat .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 7, 9]
[

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

lkçN³eQI]: sac;eQITn; nigmankøin EdlmansñamdM²u zitenAmineTogTat;enAelIeQIexµA
EdlmankøineRbg C½reQI (oleoresins) . sñamTaMgenHekItBIkarrMxanedaylkçN³rUbsaRsþ .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 11]
[

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

RbEhl: 27°N eTA 5°S [2] . c½nÞRksña duHray)a:yenAtMbn;GasIuxagt,Úg nigGasIuGaeKñy_
nigduHenAkñgú éRB ehIykMrmanduHenAkñgú éRBbzm nigéRBrgkarrukran enAtMbn;TMnab x<g;rab dMbkU .
enARbeTskm<Cú a vaduHlUt las;enAtMbn;PñM .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 6, 9]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

3

:

duHlUtlas;enAkMritry³kMBs;BI 29-1,000 m a.s.l [2] (0-1,000 m [1], 300-800 m [3], 0-850 m [7])
edaymanlkçN³tMbn;xsu ²Kña . enAma:eLsIu vaGacmanduHenAkMritry³kMBs; 750 m [7] .
edImeQImanduH mYy² enAkMrit 2,000 m [3] . c½nÞRksña duHlUtlas;enArdUvePøóg EdlmankMrit 1,500 6,500 mm/qñaM [2] nigrdUvR)aMg Edlmanry³eBl 0-4 Ex [2] . kMritsItuNðPaBmFümRbcaMqañ M 22-28ºC
[2] (20-22ºC [7]) kMrisItuNðPaBenAExekþA 22-40ºC [2] nigsItuNðPaBmFümTabbMputenAExRtCak; 1422ºC [2] . sItuNðPaB dac;xatTabbMput 5ºC [2] . vaCaRbePTrukçCati EdlTamTarBnøW b:Eu nþmin
Fn;ngw møb; enAeBlenAtUc nigGac duHeLIgvij enAeRkamkenSamsøwkBI 0.4-0.6 [1, 3] . eTaHbI RbPB
epSgeTot )ankMNt;fa c½nÞRksña CaedIm eQIkNþal (neutral tree) cMeBaHtMrUvkarBnøWk_eday [9] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 7, 9]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

tMbn;eqñrPñRM kvaj (A), PaKxageCIgPñRM kvaj (B), TMnabkNþal (d), PaKxagt,ÚgGaNam (g)
ÉksarBieRKaH [3]
RbPBRKab;BCU (Projection: UTM; Horizontal Datum: Indian coordinates)]:
eBaF×sat; (X:290299 Y:1326205),ekaHkug (X:295591 Y:1318268), eBaF×sat; (X:335014
Y:1341815), ekaHkug (X:368336 Y:1255832), mNÐlKIrI (X:718332 Y:1353508), ekaHkug
(X:286900 Y:1314675), eBaF×sat; (X:349462 Y:1337891),RkugRBHsIhnu (X:352571
Y:1166659),kMB
M g;sW< (X:379751 Y:1292040)
ÉksarBieRKaH [3]
[

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

c½nRÞ ksña manduHelIdGI asIut nigNWt EdlmanxSac; nig\dæeRCA (vaynPaBRsaleTamFüm ) dI ferralitic
EdlminsUveRCA nigmindk;Twk . eTaHbI vasmrbeTAnwgCMrkxus²Kñak_eday rYmman fµ xSac; rW kal;süÚm
dImni dk;TwktamCMral dMbUk nigenACitmat;TwkCaedIm .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 7, 9]
:

eQI]: RbePTenHmantMélBaNiCk¢ mµxs< ; . eQImankøni RkGUb nigRtUv)aneFIBV aNiCk¢ mµtaMg
BIsm½ysasna RKis fñaM nigkarerobcMBIFeI pSg² . [3] vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;eFIVeRKOgsgðarwm
eQImlU eQIplitemSA Rkdas begáal eQIGar CBa¢aMg sMNg;Fn;Rsal RbGb; ]bkrN_t®nþI
sMPar³eFVBI eI QI eQIfamBl nigFüÚg . enARbeTskm<Cú a eQIEdlmankøin (CaBiessrWs)
RtUv)aneRbIR)as;CaFUbsMrab;BiFI buNüsB .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 9]
[Gnupl]: c½nRÞ ksañEtrgnUvkarKMramKMEhgBIBBYkpSit EdleFIeV GayedImplitnUveRbg EdlmankøinRkGUb
ehIyRtUv)anehAfa 'aloeswood', 'agarwood' nig 'oud' rW 'chankrosna' CaPasaExµ . pSit
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

4

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

5

nigdMeNIrkar bMEbkenAbnþ edIm,IbegátI nUvC½r enAkñúgeQIxwmø . C½rRtUv)anbegátI enAeBl
RbB½nk§ arBareqøyI tb nwgkarbMpaø j rbs;pSit nigbegátI nUveRbg Edll¥bMputenAelIEpndI .
enARbeTsCb:un vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab; duHsMGat saksB nigeRbIeFIVCaFUbRkGUbenAkñúgsasnaRBHBuT§
. enAkñgú RBHBuT§sasna vaRtUv)ancat;Tukfa FUbmYy ya:gsMxan;enAkñúgrbs;TaMgbIrbs;RBHBuT§
EdlGnuvtþrYmCa mYyeQIc½nÞRksañ nigpáa . eRbgEdlmanKuNPaB l¥bMputRtUv)anehAfa 'Kyara' .
'Kyara' man 4 RbePT : 'ébtg ' 'Edk'
'sVay' nig 'exµA' . eQIc½nÞRksña mantMélx<s;
GaRs½yeTAelIkMriteRbg EdlpÞkú enAkñgú eQI . vak_RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;pliteRKOgsMGag Edl
manKuNPaBx<sp; gEdr . enAkñgú fañM Ayurvedic vaRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;Büa)alCMgWpvøÚ citþ
nigRbB½ns§ résRbsaT dUcCa eraKviklcrit eraKKiteRcIn nigkarGs;kMlaMg ehIyvaRtUv)an
eCOfaGacbeNþj
nUvRblwgGaRkk;
eGayecjq¶ayeTotpg
.
enA\NÐcÚ ni
C½rRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;»sfburaN edIm,IBüa)al erakhWt twgedIm RTUg cukeBaH raK bBa©úHTwkenam
bBaðaRklan cg;kt¥Ü mharIRkeBjTIr:GU tIu nigduHsac;stY . enAkñgú fñabM UraN Exµr
eQIRtUv)anlayCamYyfñaM epSgeTot nigeRbIsMrab;RbqaMgnwgRKuncaj; . RbePTepSgeTot EdlRtUv)an
ehAfa A. sinensis RtUv)aneRbI sMrab;eFIeV Gay baimuxol nig dehydrobaimuxol manskmµPaB [6] .
vaRtUv)aneCOCak;fa CafñaMseRmIbtNða d_manRbsiT§PaB . enAkñúgvb,Fm’CaeRcIn
RsþIRtUv)anCMrujeGayman
cMng;
enAeBlEdlTTYlnUvkøinrbs;va
.
sréssMbkRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;eFIVGRgwg sMelokbMBak; nig Rkdas .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 6, 7, 11]
[epSg²]: enARbeTskm<C
ú a edImeQIRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab; eFIeV GaymanPaBRss;sa¥ t nig esaP½NPaB
nigk_mansar³sMxan;sMrab;RbéBNI pgEdr . RbePTenH RtUv)ancat;Tukfa mansar³sMxan;esdækic©
enAkñgú RbeTskm<Cú a (enAkñgú sikaç salafñak;CatieTAelI RbePTeQICaGaTiP§ aB erobcMeday
rdæ)aléRBeQI nig KMeragRKab;BUCeQIenAkm<Cú a (CTSP) enAqñaM 2000) .
ÉksarBieRKaH [8]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

eQIcMNat;fñak;elx 3 .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: c½nÞRksñaduHlUtlas;enAkñúgéRBbzm nigéRBricril enAtMbn;PñMénRbeTskm<Cú a . CaTUeTA
vamanduHenAtamtMbn;TMnab x<g;rab nigPñM .
[karRKb;RKg]:
vaminRtUv)andaMduHCacMkareGay)aneRcInenaHeT BIeRBaHplitkmµrbs;vaminCak;lak;
CaBiess plitplsMxan;rbs;va eQIc½nÞRksña nigmankaryl;dgw tictYc eTAelIkarRKb;RKg
RbePTeQIenH . eTaHbI cMkarRtUv)anbegátI CaeRcInenAPaK\sanrbs;RbeTs\NÐa nigbg;køaeds
k_eday . kardaMsakl,g RtUv)an eFIeV LIg enA]bTVbI ma:eLsIu enAqñaM 1928 . eRkayry³eBl 67 qñaM
edImeQIGacman Ggát;pi©t 56 cm [2] . karRsavRCavepSgeTot mansar³sMxan;kúgñ kar
GPirkSRbePTenHenAkñgú FmµCati
edayeRCIserIsnUvkUneQI
Edll¥sMrab;kardaMduHCacMkar
nigkarRKb;RKgsmRsb karnaMclU nUvc½nRÞ ksña tamry³eFIeV GaymaneRbg edaysib,nimitµ
tamry³eFIeV GaymanrbYs rWcak;bBa©ÚlnUvpSit . karBiesaFn_enAkm<Cú a )anbgðajfa
c½nRÞ ksñagayRsYldaM nigsmRsbsMrab;kardaMduHenAeRkammøb; rW kenSam søkw eQIepSg²eTot .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3, 6]
[

:

r)a:yrbs;RbePTenH minesµrI Kña nigBi)akkñgú karrukrk edImeQI sMrab;eFICV aedImem .
RKab;BCU RtUv)anRbmUl edaypÞal;BdI I bnÞab;BIkarGRgunEmk . enAkñgú tMbn;RbmUlRKab;BCU
dIRtUv)ane)assMGat nigCYnkal RtUv)an dut sMGatsMrab;karRbmUlRKab;BUC .
edIm,IeFIVeGaymanPaBgayRsYl RkNat; rWtg;RtUv)anRkal sMrab;kar RbmUlRKab; . eBl
EdlsmRsbsMrab;karRbmUlRKab;BCU KWenAeBlEdlEpøbÚrþ BN’rbs;va BIébtgeTAetñat .
PaBcas;GacRtUv)anBinti ü tamry³karkat;sakl,g [3] . enARbeTskm<Cú a RbCaCnenAtamtMbn;xHø
dUcCaenAPUmfi µ)aMg mNÐlsIma: nigERsGMbil (extþekaHkug ) )anRbmUlRKab;BCU BIéRBFmµCati rWPUmi edIm,I
plitnUvkUneQIenAtampÞH . kUneQIRtUv)anEckeTAeGayGñkCitxag edIm,IdaMenAelIdIsMrab;eFIkV sikmµ .
bc©úb,nñ cMkarCaeRcInRtUv)anbegátI . karrkSaTukRKab;BUC CaRbePT recalcitrant . eQIQrRtUv)andaMduH
edayeRbIR)as;viFsI aRsþduHedayFmµCati nigkardaMduHedaykUneQICaedIm . RKab; EdlRtUvkar
enAkñgú mYy hicta sMrab;kardaMCacMkarenARbeTskm<Cú a : 4,000 RKab;/kg cenøaHdaMduH: 2.5 x 2.5 m
kUneQIsuT§ EdlRtUv karkñgú mYyhicta : 1,600 kMritgab; : 1,920 (20% enAkEnøgdaMduH), 2,134 (10%

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

6

enAeBldwkCBa¢nÚ ), 2,668 (20% enAkñgú fñal) GaRtadMNuH
EdlRtUv kar : 1.18 kg [5] .

: 60%

PaBsuT§

: 95%

cMnYnRKab;srub

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3, 5]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVl¥ti ]: minTan;manTinñn½y .
[CMgW]: RbePTpSit Phialophora parasitica RtUv)ankt;Rta CaRbePT EdleFIm
V anecjeRbg
'chankrosna' enAelIedImc½nRÞ ksña . minmanCMgW nigstVl¥itepSgeTotRtUv)ankt;RtaeT .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2]
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

F> karGPirkS

7

:

edaysarEtmantMél
nigtMrUvkarx<s;éneQI
'chankrosna'
enAkñgú TIpSarBiPBelak
RbePTenHRtUv)anrukrk hYsehtu nigRtUvrgeRKaHfñak;esÞIputBUC RbsinebIKµankarkarBaenaHeT .
edayesenTicrbs;vaenAkñúgFmµ CatimanlkçN³xus²Kña kMBgu rgeRKaHfñak; minmankarsikSaRsavRCav
nigRKb;RKg edIm,IEkrlMGrRbePTenH eT .
r)a:yrbs;RbePTenH KWRtUv)anpøas;TI
nigBi)akkñgú rkedImemsMrab;RbmUlRKab;BCU
.
enAtMbn;GasIu
GaeKñy_
karRbmUlc½nÞRksñamanlkçN³kan;EtBi)akeTA² BImYyqñaMeTAmYyqñaM edaysarPaBkMrénedImeQI cas;²
. enAqñaM 2002 kic©RbCMeu lIkTIBIrrbs;KMeragRKab;BCU eQIkm<Cú a (CTSP) eTAelIyTu §sa®sþGPirkS
esenTicéRBeQI)ankMNt;faRbePT c½nRÞ ksñaRtUvEteFIkV arGPirkS nigkarBareGay)ansmRsbCabnÞan;
[3]. RbePTenHk_ RtUv)ankarBarCalkçN³GnþrCati eRkamGnusBaØa CITES (Convention of the
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) enAkñg
ú taragTI BI CITES
(RbePT Edlrg karKMramKMEhg RbsinBNiCk
¢ mµminRtUv)anRtYtBinti ü nigRKb;RKg) [2, 7]
nigRtUv)ancat;fñak;Ca CR A1cd (=gayrgeRKaHfñak;) eyagtam IUCN (International Union for the
Conservation of
Nature)
bBa¢eI QµaH eQI EdlrgkarKMramKMEhgenAelIBPi Belak .
kar)a:n;sµaneTAelIcMnYnedImeQI
EdlRtUv)anKMramenAkñgú
RbeTskm<Cú a
(kMNt;enAkñúgsikçasalaBIRbePTeQICaGaT§P
i aB erobcMeday rdæ)aléRBeQI nigKMeragRKab;
BUCeQIkm<Cú a qñaM 2000): >10,000 [8] RtUv)anKMramedaykarkab;bpM aø j .

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3, 7, 8]

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

CaTUeTA RbePTenHmanduHenABayBü nignIrtIénRbeTskm<Cú a .
ÉksarBieRKaH [6]
eBaF×sat; ekaHkug mNÐlKIrI RkugRBHsIhnu kMBg;s<W kMBt rtnKIrI .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3, 10]

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
[

RbPBkMeNIt]: PaKxageCIg\NÐa Lav km<Cú a ma:eLsIu \NÐeÚ nsIu nigevotNam .
ÉksarBieRKaH [7]

[

karnaMclU ]: bg;køaeds b‘Utan \NÐa \NÐÚensIu GIur:g; PUma hVlI IBnI sgðabUrI nigéf .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 7]
:

plitkmµ nigBaNiCk¢ mµ]: enAqñaM 2000 C½reQImantMélBI US$ 800-1,500 kñgú 1 kg .
edaytMrUvkarx<s; Ca Biess enAmCÄibBU a’ nigTIpSarGasuI rYmTaMgkarfycuHnUvkarpÁt;pÁg;
EdleFItV Mélrbs;vaekIteLIgya:gxøaMg EdlGacRtUv)anlk;enAkñgú TIpSarGñkeRbIR)as;dl;eTAtMél US$
10,000/kg .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3]
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

p> epSg²

8

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Barden A. Awang Anak N. Mulliken T. Song M. (2000) Heart of the Matter: Agarwood Use
and Trade and CITES Implementation for Aquilaria malaccensis.
[7]

Chaudhari DC, 1993. Agarwood from Aquilaria malaccensis, (A. agallocha, Roxb.). MFP
News, 3(4):12-13.
2]

Gibson IAS, 1977. The role of fungi in the origin of oleoresin deposits (agaru) in the wood of
Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. Bano Biggyan Patrika, 6(1):16-26; [2 pl.]; 13 ref.
[2]

LaFrankie JV, 1994. Population dynamics of some tropical trees that yield non-timber forest
products. Economic Botany, 48(3):301-309; 28 ref.
[2]

Lok EngHai, Ahmed Zahaidi Yahya, 1996. The growth performance of plantation grown
Aquilaria malaccensis in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 8(4):573575; 6 ref.
[2]

Rahman MA, Basak AC, 1980. Agar production in agar tree by artificial inoculation and
wounding. Bano Biggyan Patrika, 9(1/2):87-93; 8 ref.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[2]

9

Rahman MA, Khisa SK, 1984. Agar production in agar tree by artificial inoculation and
wounding. II. Further evidences in favour of agar formation. Bano Biggyan Patrika,
13(1/2):57-63; 14 ref.
[2]

Rao KR, Dayal R, 1992. The secondary xylem of Aquilaria agallocha (Thymelaeaceae) and
the formation of 'agar'. IAWA Bulletin, 13(2):163-172; 15 ref.
[2]

Singadan, M., Yelu, W., Beko, J., Bosimbi, D. and Boland, D., 2001(draft), Some Aspects of
the Eaglewood Trade in Papua New Guinea.
[3]

Sumadiwangsa S, 1997. Agarwood as a high-value commodity in East Kalimantan [Kayu
gaharu komoditi elit di Kalimantan Timur]. Duta Rimba, 20 (205/206): 33-40.
[2]

Zich, F.A. and Compton J., 2001, The Final Frontier: Towards Sustainable Management of
Papua New Guinea's Agarwood Resource. TRAFFIC Oceania, WWF South Pacific
Programme.
[3]

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and
Vietnam: a field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.

[2] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[4] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names
of Commercial Woods, unpublished.

[5] FA/CTSP-DANIDA, 2005: Farmers Tree Planting Manual - Guidelines for Site Selection
and Tree Planting. (CD-ROM).

[6] Kham, L., 2004: Medicinal Plants of Cambodia - Habitat, Chemical Constituents and
Ethnobotanical Uses.

[7] ECOPORT:
http://ecoport.org/ep?Plant=3302&entityType=PL****&entityDisplayCategory=full
(Internet website)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[3] CTSP, 2003: Forest Gene Conservation Strategy - Gene Conservation Strategy, Species
Monographs, Gene Ecological Zonation, Species Site Matching Model. (CD-ROM).

10

[8] FAO:
http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/005/AC648E/ac648e04.
htm(Internet source)

[9] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning
Institute.

[10] Petri, M. (DED) 2006: Own observations.

[11] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[12] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species.

11

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg ]

³

breadfruit tree [4]

³

Artocarpus communis J.R. Forst.& G. Forst., Artocarpus
incisus L.f. [4]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

breadfruit, arbre a pain, [4] Brotfruchtbaum[13], sakéé,
khnaôr samlo (Cambodia); sukun (seedless), kelur, timbul
(seeded), (Indonesia, Malaysia); paung-thi, (Burma); rimas
(seedless), kamansii (seeded) sake (seedless), (Philippines);
khanun-sampalor (Thailand); sakê (Vietnam) [6,16].

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

saek/ xñúrsmø
ÉksarBieRKaH : [4]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

1

saké, khnaö(r), sâmlâ [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Urticales
RKYsar : Moraceae
ePT : Artocarpus J.R. Forster & J.G. Forster [16]

RbePT :Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson)
Fosberg. [4]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

ÉksarBieRKaH: [ 4; 16]

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: xñúrsmømanedImRss;s¥at x<s; mansøwkBN’ébtgCanic© mankMBs; 15 eTA 20m
CYnkalGacmanGgát;p©itelIsBI 60cm (1) manragCasIuLaMg kMBs; 6-15m RtUv)aneFVIkar
daMduHenAkñúgPUmi eFVICarukCç atilMGr nig rukçCatihUbEpø. [4] RKb;EpñkTaMgGs;énedImxñúrsmønwgecj
Cr½BN’sxab; Edlmanrs;CatilVIgtic² enAeBlEdlkat;.[1,13] CaTUeTAedImrbs;vaRtg;
mankenSamsøkw EtenAelIEmkEdkFM²b:ueNaÑaH.[1] xñúrsmø CaRbePTeQIEdlduHlUtlas;enAkñúg
éRBeRsag b¤k¾éRBel,aH manEmkFM² mankMBs;rhUtdl;eTA 30 m nigmanGgátp; ©it 180 cm.[6]
[sMbk]: edImxñúrsmø mansMbkBN’etñat relag ehIyragrbk².[1]
[søwk]: xñúrsmømansøk
w BN’ébtg CaRbePTsøwkqøas;mansñaysÞb ehIytMerobya:gEvgcMnYn 7-11 søwk.
søwkCaRbePTsøwkFM manbeNþayrhUtdl;eTA 30-90 cm. EpñkxagelIénépÞsøwkBMumanb¤seT
elIkElgEt RTnugkNþal.[1] søwkxñúrsmø CaRbePTsøwkFM mankMBksøwkeRCA² enAelIépÞsøwkman
rageRKImdUcEs,k ehIyEKmEpñkxagelImanBN’ébtgPøW.[13] søwk CaRbePTsøwktMerobqøas;
EdltYsøwkmanragdUcs‘ut b¤eGlIb manTMhM 20-60 cm x 20-40 cm EdlsøwkTImYyess
EdlsøwkbnÞab;²CasøwksñitKU EqkcMnYn 5-11 Rkas; dUcEs,k manBN’ébtgcas; BN’ébtgPøWenAEpñkelI
nigEpñkxageRkammanBN’ébtgx©I ehIyrdibrdub. TgsøwkmanRbEvg 3-5 cm. [6]
[páa]: páaxñúrsmø CaRbePTpáasmas tUc² manpáajI nig eQµalenAelIedImEtmYy. páaeQñal
CaRbePTpáakYr tUc² tMerobenAelIGkS½ragsIuLaMgRbEvg 12-35 cm kBa©MúpáajI manragBgRkeBI b¤rgVg;
manRbEvg 6-7cm. [1] kBa©MúpáaeQµal nig jI Eckdac;BIKña b:uEnþsßitenAelIedImEtmYy
tMerobenAelIGkS½RbEvg 4-8 cm . páaeQµal manragdUcCYgpáab; EdltMerobsMy:ugcuHeRkam
manbeNþay15-25 cm nigTTwg 3-4 cm Edlmans,:BN’elOg. pàajI egIyeLIgelI
manragmUlRTEvg b¤ragCasIuLaMgTMhM 8-10 x 5-7 cm Edl enAkñúgkBa©Múpáabgáb;eTAeday
pàaBN’ébtgCaeRcIn.[6] kBa©Múpáa manenAelIEmkxøI²EdlduHecjmkBIedIm. enAkñúgkBa©Múpáa manpáajI
rab;rypáa.[13]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Epø]: Epøxñúrsmø b¤saekr man 2RbePTKW³ RbePTTI 1 KWEpømanRKab;FMs¶Üt EdldaMsMrab;CaedImxñúrsmø
lMGr. EpømanragmUlRTEvg b¤mansNæan syncarp (EdlmanEpøtUc²CaeRCInduHCab;nwgEpøFMmYy)
manTMgn;enAcenøaH 0.5 nig 3.0 kg. CaFmµta PaKeRcIneKcat;TukedImsaekr b¤xñúrsmøCabEnø
CaCageQIhUbEpø. RbePTTI2 saekr b¤xñúrsmø EdlRbePTEpømanRKab;tic.[1] EpømanTMrg;TaMgmUl
dUckBa©úMpáajI magragmUlRTEvg EdlmanGgát;p©it 10-30 cm BN’ébtglayelOg
CYnkalvamanbnøa. enARKb;EpñkTaMgGs; nwgecjCr½BN’sxab;eBlEdlkab;. [6] EpømanragmUlRTEvg
manGgát;p©it 10-20 cm manBN’ébtg nig manb¤sSenAxageRkA. EpñkxagkñúgénEpø eBlTMu sac;Tn;
manBN’elOglays nwgTMrg;CadMu. RKab;saekr b¤xñúrsmø Rbhak;RbEhleTAnwgEpøekALak;
EdlmanGgátp; ©it 2-3 cm.[13]
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

3

:

CaTUeTAedIm saekr b¤xúñrsmø manTMgn; 270 kg/m³. sac;eQIRsaymanBN’elOg b¤etñatRsalEbk
elOg cMENkÉsac;eQIxøwmmanBN’TwkRkUc nigmancMNucGuC²BN’mas. eTaHCaya:gNak¾eday
sac;eQIsñúrsmø GaceRbIsrM ab;karsagsg;epSg² ]TahrN_³ sg;eRKOgTUk. sac;eQImanBN’elOg
Ebkmas nigERbBN’kan;Etcas;² GaRsy½eTAelIGayueQI. sac;eQImanTMgn;mFüm ( dg;sIuet 505645
kg/m³
kñúgkMritsMenIm 15%) manPaBmaM relag b:uEnþvamanPaBFn;tic
enAeBlvamanTMgn;Rsal.[20] enHRbEhlCamanPaBlMeGog TMgn;tic b¤RsalbMputenAcenøaH 330400kg/m³ (KayPanzer)
A. heterophylla (Epøxñúr) nig A. altilis (xñúrsmø rW saekr)
mankardaMeRcInelIslb;sMrab; ykEpø minEmn sMrab;yksac;eQIeT.[13,16]

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

xñúrsmø b¤saekr PaKeRcInmankardaMduHenA New Guinea kalBI 2-3Ban;qñaMmun. enA Pacific Islands
k¾mandaMxñúrsmøEdr b:uEnþtMbn;Edlcat;TukfaCaRbPBkMeNItKW enA Papua New Guinea RbeTs hVIlIBIn
nig ma:eLsIu. [27] naeBlbc©úb,nñ saekr køayCaFnFansamBaØ k¾dUcCaFnFanEdlman
sar³sMxan;mFüm b¤CaGaharbEnßm enAkñúgRbeTsmYycMnYn énGaemricxagt,Úg nig GaemrickNþal

ekaHenAxaglic RbeTs\NÐa ekaHCaribbean PaKxageCIg nig xagekItRbeTsGaRBic Madagascar,
Seychelles, RbeTs\NÐa sirIlgáa \NÐÚeNsIu nig RbeTsepSg²eTotCaeRcIn.[20]
kar)acsacénRbePTeQI GaRs½yeTAelI Oceania EdlCaÉksarmYyd¾l¥ Edlniyay BIkardaM
duHdMbUgrbs; Tahitian. edImsaekr CaedImeQIhUbEpø EdlmanduHenAtMbn;GWr:ubtaMgBIkMLúgqñaM 1600.
RbPkMeNItmkBI ekaH Pacific nig Polynesia. saekr RtUv)aneKdaMCaeQIhUbEpø nig CarukçCatilMGr
enAtampÞH nig duHedayFmµCati enARKb;kEnøg enAtMbn;RtUBic. vaduHenAtMbn; CaeRcInEdlCatMbn;Bak;
kNþaléRB ehIyman ry³kMBs;TabCag 700 m.[1,4,13] Artocarpus manRbEhl 50 RbePT
Edlra:y)a:ycab;BI sirIlgáa \NÐa )a:KIsßan nig\NÐÚcineq<aHeT Malesian Archipelago nigekaH
Solomon nig 16 RbePTmanenA Peninsular RbeTsma:eLsIu.[16]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
minmanTinñn½y.

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

saekr b¤xñúrsmø manduHlUtlas;enAGakasFatuesImtMbn;RtUBic enAtMbn;Edlmanry³kMBs;Tab 02500m elevation GacduHlUtlas;enAeRkamGakasFatutMbn;ekaH cenøaH 1,500 nig 2,500 mm,
1000-5000mm/ m² énkMBs;TwkePøógRbcaMqñaM CamYynwgkMritsItN
u ðPaB 21ºC eTA 32 ºC, 23-27ºC
[1,12]. RbePT enAtMbn;RtUBicesIm RtUvkarsItN
u ðPa 20-40 ºC, 2000-3000 mm/ m²
énkMritTwkePøógRbcaMqñaM eTaHbICaenArdUvR)aMg.[6]r)aydMNuH manenAkñúgtMbn;EdnkMNt;cab;BI 20º eCIg
eTA 20º t,Úg enATisxageCIgeqogxagt,Úg.[12] kUnsaekr EdlenAtUcRtUvkarmøb;tic
b:uEnþvaRtUvkarBnøWRBHGaTiRt edIm,IeGayvamankarduHlUtlas;l¥.[1]

4

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

saekr duHenAelIdIEdlRss;Twk b¤manTwkdl;rak; eRBaHvaBMumankarFn;nwgTwkeT müa:gvijeTotvaBMuEmnCa
RbePTEdlTamTarCatiTwkeT. saekr CaRbePTlub enAtMbn;éRBrnamén New Guinea eTaHCaya:gNa
k¾eday RbePTxøHRtUvkardI\dæ.[1,16] saekr RtUvkarsMeNIm dIl¥EdlRss;Twk nigduHlUtlasl¥enA
ry³kMBs;TabCag 600 m.[6]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

5

:

edImsaekr b¤xñúrsmø CaedImeQIEdleRbIR)as;eRcInya:g ehIymansrFatucBi a©imx<s; nigEpøsMbUr
eTAedayCati kabUnGIuRdat. naeBlbcú©b,nñ vaRtUv)andaMeBseBjBiPBelak CaFnFanGahard¾sMxan;
sMrab;tMbn;dac;Rsaya:l EdlxVHxatGahar. enAekaH Solomon Islands nig Vanuatu Gacsnµt;fa
CatMbn;Edlmandg;sIuetRKab;saekreRcInCageK
EtmanRKab;ticb:ueNÑaH
EdlRtUv)andaMduH
nigenAPaKxagekItén Polynesia ekaH Society Marquesas, Pohnpei nig Chuuk enA Micronesia
mandg;sIuetRKab;tic EtmankardaMduHeRcIn. mankardMNuH rab;ryEdlGacsMrbxøÜneTAnwgbMErbMrYl
GakasFatu nig lkçxNÐdI(Ragone 1997). bBaðaKYreGayRBYy)armÖKW karCYjdUrkñúgRsuk eRkARsuk
nigkñúg tMbn; eRBaHsaekrmanEdnkMNt;kñgú karrkSaTukEpøEdlTMu. eTaHbICaenAkñúgtMbn;RbmUlplk¾eday
karRbmUlplEpøsaekr RtUv)aneFVIry³eBl 2-3éf¶muneBlEdlEpø TMu edIm,IeGay
kardwkCBa¢ÚnBItMbn;mYy eTAtMbn;mYyBMumankarxUcxat. enAeBlEdlEpøTMuRCuleBk sac;eLIgRCak²
ehIy)at;bg;rsCati. Epøs¶Üt GacEkécñ eFVICa]sµn½ sMrab;kareRbIR)as;epSg²kñúgkarcMGinRbcaMéf¶.[1]
Epøsaekr manlkçN³RbEhlnig RbePT Artocarpus nig ePT A. integer EdlmankardaMduHenA
Malay
Archipelago
EtEpøsaekr b¤xñúrsmømanlkçN³esÞIrEtdUcnwgEpøxñúr RKan;EtmanPaBTn;
nigmankøinRkGUbticCagEpøxñúr. enAelIekaH én Kalimantan (Borneo) nigRbeTshVIlIPIn
manduHeTAeday A. odoratissima . Epørbs;vamanrsCatiEp¥m nigmanTwkdm
cMENkÉRKab;GacdutjaMu)an.[13]
[sac;eQI]:
sac;eQIrbs;saekr CaRbePTeQIEdleRbIR)as;)antic eRBaHvamanTMgn;Rsal
(270kg/m³) EtvamanPaBmaM EdlGaceRbIR)as;sMrab;eFVITUk LaMg RbGb; nig karsagsg;tictYc. enA
Haiti
eRbIedImsaekr eFVICakþarbnÞHsMrab;Tb;rlk.[1] tamlkçN³RbéBNI sac;eQIsaekr
eRbIsMrab;sagsg;pÞH nig TUkEcv eRBaHvaFn;nUvkarbMpøajBIBBYkkeNþór nigdgáÚvsmuRT. enA Haiti

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

eRbIsac;eQIsaekr sMrab;eFVI cansmø cMlak;epSg² nig sgðarwm.[20] edImsaekr KWCaFnFand¾sMxan;
sMrab;eFVICaeQIfamBl enAelIekaHpáafµenA )a:sIuhcVi .[20]
mankarnaMecjnUvTIpSareQImUl rbs;RbePT Artocarpus EtmanbrimaNkMNt;. RbePTeQIhUbEpø
4RbePTKW A. altilis, A. heterophyllus, A. integer nig A. odoratissima eRcInCageKKWRbePT
Artocarpus Edlsac;eQIeRbIR)as;CaFnFaneQImUl. enAkñúgkareFVIBaNiC¢kmµeQIml
U cMnucEdlKYr
eGaykt;sMKal;KW
manTMgn;Cak;lak;
ehIyTMrg;énkareFVIBaNiC¢kmµmanBIya:gKW³
eQIRtUvmanragCasIuLaMg nig sac;eQIxøwmmanTMgn;Rsal mandUcCaBBYk A. elasticus, A,
scortechinii eQImUlén Parartocarpus spp nig Antiaris toxicaria EdlmanKuNPaBeQI
nigkareRbIR)as;Rbhak;RbEhlKña. RkumTI 2 ehAfa keledang Edlsac;eQIxøwmmanTMgn;mFüm
mandUcCaRbePT A. anisophyllus, A. dadah, A. lanceifolius
nigEtgEtmanPaBBi)akkñgú karEjkeGaydac;BIKñaNas; TMgn; 640kg/m³ enAkMritsMenIm 15%
RtUv)ankMNt;CaTMgn;mFüm. enAqñaM 1992 mankarnaMecjeQIRbEhl 10,000 m³ BI Sabah,
Sarawak nig Papua New Guinea. EtnaeBlfµI²enH BMumantYelxc,as;las;énkareFIVBaNiC¢kmµeT
b:uEnþkareFVIBaNiC¢kmµCak;Esþg RKan;EtCakMriténkaredaHdUrkñúgtMbn;. eTaHCaya:gNak¾eday
RbePTmYycMnYn køayCaRbePTEdlsMxan;sMrab;esdækic©Cati BIeRBaHvaCaRbePTeQIEdlmankar
duHlUtlas;elOn nigCa RbePTeQI EdlmanlkçN³smRsbsMrab;kareRbIR)as;epSg². [16]
[Gnupl]:
saekr CaFnFanGahard¾sMxan;.[13] saekr CaRbePTeQInlb; ehIyman
r)a:ydMNuHCaeRcIn kEnøg. Epøsaekr Gaces¶ar b¤dut. EpøRss; gayrMlay b:uEnþRtUvkat;CabnÞHesþIg
ehIydak;hal b¤ sMgYt edayLsMgYt sMrab;eFVIkarrkSaTukeRbIR)as;naeBleRkayeTot. RKab;rbs;
saekr GacykeTAcMGinedayviFI xus²KñadUcCa es¶ar dut niglIg. Epørbs;va negRtUv)anebH
eRkayBIecjpáary³eBl 3Ex nigmuneBlEdl EpøvaTMu edIm,IeGayman PaBgay
RsYlkñúgkardwkCBa¢ÚnykeTAlk; nigrkSaEpøeGayenAl¥.[1] sMbkragsés dM²u EdlsMrab;eFVIExScMNg
nigsMrab;t,aj.[16] Cr½eRbIsMrab;cab;stVsøab søwkeFVICacMNIstVenAeBlEdlmanPaBraMgs¶Üt.
kb;EpøTaMgmUleTAkñúgdI sac;cab;epþImeLIgem Edlsac;nwgmanRbEhlnwghVÚma:.[13]
Epøxñúrsmø b¤saekr CaRbePTEpøeQIEdlGaceRbIR)as;eRcInya:g GaccMGin nigbriePaK)antaMgBIEpøkþib
rhUtdl;TMu. vaGacjaMueqA es¶ar cMhuy b¤k¾dut. saekr manEpøtUc² EdlmanGgát;p©it 2-6 cm
b¤k¾FMCagenH EdlGaces¶ar nigmanrsCatiRbhak;RbEhlnwgEpñkkNþalénGaTIsUt_. Epøsaekr Gac

6

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

7

yk eTARtaM nigRCk;)an. saekr b¤xñúrsmø CaRbePTdMNaMpþl;pltamrdUv ehIypþl;pl
eRcInCagtMrUvkarénkar briePaKEpøRss; EdlCaehtunaMeGayGñkEdlrs;enAelIekaH)a:sIuhcVi BüayameFVI
eGayviFIsaRsþénkar RbmUlpl mankarrIkcMerIn edIm,ICaRbeyaCn_dl;karRbmUlplRTg;RTayFM.
viFIRbmUlplsamBaز PaKeRcIn RtUv)anerobcMeLIgedayGñkEdlmanGMNac GñkEfrkSaEpøsaekr
EdlehAfa ma, masi, mahr, furo or bwiru. enAtMbn;mYycMnYn eKykkBa©úMpáaeQµalrbs;saekr
b¤xñúrsmø eTARtaM b¤ykeTAeFVICasártaMg Em:.[20]
ebIeFVIkareRbobeFobeTAnwgemSA ¬EdlkinrYc¦ dMNaMepSg²eTot emSAsaekrmanpÞúknUvCatiRbUetGIun
eRcInCagkþÜc ebIeRbobeFobeTAelIsarFatuEp¥m vamanCatiEp¥bdUcdMLÚg nigeckEdr. saekr
sMbUreTAeday Cati Edk kal;süÚm b:tU asüÚm nig riboflavin. kareLIgem nig CatiCr½rbs;saekr
KWCaRbéBNIénkarplit tamFmµCati. dMeNIrkarénkarEkécñsaekrCaGaharbriePaK mandUcCa³
eFVICabnÞHesþgI eFVICaemSA emSAq¥in b¤ k¾sgM Yt TaMgGs;enHKWCaviFIgaykñúgkarcMGinvaeFVICaGahar.[20]
RKab;saekr GacykeTAcMGin layCamYyEpøsaekreqA edaydut b¤es¶ar vamansac;m:t; nigrsCatihag
ehIyEp¥m manrsCatiKYreGaycg;TTYlTanCagEpøekALak;. RKab;saekr pÞúknUvCatiRbUetGInu RbEhl
8% eTaHbICaRKab;Rss; b¤k¾cMGinehIy. RKab;saekr manpÞúknUvCatieRbgtic ebIeRbobeFobeTAnwgRKab;
sENþkdI nigedImGam:g; EdlpÞúknUvCatieRbgRbEhlCa 50-70%. saekr manpÞúknUvCatixniC nig
niacin eRcInCag sVaycnÞI Gam:g;
sENþk macadamia sENþk brazil PIxn (pecans)
edImeQIval;NWtexµA (black walnuts) b¤ chestnuts. [20]
saekr manpÞúknUvsarFatudUcxageRkam EdlcMnYnKitCaPaKry³
CatiTwk
79.5
RbUetGIun
1.5
CatieRbg
0.2
Catisár nig GamIdug 17.9
sarFatuxniC 0.9
EsluyLÚs
kal;süÚm
0.04

carotene

0.03
0,5
15/100g(I.U.)

cMnYnkal;LÚrIénEpøKW 75-80cal/100 g. [1].
søwkeFVICacMNIstV nigGacciBa©wm eKa BEB RCUk nig esH. vak¾CacMNId¾l¥sMrab;stVdMrIpgEdr. stVesH
sIusMbk EmktUc² nigBnøkRtYy rbs;edImsaekr. dUecñH KYrEtdak;esHenAeGayq¶ayBIkUnsaekr
b¤xñúrsmø. Epøsaekr b¤xñúrsmøEdlTMuRCul RKab; bNþÚlsøwk nigkaksMNl;epSg²rbs;Epøsaekr
GaceFVICacMNIstVRCUk nig stVepSg²eTot.
KYrpáaeQµal rbs;saekr edaylayCamYysésRkdasedImmn (Broussonetia papyrifera)
GaceFVICa sMBt;bwugd¾s¥atRbNit. RsTab;xagkñúgénsMbk eRbIsMrab;eFVICaRkNat;sMbkeQI (tapa)
b¤sés. EdltamlkçN³RbéBNI enAkñúgBiFI b¤k,ÜnepSg² eKeRbIeFVICasMBtlkMral
b¤eFVICaRkNat;dNþb; sMBt;bwug b¤ r:Ub. sésedImxñúrsmø b¤saekr eFVICaExSBYrd¾l¥ sMrab;bMBak;elIesH
RkbI nigeFVICasMNaj;sMrab;cab;RtIqøam.[20,26]
cMENkÉEpñkepSg²eToténedIm eRbIsMrab;eFVICa»sf.[6] ykCatiCr½rbs;páa eTAlabelIeFµj
edIm,IBüa)al CMgWQWeFµj. ykCr½eQI labeTAelIEs,k ehIyeFVIkarma:sSa edIm,IBüa)alCMgWeRKc
nig)ak;q¥wg edaykat;bnßykarQWcab;. CaFmµta vaCafñaMBüa)alCMgWenAelIEs,k nigCMgWpSit
dUcCaCMgWs¥úyRkck CaedIm. eFVIkarbukkMeTcsøwk layCamYyTwkehIyjaMu Büa)alCMgWraK raKmYl nig
QWeBaH. enAekaH Pacific eKykCr½layCamYyTwkEdlRc)ac;BIskøw eFVICafñaMBüa)alFmkøinRtecok.
b¤srbs;saekr rYj eFVICafñaMbBa©úH ehIyenAeBlEdlykeTARtaM sMrab;sMGatCMgWelIEs,k. enAekaH
Pacific eRbIsMbksaek Büa)alCMgWQWk,al. enAxaglic RbeTs\NÐaqugsøwksaekrTMl
u ayCamYyEt
ehIyTTYlTan GacCYybnßykareLIgsm<aFQam. EtCYyRKb;RKgCMgWTwkenamEp¥m.
enA Taiwan eRbIsMrab;Büa)alCMgWeføIm nigRKunekþA páaBüa)alCMgWFMkøinRtecok. sMbk
CYyTb;Tl;nUvkarekIneLIgeKalikas
enAkñúgCalika
nigCYykarBarb¤s
edImb¤EmkRbqaMgnigskmµPaBrbs; BBYkGtisuxumR)aNmYycMnYn dUcCa BBYk)ak;etrI Gram-positive
nigeraKduHsac;.[20,26]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

pUsVr½
CatiEdk

8

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

9

kMTicedImxñúrsmø b¤saekr GaceFVICafñaMRClkBN’elOg. cMeBaHsøwk nigEpøTMuEdlFøak;mkelIdI
eFVICacMNIstV.[9]
[epSg²]: Cr½rbs;edImxñúrsmø b¤saekr sMrab;eFVICaCr½biTTUkEcv eRBaHvaGackarBarTwkcUl nigeFVICaCr½Rta
nigsac;eQIeFVICaRtaKMnUr.[20]
RKb;kEnøgénedImsaekr pÞúkeTAedayCatiCr½s¥it EdlGaceRbIR)as;)aneRcInya:g. enA Caribbean
nigkEnøgepSg²eTot eKykCr½vaeTAeFVICasàrekAs‘U. CaTUeTA enAtMbn; Pacific nigtMbn;epSg²eTot
eKeRbICr½saekr eFVICaCr½)am ¬sMrab;dak;eGayCab;stV¦ sMrab;cab;stVsab eFVICaGahar
nigykeramstV. enARbeTskUer: eKykCr½saekr layCamYyeRbgdUg sMrab;cab;ruy.
enA Hawaii kBa©Múpàasaekr eRbIsMrab;sMlab;RClk;BN’elOgeTACaBN’ etñat. CatieRbg
EdlcMraj;ecjBI RKab; CavtßúravmanBN’elOgx©I nigGn§il²eBlrkSaTukenAkñúgbnÞb;EdlRKb;RKg
sItuNðPaB)an ehIyvamankøinRsedog niwgsENþkdI. vamancMnYnm:UelKulKImI nigrUb Rsedog
eTAnigeRbgGUlIv.
enA Vanuatu nig Hawaii eKsMgYtpáasaekrb¤ xñúrsmø eGayrwgehIyduteFVICaFUbmUs.[20,26]
Cajwkjab; eKeRbIsøwksaekr sMrab;x©b;cMnIGaharcMGin. enAeBlEdlTMu épÞsøwkmanrageRKIm
EdlGaceFVICa Rkdasxat; nig RKab;GacykeTAcgCamYyExS écñeFVICaeRKOgGlgáa.[20]
saekr CarukçCatiEdlplitnUvbrimaNénCatieRbgeRcIn vak¾CaRbePTeQIEdlpþl;møb;)anl¥ nigCa
smasPaBmantMélsMrab; kareRbIR)as;dkI si]sSahkmµeGayGs;lT§§PaB eRBaHvaGacpþl;møb;dl;dMNaM
epSg²dUcCa eRmcexµA kaehV b:uEnþdMLÚgCVa k¾dUcCaRbePTdMNaMpþl;emImepSg²eTot nigeck
GacdaMenAcenøaH edImsaekr)an.
enAkñúgkEnøgmYYycMnYnénekaH)a:sIuhcVi saekr b¤xñúrsmø
daMsMrab;eFVICabegÁaleGaydMLÚgCVavaetageLIg.[26]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
BMumancMNat;fñak;eT.

:

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

kUneQIEdlduHecjBIkarsÞúM GacykeTAeFVkI ardMduHenATIval b¤cMkar nig enAtamdgsgxagpøÚv bnÞab;BIduH
b¤s b¤Bnøk. Artocarpus RtUvkarlkçxNÐdIEdll¥ edIm,IeGaymankarduHlUtlas;elOn.
KYrEtdak;kUneQI enAkñúgmøb; rhUtdl;knU eQImankarlUtlas;)anl¥. TIFøa KYrEtsßitenAcenøaHGb,rima
8x8
m
nigGacrhUtdl;eTA 10x10 m [1]. enAkñúgcMkar Artocarpus
kenSamsøwknwgenACab;²Kañkñúgry³eBlxøIb:ueNÑaH. karéRkRmkedayFmµCati nigRtUv)aneFVIeLIg
eRBaHkenSamsøwkFMeFVIeGaylUtlas;mankarfycuH.[16]

:

xageRkamenH KWCakarerobrab;BIviFIsa®sþénkardaMdHu tamry³karsmøab;emeraKelIkarbgáat;BUC
edayExñg nigb¤s. CaTUeTAkarbNþúHRKab;KWmanPaBgayRsYl ehIysaekr b¤xñúrsmø
manGaRtadMNuHRbEhl 85%. Exñgb¤srbs;saekr sMrab;ykmkeFVIkarbgáat;b¤s EdlCaviFIsaRsþ
bgáat;BUCsamBaØbMput.[16] sMrab;Gnuvtþ viFIsaRsþenH eKRtUvkat;b¤sEdlmanGgát;p©it 2 cm
nigmanRbEvg 10-15 cm. eKeFVIkardaMduHedaysÞÚgva enAelIdIxSac; edayeFVIkar
RKb;vaeTAnig]bkrN_RKbEdlmankMras; 1 cm nigeRsacTwkeGay)an jwkjab;.[1] cMeBaHRbePTxøH
RKab;mYycMnYnminRBmduH edaysarEtva)at;bg;nUvlT§PaBdMNuHya:gqab; rhs½ bnÞab;BIeFVIkarbNþúH 2
s)aþh_ GaRtadMNuHrbs;vaesµInwg 0%. BnøkdMNuH cab;epþImecjenAcenøaHeBl 2 eTA 4 s)aþh_
ehIyya:gyUrbMputrhUtdl;eTA 9 s)aþhb_ nÞab;BIsab.[16]
A. altilis, A. hirsutus Lamk, A. integer, A. rigidus nig A. sercicarpus CaRbePT Artocarpus
Edlpþl;emIm EbkExñgb¤s nigpþl;EpøFM.
RKab;EdldkhUtecjmkBIEpøsaekrTMu RtUvykeTAdaMPøam eRBaH 2-3 s)aáh_ eRkayRbmUlpl
vanwg)at; lT§PaBdMNuH. eKeFVIkarsab edaydak;RKab;XøatBIKñacMgay 5 cm nigCMerA 1 cm.
RKab;nwgcab;epþImduH bnÞab;BIbNþúHRbEhl 2 s)aþh_. RKab;EdlRss; gayRsYlkñúgkarbNþúH
ehIyGaRtadMNuHRbEhlCa 85%. fñalbNþúH KYrEtrkSaeGaymansMeNImRKb;eBl. kUneQI
RtUv)anykeTAsÞÚgmYy² enAkñúges,ag elOn b¤qab;GaRsy½eTAnwgkarlUtlas;rbs;kUneQI.
RbsinebIkUneQImankarduHlUtlas;elOn ry³eBlRbEhlmYyqñaM GacykeTAdaMenAcMkar b¤TIval)an.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

10

CaTUeTA saekrRtUv)aneFVIkardaMduHsMrab;eFVICabEnø. karbgáat;b¤s KWCaviFIsa®sþén karbgáat;BUC
samBaØbMput.
eBlevlasMrab;eFVIkarRbmUlb¤s
KWCaktþasMxan;bMputEdleFVIeGaykarbgáat;
TTYl)aneCaKCy½. karRbmUl l¥bMputKWenAkñúgkMLúg GskmµPaBénkarduHlUtlas;fµI b¤k¾enAeBledIm
rhUtEdlb¤smanpÞúknUv kabUnGIuRdatx<s;. kMLúgeBlGskmµPaBénkarduHlUtlas;KW ry³kMLúgeBl
2-3Ex bnÞab;BIEpøTMu. saekr karbegáIndMNuH k¾TTYleCaKCy½Edr tamry³karbgáat;edIm Emk nig
marcotting. [20]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

RtUv)aneKsÁal;faCastVl¥itcéRg EdleFVIeGayEpøsVayeRKIm. RbePT
Artocarpus mYycMnYn TTYlnUvkarvayRbharBIBBYkpSit Corticium salmonicolor nig Phellinus
lamaoensis eBlEdldgáÚv
Glyphodes caesalis ecaHRbehagelIBnøksøwk páaRkBMu nigEpøx©I.
eTaHCaya:gNak¾eday enHRKan;EtCadMNak;kaldMbUgénkarKMramkMEhgb:eu NÑaH elIRbePT A.
heterophyllus edImxñúr ehIyBMu)anbBa¢ak;favaKMramkMEhgdl;edImsaekreT.[16] edImsaekr b¤xñúrsmø
CaRbePTeQIEdlrwgmaM ehIyhak;dUcCaBMuTTYlnUvkarbMpøajBIstVl¥it nigCMgWeT eTaHbICaman
stVl¥itecaH RbeLaH nig mancMnucexµAenAelIsøwkénedImmYycMnYn. bBaðastVl¥it GaRsy½eTAtam tMbn;
b:ueNÑaH.[20] Epø RbEhlCaTTYlrgnUvkarb:HBal;xøH edayBBYk Phytophthora, Colletotrichum
(anthracnose)
nig Rhizopus (Tn;rlYy) b:uEnþbBaðaTaMgenHGaceFVIkarRKb;RKg)aneday
eFVIkarRbmUlEpø cas; b¤TMueGayTan;eBlevla nigeFVIkarebH b¤kMeTcecalnUvEpøEdlmanCMgW.[20]

11

Rastrococcus

invadens

F> karGPirkS

:

saekr b¤xñúrsmøminEmnCaRbePTEdlTTYlrgnUvkarKMramkmEhgeT. [1,16]

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)
manduHenARKb;kEnøgtMbn;TnM ab enAkñúgRbeTs.

:

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
saekr b¤xñúrsmø manduHlUtlas;enAtMbn;esImRtUBic nig enABaseBjBiPBelak.[6]
b:uEnþRbPBkMeNItenA New Guinea RbeTsma:eLsIu nig hVIlIBIn nigmankarrIksayPayRKb;TIkEnøg.

p> epSg²

:

saekr manlkçN³RbEhlnwgedIm African breadnut, Treculia africana k¾duHecjBIGMbUr Moraceae
enAtMbn;éRBTwkePøógén GaRBicxaglic nig tamdgTenø. páajIvivtþn_eTACaEpøEdlragRTEvg
EdlsMblkmanbnøa nig manTMgn;rhUtdl;eTA 15 kg. EdlenAxagkñúgpÞúkeTAedayRKab; nig
stVmüa:gecaHcUlsIurMlIgsac;xagkñúg.[9].

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Verheij E.W.M. & Coronel, R.E. (Eds.) 1991: Plant Resources of sSoutheast Asia.No.2,
Edible fruits and nuts. Pudoc, Wageningen, 446 pp.
Little, E.L. Jr.& Wadsworth, F.H. 1964: Common trees of >Puerto Rico and the Virgin
Islands. Agricultural Handbook no. 249. USDA. 548 pp.
Ragone,D,1977:

Breadfruit,

Artocarpus

altilis(Parkinson)

Fosberg.

Promoting

the

conservation and use of under-utilized and neglected crops.. INstitute of Plant Genetics
Rome.
Ragone, D 1995: Description of Pacific Island breadfruit cultivars..Acta Horticulturae
413;92-98; 8 ref.
Reeve, RM, 1974; Histological structure and commercial dehydration potential of
breadfruit. Economic Botany 28: 82-96.
Suharban M, Philip S, 1987: Fruit rot of breadfruit (Artocarpus incisa L. South Indian
Horticulture. 35(5):397;
Waterhouse, DF, 1991: Possibilities of biological control of the breadfruit mealybug
Icerya aegyptiaca on Pacific Island Atolls. Micronesica No 3, Supplement:117-122; 11
ref.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

and Crop Plant research. Gatersleben/International Plant Genetic Resource Nstitute,

12

Cambie RC, Ash J, 1994. Fijian medicinal plants. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial
Research Organisation, Australia.

Matthews RF, Bates RP, Graham HD, 1986. Utilization of breadfruit in the tropics.
Proceedings of the Interamerican Society for Tropical Horticulture, 30:83-94; [34th
Annual Meeting, San José, Costa Rica, 28 Jul.-2 Aug., 1986]; 15 ref.

Ragone D, 1990. Conservation and use of breadfruit in the Pacific Islands. In: Harris W,
Kapoor P, eds. Contributions to an international Workshop on Ethnobotany. Botany
Division, DSIR, Christchurch, New Zealand, 82-85.

Rajendran R, 1991. Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg. In: Plant resources of SouthEast Asia. No. 2. Edible Fruits and Nuts (Verheij EWM, Coronel RE, eds.). PROSEA
foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 83-86.

Wootton M, Tumaalii F, 1984. Breadfruit production, utilisation and composition - a
review. Food Technology in Australia, 36(10):464-465; 19 ref.
Cobley L.S & Steele W.M. 1976. An Introduction to the Botany of Tropical Crops.
Longman Group Limited.

Hong TD, Linington S, Ellis RH. 1996. Seed storage behaviour: a compendium.
Handbooks for Genebanks: No. 4. IPGRI.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Ragone D. 1997. Breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis. Promoting the conservation and use of
underutilized and neglected crops. 10. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant
Research, Gatersleben/International Plant Genetic Resources institute, Rome, Italy.

13

Raynor B. 1991. Agroforestry systems in Pohnpei. Practices and strategies for
development. Forestry Development Programme.

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

1)
FAO-SIDA 1988: Fruit-bearing forest trees. FAO Forestry Paper 34, Rome,
Italy, 177 pp.

4)
Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing
House; Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 915 pp.,

6)
Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field
guide. Orchid Press, Bangkok, 234 pp.

9)
Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide
Encyclopaedic Guide Thames & Hudson Ltd.,London. 484 pp.

12)

CABI Forestry Compendium Edition 2003 (CD)

13)
BAERTELS, A. 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen
(Color Atlas Tropical Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ.,
Stuttgart, Germany, illustrated, 384 pp

16)
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. And W.C. Wong (Eds.) 1995: Plant
Resources of Southeast Asia 5(2) Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers.
Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 655 pp.

17)
Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant
Resources of Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea
Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859 pp.

20)
Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002:
Agroforestree Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD).

26)
World Agroforestry Centre:
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicList.as
p (Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

18)
Dept. of Forestry and Wildlife 2003: Cambodia Forestry Statistics to
2002.(in Khmer and English) Planning & Accounting Off., Statistics Sect.,
Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 97 pp.

14

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg

³

Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

jackfruit [2], jack [4]

K> sTisn½y

³

Artocarpus brasiliensis Gomez (1812),
Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merrill,
Artocarpus integra Merr.,
Artocarpus integrifolia L.F,
Artocarpus integrifolia L.F & A. integra Merr.,
Artocarpus maxima Blanco (1837).,
Artocarpus philippensis Lamk (1789),
Artocarpus integrifolia auct. [7],
Artocarpus integrifolius auct. [4]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

X> eQµaHepSg²

1

³

jaca, jacueiro (Spain) [4] - jacquier (France) [4] - kathal
(Bangladesh) [4] - Jackfruchtbaum (Germany) [4] nangka, nongko (Indonesia) [4] - alasa, halasu, kathal,
kathar, phanas, pila, pilavu (India) [4] - miiz, miiz hnang
(Laos) [4] - jak (Sri Lanka) [4] - khnaôr, peignai
(Myanmar) [4] - nangka (Malaysia) [4] - kapiak (Papua
New Guinea) [4] - jak, langka, nangka (Philippines) [4] banun, khanum, makmi, nangka (Thailand) [4] - mít
(Vietnam) [4]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

xñúr
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

³

khnaôr [5]

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Urticales
RKYsar : Moraceae [4]
ÉksarBieRKaH: [-]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: edImeQItUc EdlmankMBs; 10-20 m [2] enAeBleBjv½y nigGgát;p©it DBH BI 30-60
cm [2] . edImRtg;RsLÚn b:uEnþcab;epþm
I duHEmkya:gelOn . ÉksarBieRKaH [2]
[søwk]: søwkmanTMhM 4-25 x 2-12 cm [6], dUcEs,k relag nigKµaneram . épÞxagelImanBN’ébtgcas;
épÞxageRkammanBN’ébtgx©I . søwksMEb:t RCYj rWmankarRCYjenAEpñkxagelI tMerobCalkçN³qøas;
enAelI beNþay Emk nigrages<óenAelIEmk edayduHenA 2/5 énEmk TMhMFMCageKgenAEpñkxagelI
sréssøkw man lkçN³dUcsøab edayman 5-12 KU . ÉksarBieRKaH [6]
[páa]: minTan;manTinñn½y .
[Epø]: EpøduHecj BIedIm nigEmk . EpøFMml
U RTEvg manTMhM 30-100 cm × 25-50 cm [7],
edaymanBkrag BIra:mtI xøIenABIelI rW manrWs . TgEpømanTMhM 5-10 x 1-1.5 cm . sMbk xageRkArbs;
EpømankMras;RbEhl 1 cm enACab;KñanwgbNþlÚ kNþal edayminGacEjk)an BIC½r rwgrWTn; BN’mas
rWelOg edaymansac;enA CMvu ijRKab; . EpømanBIrePT enAedImEtmYy b:Eu nþGacEckdac;BIKañ .
manRKab;eRcIn ragRTEvgTMhM 2-4 cm × 1.5-2.5 cm [7] edayh‘mu B½T§edaysMbk Edlmanbnøa
nigsMbkragGn§il² . sac;EpøesþIg nigmanlkçN³ dUcEs,k GMRb‘yÍ gu: manrunxül; kUTIeLdugmansac;
minesµIKañ Gg;dEU s<mtUc rWminman . Epø Edll¥manpÞúk RKab;cnM nY 500 RKab; nigRKab;nmi Yy² TMgn;BI 3-6
g" [7] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 6, 7]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

eQIRtUv)ancat;fñak;Ca RbePTmFüm . vaFnnwgkarbMpaø j rbs;kNþlú
pSit
)at;etrIEdleFIeV GayeQIBuk gaysMgYt nigduHxat; . eQImanBN’elOg eRkaymkERbCaBN’Rkhm
edaymanTMnajdI 0.6-0.7 g/cm³ [6] b:Eu nþminxøagM dUcCaém:sak;eT .
ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 6]

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

vaecjEpøenAkñgú kMritrvag 30°N nig S enAtMbn;EdlKµanG½BÞ nigdMNaMenH duHlUtlas;l¥ cenøaH 25°N nig
S . xñrú manRbPBkMeNItBIRbeTsma:eLsIu EdlvamanduHlUtlas;enAkñúgéRBeRsag b:Eu nþkR_ tUv)andaMduH
enARKb;TIkEnøgkñúgtMbn;RtUBic nig subtropics sMrab;CaRbePTeQIhUbEpø .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3, 7]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

3

:

enAkñgú CMrkFmµCa xñrú manduHenAry³kMBs; 400-1,200 m a.s.l. [5] . k_manduHenAry³kMBs;BI 0-1,600
m a.s.l. [4] (0-1,000 m a.s.l. [2, 7]) . sMrab;plitkmµ Edll¥bp
M tu vaTamTarnUvGakasFatuekþA
ehIyesIm nigmanePøógFaøk;eTogTat; . kMritsItuNðPaBmFümRbcaMqañ M : 16-22°C [6] (16-35°C [2])
kMritTwkePøóg RbcaMqañ M: 1,000-2,400 mm [6] (1,100-2,400 mm [4], 900-4,000 mm [2]) .
vaduHdalya:gelOn enAkñgú
GakasFaturaMgs¶Üt nigRtCak; elOnCag Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg nig Artocarpus
integer . vaFnnwgxül;mFüm nigminFnnwgkarraMgs¶Üt rWTwkliceT . (RbePTxøHFnnwgkarraMgs¶t
Ü [7]) .
vaGacduHenAtMbn;EdlmansItuNðPaBTab nigG½BÞ (vaminsUvFnnwgPaBRtCak; [7]) . rdUvR)aMgBI 3-4 Ex
KWsmRsb .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 6, 7]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
minTan;manTinñn½y .

:

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

xñrú GacduHlUtlas;)anl¥ enAelIeRCA l,b; l,ayxSac; rWl,ay\dæ EdlmanCICatimFüm mindk;Twk
nigman pH BI 5-7.5 . vaduHlUtlas; enAelIdI EdlmanCICatimFüm rWdmI insUvmanCICati rYmmandIRKYs
rW lateritic dImanfµ limestone mineRCA nigdIxSac; rWfµ . mankarFnmFümnwgdIéRb .
ÉksarBieRKaH [6]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: sac;eQIxúgñ RtUv)ancat;Tukfal¥Cagém:sak; (Tectona grandis) sMrab;eFIeV RKOgsgðarwm sMng;
eragCag dgekþag Rcva: ]bkrN_ eQIfamBl nig]bkrN_ePøg .
ÉksarBieRKaH [6]
[Gnupl]: EpøGacbriePaK)an EpøminTan;TMu RtUv)aneRbIR)as;CabEnø sMrab;smørkarI . RKab;manvItamIn A
s‘ulpYl (sulphur) kal;süÚm nigpUsrV RtUv)anbriePaKeRkayeBles¶a rWlIg edaysMgYt layCamYy
GMbli rWbku eFICV aemSAlayCamYyemSARsUvsalIsMrab;eFIVnbM gu½ . søwkkMrRtUv)aneRbICacMNIstVeT b:Eu nþsøkw
nig sMbk EpøGacRtUv)aneRbIR)as; . sMbkpþl;nUvC½r ravBN’exµA EdlmanpÞúknUvCatitanIn 3.3% .
kñúgC½reQI 71.8% manpÞkú 63.3% fluavilles (BN’elOg) nig 8.5% albanes (BN’s) . enAeBles¶a
CamYysac;CUr Gacm_ rNa nigkMTiceQI éneQIxwmø pþl;nvU l½kBç N’elOg sMrab;RClk;RkNat;sRU t
EdleRbIR)as;srM ab;eFIVCvI _ ( robes of Buddhist priests) rbs;RBHsgÇ . enAen)a:
rWsrbs;vaRtUv)aneRbICafñaMBüa)alrak nigEpømin Tan;TsMu rM ab;CafñabM Ba©úH . sMbkxageRkA
RtUv)aneFIeV GayeLIgem nigcMhuysMrab;plitePsC¢³ EdlmanCatiGal;klu .
ÉksarBieRKaH [6]
[epSg²]:
karBarkarhUreRcaH : "A. heterophyllus GacRtUv)andaM edIm,IkarBarkarhUreRcaHenAkñgú ksidæan " [6] .
møb; rW CMrk : "edImeQIRtUv)andaMenACit²Kña Car)aMgkarBarxül; nigCYnkareRbICamøbs; rM ab;edImkaehV " [6]
. RBMRbTl; rW r)aMgkarBar rW TMr : "edImRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;CaTMrrs; sMrab;edImeRmc " [6] .Intercropping:
"enARbeTshVl
I IBnI , A. heterophyllus RtUv)andaMCamYycMkardUg . enARbeTsma:eLsIu
edImeQIRtUv)andaMenAcenøaH edImFUern nigenA\NÐa RtUv)andaMenAcenøaH edImsVay nigRkUc . cMkaredImxñúr

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

4

EdlenAtUcGaceRbIR)as; RbePTdMNaMesdækice© nAcenøaH dUcCa eck eBat nigsENþkdI . vak_RtUv)aneRbI
R)as;srM ab; EklMGrdI kardaMeQIeLIgvij nig eFIeV GaydImanCICativij .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 6]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak; . ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

lkçN³TUeTA]:A. heterophyllus duHlUtlas;edayFmµCati enAkñgú éRBeRsag .
[kardaMduH]: sMrab;kardaMduH tMbn;RtUvmanlkçN³s¥atl¥ muneBldaM RtUvCIkreNþA (60-80 x 40-50 cm [5])
. enAeBlkMBugduHlUtlas; edImeQIRtUv)aneFIeV Gayrhal ¬kab;rMelaH¦ eGaymancenøaH 7.5-12 m
BIeRBaH karminkab;rMelaHnaMeGayedImeQIgab; .
[karRKb;RKg]:
"karéRkEmkRtUv)ankMrit
eyagtamkarrMelaHBnøkfµI enAeBledImeQIRtUv)andaM
nigkarkat;Emk edIm,IeGaymanPaBgayRsYlkñgú rMuEpø nigebHRbmUlpl . EmkEdlgab; KYrRtUv)ankat;
ecjBIedImeQIedIm,Iplþ ;nBU nøRW Kb;RKan;sMrab;karecj Epø nigRtYtBinti üRbePTstVl¥ti
.
TaMgkarsMGatesµA enAcenøaHrg nigCargVg;RtUv)anGnuvtþ edIm,ITb;sáat;esµAmineGayduH karRKbGac
smRsb nigCYyrkSasMeNImdI . kareRsacTwkenArdUvR)aMgRtUv)aneFIeV LIg eTaHCaya:gNak_edayRtUv
elIkrgenAKl;eQI nigeFIcV g¥eÚ dIm,IkeMu GayTwkdk; . CIRtUv)andak; BIr dgkñúgmYyqñaM muneBl
nigeRkayeBlrdUvvsSa . . kMriténkardak;CI KWxsu ²Kña BI 1 kg kñúg 1edIm (enAma:eLsI)u eTA 2-3 kg
(hVl
I IBnI )" [5] . lT§PaBduHExñg eLIgvijmankMritTab enAeBlmankMBs; 5 m enAGayu 5 qñaM [2] .
kMritkMeNIn 3-5 m³/ha/yr RtUv)anGegát . enAhVIlIBnI , A. heterophyllus RtUv )andaMCamYycMkardUg .
enARbeTsma:eLsIu edImeQIRtUv)andaMenAcenøaH edImFUern nigenA\NÐa RtUv)andaM enAcenøaH edImsVay
nigRkUc . cMkaredImxñúr EdlenAtUcGaceRbIR)as; RbePTdMNaMesdækic©enAcenøaH dUcCa eck eBat
nigsENþkdI .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 5, 6]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

:

:

edImeQIRtUv)anbnþBCU edaykarbgáat; kardaMedaypÞal; nig daMedayedImbgáat; . edImeQIduHeLIgvij
ya:gelOn . RKab;RtUvEt ebHBIedImeQIem Edll¥CageK . cMeBaHRKab; EdlFM²b:eu NÑaH RtUv)aneRbI
R)as; . karCMerIs ykRKab;BCU tamry³karlagsMGatsMbkxageRkAenACMvu ijRKab; nigkat;ykecjnUv
EpñkdUcEsñgén pericarp" [6] . karsþúkTukRKab;KW recalcitrant . GRtadMNuHRtUv)anrkSasMrab;
ry³eBl 2 qñaM enAkñúg sMeNIm 15°C [6] . RKab;RtUv)anrkSa enAkñgú fg;pøa sÞic EdlbMeBjeday perlite
enA 6°C [6] . manRKab;RbEhl 430 RKab; /kg [6] . enAeRkamlkçxN
½ ÐsmRsb dMNuHcab;epþmI
kñúgry³eBl 10 éf¶ nig GRtadMNuH 80-100% GacsMerc)ankñgú ry³eBl 35-40 éf¶eRkayeBlsab .
RtaMRKab;enAkñgú Twk rW GasIut gibberellic CYyCMrujdMNuH . RKab;RtUv)andak;enAepþk rW hilium cuHeRkam
edIm,IeGayqab;duH . kUneQIk_GacbNþHú tamry³karkat;pgEdr nigkareFIknøÚ k_Gacpþl;kUneQI
EdlecjEpø)anqab;rh½s . kUneQI nigkUnEdlbNþúHedaysrIragÁ RtUv)andaMenAkñúgfg; nigerobCa
CYrenAkñgú fñal edIm,Ikat;bnßykarzit enACitKñaeBk niggayRsYlkñgú karRKb;RKg . sMrab;karduH
lUtlas;elOn kUneQIRtUvdaMenAkñúgdIl,ay\dæ nigCIkMbu:s¾þ nigCIGasUt k_GacRtUv)andak; ragral; 2-3
Ex edayeRsacTwkeGay)aneTogTat; .kUneQIbgáat; GaclUtlas;l¥ enAeRkamkMritmøb; 50-70%
eBlmanBnøéW f¶eBj . kUneQIGacRtUv)andaM enAeBlmankMBs; 20-25 cm . kUneQIEdlbgáat; rW
pSaMGu acRtUv)andaMeRkayry³eBl 2-5 bnÞab;BIkar bgáat; rW enAeBlEdl Exñgbgáat;cas; . kUnrukçCati
Edl)anbMe)A KYRtUv)andaM eRkayry³eBl 2-3 Ex bnÞab;BIvaduHecjrWsmkxag eRkA .
kUneQIKRY tUv)anpøas;TI enAeBlEdlvaecjsøkw cMnnY 4 edIm,IeGayvaduHlUtlas;)anl¥ nigkMueGay
vamanrWs EvgeBkEdlnaMeGaymankarBi)akkñgú kardaMduH . CaTUeTA kUneQIbgáat;RtUv)andaMenAeBl Edl
rWsrbs;vaduHecjeRkAfg; EdleFIeV GaymankarrMxan dl;karlUtlas;rbs;kUneQI .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 6]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

6

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar
[

:

stVl¥ti ]: Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera umbrosa, Batocera rubus, Batocera rufomaculata,

Cosmoscarta relata, Glyphodes caesalis, Indarbela tetraonis, Ochyromera artocarpi.

ÉksarBieRKaH [6]
[

CMgW]: pSit: Corticium salmonicolor, Phomopsis artocarpina, Rhizoctonia koleroga, Rhizopus

artocarpi , Rhizopus stolonifer, Septoria artocarpi.

)ak;etrI : Erwinia carotovora
fñasM lM ab;pSitRtUv)an)aj; edIm,IkarBaredImBICgM W .
ÉksarBieRKaH [6]

F> karGPirkS

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

minTan;manTinñn½y .

7

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
r)a:yelIBiPBelak]:
[RbPBkMeNIt]: bg;køaeds \NÐa ma:eLsIu .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [6]
[karnaMcl
U ] : GaesrI Gg;ehÁaLa GURsþalI ebnnIn busVaNa eRbsIul bUKN
I a hVasU bUrUDI kamarU: exbevI
saFarN³rdæGaRhVci kNþal eqk cin kUmrU: Us kugehÁa kUedv½ eGsIub eGkVaT½rerol hÁeI no eGrIeTo eGsüÚBI
hVCI I hÁabug hÁaebo háaNa hÁeI nob‘sÍ U \NÐeÚ nsIu eknya: elsUtU lIb½ero ma:daháasáa ma:LavI ma:lI m:rU ukU

mUsg;b‘cí PUma nIesrIya: hVlI IBnI ra:van;da esenhÁal; esra:elGUn sUma:lI GaeRhVcxagt,Úg RsIlgáa
sU‘dg; tg;sanI TuyensIu G‘uyehÁnda sImu )aev .
ÉksarBieRKaH [6]

p> epSg²

:

RbvtþiénkardaMduH]: "xñrú RtUv)anraykarN_faCarukCç atimanRbPBBIéRB énRbeTs\NÐa nigma:eLsIu .
RbePTenH )anduHdal enARbeTsCitxagdUcCa RsIlgáa cinxagt,Úg GasIGu aeKñy_
nigtMbn;RtUBci énGaeRhVc Edlman RbeTseknya: G‘eU hÁnda tg;sanI ma:rItUs nigma:daháasáa . xñrú RtUv
)annaMclU RbeTshVIlIBInenAkñgú stvtSr_TI 12 nigRtUv)ankMNt;CaRbePTdMNaMkgñú Rsukcab; BIeBlenaH
mk . vaRtUv)andaMenAkñgú cMkartUc² enAkñgú RbeTs\NÐa sYnCMuvijpÞH enARbeTshVCI I nigCadMNaMkñúgsYn
c,a enAEk,rpÞHTUTaMgtMbn;)a:sIuhVic . "
ÉksarBieRKaH [6]
[

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Acedo AL. 1992. Multipurpose Tree Species Network Series: Jackfruit biology, production,
use, and Philippine research. Forestry/Fuelwood Research and Development Project.`
[1]

Lemmens RHMJ, Soerianegara I, Wong WC (eds.). 1995. Plant Resources of South-east
Asia. No 5(2). Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.

Perry LM. 1980. Medicinal plants of East and South East Asia : attributed properties and
uses. MIT Press. South East Asia.
[1]

Roshetko JM and Evans DO. 1997. Domestication of Agroforestry trees in Southeast Asia.
Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
[1]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[1]

8

Verheij EWM, Coronel RE (eds.). 1991. Plant Resources of South East Asia No 2. Edible
fruits and nuts. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
[1]

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] Sok, Sokunthet (RUA), 2006: Own obseravations.
[2] Species Fact Sheets (Module 9), 1994: Forestry / Fuelwood Research and Development
Project. Growing Mulltipurpose Trees on Small Farms (2nd ed.). Bangkok, Thailand: Winrock
Interational. 320pp.
[3] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[4] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).
[5] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8.
(CD-ROM).
[6] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicSearch.asp

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[7] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep

9

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Averrhoa bilimbi L]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Averrhoa bilimbi L]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y
X> eQµaHepSg²

³

Averrhoa bilimbi L. [6]

³

Billimbi, cucumber tree [6], tree sorrel [26]

³

minTan;manTinñn½y .

³

tralong tong (Cambodia); belimbing asam, belimbing wuluh,
belimbing buluk (Indonesia, Malaysia); tayok zaungya
(Burma ); kamias, iba (Philippines); taling pling, kaling pring
(Thailand); khe tau (Vietnam) [6] cornichon des Indes,
zibeline, blinblin, blimblim (French) grosella china, mimbro
(Spanish) [26].

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

RTlIgTIg
ÉksarBieRKaH : [3]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

1

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

trôlüng tüng [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Geraniales
RKYsar : Oxalidaceae[4], (Averrhoaceae)[11]
ePT : Averrhoa

RbePT : Averrhoa bilimbi L.
ÉksarBieRKaH: [11]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: culø×RBwkS [4]; CaedImeQItUcmanEmkBIreTAbI duHeLIgeTAelI kMBs; 6-9 m [6] .
edImeQIGacmankMBs; 5-10 m manedImxøI nigduHecjEmkeRcIn [26] .
[søwk]: tMerobCalkçN³qøas; dUcsøa mancMnYnBI 7-19 KU nigRbEvg 5-12 cm søk
w mYy²ragmUlEvg [6]
. søwkduHCabNþMú enAelIcugEmk qøas;Kña edayminzitCaKU manRbEvg 30-60 cm edaymansøwkBI 11-37
ragmUl rWRTEvg edaymanKl;søwkmUl nigcugsøwkRCYc Føak;cuHeRkam manBN’ébtgenAEpñképÞxagelI
nigBN’Rsal enAEpñkxageRkam manRbEvg 2-10 cm nigTTwg 1.20-1.25 cm [26] .
[páa]: páaCakBa©úM edaymanBN’RkhmsVay minmaRtbk RbEvg 10-22 mm . páatUc mankøinRkGUb
zitenAelIG½kS manRsTab;páacMnYn 5 manBN’ébtglayelOg rW sVaycas; manRbEvg 10-22mm
maneramtUc²enAelITg EdlduHCab;nwgedIm nigEmkcas;Rkas; nigkUnEmktUc ehIyk_man enAelIcegáam
EpøeTotpg [26] .
[Epø]: CaEpøsac;manBN’elOgébtg manragmUl manTMhM 10x5 cm [6] . EpørageGlIb mUl rW
sIuLaMg Edlman 5 RCug RbEvg 4-10 cm RKbedayRtbkragpáayesþIg nigcugkMBUlmanpáaragdUceram
cMnYnR)aMg . manlkçN³RsYy enAeBlEpøminTan;TMu ehIyERbBIBN’ébtg eTAelOgébtg BN’sdUcPøúk
rW s enAeBlTMu vaRCuHeTAelIdI . sMbkxageRkATn; esþIg nigsVit edaymansac;BN’ébtg
RsedogecAhYy sMbUrTwk nigCatiGasIut . vaGacmanRKab;sMEb:tBI 6-7 manTTwg 6 mm
BN’etñatrelag [26] . ecjpáa enAedImEx kumÖ³ nigbnþdl;páa nigEpø rhUtdl;ExFñÚ [26] .
.

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

eQImanBN’s Tn; nigGaceRbIsMrab;CaeQIfamBl [6] . eQImanBN’s Tn; b:uEnþrwg mansac;relag
nigTMgn;RbEhl 560kg/m³ . vakMrlUtlas;dl;kMritmuxkat; EdlGaceRbIR)as;kñúgkargar Cag
eQINas; [26[ ..

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

RbEhlCamanRbPBBI ma:LÚkas (Moluccas ) vak_RtUv)andaMduHenAkñúgRbeTs\NÐÚensIu
nigRbeTshVIlIBIn pgEdr nigdaMduHya:geRcIn enARsIlgáa nig PUma . vamanduHlUtlas;eRcIn enAéf
ma:eLsIu nigsgðbUrI EdlRtUv)andaMduHenAkñúgsYn ehIyk_manduHenATMnab;énRbeTs\NÐa
nigbnþray)a:yeTAdl;tMbn; EdlekþArbs;RbeTseTotpg . vak_RtUv)andaMduHenA esnsIu)a (Zanzibar)
. vaRtUv)annaMcUl XVIneln ( Queensland) enAkMLúgqñaM 1896 vagaysMrbxøÜn
nigRtUv)aneFIVlk;dUreTAeGayGñkdaMduHeTotpg [26] . vaGacmanduHenAtMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_
b:uEnþk_RtUv)andaMduHenAtMbn;RtUBiesImpgEdr [6] .

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

cUlcitþGakasFatuesImtamrdUv edaymanrdUvR)aMgpgEdr EtminraMgs¶Üt . Fn;nwgdImanCatiéRbtictYc
b:uEnþminlicTwk rW manCatiéRbCaRbcaM . RTlIgTIg CaedImeQIRtUvBik gayrgnwgGakasFatuRtCak;
Cags<W CaBiessenAeBltUc . smRsbbMput KW enAtMbn;manGakasFatesIm mankMritePøógFaøk;l¥
b:uEnþKYrmanrdUvR)aMgBI 2-3 Ex . edImeQIduHlUtlas;yWtenAkñúgmøb; nigsßanPaBmanmøb;tictYc . vaKYrEt
dak;eGaylUtlas;enAcMBnøWéf¶eBj [26].

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

minRtUv)ankMNt; .

3

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

edImeQIduHlUtlas;)anl¥enAelIdI sMbUrCICati mansMeNIm manCatiGasIuttic eRCobTwk)anl¥ b:uEnþ
karlUtlas; nigkarecjEpø )anl¥enAelIRbePTdIxSac; rW dIfµkMe)a vak_Fn;nwgdImanCatiGMbilpgEdr [6].

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

lkçN³eQI]: eRbIR)as;eRcInsMrab;CaGusdut [6] .
[ Gnupl]: EpømanCatiGasIutxøaMg (ph 4.5) Cag A. carambola . vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;tictYc
cMeBaHEpøRss; nigeRbIeRcInsMrab;dak;kñúgsmørkarI [26] . EpøGacbriePaKRss; rW eFIVCadMNab; karI rW RCk;
[19]
. BYkvapþl; TinñplCaTwk 44.2% Edlman pH esµInwg 4.47 nigTwkrbs;
vaKWmankareBjniymsMrab;CaePsC¢³RtCak;² . bilimbi RtUv)aneRbICMnYssVay edIm,IRCk;
nigGacrkSaTuk)anyUrCag . edIm,Ikat;bnßyCatiGasIut vaRtUv)anRCk; nigRtaMTwkry³eBlmYyyb; rW
RtaMenAkñúgTwkGMbilmYyry³xøI bnÞab;mkRtUv)anes¶arCamYysár edIm,IeFIVdMNab; rW ecAhYy . enAma:eLsIu
vaRtUv)anykeTAkUlayCamYyEpøeQI Edlmanrs;CatiEp¥mxøaMg . Epø Edlcas;RtUv)anykeTA
Rblak;GMbil nighaléf¶ nigeFIVCaRCk; EdlGacrkSaTuk)andl;eTAbIEx . páaCYnkalRtUv)anyk
eTARblak;layCamYysár edIm,IeGayrkSaTuk)anyUr [26] .
mankareRbIR)as;sMrab;Ca»fsbUraNeRcInxus²Kña dUcCa enAhVIlIBIn søwkRtUv)aneRbICaekA
eGoksMrab;bit eTAelIkEnøgrmas; ehIm karQWsnøak;q¥wg nigBgEbkelIEs,k . enAkEnøgepSgeTot
BYkvaRtUv)anykeTAlab enAelIkEnøg EdlstVmanBisxaM . CnCatima:eLsIu yksøwk EdlRss; rW
Edl)an p¥ab; eTABüa)alCMgWkameraK . søwkGaceRbIsMrab;Büa)alCMgWk¥k nigRtUv)anbriePaK bnÞab;
BIpþl;kMeNIteGay kUn sMrab;CMnYykMlaMg . søwk Edles¶arRtUv)anbriePaK edIm,Ikat;bnßy
karrlakeBaHevon . Twk Edl)anBIpáa RtUv)aneRbIsrM ab;RbqaMgCMgWk¥k nigeraKRbmat; . enAekaHcava:
EpøRtUv)anlayCamYyeRmc rW emÞs sMrab;briePaKeGayecjejIs enAeBlmanGarmµN_faminRsYlxøÜn .
RCk;Twkrbs;RCk; RtUv)anykeTA labelIdgxøÜn eFIVeGayqab;Ca bnÞab;BImanCMgWRKun . Epø
RtUv)aneRbIsrM ab;Büa)alCMgWk¥k eraKs<Wk nigeraKmYremA: . Twkrbs;Epø RtUvbriePaKsMrab;Büa)alCMgWRKun
nigkarrlak nigbBaÄb;karkarhUrQam nigkat;bnßyb¤sdUg)at ehIyvak_RtUv)aneRbICafñaMbBa©úH
edaysarsMbUrGasIutGuksaLic .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1,6,26]
RTlIgTIEtRtUv)andaMduHCaRbePTeQIlMGr [1] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

4

epSg²]: kMritGasIutGuksIuLicd_x<s; eFIVeGayvaGaceRbIsMrab;sMGat Kris (kaMbit rW davbUraN)
BIPaBeRcH sMGateRcHecjBIsMelokbMBak; nigsMGatsMPar³eFIVBIR)ak;eGaymanPaBPWørelageTotpg
[26] .
[

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak; .

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

karbnþBUCeFIVeLIgtamry³RKab; rW karpSaMu nigkat; [1] karbnþBUCedayRKab; edaypSaMu nigkarb:HBnøk
enAelIkUneQI EdlmanGayumYyqñaM . kUneQIRtUv)andaMenAkñgú fg;pøasÞik nigbnÞab;BI 6-12
ExenAkñúgfñal vaRtUv)anykeTAdaMenAxageRkA edaycenøaHdaM 4mx6m Rsedonwg A. carambola Edr
[6]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

5

:

mindUcs<W (A.carambola) EdlmanlkçN³RsedogKña . PaBxusKñaenaHKW RTlIgTIgmanlkçN³minsUv
Fn;nwgPaBRtCak; [26].

F> karGPirkS

:

minRtUv)ancat;bBa©ÚlCaRbePTrgeRKaHfañk;eT .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
duHlUtlas;enATUTaMgtMbn;RtUBikesIm [6] manRbPBkMeNIt enARbeTsma:eLsIu nig \NÐÚensIu
nigRtUv)annaMcUl Gaemrikxagt,Úg PaKxaglicekaH\NÐa shrdæGaemrik GURsþalI nighVIlIBnI [26].

p> epSg²

:

lkçN³eGkULÚsIu r)a:y KWmanlkçN³RsedogKñaeTAnwg A. carambola [6]

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Mackeen MM, Ali AM, El Sharkawy SH, Manap MY, Salleh KM, Lajis NH, Kawazu K. 1997.
Antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of some Malaysian traditional vegetables (ulam).
International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 35(3): 174-178
Morton J. 1987. Bilimbi. p. 128-129. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami,

Nagy S, Shaw PE, Wardowski WF (eds.). 1991. Fruits of tropical and subtropical origin:
composition, properties and uses. Florida Science Source, Inc. Lake Alfred, Florida.
Warren JM, Emamdie DZ, Kalai. 1997. Reproductive allocation and pollinator
distributions in cauliflorus trees in Trinidad. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 13(3): 337345.

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

4)
Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House;
Phnom Penh,. 915 pp.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Florida.

6

6)
Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field
guide. Orchid Press, Bangkok, 234 pp.

9)
Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide
Encyclopaedic Guide. Thames & Hudson Ltd., London, 484 pp.

13)
Baertels, A., 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen
(Colour Atlas Tropical Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ.
Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.

19)
Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The cultivated Plants of the Tropics and
Subtropics. Josef Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552
pp.

20)
Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002:
Agroforestree Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD).

26)
World Agroforestry Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp
?

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

(Internet source)

7

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Averrhoa carambola L]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Averrhoa carambola L]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y
X> eQµaHepSg²

³

Averrhoa carambola L. [6]

³

star fruit, carambola, (English and Spanish) [6]

³

minTan;manTinñn½y .

³

spü (Cambodia); fuand (Laos); belimbing manis (Malaysia,
Indonesia); zaung ya (Burma); balimbing (Philippines); ma
fuang (Thailand); khe (Vietnam). Carambolier (French) [1,6)

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

sW<
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

1

spü [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Geraniales
RKYsar : Oxalidaceae (Averrhoaceae) [11]
ePT : Averrhoa
RbePT : Averrhoa carambola L. [6]
ÉksarBieRKaH: [4 ; 6 ; 11]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: edImeQItUcébtgCanic© manedImeRcIn 3-5 m CYnkaldl;eTAkMBs; 10 m
Ggát;p©itRbEhl 15 cm enAKl; [1] CaedImeQItUc rW culRø× BwkS [13] . edImtUc manEmkeRcIn
nigkMBs;Gacdl; 15 m . duHRtQwgRtéQ nigmanEmkFøak;cuHmkeRkam [6] .
[sMbk]: BN’etñatRsal relag rW eRbHelIsMbk .
[søwk]: qøak; manlkçN³Casøab RbEvg 15-25 cm zitenAragepþkbnþic rW xøaMg manTgsøwkxøI edayman
cMnYnsøwkBI 7-9 . søwkgayrgkarb:HBal; dUcBBYk Mimosa spp. [1] . mancMnYn 3-6 KUr manRbEvgBI
4-10 cm ragmUl nigzitenAEtÉg [6] . Casmassøwk [13] .
[páa]: BYkvaduHecjCacegáam EdlmanRbEvg 2-5 cm enAelIG½kSénsøwk Edlcas; rW RCuH . páaman
R)aMRCug nigmanRtbkpáacMnYn R)aM BN’sIuCm<Ú nigrMedayRsTab;páaBN’sVay . kBa©úMpáamanekseQµal
cMnYn 5 sMrarb;bgárkMeNIt . páaduHlUtlas;enAelIGk½ Srbs;Tg edayP¢ab;nwgRtbk manRbEvgdl;eTA
8 mm manBN’RkhmRsal nigsVayenAkNþal mankBa©úMpáaduHeLIgRtg; TngenAelIG½kSsøwk
nigcugBnøk BN’sIuCm<Ú eTAsVay páanimYy² manRbEvg 2.5 cm [13] .
[Epø]: CaEpøsac;mineRbH manRbEvgBI
5-8 cm EdlmanrUbragdUncpáay EdlmanRCugcMnYnR)aM .
manBN’elOgébtg nwgmanBN’elOgTwkRkUc enAeBlTMu . Epømanmanrs;CaEp¥m . ekasika EpønimYy²
man 5 RKab; [1] . manRbEvg 12 cm ragmUlman 5 RCug EpøBN’elOg ragdUcpáay nigmanRKab;BI 10
eTA 12 RKab; . sacEpø manlkçN³RsYy nigsMbUrTwk manCatiGasIut mankøinRkGUb nigRss; . BBYk
EdlduHkñúgéRBmankMritCaCUx<s; edaysarsMbUrGasIutGuksaLic[13] . EpømanTMhM 12x6 cm
manBN’elOgébtgPøW enAeBlTMu manR)aMRCug . RbePTeQI Edlbgáat; pþln; Uvpáa nigEpøeBjmYyqñaM
[6].

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

eQImanBN’s Tn; nigRtUv)aneRbIR)as;sMrab;CaeQIfamBl .

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

manRbPBkMeNItBItMbn;RtUBikGasIuGaeKñy_ ma:eLsIu nig\NÐÚensIu RtUv)annaMcUleTAcin \NÐa \NÐÚcin éf
hVIlIBIn GURsþalI nigCaRbePTnaMcUl enAGaeRhVcxagt,Úg PaKxaglicekaH\NÐa GaeRhVc
nigshrdæGaemrik [1,26) . vaduHlUtlas;eRcIn enARbeTstMbn;RtUBik CaRbePTeQIlMGr
nigeQIhUbEpø b:uEnþ RtUv)andaMduHya:geRcInpgEdr enAGnutMbn;RtUBik [1] .

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

s<WRtUv)andaMdHu TUTaMgRtUBik BItMbn; Edlmanry³kMBs;Tab eTAx<s;dl;eTA 900 m .
vaFn;nwgPaBRtCak;ry³eBlxøI b:uEnþkUneQItUc Gacgab;enAeBlmansenSIm . vacUlcitþduH enAtMbn;man
GakasFatuesImtamrdUv edaymanrdUvR)aMg b:uEnþminraMgs¶Üt . s<WGacduHlUtlas;enAelIdIGasItu kMritTab
b:uEnþminmanTwklic rW dImanCatiéRb [6]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minRtUv)ankMNt; .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

Fn;nwgdIGasIutkMritTab b:uEnþminFn;nwgkarCaMTwk rW dImanCatiGMbil . s<WcUlcitþdI EdlmanlkçN³eRCA
eRCobTwk)anl¥ dIl,ay\dæ b:uEnþk_GacduHelIdIxSac; nigdIsMbUrdI\dæpgEdr [26].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

3

:

manduHlUtlas;enAkñúgRbeTsCaeRcIn b:uEnþPaKeRcIndaMCaeQIlMGr nigkardaMyk
Epø KWminsUvmansar³sMxan;b:unµaneT [26] .
[eQI]:
eQIRtUv)aneRbICaeQIfamBl eRBaHvamanmuxkat;FM ehIymanlkçN³Tn; manBN’s
CYnkarRtUv)aneRbIsMrab; eFIV]bkrN_tUc² [26] .
[Gnupl]: EpøGacbriePaKTaMgenARss; rW eFIVCadMNab; smørkarI rW RCuk [19] TwkEpøeQI
Gacdak;bEnßmeTAbEnø edIm,IeGaymanrs;CatiEp¥mlayCUr [13] .
Epøs<WminTan;TMu manpÞúkb:UtasüÚmGuksaeLt EdleRbIsMrab;eFIVCal½kç [26] .
Averrhoa carambola

Epø nigTwkrbs;va RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;CafñaMbBa©úH edaymanpÞúk GasIutGuksIuLic [1] vak_RtUv)aneRbI
R)as;Ca»sfbUraN sMrab;Büa)alCMgWEs,k nigRKun [26] .
[epSg²] TwkEpø EdlmanCatiGasIut RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;CaTwklagsMGatPaBERcHrbs;Edk enAkñg
ú RbeTs
mYycMnYn niglagsMGatkarRblak;enAelIRkNat; (linnen textiles) [1] . eRbgRtUv)ancMerjyk
sMrab;eFIVCaeRKOgsMGag [6].

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak; .

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

RtUv)aneraylMGg;edaystVl¥it edayXµúM nigBBYk Diptera species .
karecjpáaGacekIt maneBlmYyqñaM nigkarecjEpøk_dUcKñaEdr . kUneQIGacpþlE; pøenAGayuBI 3-8 qñaM
nigkUneQI Edlbgáat; Gacpþl;EpøEtkñgú ry³eBlBI 1-2 qñaM [26] . enAeBltUc s<WgayrgeRKaHNas;
nigRtUvkar karEfTaM . edaysar vaduHlUtlas;elOn vaRtUvkar karéRkEmk nigkat;rMelaHnUvEpømYycMnYn
enAeBlduHenAdMNak;kaldMbUg . edIm Edll¥GacRtUv)anrkSasMrab;karbgáat; enAeBlmanGayuBI 2-3
qñaM . Tinñpl Gacdl; 900 kg/ha nigGacmandl;Gayu 10 qñaM [26].
carambola

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

RKab;BUC CaRbePT intermediate . kMritsMeNImTabbMput EdlsmRsb KW 12.3% Tab CagenHGac
eFIVeGayfycuHnUvGRtadMNuH . lT§PaBdMNuHGacRtUv)anrkSakñgú ry³eBl 6 Ex edayeFIVkarsMgYt enA
kMritsItuNðPaB 5ºC . CaTUeTAmanRKab;RbEhl 15, 000 RKab;/kg [26] . karbnþBUC edayRKab; kar
pSaMu nig karb:HBnøk nigedaysarkarb:HBnøk enAelIkUneQI EdlmanGayumYyqñaM . kUneQI RtUv)andaM
enAkñúgfg;pøasÞik nigbnÞab;BIry³eBl 6-12 enAkñúgfñal nigRtUv)anykeTAdaMenAxageRkA enAcenøaH 4
m x 6 m . karecj paá nigEpø GacmanenArdUvR)aMg b:uEnþmineRcIneT [1].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

A.

4

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

dgáÚv (Diacotrichia, Pingasa nig Pseudoterpna) eFIVkarbMpøajpáa nigsøwkEdlenAx©I . Epøs<W
rgnUvkarbMpøajBIBBYkruyEpø maggots( Dacus dorsalis) enAtMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_ nigBBYkxñÚtecaHEpø
(Othreis spp. enAGURsþalI) EdlTamTarnUvkarkarBar . CMgWGC
u ²elIsøwk (Cercospora averrhoa)
nigCMgW pink (Corticium) vayRbhal edImeQIenAtMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_ b:uEnþkareFIVeGayrlYyrWs
eRkayeBlRbmUl plKWmanPaBF¶n;FrCaenHeTAeTot kareFIVmansñakelIEpø edayBBYkpSit
Ceratocystis, Colletotrichum, Dothoriella nig Phomopsis [26].

F> karGPirkS

:

minRtUv)ancat;bBa©ÚlCaRbePTrgeRKaHfañk;eT

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :

5

manRbPBkMeNItBI GasIuGaeKñy_ b:uEnþRtUv)annaMcUl eTARbeTsCaeRcInenAtMbn;RtUvBik nigGnutMbn;RtUBki
.

p> epSg²

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Nicholson B.E, Harrison S.G, Masefield G.B & Wallis M. 1969. The Oxford Book of Food
Plants. Oxford University Press.
Perry LM. 1980. Medicinal plants of East and South East Asia : attributed properties and
uses. MIT Press. South East Asia.
Popenoe W. 1974. Manual of the tropical and subtropical fruits. The Macmillann
Company.
Rice RP, Rice LW, Tindall HD. 1987. Fruit and vegetable production in warm climates.
Macmillan Press, London.
Sedgley M, Griffin AR. 1989. Sexual reproduction of tree crops. Academic Press. London.
Tankard G. 1987. Tropical fruit. A guide to growing and using exotic fruits. Viking O’Neil.
Timyan J. 1996. Bwa Yo: important trees of Haiti. South-East Consortium for
International Development. Washington D.C.
Verheij EWM, Coronel RE (eds.). 1991. Plant Resources of South East Asia No 2. Edible
fruits and nuts. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
Williams R.O & OBE. 1949. The useful and ornamental plants in Zanzibar and Pemba.
Zanzibar Protectorate.

:

1)
FAO-SIDA 1988: Fruit-bearing forest trees. FAO Forestry Paper 34, Rome,
Italy, 177 pp.

4)
Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House;
Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

6)
Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field
guide. Orchid Press, Bangkok, 234 pp.

9)
Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide
Encyclopaedic Guide. Thames & Hudson Ltd., London, 484 pp.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

6

13)
Baertels, A., 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen
(Colour Atlas Tropical Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ.
Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.

19)
Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The cultivated Plants of the Tropics and
Subtropics. Josef Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552
pp.

20)
Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002:
Agroforestree Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD).

26)
World Agroforestry Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp
? (Internet source).

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/species name (Internet source)

7

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Azadirachta indica A. Juss.]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Azadirachta indica A. Juss.]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

³

neem [2], cornucopia, Indian cedar, Indian lilac,
margosa tree, neem tree [8]

K> sTisn½y

³

Antelaea azadirachta (L.) Adelb.,
Azadirachta indica var. siamensis Valenton,
Azedarach fraxinifolia Moench,
Melia azadirachta L.,
Melia fraxinifolia Adelb.,
Melia indica (A. Juss.) Brandis,
Melia pinnata Stokes [5]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

X> eQµaHepSg²

1

³

neem (Trade name) [8] - kinin (Ethiopia) [8] - neem, nim
(Arabia) [8] - nim, nimgach (Bangladesh) [8] - bowtamaka,
tamabin, tamaka, tamar, tamarkha, thinboro (Myanmar) [8] bevu, kohomba, nimba (China:Cantonese) [8] - azadirac de
l’Inde, margosier, margousier, neem, nim (France) [8] balnimb, neem, nim, nind, nimba (India) [8] - imba, intaran,
membha, mempheuh, mimba, mind (Indonesia) [8] - ka dao,
kadau (Laos) [8] - baypay, mambu, sadu, veppam (Malaysia)
[8] - neem (Nepal) [8] - mkilifi, mwarubaini, mwarubaini kamili
(East Africa) [8] - vembu, vepa, veppam, veppu (Sri Lanka)
[8] - cha-tang, kadao, khwinin, sadao, sadao India, saliam
(Thailand) [8] - s[aaf]u d[aa]u, saafu daau, sเu-dเu (Vietnam)
[8]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

esþA
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati
rC¢³ : Viridiplantae

³

sdau [8]

saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Rutales
RKYsar : Meliaceae
ePT : Azadirachta
RbePT : Azadirachta indica
ÉksarBieRKaH: [5]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA] CaedImeQImanTMhMmFüm nigkMBs;BI 15-20 m . edImb:unefñal RbEvgxøI (2-5 m)
edayman Ggát;p©it 100 cm nigTTwgBI 1.5-3.5 m . kenSamsøkw mUl rWragmUlRTEvg EdlmanEmkrIkFM
edayman Ggát;pi©t 15-20 m cMeBaHedImcas; . RbB½nr§ WsmanrWsEkvd_rwgmaM nigrWsryag
EdlduHlUtlas;ya:gl¥ . rwsryagGacduHlUtlas;dl;eTARbEvg . VAMs (vesicular-arbuscular
mycorrhizae) manTMnak;TMngCamYyrWstUc² .
[sMbk]: sMbkRkas;mFüm (1.25-2.5 cm) manBN’RbepH rW Rkhmetñat . sMbkxageRkAeRkIm
manCatieQIeRbHCadM²u eRcIn RCuHFøak;mkCabMEnk² . C½rrbs;vamanBN’RbepHlays .
[søwk]: minzitenACaKUr RbEvg 20-40 cm duHCMvu ijsMedAeTAcugEmk . søwknimYy manBN’ébtgcas;
nigcMnnY BI 9-15 b:Eu nþGacmandl;rhUt 31 zitenAqøas;Kña ragdUces<ó rWTMBk; mancugRsYc manrag
dUcrNaenACaysøkw nigRbEvg 3-8 cm . minmancugsøkw nigTgsøwkxøI ehIysøwkx©ImanBN’Rkhm rW
sIuCm<Ú .
[páa]: kBa©Mp
ú aá manpáaRbEhl 150 CYnkalmanrhUtdl; 250 . páamanBN’s mankøni RkGUb manbeNþay
4-6 mm nigTTwg 8-11zitenAelIGk
½ Srbs;Emk Edlminmaneram manKYrpáaeRcIn rWtic nigRbEvg 25 cm
. Rtbkpáa 5 nigRsTab;páa 5 manragRTEvg maneramtic²enAxageRkA . kenSamekseQµacMnnY 10 nig
srIragÁ eksjIKµaneram manrun§cMnYn 3 . RkeBjbeBa©jTwkdmmanragdUckg nigpþMúcUlKñaenAEpñkxag
eRkamén srIragÁeksjI . vaecjpáaenAEx emsa eTA ]sPa (RbeTs)a:KsI aß n) .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Epø]: Epøminmaneram nigragmUl manTMhM 1.4-2.8 x 1.0-1.5 cm enAeBlcas; nigmanragdUcs‘utRTEvg
manftcMnnY mYy nigRKab;mYy . manBN’ébtgenAeBlenAx©I nigBN’elOgébtg rWRkhmenAeBlTMu .
sMbkxageRkAesþgI nigsac;manrsCatilVIg manBN’elOgx©I nigsMbUrsrés mankMras;BI 0.3-0.5 cm .
sMbk RKab;BN’s zitenACMuvijRKab;EtmYyb:ueNÑaH vakMrmanRKab;cnM nY 2 rW 3 Nas; ehIy
RKab;ragRTEvgmansMbkBN’etñat . BYkvamanTMhM 0.9-2.2 x 0.5-0.8 cm Edlmansac;RKab;TMhM 0.81.6 x 0.4-0.5 cm .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 9]
[

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

eQIxwømmanBN’Rkhm rwg nigFn; . dg;seIu teQIKW 0.72-0.93 g/cm³ enAkMritsMeNIm 12% [8] .
vabgðajnUvPaBsmRsbsMrab;eFIVtTu U vamanlkçN³eRKIm nigminrelagl¥.
eQImankarFn;ngw karbMpaø jrbs;keNþó.
ÉksarBieRKaH [8, 9]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

3

:

kMritRbEhl : 28°N eTA 30°S [8] . esþARtUv)andaMduHesÞIrEtRKb;TIkEnøg enAkñgú tMbn;TMnabRtUBci .
vaRtUv)ancat;Tukfa CaRbePTEdlmanedImkMeNIenAtMbn;raMgs¶tÜ dUcCa \NÐa )a:KsI aß n PUma RsIlgáa
GaháanIsaß nbg;køaeds nigcin . vaRtUv)andaMduH enAkñgú RbeTséf ma:eLsIu nig \NÐeÚ nsIu .
vaEtduHlUtlas;enAkñgú tMbn;éRBraMgs¶tÜ éRBCMruHsøkw éRBesIm nigéRBcMruH . enARbeTs\NÐa nig)a:KsI aß n
esþAduHlUtlas;CaFmµCati enAkñgú éRBCMruHsøkw cMruHs¶Üt nigRbePTéRBEdlsMbUrRbePTrukçCatimanbnøa
CamYyRbePT Acacia spp. nig Dalbergia sissoo . enA\NÐeÚ nsIu vaduHlUtlas;CaFmµCatienAtMbn;
éRBmUsgu TMnab . enAGaeRhVc vamanduHenAkñgú éRBeRsag nigéRBCMruHsøkw s¶tÜ . vaminEmnCaRbePT
duHlUtlas; EdlBwgEp¥keTAelIéRBeQIeT Etva duHenATIkEnøgEdlman skmµPaBmnusS . enAeRkam
lk½N
ç ÐFmµCati vaminduHlUtlas;CaRkumeT .
ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 8, 9]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

duHlUtlas;enAry³kMBs;BI 0-1,500 m a.s.l. [5] kMBs;Edll¥bpM tu KW 700-800 m a.s.l. [9] eRcInenAelI
TMnab nigtMbn;xg< ;rabTab² enAtMbn;RtUBci s¶Üt nig subtropical . kMBs;TwkePøógmFüm: 400-1,200 mm

. CamYykMBs;TabCag 400 mm vaGacrs;)anGaRs½yTwkeRkamdI
nigeRkamsßanPaBenHvaGac
edaymankMBs;TwkePøóg
130
mm
[9]
.
vamankarFn;gw karraMgs¶Ütry³eBlEvg (1-8 Ex [5]) . sItuNðPaBmFümRbcaMqañ M : 21-32°C [9] .
kMritsItuNðPaB : 9.5-37°C [2] (4-50°C [9]) . sItuNðPaBeRkam 4°C GaceFIVeGayrukçCatigab;)an .
enAxageCIg)a:KIsaß n edImeQIcas;hak;dUcCamankar Fn;stI uNðPaBTab eTaHbICa 0°C k_eday [9] .
edImeQIeBjv½ymankarFn;ngw senSIm b:uEnþkUneQItUc² gayrgeRKaHnwgsenSIm . esþATamTarnUvBnøxW øagM
b:Eu nþvaFn;ngw møbm; Füm enAkMLgú mYyeTABIrqñadM MbgU .
ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 8, 9]
[8] (450-1,500 mm [2])

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y . .
:

esþAduHlUtlas;enAelIRbePTdIeRcInRbePT BIRbePTdINWt eTARbePTdI)as (alkaline soils) b:Eu nþduHlUt
las;)anl¥CagRbePTd_eTotenAelIdI rak; fµ xSac; rWkEnøgEdlmankal;süÚm rW\dærwgenAEpñkxageRkam .
vaduHlUtlas;l¥enAelIdImni dkTwk nig manxSac;eRCA . man pH BI 6.2-7.0 [9, 8] (5-7 [2])
nigxøaMgbMptu BI 5.9-10.0 [9] . vaGacduHenAelId)I as rWCatiGMbli b:Eu nþminFn;ngw dICaMTwk
nigmanxSac;eRCAedaymancrnþTwkeRkamdIeRCA . (vaminduHlUtlas;enAelIdImanCatiGbM ileT [2] ) .
enAmUháaDIs‘U sUma:lI bMBugbgðTÚ wksMrab; eRsackUnesþA manCatiGbM il (EC 4.25 dS/m, total solids
2763 mg/l)" [9] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 8, 9]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: eRbIR)as;srM ab;CaeQIfamBl eQIh‘ub (kMritFn;xs< ); KuNPaBx<ss; rM ab;karplitFüÚg [2] .
eQIGarbegÁal rbg sMPar³eFIBV eI QI sMNg;ka)a:l; nigkarsagsg; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 8]
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

4

Gnupl]: eRbgesþARtUv)anplitenAtMbn;GasIuGs;ry³eBlCayUrmkehIy sMrab;]sSah_kmµplitsab‘U
eRKOgsMGag »sf nigplitplEdlminGacbriePaK)anepSg²eTot . eRbgEdl)anBIRKab;
KWCnY kalmanTMgn;F¶n;dl;eTA 50% énTMgn;sac;RKab; . eRbgesþAmantMélRbEhl US$ 700/t (1990)
[7] . RKab; Edl )anBIedImesþAmanpÞúksmasFatu EdlehAfa azadirachtin . karcMraj;ykGac
RtUv)aneFIeV LIgeTAsøkw nigCalikard_éTeTot b:Eu nþRKab;manpÞkú smasFatuenHx<sb; Mput . eKeRbI
azadirachtin CamYysmasFatu epSg² eTotEdl)anBIedImsMrab;eFIVCafñas
M lM ab;stVl¥it . fñasM lM ab;
stVl¥ti RbePTenHKWmansuvtßPaBsMrab;brisßan nigGacCYykMcat;RbePTstVl¥ti Cag 250 RbePTrYmman
BBYkCBa¢k;edIm BBYkkekr kNþbÚ nigRbePTecaHedImtUc² . kareRbIenAkñúgpÞHnUv RbePTfñaeM nHman
RbsiT§PaBkñgú kMcat;stVl¥itTaMgenH edaykarrMxan eTAelIkarsIucMNIrrbs;BkY va . kMritxøagM rbs;
fñasM rM ab;eRbIR)as;kúgñ pÞHGacxus²Kña GaRs½yeTAelIkMhab;rbs; azadirachtin nigsmasFatu
epSg²eTot EdlmanenAkñgú RKab; . GñkplitGaceRbIR)as;pgEdr nUvEpñkrbs;edImesþAsMrab;eFIVCa sab‘U
fñadM useFµj nigERkmbM)at;mun . sMbkrbs;vamanCati tannin x<s; (12-14%) [2]. søkw minsUveRbIR)as;
CacMNIstVeT b:Eu nþmantMélenAtMbn;xHø énRbeTs\NÐa .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 7, 8].
[epSg²]:
karBarkarhUreRcaH : "edaykarFn;ngw PaBraMgs¶tÜ CamYyRbB½nr§ Wsd_rwgmaMu EdlGacRsUbyksar
FatuciBa©wmBIdI EdlmanCICatiTab vasmRsbsMrab;Tb;karhUreRcaHdI . kenSamsøwkd_FM rbs;esþAeFIV
eGayvakøayCa RbePT Edlpþl;mbø ; nigCMrkd_l¥ nigRtUv)andaMduHenAtambeNþaypøÚvenAkñúgTIRkugnigPUmi
enARbeTsenA tMbn;RtUBci . edaysar vamanEmkTab vaRtUv)ancat;Tukfa CaRTBüEdlminGac
kat;éfø)ankñgú karkarBar xül; .
GñkEkrlMGrdI :" ksikrenARbeTs\NÐaeRbIR)as;dsMu nM l;esþA (sMNl;Edlsl;bnÞab; BITajuykeRbg
BIRKab; ) eFICV asarFatusrIragÁ sMrab;EkrlMGrdI . vaRtUv)aneCOfa GaceFICV aCIGasUt edaykat;bnßy
kMritnIRtat nigRbePTstVl¥ti EdlenAkñgú dI dUcCa dgávÚ pSit nigstVl¥ti . søwkesþA nigEmk
tUc²RtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;karRKbdI nigCIFmµCati .
ksirukçkmµ :kardaMesþACacenøaHCamYy RbePTRsUv (Pennisetum glaucum)pþl;nUvTinpñ lya:gl¥enA\NÐa
.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

ÉksarBieRKaH [8]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: esþAGacRtUv)andaMduHenAtMbn;TMnabRtUBic . eRkamlkçN
½ ÐFmµCati vaminduHlUtlas;Ca
RkumeTCaTUeTA vaduHlUtlas;enAkñúgéRBraMgs¶Üt éRBCMruHsøwk éRBesIm nigéRBcMruH .
[karRKb;RKg]:
karsMGatesµAcMkarenArdUvR)aMgmansar³sMxan;Nas; enAeBledImeQImni Gac RbkYt
RbECg)anCamYyesµA . vaduHlUtlas;)anl¥enAeBl eRbIR)as;CIKmI I nigCIsrIragÁ . karduHExñg
eLIgvijrbs;vaelOn KWRbEhl 5-11 m kñúgry³eBl 8 qñaM [2] nigkarduHlUtlas;rbs;Exñg
KWmanlkçN³elOgCagkarlUtlas;rbs;kUneQIeTAeTot . esþAFn;nwgkar)ak; rW dac;Exñg)anl¥ b:Eu nþ
plitkmµRKab;GacRtUv)anb:HBal; enAeBledImRtUv)ankat;srM ab;CacMNIstV . xYbénplitkmµeQIsMrab;
esdækic©l¥bMputKWKrY Et 23 qñaM [5] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 8]
[

:

esþARtUv)anbnþBCU tamry³RKab; . TMgn;RKab; 550g/1,000 RKab; [9] GacmanTMgn;xus²Kña.
RKab;CaRbePT recalcitrant nigmanpÞkú sMenImx<s; EdleFIeV GaygayxUc edaysarkar)at;bg;;CatiTwk
nigrbYs . BYkman lT§PaBdMNuHxøI 3-4 s)aþh_ [5] . RKab;RtUv)anrkSaTukenA 4°C [5] Edl
Gacpþl;nUvkMrit dMnuHx<s; . edIm,I rkSanUvlT§PaBdMNuHRKab; EpøRtUvEt)ansMGat edaysMGatsMbk
edayéd rWma:suIn ehIyTwkekþARtUv)an eRsaceTAelIRKab; . karsMgYtRKab;enAkñúgmøbK; WCaviFsI aRsþ
EdlsmRsbbMptu ebIeTaHCakarsMgYteday BnøéW f¶ nigma:snIu k_pþl;nUvlT§pl l¥ nigelOgk_eday .
RKab;xagkñúgpþl;nUvkarduHlUtlas;l¥CagRKab; EdlmansMbk . esþAKWRtUv)anbNþHú enAkñgú fñal
nigdaMenAkñgú fg; . karsabedaypÞal;énRKab;EdlenARss; enAkñgú møb; rukçCatiGacTTYl )aneCaK
C½ypgEdr . minmankareFIRV bRBwtþkmµCamuneT eTaHCakaryksMbk ecj nigsMGatRKab;
RtUv)ancat;TukfaCakarbegánI kMritdMNuHk_eday . RKab;EdlTMucab;epþmI duHlUtlas;enA kñúgry³eBl
mYys)þah_ edaymankMritdMNuH 75-90% [8] . karbnþBUCeday srIragÁRtUv )aneFIV eLIgedaykar kat;

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

6

pSauM bMe)A pSaMEu mk nigkardaMCalikar . kardaMRtUv)aneRbIR)as;edIm kardaMRKab;edaypÞal; kardaMKl; nig
karduHedayxønÜ Ég .
ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 8, 9]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVl¥ti ]: stVlt¥i Edl)ankt;RtamandUcCa Aonidiella orientalis nig Solenopsis sp. .
ÉksarBieRKaH [5]
[CMgW]:
CMgWelIsøkw : RbePTpSit Odium azadirachtae eFIeV Gaysøkw manBN’elOg ( powdery mildew of
neem foliage) nigRbePT)ak;etrI dUcCa Pseudomonas viticola, P. azadirachtae nig
Xanthomonas azadirachtii eFIeV Gaysøk
w mansñamGuC² .
CMgWb¤s: rlYyrWsbNþalmkBIpSit Ganoderma lucidum . yUr²mþg ekIteLIgelIkUneQItUc² enAeBl
edIm nigrWsedImeQIcas;² minRtUv)anykecj . karbMpøajrbs;pSiteTAelIeQIRsay eFIeV Gaymankar
rlYy edaymanBN’s. eraKsBaØaKWmanBN’søaMg søkw esþIg niggab;Emk . ecjEpøenAelIKl;rbs;edIm.
CMgWedIm : esþAKWCaRbePTeQI EdlgaynwgCMgWsuCI m<Ú (pink disease) EdlekItBIpSit Corticium
salmonicolor . eraKsBaØaqab;ekIteLIg edaymanBN’s rW sIuCm<ÚBkeLIgenAelIsMbkEdlgab; .
eBlenaH sMbkGacRtUv)anbMpøaj nigRsTab;xageRkAéneQIRtUv)aneFIeV Gaygab; . Emkgab;ya:grh½s
edaysar karRseBansøwk nigERbCaBN’exµA .
RbePTCMgWpSitepSg²eTotdUcCa Fusarium oxysporum, Glomerella cingulata, Pseudocercospora
subsessilis .
ÉksarBieRKaH [5]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

7

F> karGPirkS

:

minTan;manTinñn½y . .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)
minTan;manTinñn½y . .

:

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
[

r)a:yelIBiPBelak]:

[

RbPBkMenIt] : \NÐa \NÐeÚ nsIu ma:eLsIu PUma )a:KsI aß n esenhÁal; RsIlgáa éf .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 8]

karnaMclU ] : Gal;esrI Gg;ehÁaLa GaTIháa nig)ab‘Uda GasSg;TIn GURsþalI )a)adUs ebnIn bUsVaNa
eRbsIul ebKINa hVasU bU‘ran;DI km<Cú a kaemrU exbv½ GaeRhVckNþal eqk qIlI cin kULeMú bo kugehÁa kUedv½
Kuy)a kg;ehÁa CIb‘UTI dUmInkI a dUmnI eI kn eGkVad½r eGsIub eGkVaT½rero hÁeI no eGrIeTo eGsüÚBI hVCI I
eRhVnhÁN
I a hÁabug
háaebo háaNa háaetma:La hÁeI no hÁeI nob‘sÍ U háyÚ a:Na éhTI hugdUrus camIka eknya: eLsUtU lIb½rero
ma:daháasáa ma:LavI ma:lI ma:rItaeno ma:rITus mUrukU mUsüg;bíc‘ NamIbÍ‘ en)a: nIháara:K½r )a:Nama: )a:ra:h áay
eb:rU
hVlI IBnI BUtUrIkU ra:van;da Gara:b; esra:lIGUn sgðabUrI sUma:lI GaeRhVcxagt,Úg sU‘dg; tg;sanI tueháa
RTInIedt , Gue‘ knda Gaemrik G‘ru a:háay evens‘yu eGLa sIumebo sImu )aev .
ÉksarBieRKaH [8]
[

:

smasFatukgñú søwk]: "søwkmanpÞkú RbUetG‘nÍu 12.4-18.3% Catisrésr 11.4-23.1 nig 43.3-66.6 Nfree, 2.27-6.24 ether, 7.7-8.4 total ash, 0.89-3.96 kal;süÚm nig 0.1-0.3% pUsVr " . .
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

p> epSg²

8

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Boa E.R. (1995) A Guide to the Identification of Diseases and Pests of Neem (Azadirachta
indica)
[9]

Childs FJ et.al. 2001. Improvement of Neem and its potential benefits to poor farmers.
HYDRA Publishing.
[9]

Faridah Hanum I, van der Maesen LJG (eds.). 1997. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No
11. Auxillary Plants. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands.
[9]

Hocking D. 1993. Trees for Drylands. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. New Delhi.
[9]

ICRAF. 1992. A selection of useful trees and shrubs for Kenya: Notes on their identification,
propagation and management for use by farming and pastoral communities. ICRAF.
[9]

National Research Council. 1992. Neem. A tree for solving global problems. National
Academy Press, Washington D. C.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[9]

9

Perry LM. 1980. Medicinal plants of East and South East Asia : attributed properties and
uses. MIT Press. South East Asia.
[9]

Read M.D. French J.H. (1993) Genetic improvement of neem: strategies for the future.
[9]

Schmutterer H. (1995) The Neem Tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Other Meliaceous
Plants. Sources of unique natural products for integrated pest management, medicine,
industry and other purposes.
[9]

Stoney C. 1998. Use of neem as a biological pest control agent. A publication of the Forest,
Farm, and Community Tree Network (FACT Net). Winrock International, Morrilton, Arkansas,
USA.
[9]

Tewari D.N. Gahlot R.P.S. - Ed. (1992) Monograph on neem.
[9]

B> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] Sok, Sokunthet (RUA), 2006: Own observations.
[2] Species Fact Sheets (Module 9), 1994: Forestry / Fuelwood Research and Development
Project. Growing Mulltipurpose Trees on Small Farms (2nd ed.). Bangkok, Thailand: Winrock
Interational. 320pp.
[3] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[4] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and
Vietnam: a field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.
[5] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).
[6] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8.
(CD-ROM).

[8] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database –
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicSearch.asp.
(Internet source).
[9] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep. (Internet source).

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[7] World Book 2004 (Deluxe)

10

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Baccaurea ramiflora Lour]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Baccaurea ramiflora Lour]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. [4].

³

Burmese grape[4,6, 17],

³

Baccaurea sapida (Roxb.) Muell. Arg., B. cauliflora Lour., B.
oxycarpa Gagnep., Pierardia sapida Roxb., B. wrayi King ex
Hook.f.[2,4,8,17].

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

phnkiew (Cambodia); kanazo (burma); mafai setambun,
tajam molek (Indonesia); pupor, tampoi, tempui setambun,
tajam molek, (Malaysia-Peninsular); fái (Laos); mafai, mafai
farang, mafai ka, omfai, hamkang,khi mi,khrua sae, pha yio
(Thailand-NE); giau gia dat, giau tien, dz[aa]u, mi[ee]n,
dz[uw] [ows]i, gi[aa]lu, ti[ee]n d[aa]lt, Dâu quà nhon
(Vietnam) [2,8,17,27].

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

ep¶óv
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

1

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

phni:ëw [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Euphorbiales/Malphigiales [27]
RKYsar : Euphorbiaceae/Phyllanthaceae [27]

ePT : Baccaurea Lour.
RbePT : Baccaurea ramiflora Lour.
ÉksarBieRKaH: [4 ; 11 ; 27]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaedImeQIébtgCanic© EdlmankMBs; 10-15 m nigmanGgátp; ©itBI 20-30 cm RKb
edayEmk Edlmaneram [2] . edImmankMBs; 10-20 m [4] edImeQIébtgCanic© manTMhMtUc
GacmankMBs; 10 m mankenSamsøwkRkas; nigedImminRtg; nigmansñamRCYj rW eRbHenAKl; Emkman
rag sympodial [5] . edImeQIGacmankMBs;dl;eTA 15 m nigGgát;p©itdl;eTA 40 cm [8] .
[sMbk]: BN’Bgman;Rsal rW etñatlayTwkRkUc relag rW eRbHtic² nigesþg
I [5] .
sMbkmanBN’etñatTwkRkUc ehIysMbkxagkñúgTn; nigmanlkçN³Casrés manBN’Rkhmetñat .
EmkKµan eram nigkenSamsøwkragRkas;bnþic [8] .
[søwk]: samBaØ qøas; zitenACakBa©úM enAcugEmk ragmUlRTEvg kMrmanragdUckeNþóv enAs¶Üt
manBN’Rkhmetñat . mansrésrBI 6-8 KUr manxñaysøwkRbEvg 5-6 mm CaRbePTpáarelag nigTn;
(velvety) FM nigqab;RCuHecjBIedIm [2] .
søwkmanTMhM 10-22 x 5-10 cm manragCaes<ó zitenAtamcenøaHEmk rageGlIb rW mUl mankMBUlxøI
RsYcenAKl; minmaneFµj rW maneFµjxøIenAcug. søwktUcmanBN’Rkhm maneram nigsøwkcas;
manBN’ébtg cas; nigrelagenAEpñkxagelI mansrésEv:nmmçag²cMnYn 6-11 KUr edayduHP¢ab;Kña
enARtg;EKmsøwk . Tg søwkmanRbEvg 3-7 cm nigmanragRsLÚn nige)a:genAkMBUl [5] .
bnÞHsøwkragmUl manTMhM 7.0-25.5 x 3.0-8.8 cm manlkçN³dUcRkdas manKl;dUcesñók
manEKmsøwk mUl mancugRsYl épÞxagelIKµaneram mansrésrEv:nmmçag 4-9 KUr . TgsøwkmanRbEvg
1-5 cm manlkçN³ekagcuHenAcugTaMgBIr . xñaysøwkmanRbEvg
2.5-6.0 mm manlkçN³FM
nigqab;RCuHecjBI edIm [8.] .
[páa]:kBa©úMpáa zitenAelIG½kS EdlmanragCak,al manlkçN³Rkas; edaymanBN’Rkhm .
páajImanRbEvg 4-16 cm kBa©MúpáaRkas; manpáa 3 . TgpáaxøI maneram . páajImanTTwg 1 mm

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

3

manRtbkragmUl rW dUcmYk manRbEvg 1.5 mm rW EvgCagenH . ekseQµalmanBI 6-7
e)øaklMGgmanRbEvg 0.4 mm zitenAesrI TgeksmanRbEvg 0.5- 0.9 mm nigmanlkçN³Rtg; .
fg;lMGgmankMBs; 0.6 mm relag nigmanragCasIuLaMg . kBa©úMpáajI manRbEvgRbEhl 16 cm
manBN’Rkhm nigmaneram Tgrbs;vaman RbEvg 2 mm nigpáamanRbEvg 3 mm [2] .
páatUc manBN’TwkRkUcRsal rW elOgébtg CYnkalmanBN’ sIuCMBU nigpáajI
nigeQµalduHenAelIedImepSg Kña . páaeQµalmanragsþÜc CakBa©úMKµanEmk zitenAeRkamsøwk manRbEvg
10 cm . páanimYy² manTgxøI nig ragRTEvg manRtbkzitenAKgKñacMnYn 4 RbEvgRbEhl ± 2 mm
mankMBUlekagcUlkñúg maneramRkas; Kµan RsTab; manekscMnnY 4-8 EdlzitenACaesrI . páajIEvg
kenSampáaFøak;cuHelIEmkcas; rW edIm manRbEvg 30 cm . páanimYy² minmanTg manRtbRbEvg ± 6
mm . TgeksxøI stigmas ragekag nigmanGUvarIBN’etñat nigmaneram [5] .
cegáampáa manragCapáa manlkçN³Rkas; edaymanBN’Rkhm nigmaneram manTgRbEvg 1.5-4.0
mm . cegáampáajI manRbEvg 15.5 cm manpáacMnYn 3 kñúgmYyTg . páaeQµalmanGgát;p©itRbEvg
1.1-4.0 mm BN’elOg manTgRbEvg 0.8-2.6 mm manRtbkBI 4 - 5 manragxus²Kña nigRbEvg
1.0-2.4 mm nigekscMnYn 5-9 zitenACaesrI bMBg;eksRbEvg 0.5-0.9 mm manlkçN³Rtg; .
kBa©úMpáajI zitenAeRkam søkw EdlmanRbEvg 16 cm nigmanpáa 1-3 kñúgmYyTg . páajImanGgát;p©itBI
3-8 mm manBN’elOg nigTgRbEvg 1.5-3.0 mm manRtbkBI 4 - 5 manrageGlIb nigRbEvg 3.55.0 mm GUvarI manftBI 2- 4 nig GUvulcMnYn 2 kñúgmYyft [8].
[Epø]: CaEpøsac; EdlmanragmUl BN’Rkhm enAeBlcas; manRbEvg 2.2-3.0 cm nigTTwg 1-2 cm
. RKab; mancMnYn 1-2 RbEvg 10 mm nigkMras; 4-6 mm nigmanBN’Rkhm red [2] . EpømanRbEvg
2.5-3.5 cm manBN’TwkRkUcRsal nigRkhm rW sIuCm<ÚenAeBlTMu manragmUl rW eGlIb
zitenAreyagelIedIm Ca cegáam enAelIEmk rW edIm . RsTab;xageRkAmanlkçN³dUcRkdas relag rW
maneram nigeRbH . manRKab; 2-4 FM EdlrMuedayEpø Edlmansac; BN’sIuCm<Ú nigsMbUreTAedayTwk
[5] . EpømanragmUl rW RTEvg manTMhM
19-32 x 14-25 mm manBN’Rkhm rW TwkRkUc
nigsIuCm<ÚenARsTab;xageRkA manBN’Bgman; enAxagkñúg nigmaneramenAxageRkA . manTMhM 9-15 x
9-11 mm manBN’s [8] . EpøragGUvul BN’elOg rW sIuCm<Ú eTA RkhmPøW manGgát;p©it 2.5-3.5 cm
Kµaneram edayRKab;BI 2-4 manBN’RkhmsIu Cm<Ú edaymansMbkeRkABN’s [27] .
Epørbs;vaRtUv)aneFIVkarlk;dUr EtenAkñúgtMbn; Etb:ueNÑaH [27] .

dMNuHrbs;RKab;CaRbePT epigeal EdlmanelceLIgnUvkUTIeLdUn nigsøwk man hypocotyl ragRTEvg
nigsøwkmYyKUrGaczitenAqøas; rW QmKña nigtMerobCarages<ó [17] .
ecjpáa enAExmina-emsa nigEpøenAExsIha-kBaØa [2,8,] . enA Shishuangbanna extþ Yunnan én
RbeTscin mnusSnaMKña cUleTAsYnrukçCati (Botanical Garden) edIm,IemIlkarecjEpørbs;ep¶óv Edl
man BN’ébtg elOg rW Rkhm EdlEmkrbs;vaCaeRcInRtUv)anBt; rW eFVIeGayekagcuHeRkam . edImeQI
éRB EdlmaneQµaHl,ICageKenARtUBik EdlmankMBs; 12 m nigmanGgát;p©itdl; 60 cm [27].

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

manduHenA\NÐa GadaEmn nigekaH Nicobar rhUtdl;PUma cin
(Canton/Yunnan/Hainan) \NÐÚcin km<úCa evotNam éf ]bTIVbma:eLsIu enAtMbn;éRBeRsag rW
éRBBak;kNþalCMruHsøwk enAtamdgsÞwg RCgPñM edayduHlayCamYy Pometia pinnata,
Dracontomelum mangiferum, Deutzianthus tonkinensis nig Phoebe sp. [2,8] .
edImeQIduHlUtlas; enAkñúgéRBeRsag éntMbn;RtUBikGasIu [4] . CaRbePTeQIRsTab;eRkam
EdlduHeRkayePøIgeqHéRB [5] . vamanduHenAkñúgéRBbzm nigbnÞab;bnSM Edlmanry³kMBs;TabCag
Baccaurea

ramiflora

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

RbePTeQIenH manTMgn;mFüm rW F¶n;xøaMg edaymankMritdg;sIuet 630-950 kg/m³ enAkMritsMeNIm
15% m.c . bNþÚeQImanBN’elOgetñat manBN’etñatcas; eTAetñat rW BN’RkhmsVay
minGacEckdac; rvageQIxøwm nigRsay . sréseQI Rtg; rW jwk manvaynPaBmFüm nigminesµIKña
edayEtsréseQImanTMhMFM . rgVg;lUtlas;manlkçN³minxusKña edaymanBN’exµA mansrés
vessels TMhMtUceTAmFüm enAdac;²BIKña nigmaneRcIn 2-4(eRcInCagenH) minsUvman tyloses nigman
parenchyma eRcIn ehIy apotracheal duHenACabNþúM nigmansrésr rays
2 RbePT
EdlmanlkçN³relag rW manTMhM mFüm nigminmanlkçN³ragTwkrlkeT .
kMritrYj mFüm nigeQIGacs¶Üt yWt² edayminmankarRskTMhMxøaMgeT . eQIrwgmFüm nigmaMu .
vaFn;nwgTMgn; nigGaceFIVRbRBwtþkmµ sMrab;karBar)aneTotpg [17] . edaysarkarpÁt;pÁg;eQI
RtUv)ankMNt; kareRbIR)as; nigBaNiC¢kmµRtUv)aneFIVeLIgenAkMrittMbn;Etb:ueNÑaH [17].

4

. manRbePTeQI enH RbEhl 55 EdlduHlUtlas;enA \NÐÚcin PaKt,ÚgRbeTscin
ekaHGadaEmn éf tMbn;ma:eLeson nigekaH)a:sIuPic [17] . enAPaKxagt,Úgcin
vamanduHtaméRBRClgPñM nigeCIgPñM [27].
1000 m [8]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

CaedImlUtlas;enAkñúgGakasFatuRtBik Edlmanry³kMBs;TabCag 1000 m [2,8]
CaedImeQImanlkçN³kNþal nigcUlcitþmøb; [2] . ep¶óv CaRbePTminsUvmanduHeRcIneT b:uEnþ
vaGacduHenAkñúg RsTab;eRkam énéRBbzmTMnab [5] . manduHl¥enAtMbn;mindk;Twk Edlmanry³kMBs;
1000 (-1800) m ehIyk_GacduHenAelIRbePTdIxus²KñapgEdr enAkñúgéRBbzm nigbnÞab;bnSM
nigtMbn;dIesIm [17].

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minRtUv)ankMNt; .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

5

:

GacduHenAelIRbePTdIeRcIn RbePT dUcCa dIl,b; dI ferrallitic rW dIxSac; EdlmanCMerAmFüm
dImansMeNIm nigmindk;Tkw enAtamRCaMgTenøCaedIm [2, 8, 17] . EtRtUv)andaMduH enAelIdIxSac;
dIRkanIn dIesIm nigdk;Twk enAtamRClgPñM rW eCIgPñM [8,17].

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

RbePTeQIenH RtUv)andaMduH enA\NÐa nigma:eLsIu . vaRtUv)andaMduHsMrab;ykEpø EdlGaRs½yeTAnwg
KuNPaB dI GakasFatu niglkçN³brisßan ehIyGaclUtlas;dl;kMBs; 20 m rW k_TabCagenH .
[eQI]: eQImantMélsMrab;eRbIsMrab;karsagsg; karplitsMPar³eRbIR)as;kñúgpÞH [2,8] . smRsb
sMrab; eFIVCasrsrpÞH nigkarsagsg;TUk nigeRKOgsgðarwm[4] .

Gnupl]: edImeQIRtUv)andaMsMrab;plþ ;møb; rW CaTMrsMrab;kardaMduHepþA [6] .
Epømanrs;CatiCUr-EGm GacbriePaK)an b:uEnþKuNPaBrbs;vaminl¥dUc Baccaurea harmandii [2] .
RbePT Baccaurea PaKeRcInRtUv)andaMduH sMrab;ykEpø Edlmanrs;CatiCUr Edlrs;man : B. dulcis,
B. motleyana, B. racemosa nig B. ramiflora . RbePTenH PaKeRcInGacbriePaK)an
b:uEnþminsUvmanrs; Cati ehIypáarbs;vak_GacbriePaK)anpgEdr [19] . sMbkxageRkArbs;va
k_GacbriePaK)anpgEdr edaymanrs;CatiCUrEGm [8] .
CaRbePT EdlRtUv)ancat;Tukfa CaTMrd_l¥sMrab;kardaMduHepþA . edImeQIk_RtUv)andaMsMrab;pþl;møb;enAtam
beNþaypøÚvpgEdr .
sMbkrbs;RbePTmYycMnYn GaceRbIsMrab;eFIVl½kç rW RClk;sURteGaymanBN’elOg Rkhm rW
BN’páaRtEbkéRB . sMbkk_GaceRbIsMrab;labBüa)alCMgWEs,k nigrlakEPñkpgEdr [4,17] . søwk
RtUv)an viPaK edayRsavRCavGMBIsarFatu»sf nig bio-active phenols EfmeTotpg [27] .A
[

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak; .

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

ep¶óveFIVkarbnþBUCtamry³ RKab;b:uEnþ RbePTpþl;EpømYycMnYnk_RtUv)anbnþBUCedaysrIragÁpgEdr dUcCa
karkat;bMe)AedImjICaedIm . RKab;rbs;RbePTenHPaKeRcIn duHlUtlas;bnÞab;BIry³eBlBI 2-6 s)aþh_
enAkMrit 65% . dMNuHrbs;RKab; EdlsabCamYysac;Cab;nwgRKab; KWmankMritTab nigGacmanGRtaBI
3-100% [17]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

minmancMNat;fñak; .

6

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

mankarRBYy)armÖGMBIkar)at;bg;esenTic cMeBaHRbePTpþl;EpømYycMnYn b:uEnþminb:HBal;dl;karRbmUlpl
CaeQIeT [17].

F> karGPirkS

:

minRtUv)ancat;bBa©ÚlCaRbePTrgeRKaHfañk;eT .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
manRbPBkMeNItBItMbn;PaKxagekItGasIu nigGasIuGaeKñy_ .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

p> epSg²

7

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Verheij E.W.M. & Coronel, R.E. (Eds.) 1991: Plant Resources of sSoutheast Asia.No.2,
Edible fruits and nuts. Pudoc, Wageneingen, 446 pp.
Bois, D 1922-27: Plantes alimentaires. 4 vos. Lechevalier, Paris.
Burkill, IH 1966: A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. 2 vols.,
Min. of Agriculture and Co-Operatives; Kuala Lumpur.

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research 1948-76. The Wealth of India. Raw
Materials. ii vols., 2nd Ed. 1985. Publications and Information Directorate CSIR, New
Delhi.

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

2)
Nguyen et al.1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. Agricultural Publishing House,
Hanoi, 788 pp.

4)
Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House;
Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

5)
Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A
Field Guide to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept.
University of Chiang Mai, Thailand; 546 pp.

6)
Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field
guide. Orchid Press, Bangkok, 234 pp.

16)
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. and W.C. Wong (Eds.) 1995: Plant
Resources of Southeast Asia 5(2) Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers.
Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 655 pp.

17)
Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant
Resources of Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea
Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859 pp.

18)
Dept. of Forestry and Wildlife 2003: Cambodia Forestry Statistics to
2002.(in Khmer and English) Planning & Accounting Off., Statistics Sect., Phnom
Penh, Cambodia, 97 pp.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

8)
Sam, H. V.,Nanthavong, Kh.and P.J.A. Kessler 2004: Trees of Laos and
Vietnam: A field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important
species.BLUMEA J. Plant Tax. and Plant Geogr. 49(2004) p. 201- 349 pp., Univ.
Leiden Br., Leiden, The Netherlands

8

19)
Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and
Subtropics. Josef Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552
pp.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

27)

9

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/species name (Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Bombax ceiba L]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Bombax ceiba L]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

Bombax ceiba L. [1]

³

Indian bombax, red cotton tree, silk cotton tree [2], red
silk cotton [5], cotton wood [13]

K> sTisn½y

³

Gossampinus heptaphylla Bakh.,
Bombax malabaricum DC. [1],
Bombax malabaricum DC.,
Gossampinus malabarica (DC.) Merr.,
Salmalia malabarica (DC.) Schott & Endl. [2],
Bombax malabricum Linn. [5],
Bombax thorelii Gagnep. [12]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

X> eQµaHepSg²

1

³

fromager, faux kapokier, kapokier du Malabar (France) [2, 5,
11] - simul (Bangladesh) [2] - kapok kalingi, kapuk hutan,
randu agung (Indonesia) [2] - borla, boruga, bouro, burajal,
bural, burga, burgu, buroh, buruga, ilavu, ilavum, kantesavar,
kantysenbal, mocha, mullilapoola, mullilavu, pagun, parutte,
poola, ragat-senbal, rokto-simul, salmali, saur, sauri, sawar,
sayar, semal, semul, senur, shemolo, shevari, shimul,
shirlan, simal, simalo, simbal, simlo, somr, tula, vamadruma
(India) [2] - katu-imbul (Sri Lanka) [2] - letpan (Myanmar) kapok, tambaluang (Malaysia) [2] - bombax, kapok (Papua
New Guinea) [2] - babui-gubat, bobor, bubui-gubat,
malabulak, tag-linau, taglinan, taroktok (Philippines) [2] ngui, ngui ban (Thailand) [2] - ngiu pa, ngiu deng (Laos) [12]
- gao, moc mien (Vietnam) [12]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

rka
ÉksarBieRKaH : [6]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

³

ro-ka [6]

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Malvales
RKYsar : Bombacaceae
ePT : Bombax
RbePT : Bombax Ceiba L.
ÉksarBieRKaH: [2]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaedImeQICrM uHsøwk manTMhMFM kMBs; 30-35 m [3, 10] (-45 m [2], 10-20 m [5, 11])
eday mankenSamsøkw FM . edImmanragsILu aMg nigRtg;RsLÚn EdlmanGgát;pit© DBH dl;eTA 150 cm
[2] (340 cm [12]) nigrMB
u T½ §edayRBWgCaeRcIn . EmkmanlkçN³epþk nigRtg;enAeBledImenAtUc
ragKUTex©A Edlman lkçN³Rkas; eFIeV dImmanragCaRsTab;². Emk RtUv)anRKbedaybnøaFM²
eTaHbIsbM krelag k_eday . rWs manpÞkú nUvsarFatu mucilaginous (Caekasika EdlrIkenAeBlb:HTwk)
EdlGaceFIRV bePTenHFn; nigrwgmaMu .
[sMbk]:
sMbkmanBN’RbepHetñat rW BN’Bgman; EdlmanbnøaRsYc enAeBltUc
nigeRbHsMbkEtmanlkçN³ relagenAeBl cas; .
[søwk]: søwkqøas; zitenACabNþMú mansøwkcMnYn 5-9 [2] . søwknimYy²manTMhM 12-20 x 5-8 cm [2] (8-15
x 4-5 cm [3]) rageGlIb dUcRklan rW es<ó TalTaMgsgçag . épÞswøkrelag maneramtic²enAelITgsøwk
RbEvg 1-2 cm [2] (1.5-2.5 cm [3]) nigsréscMnYn 15 KU . Tgsøkw FMCageKgmanRbEvg 15-25 cm [2]
(10-19 cm [3]) . enAGasuG
I aeKñy_ søwkERbCaBN’elOg nigRCuHenAExFñÚ . bnÞab;mk edImeQInwgKµansøkw
ry³eBlBI 3-4 Ex nigcab;ecjsøkw vijenAExmina-emsa [2] .
[páa]: rkaCaTUeTAecjpáabnÞab;BImanGayu 8-10 qñaM [2] . páaCaRbePTpáaGePT nigpáa EdleraylMGgmun
eBl eray edanmanpáacMnnY 3 EdlmanBN’elOg Rkhm nigBN’Bgman; . páamanlkçN³eTal
CYnkal GaczitenACaKU kMBlU páa CaEmkEdlKµansøwk manRbEvg 5-12 cm [2] (8-10 cm [3]) . Tgpáa

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

manRbEvg 1-1.5 cm [2] Kµaneram . RtbkRkas; manTMhM 1.5-3.5 x 2-5 cm [2] (1.5-2 cm [3])
BN’ébtgRsal ragdUcEBg mancMnYn 5 xø²I nigkMBlU RsYc [3] (2-4 kMBlU [2]) minmaneramenAxageRkA
. Rtbkpáa manBN’ RkhmRsal (elOg nigTwkRkUc) TMhM 4.5-11 x 1.8-4 cm [2], esþgI
nigmanlkçN³Casac; ragdUceGlIb rWst‘u bRBa¢as; RsYc nigmaneramenAeRkArhUtdl;elIkBM lU .
ekseQµalmancMnnY RbEhl 80 enAkñgú ft ragKUCex©AcMnYn 3 [2] (50 enAkñgú ftftcMnYn 2 [3])
enAftxag eRkAman 5 Esµg nig 10 cMeBaHftmYy² ftkNþalmancMnnY 20 nigxagkñgú mancMnYn 10
srés filaments manRbEvg 3-7 cm in EdlzitenAelI bMBg;xImø yY srés filaments zitenAxagkñúg
EdlmanRbEvgCaft EdlenAxagkñgú . eksjImanftcMnnY 5 manTMrg;eBj man 5 kMBlU .
ecjpáaenAEx kumÖ³-mina [7] (Fñ-Ú kumÖ³ [2] enA\NÐa: mina - emsa [9] Lav/evotNam: kumÖ³ dl;emsa
[12]) enAeBledImeQIRCuHsøwkGs; .
[Epø]: EpøTMB
u IExmina-]sPa [2, 7] (\NÐa: emsa [9] Lav/evotNam: ]sPa- kkáda [12]) .
EpømanragRTEvg Rtg; Kµaneram manTMhM 9-15 x 2.5-3.5 cm [2] (10-17 x 4-6 cm [3])
edayminmanlkçN³Ggáaj;² b:uEnþ mancg¥rÚ 5 . RKab;eRcIn relag nigmanCatieRbg manRbEvg 0.5 cm
[2] rMuedaysMLIsBIeRkA .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

3

:

eQIrbs;rkamanBN’Bgman; rW srsIuCm<Ú manlkçN³Tn; nigRsal edaymandg;seIu t 0.385 g/cm³ eBl
sMgYtedayxül; ehIymansrésreQIRtg;l¥ nigmanlkçN³RKat . eQIxwmø minman eTaHeQIxHø man
cMncu exµA enAcMnuckNþalk_eday . eQImni Fn; Rbsindak;halTIval b:Eu nþFn;mFüm enAeBldak;
kñúgTImøb; nig Fn;ngw TwkpgEdr . eRkayeBlkab;rMlM eQIRtUv)ankat; nigsMgYtya:gqab;rh½s BIeRBaH
vagayecjC½r Edl eFIeV Gayvaqab;Bukpuy . vaminFn;nwgkarbMpaø jrbs;keNþóeT .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 10]

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

RbEhl : 33°N eTA 24°S [2] . rkamanduHlUtlas;enAtampøvÚ enAkñgú extþRkug énRBHraCaNacRkkm<Cú a
nigRbeTsepSgeTotenAGasIxu agt,Úg nigGasIuGaeKñy_ . vak_duHlUtlas;enAkñúgéRBel,aH éRBel,aHcMruH

éRBCMuruHsøwks¶Üt éRBeRsag nigvalesµA BItMbn;Edlmanry³kMBs;Tab eTAx<s; [10]
(tMbn;manry³kMBs;Tab eTAmFüm[8]). vaGacrkeXIjenAtamPøEW Rs rWRBMdI. enARbeTsevotNam
vaduHray)a:yenAkñúgéRBFmµCati. enARbeTséf vaminsUvmanduHenAkñgú éRBeT .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3, 7, 9, 10, 12]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

edImeQIduHenAry³kMBs;BkI rM itnIv:TU wksmuRTdl; 1,200 m [2] (0-800 m [10, 12]) . enAkñgú éRBFmµCati
EdlmankMritePøógFøak; (500-4,500 mm/qñaM) nigkarduHlUtlas;)anl¥ enAtMbn;EdlmanrdUv
R)aMgcMnnY tic Cag 5 Ex [2] . eTaHbIya:gNa vaminrgeRKaHedaysarkarraMgs¶tÜ ehIyk_
Fn;ngw ePøgI eqHeTotpg eday sarvamansMbkRkas; . kMritsItuNðPaBmFümRbcaMqaMñ 20-30ºC
kMritsItuNðPaBmFümenAExekþAbMptu 30-37ºC nigsItN
u ðPaBmFümTabbMputenAExRtCak;bpM tu 10-24ºC
. vaFn;nwgsenSIm nigsItN
u ðPaBTabbMput -2ºC . vak_Fn;nwgkarlicTwkmþgmáalpgEdr .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3, 10]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y.
:

duHlUtlas;l¥enAelIdI Edlmanl,b;eRCA nigtMbn;PñM Edlmanl,ayxSac; nigeRCobTwk)anl¥ b:Eu nþman
sMeNIm . CaBiess dIEdlekItBIsilaRkanItCaedIm . vak_manduHenAelIdI Edlmanfµ
nigsMbUrsarFatuEdk nigdI lateritic . eTaHvaduHlUtlas;eRcIn nigGacrkeXIjenAelIRbePTdIesÞI
EtTaMgGs;k_eday elIkElg RbePTdI man\dæxaø gM licTwk nigfµeRcIn . dI EdlmanCatiGasIut rW pH
NWt KWsmRsbbMptu . RbePTdI EdlsmRsbmandUcCa dIGasIut dIl,b; dI ferralsols dIRkanIt
dIvalesµA dI lateritic dIfµxSac; dIxSac; dIPk; dItMbn;RtUBki nigdI ultisols .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 7, 9, 10, 12]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

4

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

eQI]: CaTUeTAeQIRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;eFIV vIna eQIGar eQImxu tMNr eks RbGb;Et nigekAsU‘ kþapøan
begáa kMsrY sÞÚcRtI TUensaT TUk (dUcTUetñat) sMPar³ekµgelg Es,keCIgeQI kþarmQUs nigeQIfamBl
. kareRbI R)as;epSgeTot kþar dgRcas; eQIemSARkdas FugeQImanTMgn;Rsal ]bkrN_t®nþI nigs‘um .
enARbeTs \NÐa eQIRtUv)aneRbIR)as;CacMbgsMrab;eFIVCaRbGb;eQIKsU nigexµAéd [2] .
rkak_CaeQIsmRsb sMrab;eFIV Bum<kþasIum:g; eQIsMrab;emkanic nigKImI srés kþakMTiceQI nigRkdas
eTaHbIvamansrésxøkI e_ day .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 10, 12]
[Gnupl]: rkamansar³sMxan;kúg
ñ karplittanIn : sMbkbeBa©jCatiC½r 'semul gum' rW 'morcharus'
Edlman CatitanIn nigGasIut gallic . C½rGacRtUv)anlayCamYyepH nigeRbg castor sMrab;CMnYssIumg: ;
edIm,Ibti xÞHEdk . sréssMLI (=rMuB½T§RKab;) smRsbsMrab;eFIVExSRkvat;svu tßiPaB exñyI BUk saLúgBUk
nigeramsøab kar . BUk nigexñyI RtUv)aneFIBV sI LM I nigRtUv)ancat;TukfaFn;nwgstVl¥iteTotpg .
vak_RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;Ca sarFatumni cMlgkMedA rW GKÁsI nIenAkñgú TUTwkkk nigkarBarsMelg . EpøCYnkal
eRbIRtUv)aneRbICaRTnab; eQI rWkaþ nigsÁreTotpg . sMbkxagkñúgpþl;nUvsrésya:gl¥
EdlsmRsbsMrab;eFIVExSBY . eRbg EdlTTYl)an BIRKab;GacbriePaK)an nigRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;CMnYs
eRbgsMLI rWdsMu rM ab;dutbMPøWeTotpg . kaksMNl;RKab; sMbUreTAedayRbUetGInu nigCacMnId_l¥srM ab;eKa .
søwk nigBnøkpáax©IRtUv)anbriePaKCabEnø nigBnøkx©I nig søwk k_GaceRbICacMnsI tVpgEdr . enARbeTs\NÐa
edImx©IRtUv)anykeTARCk; edIm,IeRbIR)as;CMnYssøa (RKab; Areca catechu) . páaRtUv)anykeFIVdMNab;
edayes¶arlayCamYy RKab;GaePon sár nigTwkedaHBEB rW lays¶ÜtsMrab;eFIVCaemSAnMbgu½ . rWs
EdlenAx©I mansarFatuGaharx<s; nigRtUv)anbriePaKTaMgeqA rW lIg eTotpg .
páaCaRbPTd_l¥srM ab;karplitTwkXµMú . EpñkCaeRcInénrukCç atienHRtUv)an eRbIR)as;srM ab;plit »sf :
páaRtUv)aneRbICafñamM ineGayrak Pñak;garsMrab; eFVeI GayRtCak; rW Büa)alCMgWEs,kCaedIm . rWsx©IRtUv
)an eRbIsrM ab;Büa)alCMgWGasnñeraK eraKrebg k¥k bBaðTwkenam karbMBul PaBQWcab; nigCMnYykMlaMg .
eTaHbI C½rrbs;vaGacbriePaK)an edayGacTb;Tl;ngw CMgW CMnYykMlaMg nigCYyeGaybenÞalbg;RsYl
vak_ RtUv)aneRbIsMrab; Büa)aleraKmYl eraKsYt pþasay nigkarFøak;rdUvrbs;RsþI . kares¶arMgas;Bnøk
sMrab; Büa)al dMe)ARkeBH eFIeV GayrIkFMeLIg (edayrWsrbs; Moghania macrophylla Epørbs;
Terminalia chebula nig borax) oedema (CamYy Capparis zeylanica nig Carissa carandas),

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

:

CamYy fenugreek) kameraK eraKXøg; nigBs; rWBgI BagxaM .
kareCobrbs;vaeFIVeGayekItRkmr (layCa mYy mustard, tumeric nig sulphur) . kMBk rW
edImRtUv)aneRbIR)as;CaC½rXat;Qam (edaypSMCamYy Zyzyphus rugosa nig Ichnocarpus frutescens
enAkñgú eRbgés<exµA nigRtUv)anpþl;eGaybriePaK ) . sMbkmaneQµaHl,I RbqaMgnwgGasnñeraK
eraKrlakeRsamsYt stVl¥ti Tic rW xaM nig bBa©úHTwkenam [5] . vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;Cabg;rMu
nigdaMfñaeM lIeFµjmun eBleTACYbeBTüeFµj . kUneQIGacRbqaMg CMgWRKun (layCa mYysøkw fistula nig
Semecarpus anacardium) bUs (layCamYy Vitis sp.) sMrab;karbeBa©jTwkenam
haematuria
(layCamYy Terminalia alata) nigkarFøak;rdUveRcInrbs;RsþI . søwkmansarFatu hypotensive nig
hypoglycaemic properties [5].
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11]
[epSg²]: rka
Fn;ngw ePøgI eqH nigRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;daMduHenAkEnøg EdlmanePøgI eqH .
vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as; enAkñgú RbB½nk§ sirukçkmµ enAkñgú cMkareTotpg . vaRtUv)andaMduHCaeQIlMGr edaysar
EtPaBRss;sa¥ trbs; páa .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 10, 12]
corns

on

foot

(

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak; .

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: vak_duHlUtlas;enAkñúgéRBel,aH éRBel,aHcMruH éRBCMuruHsøwks¶Üt éRBeRsag nigvalesµA BI
tMbn;Edlmanry³kMBs;Tab eTAx<s; [10] (tMbn;manry³kMBs;Tab eTAmFüm [8]) . RbePTenH
RtUv)andaMduH enAkñgú cMkar nigRbB½n§ksirukmç µ enAtMbn;RtUBki b:Eu nþk_RtUv)andaMCaeQIlMGrpgEdr . vaGac
plitnUvkUneQI EdlduHecjBIrWs EdlGacrs;)anenAeBl EdledImemenAtUc nigPaKeRcIngab;eTAvij
eRkayry³eBl 2-3 qñaM . rka duHExñgeLIgvijenAeBlenAtUc Etb:ueNÑaH .
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

ÉksarBieRKaH [4]

6

kardaMduH]: RbePTenHduHlUtlas;elOn nigRtUvkarBnøWxaø gM nigcenøaHduHlUtlas;FM . enAeBldaMdMbgU
vaTam TareGaymankarEfrkSa . CaBiess enAtMbn;EdlminsUvmanTwk EdlGacbNþal
eGayvaRCuHsøwk ehIyRtUv eCosevogkareRsacTwkeRcIneBk . bnÞab;BIry³eBl 2 qñaM vaGac
RbKYtRbECgCamYyesµA)an . enA Assam (\NÐa) cenøaHénkardaMduHKW 6.7 x 6.7 m (225 edIm/ha) [2]
EtcenøaH 2.7 x 2.7 m k_RtUv)aneRbIR)as;enA Kerala (\NÐa) . enA savannas kUneQI nigeQIbun: efñal
RtUv)aneqHCajwkjab; edayFmµCati rW mnusS b:Eu nþvaGacduHlUtlas;ya:gelOneLIgvij . enA Java
(\NÐeÚ nsIu) rkaRtUv)andaMenA cenøaH Bischofia javanica edayeRbIcenøaH 1 x 3 m [13] .
[karRKb;RKg]: CaTUeTA kareFIeV sµA 3-4 dgRtUv)aneFIeV LIgenAqñaMdMbg
U nig 2-3 dgenAqñaMTI 2 [2] .
edaysarva RtUvkarBnøW karkab;rMelaHmansar³sMxan;Nas; enAkñgú cMkar nigRtUv)aneFIeV LIgBI 2 rW
eRcIndMNak;kal enA kMLúgxYb . enA Assam (\NÐa) bnÞab;BIkarkab;rMelaHcugeRkay RtUv)aneFIV
eGaymancenøaH 13.4 x 13.4 m (55 edIm/ha) [2] . enA Kerala (\NÐa) edImeQIRtUv)andaMenAcenøaH 2.7
x 2.7 m karkab;rMelaHRtUv)aneFIV BIrdg KW enAqñaMTI
8 nig 12
[2] . eTaHya:gNa
minmanPaBCak;lak;GBM cI MnnY énkarkab;rMelaHenAkñúgcMkarcMruHeT .
enAkñgú éRBFmµCati
rkaRtUv)anRKb;RKg edaykarkab;edayeRCIserIs EdlmanGgát;pit© DBH BI 38-77 cm
nigxYbénGaCIvkmµ 15-30 qñaM [2] . enAkñgú cMkar RbB½n§ Edll¥KkW arkab;eGayGs; nigeFIkV ar
daMduHeLIgvijTaMgRsug enAkMrit xYb 25-40 qñaM . kMritlUtlas;rbs;rkamankarduHlUtlas;elOn
enAkñgú l½kçxN
½ ÐsmRsb TaMgenAkñgú éRBFmµCati nigcMkar . enAtMbn;Edll¥ Ggát;pit© DBH 38 cm
bnÞab;BrI y³eBl 10 qñaM nig 58 cm DBH bnÞab;BIry³eBl 20 qñaM [2] . RbPBepSgeTot
)aneGaydwgfa DBH Gacdl; 20-30 cm bnÞab;BI 12 qñaM [10] . edIm Edlcas; manGgát;p©it DBH
dl;eTA 57 cm EdlGacmanGgát;p©itkenSamsøwk 12-15 m [2] . enA Peshawar ()a:KsI aß n)
kardaMedayKl; nigmanRbB½nF§ arasaRsþRKb;RKan; rkaGacmanGgát;p©it DBH 25.2 cm nigkMBs; 12.95
m bnÞab;BIry³eBl 7 qñaM . CaTUeTA karlUtlas;maD RtUv)anpþl;Catarageday Chaturvedi (1973)
GMBImaDeQI (KµansMbk) nigmaDeRkamsMbk rbs;eQI nigEmk (emIl: further readings) [2] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 8, 9, 10, 13]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

7

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

karRbmUlRKab;BUC]: rkaplitnUvRKab;BUC EdlmanlkçN³eTogTat; . EpøTRMu tUv)anRbmUl muneBl
vaeRbH Ebk CaTUeTAKWenAExems-]sPa [7] nigRtUv)anhalsMgYtedayBnøWRBHGaTitü edIm,IeGay
vaeRbHEbk nig beBa©jRKab; nigsMLI . Epønmi Yy²manpÞkú nUvRKab;cMnnY 200-400 RKab; [2] Edlman
dMNuHx<s; nigRtUv)an BRgayedayxül; nigduHlUtlas;enAkEnøg EdlsmRsb . RKab;RtUv)anEck
ecjBIsLM I edaydak;BYk vaenAkñgú )av nigvayedaydMbg . RKab;EdlenARss; RtUv)aneRbIR)as;
sMrab;daMduH . BYkvaminTam Tarkar RbRBwtþikmµCamunenaHeT . eTaHbI manRbPBxøHpþl;Gnusasn_eGay
RtaMTwkry³eBl 12 ema:gk_eday [9] . EpøEdls¶ÜtcMnYn 100 manTMgn;RbEhl 2 kg nigmancMnYnRKab;BI
21,430-38,500/kg [2, 7] .
[karbnþBUC]: karbnþBUCRtUv)aneFIeV LIg edaykarsabedaypÞal; nigkardaMedaykUn nigKl; .
kñúgkrNIsab edaypÞal; kMritdMNuHman 14-75% [2] nigkMritrs;rbs;rukçCatiman 6-31% [2]
edaymankMritx<sb; Mput RtUv )anrkeXIjenAelIRKab;Rss; . kardaMedayKl; RtUv)ancat;Tukfa
CaviFsI aRsþl¥kúgñ karFananUv PaBeCaKC½y enAkñgú cMkar TaMgkarsabedaypÞal; nigkarkat;Emk
daMmankMritduHlUtlas;Tab . enAkñgú fñal TMhMKrY Et 12 x 1.2 m RtUv)ansabRKab;cnM nY 0.7 kg
edaymanlkçN³CaCYr KMlat 15 cm BIKañ . kMritbTdæanfñal enAkñgú TMhMenHGacplit
)ankUneQIRbEhl 3,000 edIm . ry³eBldMNuH RbEhl 10-25 éf¶ . enAeBl kUneQI mankMBs; 5
cm
BYkvaGacRtUv)anykeTAdaMenAkñgú fg;pøasÞic EdlmanbMeBj edaydIlay sMrab;daM .
bnÞab;BIry³eBlmYyqñaM kUneQImanlkçN³smRsb sMrab;kardaMduHenATIval . kardaMduHGac RtUv)aneFIV
eLIg edayeRbIEdksMrab;CIkGeNþA EdlmanTMhM 30 x 30 cm [2] bnÞab;mkbMeBj edaydIeLIgvij .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 7, 9, 10]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVl¥ti ]: stVlt¥i mandUcCa Dysdercus cingulatus, Lohita grandis nig Tonica niviferana .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2]
[CMgW]: BBYkpSitmandUcCa Corticium rolfsii, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina
phaseolina, Myrothecium roridum nig Thanatephorus cucumeris .
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

8

ÉksarBieRKaH [2]
[epSg²]: enAtMbn;manesµAeRcIn kUneQIGacduHlUtlas;)an enAeBlEdlBYkvaRtUv)ankarBarBIeKa .
esµA Rkas;eBk k_GacrMxandl;karlUtlas;rbs;kUneQIpgEdr [2].

F> karGPirkS

:

minTan;manTinñn½y.

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
r)a:yelIBiPBelak]
[RbPBkMeNIt]:
bg;køaeds cin en)a:l; )a:KsI aß n RsIlgáa
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [2]
karnaMclU ]:
bUt‘ an km<Cú a \NÐÚensIu Lav ma:eLsIu PUma hVlI IBnI éf étva:n; evotNam GURsþalI )a:BUjÚKeI no
tMbn;RtUBki én Gaemrik .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 8]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

9

p> epSg²

:

minTan;manTinñn½y.

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Alexander TG, Mary MV, Thomas TP, Balagopalan M, 1983. Influence of site factors in
Bombax plantations. KFRI Research Report, Kerala Forest Research Institute, No. 17:ii + 19
pp.; 12 ref.
[2]

Chaturvedi AN, 1973. General standard volume tables for Semal (Bombax ceiba L.). Indian
Forest Records, Silviculture, 12(7):1-7.
[2]

Forest Research Institute, 1973. Indian Timbers - Semul. Information series. Dehra Dun,
India: Forest Research Institute.
[2]

Ghose TP, 1943. Indian Kapok. Indian Forester, 69:155-166.
[2]

Nair NR, 1971. Commercial volume tables for the forest trees of Kerala.
Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India: Kerala Forest Department.
[2]

Nicolson DH, 1979. Nomenclature of Bombax, Ceiba (Bombacaceae) and Cochlospermum
(Cochlospermaceae) and their type species. Taxon, 28:367-373.

Robyns AG, 1963. A monographic study of the genera Bombax s. l. (Bombacaceae). [Essai
de monographie du genere Bombax s. l. (Bombacaceae)], Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux., 83:1-316.
[2]

Sehgal RN, Venkaiah K, Satish Kumar, Khosla PK, 1991. Variation in wood specific gravity
in different morphoforms of Bombax ceiba Linn (Semul). Journal of the Indian Academy of
Wood Science, 22(2):13-16; 16 ref
[2]

Venkatesh CS, Arya RS, 1980. Establishment, management and productivity of Bombax
ceiba L. grafted seed orchards. Indian Journal of Forestry, 3(2):103-110; [1 pl.]; 9 ref.[2]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[2]

10

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8.
(CD-ROM).

[2] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[3] Gardner,S.; Sidisunthorn, P.; Anusarnsunthorn, V., 2000: A Field Guide to Forest Trees
of Northern Thailand.

[4] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names
of
Commercial Woods, unpublished.

[5] Kham, L., 2004: Medicinal Plants of Cambodia - Habitat, Chemical Constituents and
Ethnobotanical Uses.

[6] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species.

[7] Andhra Pradesh Forest Department: http://forest.ap.nic.in/Silviculture. (Internet source).

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[8] ARCBC BISS Species Database: http://arcbc.org/cgibin/abiss.exe/spd?SID=846002139&spd=4473&tx=PL. (Internet source).

11

[9] Auroville TDEF: http://www.auroville-tdef.info/GenInfo.php. (Internet source)
[10] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning
Institute.
[11] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[12] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and
Vietnam: a field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.
[13] PROSEA, 1998: Plant Resources of South East Asia 5 - (3) Timber trees: Lesser-known
timbers.
[14] Petri, M (DED), 2006: Own observations.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Borassus flabellifer L]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Borassus flabellifer L]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

Borassus flabellifer L. [1]

³

fan palm, palmyrah, toddy, toddy palm, palmyra palm, wine
palm, sea apple [1]

K> sTisn½y

³

Borassus flabelliformis L. (1774), Borassus sundaicus
Becc. [1]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

palmier à sucre, rondier, rônier, borasse (France) [1]
- palmira (Portugal) [1] - Fächerpalme, Lontaropalme,
Palmyrapalme (Germany) [1] - lontar, siwalan, tal, tala
(Indonesia) [1] - palma da ventagli (Italy) [1] - tan bin
(Myanmar) [1] - tan (Laos) [6] - wine palm (Philippines) [6] lontar, tah, tai (Malaysia) [1] - not, tan, tan-yai (Thailand) [1] loost, noost, thoost, thoost noot (Vietnam) [1]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

etñat
ÉksarBieRKaH : [8]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

1

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

thnaot, thnaôt [1], thnot [10]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Arecales
RKYsar : Arecaceae

ePT : Borassus
RbePT : Borassus flabellifer
ÉksarBieRKaH: [1]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA] FM CaedImeTal nigedImmanBN’ébtgCanic© edaykMBs; 25 m [1] (10-20 m [2], 30 m [5], 25-40 m [6]) . vaGaccas;xøaMg (dl;eTA 150 qñaM) b:Eu nþCIvit EdlGacpþl;RbeyaCn_
esdækic© man RbEhl 80 qñaM [11] . edImFM Rtg; Ggát;pit© dl;eTA 1 m [6] ragekan enAkMBs;RbEhl
4 m [6] eRkay mkrag CasIL
u aMg nigGgát;p©it 40-50 cm [6] CYnkalmanEmk EmkRKbedaysøkw
enAeBltUc eRKIm nig manrWseRcIn enARtg;Kl; . kenSamsøwk manragdUckgða . eRkamlkçx½NÐ
eGkULsÚ uIrbs;va KWmansøkw cMnYn 14 kñúgmYyqñaM EdlsøwkmYyduHecjkñúgry³eBl 26 éf¶ [11].
søwkticGacman cMeBaHkEnøgEdlminsm RsbsMrab;karlUtlas; (8 kñúgmYyqñaM rW 1 kñúg 45 éf¶) .
Borassus EdlmanduH enA\NÐeÚ nsIu BIPaKxag ekItcava: manlkçN³xusBIetñatbnþc
i (Rtbkpáa) Epø
imbricate
enAKl; minmanRska elIbnÞHsøkw kBa©púM áa eQµal manEmkticCag
nigRtUv)ankMNt;faCaRbePTxusKña: B. sundaica Beccari [6] .
[søwk]: søwk (30-60 [5] kñg
ú mYyedIm) tMerobCarages<ó . søwkmanlkçN³dUcEs,k BN’ébtgRbepH
rag mUl nigsMEb:t dUckgða Ggát;pi©t 1-1.5 m [6] (1.3 m [5]) nigbt;tambeNþayEKmsøwk .
søwkRtUv)an EckCa 60-80 eTogTat; ragCaes<ózitenACabnÞat; manRbEvg 0.6-1.2 m [5] rwg
mankarbt; CaEpñk² EdlmanTMhMenAKl;RbEhl 3 cm . Tgsøkw manlkçN³maMu nigragTwkrlk
RbEvg 1-1.2 m [5] BN’exµA enAKl; nigCaysøwk enAeBlenAtUc nigkøayCabnøa rwgenAeBlcas; .
[páa]:kenSampáazitenArvagsøwk nigTgpáa manRbEvgxøI Cagsøk
w páajI nigeQµalenAdac;BIKañ . páajI nig
eQµal duHenAelIedImepSgKña . páaeQµalmanTMhMFM RbEvg 2 m mancMnYnRbEhl 8 kBa©Mú
EdlbImanTMhM tUc ragdUck,al nigsac; manRbEvg 30-45 cm tMerobCarages<ó manpáacMnnY 30 .
páamanekseQµal 6 . kBa©púM aá jIminmanEmk RKbedayr)aMg dUcCasøkw rbs;paá . Tgpáa FM ragdUcsac;
Rkas; CaeQµal man EmkFM . etñatcab;páa nigEpøenAeBlmanGayu 12-20 qñaM enArdUvR)aMg .
edImeQµal ecjpáaenAExvickäi a rW FñÚ enAeBlpáajIcab;epþImecjenAeRkaypáaeQµalBImyY eTABIrEx .
RKb;edImetñat GacecjkBa©púM aá BI 8- 15 kñgú mYyqñaM . kBa©púM aá eQµalGaczitenABI 45 eTA 60 éf¶ nigjI

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

eTA 70 éf¶ . (karecjpáa : mina dl; emsa [8] kumÖ³ dl;emsa [9]) . ecjEpø : ]sPa dl;
kBaØa [8] (]sPa dl; tula [9]) .
[Epø]: CaEpøsac; RsedogdUg manragbIRCug enAeBlx©I nigragmUlenAeBlcas; manTTwg 12-15 cm [6]
(17.5 cm [9]) nig TMgn; 1.5-2.5(-3) kg [6] . sMbkxageRkArelag esþg
I nigragdUcEs,kBN’etñat
nig køayCaBN’sCIu m<Úcas; rW exµA bnÞab;BIRbmUlpl . enAxagkñúgmanTwk srésBN’s
Edlmansac;BN’elOgrW TwkRkUc . RKab;Gacrak; rW eRCA mUl rW ragRsYc . enAxagkñúgRKab;cas;
mansac;BN’s EdlmanlkçN³rwg Rsedogsac;dUg b:uEnþmankarrwgCag . enAEpøx©I sac;enHTn; RCay
nigføadUcTwkkk nigmanTwkenAxagkñúg EdlmanrsCatiEp¥m . etñatnimYy² manEpøBI 8-15 Føay rW
cegáam EdlmancMnnY EpøsrubRbEhl 80 kñúg mYyqñaM .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 11]
60

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

lkçN³eQI]: edImTabbMputKWkMBs; 10 m EdlmaneQIrwg F¶n; nigFn; dg;seIu tsMgYtedayxül; 1.021.14 g/cm³ . Fn;ng
w keNþó RbePTstV EdlecaHrun§ nigpSiteFIVeGayeQIBukpuy .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 6]
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

3

:

RbEhl : 25°N eTA 30°S etñatCaRbePT EdlduHedayFmµCatienAGnutMbn;RtUBki nigRtUBki énGasIuxag
t,Úg nigGasIGu aeKñy_ . vaduHlUtlas;ya:geRcIn enA\NÐa PUma nigkm<Cú a EdlvaEtgRtUv)andaMduH .
vaGac duHRKbdNþb; enAelItMbn;d_FM edaybegátI CadMNaMsTu § rW ÉkRbePT enAtMbn; EdlraMgs¶Üt Edl
etñatepSg eTot (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merrill) nigdUg (Cocos nucifera
L.)minGacRbKYtRbECg)an rW Gac duHlayCamYyGMbUretñatepSg²eTot dUcCaenA\NÐa CaedIm .
CaTUeTA vaGacmanduH enAtampøÚv enAelIPWøERs rW RBMdIsMrab;eFIkV sikmµ nigCYnkalk_manenAkñgú éRBpgEdr
. enAkm<Cú a vaduHlUtlas; enAcenøaHrvagéRB nig PøEW Rs .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 6, 8, 9, 11]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

vacUlcitþduHenAelIkMritry³kMBs;BI nIvs:U muRT b:Eu nþGacdl; 800 m a.s.l. [6, 11] (0-300 m [1]) .
vaman karFn; nigGacduHlUtlas;enAkEnøg EdldIKµanCICati . etñatRtUv)andaMduH enAkñgú tMbn;RtUBki
nigGnuRtUBki EdlmanrdUvBIKW R)aMg nigvsSa edaymankMritTwkePøóg 500-900 mm/qñaM [6] enAtMbn;
EdlraMgs¶Üt nigkMrit 5,000 mm/qñaM [6] enAtMbn;esIm . etñatgaysMrbxønÜ eTAnwgtMbn;raMgs¶Üt
nigduHlUtlas;)anl¥eTotpg ehIyFn;nwgrdUvR)aMg Edlmanry³eBlBI 4-8 Ex [1] .
kMritsItuNðPaBmFüm 30ºC [6] (20-29ºC [1]) nigsItN
u ðPaB x<sb; MputenArdUvekþA 32-45ºC [1]
nigTabbMputenArdUv RtCak; 18-25ºC [1] b:Eu nþvaGacduH enAkMritsItuNðPaB 8ºC [1] (0ºC [11]
)pgEdr . kUneQI nigeQICT
M uggayrgeRKaHedaysarsenSIm nig ePøgI eqH .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 6, 11]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: edImTaMgmUl RtUv)aneRbIR)as;edaykat;ecjnUvEpñkTn; EdlenAkNþalecj .
edImTabCageKbMput KW 10 m EdlmanlkçN³rWg nigsmRsbsMrab;CaeQImlU begÁalePøgI srsrpÞH
s<an kargarCageQI sMNg;viskV mµ nigFñmw . Epñk EdlTn;enAkNþal Gackat;Cakþa sMrab;eRbICaRCuj
FüÚg eQIfamBl pgEdr . edImTaMgmUl GaceRbIsMrab;eFICV aTUketñat sMrab;pkÞú mnusS)an
ya:gehacNas;bnI ak;pgEdr [4] .
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

etñatGacduHelIRbePTdIesÞtI EtRKb;RbePT edaymandI\dækMritTab nigCadIGasItu rW )as
nigminmanCICati . eTaHvacUlcitþ dItamtMbn;eqñr nigdIexµA sMbUrsarFatusrIragÁ nigmindk;Twk
vak_GacGacrs;)an enAtMbn;man kardk;TwktictYcpgEdr .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 6, 8, 11]

4

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

5

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 11]
[Gnupl]: RKb;EpñkénedImetñat KWmanRbeyaCn_ . enA\NÐa vaRtUv)anehAfa edImEdlmankareRbIR)as;
800 ya:g .
plitkmµsáretñat : plitplsMxan;rbs;etñatKW Twketñat Edl)anBIkBa©púM áa . vaRtUv)aneFIeV GayeLIgem
rW p¥ab; edayFmµCati (teck thnot chhu) CaRbePTRsa EdlmanpÞúkCatiGal;klu 5-6% [11]
nigGacRtUv )ancMraj; CaeGtaNul edaymankMritGalkul 20-60% . edIm,IeFIVRsaTwketñat
RtUvrkSaeGayRtCak; . Twketñat GacRtUv)anEkécñCasárbI RbePTepSg²Kña : sárrav (sugar palm
syrup), sárRKab;l¥t
i nigsárdMu rW sáEpn . RbePT EdlRbCaCnniymeRbIKW sárrav rW sárBag
EdlmankritsarFatusÜt¶ 80%. TwketñatRtUv )anlayCamYy sENþk nigTwk és< (Ipomoea
acuatica) sMrab;eGayRCUksIueTotpg .
sMPar³eFIBV éI d : RKb;sMPar³eRbIR)as;enAtMbn;CnbT KWeRbIR)as;swøketñat minRtwmEtsMrab;
Rbk;pHÞ b:ueNÑaHeT vak_GaceRbICaCBa¢aMgpgEdr . enAkm<Cú a søwkBI 25 eTA 36 RtUv)ankat;
BIrdgkñgú mYyqñaM BIedImetñat Edl minRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;ykTwk [4] . søkw EdlenAkMBUl
RtUv)aneFICV amYk RbGb; edIm,Idak;)ay k®nþk; pøit CaedIm . karBIGtIt BYkvaRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;sresr
CaBiesseRbIedayRBHsgÄ . sréssøkw enAx©I Gacvij bBa¢lÚ Kña )anya:gRss;sa¥ t .
TgsøwkRtUv)aneRbICarbg rW eQIfamBl nigGacbMEbkyk srésreQI sMrab;eFICV aExS nigkenÞl .
sMbkCaRbPB sMrab;kareFIEV xS .
Gahar : EpøGacbriePaK)an nigGacykeFICV anMu nigecAhYyeTotpg . EpøenAx©IGacbriePaKRss;
nigerobcM CabEg¥mCamYy)aydMeNIb rW bEg¥mrav . EpñkxagelIbpM tu rbs;Epø EdlminTan;TMu
RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;CabEnø pgEdr . sac;Rss; enACMuvijRKab;man vitamins A nig C . Epøcas;RtUv)an
RtaMkúgñ Twk bnÞab;mkyk srésrecj . sac;elOg² EdlTTYl)anRtUv)anykeTAlayCamYyemSAGgár
nigx©b;edaysøkw eck nig eRkaymkRtUv)anykeTAcMhuy. sac; EdlsVitGacRtUv)aneRbIkgñú smørkarI.
Epñk EdlTn; enAkMBs; 10 m énedImmanCatiemSA EdlGaceRbICaGaharenAeBl maneRKaHGt;køan .
bNþlÚ rbs;va EdlenAx©IGac briePaK)an . kUneQI GacRtUv)ancit nigbriePaKTaMgRss; rW halsMgYt
nigcMGinpgEdr . enAPUma BYkva RtUv)ancak;Tukfa manPaBl¥\tex©aH b:Eu nþmanCatiBultictYcpgEdr .
BYkvaGacplitemSA EdleRbIeFICV a bbr layCamYy)ay rukCç atiepSgeTot emÞs RtI

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak;.
ÉksarBieRKaH [3]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

vaGacduHRKbdNþb; enAelItMbn;d_FM edaybegátI CadMNaMsTu § rW ÉkRbePT enAtMbn; EdlraMgs¶Üt Edl
etñat epSgeTot (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merrill) nigdUg (Cocos nucifera
L.)minGacRbKYtRbECg)an rW GacduHlayCamYyGMbUretñatepSg²eTot dUcCaenA\NÐa CaedIm . CaTUeTA

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

nigeRKOgpSMepSgeTot . vaRtUv)anesñIr eGaymankareFVI BaNiCk¢ mµeTAelICatiemSA enHpgEdr [5] .
Twkdmpáa mansar³sMxan;Nas;sMrab;karplitTwkXµúM .
»sf : EpñkCaeRcInetñat RtUv)aneRbI (Epø rWs Tgpáa sMbk nigTwketñat) RtUv)aneRbICa»sfburaN :
edIm eQIxIG© ackat;bnßykarqab;xgw rWmYlem:A eraKmYl nigRbemH . rWsx©ImanCati diuretic nig
anthelmintic
ehIyRtUv)anes¶ar edIm,IsMrab;Büa)alCMgWdegðmI . rWss¶ÜtRtUv)andutykEpSg
edIm,IBüa)alCMgWRcmuH . epHrbs;páa GacRtUv)aneRbIkat;bnßykarrlak . sMbkRtUv)anes¶ar
RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;sGM atmat; nig eFICV a FüÚgsMrab;Büa)aleFµj . Twk Edl)anBIpaá eRbIsMrab;CaePsC¢³
elIkMlaMg diuretic fñaMbBa©úH nigRbqaMgkar minrMePIb nigCa amebicide . sár Edl)anBITwketñat
manCatiBlu nigRtUv)anhamcMeBaHGñkmaneraKefømI . sárRKab; EdleFIBV sI rá etñat GacbM)at;kark¥k;
nigeraKsYt . TwketñatRss; RtUv)andutkMedA eGayeLIgem nigykeTAlabkEnøgQWcab; . Kmetñat rW
bNþlÚ TgsøWk nigpáas¶tÜ mansarFatu diuretic . sac;EpøTMu GacBüa)aleraKrlakEs,k [5] .
vamansar³RbeyaKkñgú karkarBar ePIgø eqHEs,k nig BgEbkelIEs,k nigCMgWRkBH . vak_manskmµPaB
eFIeV GaymankarsaMnu gw eraK rWCgM WpgEdr . manpÞúk C½r xøaj; nig albuminoids [2] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11]
[epSg²]: enA\NÐa PUma nigkm<C
ú a etñat RtUv)andaMduHCar)aMgkarBarxül; nigCaRBMdIERs . etñatk_plþ ;
nUv CMrkFmµCati eTAdl;BBYkstVsaø b sVa nigrukçCati (ferns nigG½rKIed) .
ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 6, 11]

6

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

7

vaGacmanduH enAtampøÚvenAelI PWEø Rs rW RBMdIsMrab;eFIkV sikmµ nigCYnkalk_manenAkñgú éRBpgEdr .
etñatGacRtUv)andaM enAeRkamBnøxW øagM nigminTamTarkarEfrkSaeRcIneT enAeBldaMduH . vaduH
)anl¥ebImanTwk nigCIlamstV CaCMnyY . edImduHlUtlas;kúgñ kMritkMBs; 30 cm [6]kñgú mYyqñaM . eTaHbI
vaRtUvkareBlyUr edIm,I eBjv½y (8-14 qñaM [1]) EdlGackMNt;nUvkareRbIR)as;rbs;va . enAkñgú cMkar
karkab;rMelaH RtUv)aneFIV edIm,IeGayedImjIkan; EtmanplitPaB . enAPUma nigkm<Cú a etñatRtUv)andaMduH
CaRTugRTaytUc tamRKYsar edIm,Ipþl;cMNUlbEnßm nigeRbIR)as; . kargar GacEckCaBIr .
RsUvTamTarkMlaMgeRcIn enArdUvvsSa cMEnkkargaredImetñatGacRtUv )aneFIVenArdUvR)aMg [6] . enAkm<Cú a
nigPUma ksikrGacmanedImetñatpÞal;xøÜn BI 30-40 edImCamFüm (25 edImeQµal nig 15 edImjI) [6]
b:Eu nþ ya:gticNas;k_man 10 edImEdr [4] . karRbmUlplcab;epþmI BI edIm EdlmanGayu 25-30 qñaM
nigGacbnþdl; 80 qñaM [6] . edIm EdlmanplitPaBTab RtUv)ankat;srM ab;eFIVCa eQI
enAeBlBBYkvamankMBs;elIsBI 10 m nigmanGayurvag 70-100 qñaM [4] .
[kardak;Twketñat]:
TaMgpáajI nigeQµal GacRbmUlTwketñat)andUcKña . eTaHbI
páaTaMgBIrGacRbmUl)andUc Kña BBYkvaGacpþl;pleRcInenArdUvvsSa . GñkeLIgetñatenAkm<Cú a
eFIkV arGPivDÆn_ bec©keTseLIgetñat edIm,IkarBarpáa [4] . BYkeKeRbICeNþIrb¤sSI sMrab;eLIg . erogral;
6-12 Ex CeNþrI RtUv)andkecj sMrab; suvtßiPaB . enAeBledImeQI enACitKña begÁalb¤sSIEvgmYy
RtUv)andak; sMrab;qgø BIedImmYyeTAmYy edIm,I eLIg cuHeRcIndg nigcMeNjeBlevla . GñkeLIgetñat
RtUvEteLIgedImetñatmuneBlpáarbs;varIk . edIm,I citykTwk søwkmYycMnYnk_GacRtUv)ankat;ecj
edIm,IeGaymanPaBgayRsYl . enAelIedImeQµalpáaCa eRcInzitenACab;Kña bnÞab;BIBnøkRtUv)ankat; .
Tgrbs;kBa©úpM aá RtUv)anKabykTwk . cMeBaHedImjI kBa©púM áa zitenAdac;EtÉg . páaRtUv)ankat;
nigTgpáaRtUv)anKabykTwk CaeRcInéf¶ edayeRbIdegáóbFM edIm,IeGay TwkhUr . bnÞab;BIbéI f¶eRkay
TgxagelIRtUv)ankat;ecj . TwkRtUv)anbgðrÚ cUlkñúgbMBg;bs¤ SI rW pøasÞci Edl RtUv)anehAfa 'ampong',
EdlGacpÞúk)anTwkBI 2 eTA 4 kg [4] . sMrab;edImnimYy² CamFümGac RbmUl)anBI 4-6 bMBg;
GaRs½yeTAtamcMnYnkBa©púM aá . TwketñathUr enAelIedIm RbEhlCary³eBl 3-6 Ex/qñaM [6] .
sMrab;kareKobykTwketñat eKeFIkV arcitTgvaCafµImgþ eTot edaykaMbitya:gmut . enAeBlyb;
karhUrGacekIneLIgrhUtdl;BrI dg eRcInCaeBléf¶ . karRbmUlRtUv)aneFIeV LIgBIrdg kñgú mYyéf¶
KWeBlRBwk nigéf¶ edIm,Ikat;bnßynUvPaBkkr nigkxVk; . sMbkeQI RtUv)ancitCadMtu Uc²
EdlmanCatitanIn (manRbePT dUcCa Shorea cochinchinensis, Shorea roxburghii G. Don,

rWskøw sVaycnÞI (Anacardium occidentale L.) nig
Schleichera oleosa (Loureiro) Oken RtUv)aneRbIR)as; nigdak;cUleTAkñúgbMBg; . RkUc EdlcitrYc
(Ca(OH)2)k_GacRtUv)andak;cUl kñúgbMBg;pg Edr edIm,IkarBarkareLIgem nigkkr . eTaHbI
vaGacman\T§Bi l eTAelIrsCatirbs;Twketñatk_eday . RbsinkERBa©gRtUv)aneRbI sMrab;cMeraH
BBYkvaRtUv)anykeTAeralePøgI edIm,IsMGatpgEdr .
[plitkmµ] GñkRbmUlTwketñat GacRbmUl)an 20-30 edImcMnYnBIrdgkñg
ú mYyéf¶ [4] (30-40
edIm/mYyéf¶ [6]) RbsinmankarCYyRbmUlTwketñatenAeRkamedIm . GñkeLIgetñat
manCMnajxageLIgetñat nigdak;Twk etñat nwgTTYl)anTinñpll¥ . karRbmUlTwketñatGacx<sd; l; 6 l
kñúgmYyéf¶ nigmYyedIm . plitkmµRbcaM qñaM énTwketñatKW 100-600 l/edIm [6] .
RbPBBt’manepSgeTot )anbBa¢ak;fa plitkmµGacmanRtwm 169-246 l/qñaM . sáretñat EdlTTYl)anKW
16-70 kg/edIm rW 19 t/ha/qñaM enAkMritdg;seIu t 275 edImkñg
ú 1 ha [6] . EpøGacpþl;pl 200350/edIm (RbsinkardaMseM dAEtelIEpø) rW 130 t/qñaM RbsinedImjIman 275 /ha [6] . eTaHbI
TinñplmankMritxus²Kña . sMrab;karplit sárrav 1 kg eKRtUvkarGuscMnYn 4 kg [4] (5 kg [6]) .
ksikrkm<Cú abnþplitsáretñatrav nigsárdMu edaysar EteQIfamBlGac rk)anesÞrI RKb; TIEnøg edayesrI
nigpþl;cN
M UlenArdUvR)aMgEfmeTotpg . eTaHbItMbn;xHø kMriteQImankMNt; (enAPUma
nigkEnøgxøHenAkm<Cú a) EdleFIbV EnßmkarcMNayeTAelIGsu nigeFIeV GaytMélsár ekIneLIg .
etñatRtUv)an kab;rMlM enAeBlEdlvax<se; Bk nigBi)akkñgú kareLIg .
[karEkécñ]:bnÞab;BIkarRbmUlTwketñat vaRtUv)anykeTAes¶ar edImeFIC
V asáretñat . vaRtUv)anRtg eday
søwkdUg edIm,IyksMNl; rW kkrecj nigbEnßmnUvsMbk rWskøw eTAkñgú enaH ehIycak;enAelIfas edIm,IsMgYt
. enAeBlsárrav manlkçN³xab; vaRtUv)ancak;enAkñgú RtelakdUg nigTukeGayRtCak; nigrwg .
sármank_ RsUb ykxül;x<s; edaysarmanpÞkú sarFatusÜt¶ )anBIrukçrs . KuNPaBsárKW l¥ .
enA\NÐeÚ nsIu sáretñat suT§manRbPBBI Madura KWmanKuNPaBl¥Cag mkBI Arenga énPaKxaglic
Java nigTTYl)antMélx<s; enAkñúgTIpSar [6] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 6, 9]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merrill),

8

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

vagayRsYlkñgú karbnþBUC edaykarsabedayRKab;paÞ l; karduHeLIgvijedayFmµCati nigkardaMduHeday
kUn . RKab;RtUv)anRbmUl BIExsIha dl;kBaØa nigmanlT§PaBdMNuHry³eBlEvg . karrkSaTukRKab;Ca
RbePT recalcitrant . cMnYnRKab;kúgñ mYyKILÚRkam : 15-20 PaKrydMNuH : 80% PaKry³Edl
GacdMaduH)an : 80% cMnnY kUneQI /kg énRKab; : 12-16 [8] . RKab;GacbNþHú Camun enAkñgú lamkeKa
nigeRsacTwkry³ eBl mYys)aþh_ . vaRtUv)ansabenAkMrit 7-10 cm [8] (10 cm [6]) rW
edateGayelc kñgú dI (kMLúg rdUvePøóg) edaymankMrtidMNuH 3-6 m enATIvalpÞal;
b:Eu nþknU eQIGacmankarBi)akñúgkardaMduH [6] . enA eBldaM RKab;etñat cab;epþmI duHkñúgry³eBlBI 30-60
éf¶ [8] (45-60 éf¶ [6] ) . enAkMLgú dMNuH BnøkduH cak;ecjmk BIRKab; nigkarBareday
cotelydonary
sheath
nigduHcak;clU kñgú dICeM rA 90-120 cm . enAeBlkarlUtlas;bnþ
kUneQIcak;rWscuHeTAeRkam . enAkñgú 9-12 Ex kMBUlcab;epþmI duHecjBIdI edayman søwkpgEdr .
bnÞab;BI 4-6 qñaM vacab;manTMrg;edIm . BYkvaRtUv)andaMCaRkum edIm,IgayRsYlkñgú kar RbmUl Twketñat .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 6, 8, 11]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

etñatykTwkmingayrgeRKaH edaysarCMgW nigstVl¥ti eT .

hardly suffers from diseases and

pests.

stVl¥ti ]:keNþóGaceFIVkarvayRbharkUneQItUc² . RbePTxµtÚ (Oryctes and Rhynchophorus)
sIubpM aø j EpñkEdlgab;rbs;rukçCati b:Eu nþmni GaceFIVeGayedImmaneRKaHfñak;eT . vaCaPñak;garsMGat edIm
Edlrs; .
[CMgW]: etñatduHlUtlas;enAkñúg dIEdlexµA rW mindk;Twk EdlGaceFIeV GayBnøkrlYy nigeFIeV GaymanpSit
Phytophthora palmivora EdlekItmanpg EdlenAelIedImdUg . eraKsBaØadMbg
U manGuC²elIskøw
Edl manBN’ébtg nigraldaldl;bNþlÚ . bNþlÚ rbs;varlYy cMeBaHkarkMcat;pSitenH KWdutecalnUv
edIm EdlrgkarbMpøajBICgM WenH. pSitepSgeTotGac dUcCa Stigmina palmivora
GacelcecjmkpgEdr [1].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

9

epSg²]: Bs; nigstVmanBisepSg²eTot Gacrs;enAkñúgkenSamsøwk EdlGaceFIeV GayGñkeLIgetñat
man eRKaHfñak; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [6]
[

F> karGPirkS

:

etñatrgnUvsMBaFCaeRcIn enATUTaMgRbeTs . enAkEnøg EdldUgGacRtUv)andaM etñatGacCMnYs)anmþg;maá l
. Ca]TahrN_ enARbeTséf etñatesÞrI Etmankar)at;bg;eTAehIy .
ÉksarBieRKaH [6]

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

PaKkNþalRbeTskm<Cú a
ÉksarBieRKaH [6]
kMBg;s<W taEkv eBaF×sat; kMBg;cam kMBg;qñaMg kMBg;cam kNþal éRBEvg sVayerog kMBg;FM )at;dMbg
esomrab bnÞaymanC½y PñeM Bj .
ÉksarBieRKaH [7]

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
RbPBkMeNIt]: \NÐa
ÉksarBieRKaH [10]
karnaMclU (taMgBIyUrmkehIy)]: bg;køaeds PUma éf km<Cú a Lav nigevotNam

[

ÉksarBieRKaH [10]
karnaMclU (fµI²)]: \NÐeÚ nsIu RsIlgáa

[

French Polynesia

)a:BUjÚKeI no .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

10

p> epSg²

:

sarFatu]: sáretñat sMbrU sarFatuciBa©wmeRcInCagsárGMeBA EdlmanpÞúk 1.04% protein, 0.19% xøaj;,
76.86% sucrose, 1.66% glucose, 3.15% sarFatuEr:srub , 0.861 % calcium, 0.052%
phosphorus; manpgEdrnUv 11.01 mg Edk kñúg 100 g nig 0.767 mg énsMN kñúg 100 g [5] .
rukçrsRss; RtUv)anraykarN_fa CaRbPBén vitamin B complex nigmanpÞkú 17-20%
énsarFatusÜt¶ . vaman pH BI 6.7-6.9 (-7.5) nigkñúgmYylIRt manpÞúk proteins nig amino acids
[

(360 mg N), sucrose 13-18%, P 110 mg, K 1900 mg, Ca 60 mg, Mg 30 mg, vitamin B3.9

nig vitamin C 132 mg . BI 7-9 g/l sárRtUv)ankat;bnßy RbEhlmkBI Rbtikmµ enzymatic rW
microbiological bnÞab;karecaHyk . epHmanpÞk
ú rukçrs 4-5g/l . EpøRss;GacmanTMgn; 2790 g
(100%); perianth lobes 175 g (6.3%), sMbkxageRkA 120 g (4.3%), sréssac; 66 g
(2.4%) sac;GacbriePaK)an 1425 g (51%) nigRKab;cn
M nY 3 TMgn; 1004 g (36%). RKab;cnM nY 3
mansMbkRKab;rwgTMgn; 394 g, endosperm 609 g nig embryo 1 g .
ÉksarBieRKaH [11].
[plitkmµ nigBaNiCk
¢ mµkgñú BiPBelak]:etñatpþl;Twk RtUv)andaMduHsMrab;eRbIR)as; nigRtUv)anplit eday
manlkçN³CaRTg;RTaytUc . enAeBlelIstMrUvkar vaGacRtUv)anykeTAlk; enAelITIpSar . RsIlgáa
(10 lanedIm kñúgépÞdI 25,000 ha), \NÐa (60 lanedIm) PUma (2.5 lanedIm 25,000 ha)
PaKkNþal km<Cú a (1.8 lanedIm) \NÐeÚ nsIu (0.5 edImelI 15,000 ha) . enAqñaM 1968 etñat
RtUv)anplitCasárenA RbeTskm<Cú a EdlRtUv)ansµanfaRbEhl 35,000 t kñúgmYyqñaM
nigeRbIR)as;kúgñ RsukmanRtwm 10,000 t.
ÉksarBieRKaH [6]
[Rbvtþi]:vaRtUv)ansnµt;fa
etñat KWCakareRCIserIs edaymnusS BIRbePTCaeRcInepSgeTotén
B.aethiopum
Mart. enAGaeRhVc . r)a:yrbs;va RbEhlbNþalmkBIBaNiCk
¢ mµ rbs;\NÐa
cab;taMgBIsm½ymunRbvtþi saRsþeTAeTot .
ÉksarBieRKaH [11]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

IU,

11

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Davis TA, Johnson DV, 1987. Current utilization and further development of the palmyra
palm (Borassus flabellifer L., Arecaceae) in Tamil Nadu State, India. Economic Botany,
41(2):247-266; 27 ref.
[1]

Flach, M. & Paisooksantivatana, Y., 1996. Borassus flabellifer L. In Flach, M & Rumawas,
F. (Eds.): Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 9. Plants yielding non-seed
carbohydrates. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. pp. 59-63.
[6]

Gupta RK, 1993. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilization. New
Delhi, India: Oxford & IBH.
[1]

Hocking D, 1993. Trees for drylands. Trees for drylands., xiii + 370 pp.; [Originally
published by Oxford & IBH Publishing, New Delhi, India]; 12 pp. of ref.
[1]

Jagadeesh HN, Damodaran K, Padmanabhan S, Aswathanarayana BS, Xavier F, Kamal
SZM, Guruva Reddy H, 1993. Studies on palmyrah wood. IPIRTI Research Report, No.
69:22 pp.; 6 ref.
[1]

[1]

Jambulingam R, Fernandes ECM, 1986. Multipurpose trees and shrubs on farmlands in
Tamil Nadu State (India). Agroforestry Systems, 4(1):17-32; 7 ref.
[1]

Kovoor A, 1983. The palmyrah palm: potential and perspectives. FAO Plant Production
and Protection Paper, No. 52:v + 77 pp.; [6 pl.]; 90 ref.
[1]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Jagadeesh HN, Damodaran K, Aswathanarayana BS, 1996. Palmyrah wood - a potential
source of wood raw material. Wood News, 6(2):20-23; 1 ref.

12

Khieu Borin. 1996. The sugar palm tree as the basis of integrated farming systems in
Cambodia.Contribution to Second FAO Electronic Conference on Tropical Feeds. Livestock
Feed Resources within Integrated Farming Systems.
[4]

Khieu Borin & Preston, T.R. 1995. Conserving biodiversity and the environment and
improving the well-being of poor farmers in Cambodia by promoting pig feeding systems
using the juice of the sugar palm tree (Borassus flabellifer). Livestock Research for Rural
Development, (7)2: 25-30.
[4]

Khieu Borin, Preston, T.R. & Lindberg, J.E. 1996. Juice production from the sugar palm
tree (Borassus flabellifer) in Cambodia and performance of growing pigs fed sugar palm
juice. In Sustainable Tropical Animal System, p. 1-11. Swedish University of Agricultural
Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. (M.Sc. thesis)
[4]

Mahendran S, 1994. The activities of the Palmyrah Development Board and some
aspects of agronomic research and development needs of the organization. Journal of
the National Science Council of Sri Lanka, 22(SUP A):S47-S53; 5 ref.
[1]

Morton JF, 1988. Notes on distribution, propagation, and products of Borassus palms
(Arecaceae). Economic Botany, 42(3):420-441; [12 pl.]; 81 ref.
[1]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Reddy ANY, Yekantappa K, Somesh Korcher, 1988. Nursery technique of Borassus
flabellifer Linn. Myforest, 24(2):114-116 + 2 pl.

13

[1]

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[2] Kham, L., 2004: Medicinal Plants of Cambodia - Habitat, Chemical Constituents and
Ethnobotanical Uses.

[3] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade
Names of Commercial Woods, unpublished.

[4] Khieu Borin: Sugar palm (Borassus flabellifer): Potential feed resource for livestock
in small-scale farming systems (internet source)

[5] Morton, J.F.,1988: Notes on Distribution, Propagation and Products of Borassus
Palms (Arecaceae). Economic Botany (1988) 42(3): 420-441

[6] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database –
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/SpeciesInfo.as
(Internet source)

[7] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

[8] Andhra Pradesh Forest Department: http://forest.ap.nic.in/Silviculture (Internet
source).

[9] Auroville TDEF: http://www.auroville-tdef.info/Individual.php?id=443. (Internet
source).

[10] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[11] PROSEA, 1996: Plant Resources of South East Asia 9 - Plants yielding non-seed
carbonhydrates.

14

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. [4].

³

lacquer tree, Bengal kino tree, flame of the forest [4].

³

syn B. frondosa Roxb. ex Willd.[4],
Erythrina monosperma Lam.[20].

X> eQµaHepSg²
g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³
³

giéng giéng (Vn)[2]

car
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

1

cha:r [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Fabales
RKYsar : Papilionaceae
ePT : Butea
RbePT : Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub
ÉksarBieRKaH: [2 ; 4 ; 5 ]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaedImeQItUcmankMBs;BI 6-10 m Ggát;p©it 25–40 cm manedImmUl Rtg; Rsedog
Lagerstroemia tomentosa ragrmYl nigkenSamsøwkebIk [2] . edImeQItUcmankMBs; 8-10 m [4]
. CaedImeQICMruHsøwk EdlmankMBs;dl;eTA 15 m mankenSamsøkw mineTotTat; nigedImekag [5] .
gayRsYlcMNaM enAeBlvaecjpáa edaymanBN’RkhmRss;s¥at [2] CamYynwgEmkrWsEkv
nigCMruHsøwk [13] .
[sMbk]: BN’RbepHeTAetñatRsal relag rW eRbHtic² eRKIm nigmanfñaM kMras;
0.5 cm
manBN’Rkhmetñat enAxageRkam manlkçN³Casrés manC½rBN’Rkhm enAeBlkat; .
Emkcas;manlkçN³ekag nigEmktUcmaneramRkas; [2] .
[søwk]:
Casøwksmas EdlmansøwkcMnYn 3 manTgRbEvg 12-20 cm ragEvgsþÜc
nigmaneramenAeBlenA tUc manragTwkrlkenAEpñkxagelI . EpñkkNþalrbs;søwk FM .
TgsøwkmanRbEvg 2.5–4.0 cm nigxñaysøwkmanragCavgVg; zitenACitKl;søwk . bnÞHsøwkmanlkçN³xøI
BN’ébtg manTMhMBI 6-12 x 6-12 cm . sréssøwkbeNþaymancMnYn 5-6 KU duHenACitEKmsøwk .
søwkmanragmUl EdlmanRbEvgBI 5-10 cm nigTTwg 4-5 cm[2] . søwkmancMnYn bI ehIysøwk
EdlenAkNþalmanTMhMFMCageK edaymanRbEvg 10-17 cm manragmUl minRsYc rW GacRsYcenAcug
EtmanlkçN³TalenAEpñkKl; kUnsøwktUc²manragmUl nigminRsYcenAEpñkTaMgsgçag . søwkx©Imaneram
nigsøwkcas;manlkçN³dUcEs,k manlkçN³relagenAEpñk xagelI maneramesþIgenAEpñkxageRkam
edaymansrésEvnFMmYy nigmansréscMnYnBI 7-8 enAbnÞH søwkmçag . Tg; EdlFMCageKmanRbEvg
7.5 eTA 15.0 cm Tgrbs;kUnsøwkmanRbEvg ± 1 cm [5] .
[páa]: páaCakBa©úM EdlmancMnYn 2-3 enAelIEmktUc² EdlmaneramRkas; . Tgrbs;vamanRbEvg 3-4
cm maneram nigmanTgcMnYn 2 Edlqab;RCuHcuHmkdI . páaBN’Rkhm FM manRbEvg 4-6 cm .
Rtbkpáa duHecj mkCaragkNþwm (bell-shaped) manTTwg 1.5 cm nigbeNþay 1 cm
edaymanftxøI²cMnYn 3 . RtbkpáamancMnYn 5 Evg nigmanBN’Rkhm manekseQµalcMnYn 10
maneram . eksjI ragmUl TgeksBN’sragTwkR)ak; maneram nigmaneksjIBI 4-6 [2] .
páamanRbEvg 5-6 cm BN’TwkRkUc duHenA CakBa©úM enAelIEmk . TgpáanimYy² manRbEvg 1.5-3.5 cm
EvgCaRtbkBIrdg . RtbkpáamancMnYn
5
manTMhMtUc RtbkEdlzitenATabCageK

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

manlkçN³ekagxøaMg . ekseQµalmancMnYn 10 Edl 1 esrI nig 9 Cab; zitenAekag [5] . páaFM
manTTwgBI 3 - 5 cm manBN’RkhmdUcQam eTABN’TwkRkUc CYnkal manBN’elOg [13] .
[Epø]: FM manRbEvg 12-16 cm TTwg 3-4 cm ragRTEvg mansøabCMuvij rMuB½T§edayeramBN’sTwkR)ak;
srésEvnduHCabNþaj . sac;xageRkA manlkçN³dUcEs,k nigrwg . RKab;rageGlIb manRbEvg 2.5
cm manBN’Rkhmetñat [2] . EpømanTMhM 15-20 x 4-6 cm ragRTEvg manragRTEvg ragekag Rkas;
nigman CatieQI maneramxøI²Rkas; Tgrbs;vamanRbEvg 1.2-2.5 cm [5] . Epø manlkçN³sMEb:t
CaEpøKY manRKab; EtmYy [13] . ecjpáa enAExemsa [2] .

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

eQImanBN’Rkhm rwg nigFn; b:uEnþmansréseQIminRtg; [2] . edImeQIMPaKeRcIn manlkçNekag .
eQImanlkçN³Tn; nigminFn; RBgTaMgRsal RbEhl 570 kg/m³ edaykarsMgtY edayxül;
manBN’s rW etñatcas; enAeBlRss; b:uEnþERbCaBN’RbepH edayvagaybMpøajnUvrukçrs .
vaminmantMélx<s;enaHeT b:uEnþeBlxøHvaRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eRKOgRbdab;RbdapÞH)ay [20] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

3

:

carmanduHBIRbeTs\NÐa dl;PUma RsIlgáa enAtMbn;PñM Himalayas Edlmanry³kMBs; 1200 m .
r)a:yFmµCatienAkñúgtMbn;éRBs¶Üt BIRbeTs\NÐa dl;GasIuGaeKñy_ nig\NÐÚensIu . vaEtgduHlUtlas;suT§
rW layCamYy RbePT Dipterocarp epSgeTotdUcCa D. obtusifolius, Shorea siamensis, nig
Terminalia corticosa . vaminsUvmanduHkñúgéRBeT vaEtmanduHenAelItMbn; EdlrgnUvePøIgeqH [2,5] .
vamanduHCaFmµCatienA\NÐÚensIu CaBiessenAtMbn;éRBTMnabmUsug EdlmanRbePT Azadirachta
indica, Acacia leucophloea (Roxb.) Willd., Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. nig Cassia
fistula L. duHlUtlas;CamYypgEdr [16].

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

carCMruHrbs;vaenArdUvR)aM . vamanedImmUlxøI edayEmkrbs;vamaneram . vaduHlUtlas;CaFmµCati
enAkñúg éRBs¶Üt . vamanedImmUlxøI maneramenAelIEmk . vaduHlUtlas; enAkñúgéRBs¶Üt énRsIlgáa PUma
nig\NÐa . RbePTenHcUlcitþduHlUtlas; enAtMbn;manGakasFatuxus²Kña nigmanrdUvsSa
enAkMritry³kMBs;BI 200-500m . vaCaRbePTeQIRtUvkarBnøW duHlUtlas;)anl¥enAelIdIl,b;cas;
nigRbePTdIRkhm [2] .

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minRtUv)ankMNt; .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

dIl,b;cas; nigRbePTdIRkhm [2] eTaHbI vaduHelIRbePTdICaeRcIndUcCa dImanCMerArak; dIRKYs dIexµA
l,ayxSac; nigdImanCatiéRb rW CaMTwk . kUneQIGacduHlUtlas; l¥enAelIdIl,ay edayman pH 6-7
eRkamsItuNðPaBx<s; nigmankMritsMeNImx<s;pgEdr[20].
:

carCaRbePTeQI EdlmanRbeyaCn_eRcIn . RbePTeQIenHGacduHlUtlas; enAelIlkçx½NÐdI
eRcInRbePT nigCaBiessdIminsUvmanCICati . RbePTeQIenHduHecjnUvpáaBN’RkhmRsal rW TwkRkUc
. b:uEnþ enAtMbn;Cn bTRbeTs\NÐa RsIlgáa rW éf vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;sMrab;plRbeyaCn_epSg²eTot .
vamanCatiC½rs¥it adstringernt Kino EdlCYykñúgkarbitmuxrbYs nigmanCatitanIn nigBN’cMnYn 2
elOg nigRkhm EdlGacTajecjBI edImeQIenH Emkrbs;vaCamYysøwkGaccUlrYmkñúgdMeNIrRbmUl
pþúMdI\dæ (clay agglomeration) sMrab;kat;bnßyCatiGbM il EdlmankñúgTwk enAkñúERs . carCaRbePTeQI
pþl;cMNIeGay BBYkstVl¥it EdleFIVeGayedImeQIecjC½r .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

4

eQI]: mantMélsMrab;karsagsg; b:Eu nþ kMrmaneQI EdlmansrésRtg; [4] . eQIGaceRbI
CaeQIfamBl EdlmanKuNPaBmFüm eTaHbI vapþl;nUvFüÚg EdlmankMritfamBlx<s;k_eday [2] .
søwkCYnkal RtUv)aneRbI CafamBl . eQIRtUv)andutsMrab;CarMesvkaMePøIg .
[Gnupl]:sMbksMbUreTAedayCatitanIn
nigmanC½r nigCatiekAs‘UpgEdr . CatiBN’elOg rW
RkhmTwkRkUc RtUv)anehAfa butein Edl)anmkBIpáa RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;RClk;BN’sURt .
BN’enHRtUv)aneRbI enAkñúgsa snahiNÐÚ sMrab;labenAelIf¶as [20] . carRtUv)andaM
CaRbePTeQIlMGr edayEtvamanpáaBN’Rss;s¥at nigrWs EdlenAx©GI acbriePaK)anpgEdr .
carRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;plitl½kç BN’Rkhm Edl)anmkBIrWs nigelOg Edl)anmkBIpáa [13] .
sMPar³cg nigExS nigsMPar³sMrab;Bak;nwgeCIg GacRtUv)anplitecjBIsréseQI Edl)anmkBIsMbk
[4] .
sMPar³srésr EdlTTYl)anBIsMbkxagkñúgRtUv)aneRbIsMrab; CaExScgnava bitTUk nigeFIVRkdas [20] .
car RtUv)aneRbIR)as;sMrab;eFIV»sfpgEdr . rukçCatiRtUv)aneRbIR)as; CakavpgEdr . enAeBlkat;sMbk
eFIVeGayC½rrbs;vahUrecj nigkkeTotpg Butea or Benghal kino GacTTYl)anpgEdr [13].
duHlUtlas;CamYy Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken, Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.)
O.Kuntze
. carCarukçCati cMNIsMrab;BBYkstVl¥it dUcCa
Laccifer
lacca
Kerr
EdlsIubMpøajBnøkx©Irbs;rukçCati . manEtenA \NÐa nigéf EdlenAeFIkV arplit shellac
EdlmanKuNPaBl¥ [19] . r)aykarN_BI extþ Dak Lac Province RbeTevotNam)anbgðajfa
sticklac EdlRbmUlBIedIm manlkçN³Rkas;Cag nigBN’RkhmCag RbePTepSgeTot [2] .
epSg² : kUneQI nigEmkx©I GaceRbICatMrg;sMrab;eRcaHCatiéRb nigCaCIébtgpgEdr . søwkrbs;vaRtUv)an
bMEbkedayBBYk micro-cavities EdleFIVeGaydIFUr nigeFIVeGaydImanCICati [13] .
carRtUv)aneKarBbUCa edayBYkkan;sasanhiNÐÚ nigEtgRtUv)andaMduHenACMuvijpÞH [4].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
minRtUv)anrYmbBa¢Úl

:

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

RtUv)andaMduHsMrab;CacMNIBBYkstVl¥itdUcCaécCaedIm enARbeTs\NÐa
eQI lMGrenApgEdr EtminB½t’manGMBIkardaMduHCacMkarenaHeT .

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

[2]

nigRtUv)andaMduHCaRbePT

:

karduHlUtlas;enAeRkamkenSamsøwkebIk [2] . karduHlUtlas;eLIgvij tamry³RKab; rW kUn
EdlduHecjBIrWs . karbnþBUCedaysm,nimiµt RtUv)aneFIVeLIgtamry³kardaMedayRKab;pÞal; enAcenøaH
25-30 cm nig CaCYyBI 3-5 m . RbB½n§ taungya EtRtUv)aneRbI enAeBl EdlkarsMGatesµA
enAkMLúgqñaMTI 1-2 mansarsMxan;Nas;sMrab;karlUtlas;rbs;rukçCati . kUneQI EdlduHecjBIrWs
nigkUneQI Edl)anBIkñúgfñal GaceFIVkarbgáat;BUCpgEdr . edaysarvaExñg)anl¥
karbnþBUCrbs;vaRtUv)aneFIVeLIg edayFmµCati . kMritdMNuH Edlcab;epþImenAkñúgry³eBl 10-12 éf¶
nigcb;sBVRKb;kñúgry³eBl 4 s)þah_ . RKab;Rss;mankMritdMNuHl¥ (RbEhl 63%)
enAkMritsItuNðPaB 30 ºC . dMNuHrbs;va CaRbePT hypogeous [20].

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

Arctiidae, Eucosmidae, Lasiocampidae, Lymantriidae, Noctuidae, Notodontidae, Pieridae,

nig Sphingidae EdlRtUv)ankt;Rta . stVl¥itRKYsar Coccidae sIubMpøajeTAelIrukçrs rW Bnøk .
dgáÚvrbs;RKY sar Lycaenidae eFIVkarsIubMpøajeTAelIpáa [20] . Xanthomonas buteae
eFIVeGaysøwkmansñamGuCexµA EdlqøgraldaleTAelIsøwkTaMgmUl nigeFIVeGaysøwkRCuH . Phomopsis
buteae nig Pseudodiplodia buteae eFIVkarbMpøajsøwkpgEdr [20].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

kUneQI nigeQIb:unefñal GacRtUv)anCan; nigbMpøajedaysareKa . kNþúl nigkaMRbma
eFIVkarsIubMpøajnUvrWs EdlenAx©I nigeFIVeGaykUneQIgab; .
stVl¥iteFIVkarvayRbhareTAelIEpñkCaeRcInrbs;edImeQI . RbePTeFIVeGaysøwkRCuHmandUcCaRKYsar

6

F> karGPirkS

:

minEmnCaRbePTrgeRKaHfñak; .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
\NÐa RsIlgáa PUma GasIuGaeKñy_ EdlCaRbPBkMeNIt nigRtUv)annaMcUl \NÐÚensIu nigevotNam .

p> epSg²

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

edImeQIRbePTenH minmanduHenAkñúgéRBeT EteRcInmanduHenAelItMbn;ricril nigrgnUvePøIgeqH . CaTUeTA
vaRtUv)andaMdHu sMrab;CaeQIlMGr edaysarPaBRss;s¥aténpáarbs;va [5] .
Shellac RtUv)anplitenAkñúgcMnYnd_eRcInEtenARbeTs\NÐa nigéf vaCaplitplsMxan;sMrab;karnaMecj
(1991) . Shellac KWCaC½r énRbePTstVl¥it Laccifer lacca Kerr. EdlRtUv)anciBa©wmenAelIRbePT
eQICaeRcIn . edImeQIRtUvEteFIVkaréRkEmk nigedIm,IeFIVeGayvaTTYl)annUvTinñplx<s; .

7

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Indian Farming 1976: Special Issue on Lac. Indian Farming 27(8): 3-35
Ganeshaiah KN, Shaanker RU, 1991. Seed size optimization in a wind dispersed tree
Butea monosperma: a trade-off between seedling establishment and pod dispersal
efficiency. Oikos, 60(1):3-6; 32 ref.

Gupta RK, 1993. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation.
Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation., xv + 562 pp.; [18 pp. of
ref + refs in text].

Kumar P, 1989. Vegetative propagation in palas (Butea monosperma) through air
layering. Indian Journal of Forestry, 12(3):188-190; 3 ref.

Lal S, Ram M, Singh BP, Shrivastava SC, 1976. Bhalia: a versatile lac host plant. Indian
Farming, 27(8):9-11; [3 pl.].

Pathak PS, Patil BD, 1985. Seed weight affecting early seedling growth of Butea
monosperma (Lam.) Taub. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 3:23-24.

Sharma SK, 1993. Butea monosperma with abnormal leaves. Indian Forester,
119(11):948.

Vershney RK, 1967. Some observations on the stink bug (Cyclopelta siccifolia)- a pest of
Butea monosperma. Indian Forester, 93(11):765-767.

Viswanath S, Kaushik PK, Chand S, Pandey DK, 1994. The butea tree - for lac and rice
production in India. Agroforestry Today, 6(2):10.

afar R, Parminder Singh, Siddiqui AA, 1989. Antimicrobial and preliminary phytochemical
studies on leaves of Butea monosperma Linn. Indian Journal of Forestry, 12(4):328-329;
5 ref.

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

Nguyen et al.: Vietnam Forest Trees, Hanoi 1997, 788 pp.

4)
Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House;
Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

5)
Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A Field Guide
to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept. University of Chiang
Mai, Thailand; 546 pp.

9)
Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide Encyclopaedic
Guide. Thames & Hudson Ltd., London, 484 pp.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

2)

:

8

13)
Baertels, A. 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen (Color Atlas
Tropical Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ., Stuttgart, illustrated,
384 pp.

19)
Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics.
Josef Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552 pp.

20)
Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002:
Agroforestree

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

26)
World Agroforestry Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp?
(Internet source)

9

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

³

pigeon pea, Congo pea [2]

³

Cajanus bicolor DC. [5],
Cajanus flavus DC., nom. illeg. [5],
Cajanus indicus Spreng., nom. illeg. [5],
Cytisus cajan L. [5],
Cajanus cajan forma bicolor (DC.) Baker. [10],
Cajanus cajan var. bicolor (DC.)
Purseglove [10],
Cajanus cajan var. flavus (DC.)
Purseglove [10],
Cajanus indicus Sprengel [10],
Cajanus indicus var. bicolor (DC.) Kuntze [10],
Cajanus indicus var. flavus (DC.) Kuntze [10],
Cajanus indicus var. maculatus Kuntze [10],
Cajanus luteus Bello [10]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

X> eQµaHepSg²

1

³

ambrévade, pois d'Angole (France) [5] - kacang Bali, kacang
gude, kacang kayu (Indonesia) [5] - adhaki, arhar, kandulu,
thovaray, thuvara, togare, tur, tuvari, tuvarika, tuver (India)
[5] - thwàx h'ê (Laos) [5] - kacang, kacang dal, kacang hiris
(Malaysia) [5] - kardis, kidis, tabios (Philippines) [5] - ma hae,
thua maetaai, thua rae (Thailand) [5] - cay dau chieu, dau
sang (Vietnam) [5]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

sENþkkøigÁ/ sENþkRKab;-s
ÉksarBieRKaH : [3]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

sânndaèk khloëng, sânndaèk krôab sa: [1]

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Leguiminosales / Fabales
RKYsar : Leguminosae / Papilionceae
ePT : Cajanus
RbePT : Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.
ÉksarBieRKaH: [5]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: sENþkRKab;s CaedImeQItUc Gacrs;eLIgvijral;qñaM mankMBs; 3-4 m [2] ( 4 m [10],
0.5-4 m [9]) nigTab kenSamEmkebIk ragRTEvg . edImanGgát;p©it 15 cm [9] . vamanGayuxIø KW 1-5
qñaM [5] .
[rWs]: rWsEkvduHcak;eRCA nigmaMu edaymanCMerA
2 m [9] . sßanénrWsman CabYnmuM .
enAkñgú eRsamrbs;rWs Edlx©I mycorrhizae GacRtUv)anGegátenAkñúgekasika . RbB½n§rWs duHlUtlas;l¥
. vamanduHlUtlas;Ca RsTab; ² . rWsduHlUtlas; enAkMLgú dMNak;kalbnþBCU nig
manry³eBlesµBI rI dgénkarecjpáa . man kMritrWsRbEhl 1,500 m rbs;RbB½nr§ Ws
kñúgépÞdImyY Em:Rtkaer: [10] .
[kMBkrWs]: sENþkEPñkRBab mankMBkrWseday Rhizobia énRkumsENþkeKa (cowpea group) .
kMBkrWs enAelIrukçCati duHlUtlas; enAelIdI vertisols EtgmanTMhMtUc .
vamanduHeRcInenAxagelIRbB½nr§ WsRbEvg 30 cm b:Eu nþeBlxøHmanduHenAeRkam 120 cm .
kMBkrWsrbs;rukçCati enAelIdI alfisols EtgmanTMhMFM nig duHlUtlas;l¥CagenAelIdI vertisols
rukCç atiduHelIdI alfisols mankMritGasUtx<s; [10] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

søwk]: søwkBIr zitenAelIEmk EdlmanlkçN³samBaØ nigQmKña . kartMerobrbs;swkø mansnøkw cMnYn 3
EdlmanragCaes<ó BN’èbtgenAelI nigèbtgR)ak;enAxageRkam . TgsøwkmanRbEvg 1-2 cm [9]
TgTIBIr EvgCag Bak;kNþal. xñaysøkw manlkçN³RsYc RbEvg 2.5-5 mm [9] nigFn; .
søwkmanrages<ó rWeGlIb RKbedayeram enAépÞsgçag EdlmanTMhM 7.5-8 x 2.8-3.5 cm [9] (10 x 3
cm [10]) edaymanTgsøwkRsYc . srés Veins RsbKña CabNþaj nigemIleXIjc,as;enAxageRkam
. man stomata eRcInCagépÞrbs;swkø eTAeTot . søwkmanpÞkú eRbg Edlmankøin .
eRbgGacemIleXIjc,as;tamry³mIRkUTsSn_ .
[páa]: kBa©úp
M áa manRbEvg 4-12 cm [10] nigduHlUtlas;elIG½kS BITgeTalmYy nigx½NÐEckTgpáaCa 1-2
[9] rW bnþduHCafñaM BI 1-3 [9] kMrmanEmk manlkçN³xøC
I agsøwk nigpáacMnYn 2-6 [9] . pàamanBN’Rkhm
nigelOg edayRbEvgsrub 2 cm [10] nigTgsøkw manRbEvgRbEhl 0.9 cm [9] . RsTab;páaduHCabMBg;
manRbEvg 3-5 mm [9] edaymaneramCaeRcIn nigftRbEvg 4 mm [9] . Rtbkpáa Kµaneram
nigRbEvgRbEhl 14 mm [9] edaymandegáóbRbEvgRbEhl 4 mm [9] . páarIkenAema:g rvagema:g
11 am nig 3 pm . BYkvaRtUv )anTsSna edayBBYkXMúµ nigRbePTstVl¥t
i epSgeTot [10] .
[Epø]: EpømanBN’èbtg mansñamBN’sC
Iu m<Ú manragdUcs‘tu nigkMBlU RsYl rW minRsYc manTMhM 4 x 1 x
0.3-0.4 cm [9] (RbEvg 3-10 cm [10]) . EpømaneRbgbrimaNeRcIn Cagsøk
w . Epønmi Yy²
manRKab;ragmUl cMnnY BI 1-5 [9] (2-3 rW 8-9 RKab;GaRs½yeTAelIedIm [10]) edaymanBN’xsu ²Kña
manTMhMRbEhl 6 x 4 x 1.5 mm [9] . RKab;manlkçN³relag manBN’s RbepH etñat Rkhm
nigsVay . RKab;TaMgmUlman RbUetGIun 18-29% nigCatiemSA 48- 59% [10] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 9, 10]
Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

3

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI
[

:

lkçN³eQI]: manfamBlCamFüm 1,450 kJ/100 g [6].

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

RbEhl : sENþkRKab;s manRbPBkMenItenAxageCIgPaKxaglic GaeRhVc [10] rW GasIuxagt,Úg [2, 9]
b:Eu nþ \LÚvRtUv)andaMduHenAtMbn;RtUBki enAkMritExSRsb 30°N nig 30°S [10] (28°N eTA 15°S [5]) .
RbePTenH migmanduH enAkñgú éRBeT dUcenHCMrkFmµCatirbs;vamanlkçN³minCak;lak; .

vacUlcitþduHenAtMbn;valesµA enAtMbn;
EdlminEmnCaéRB .

savannas

tMbn;manBBYkrukçCatitUc²duH nigtMb;ricril
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3, 5, 9, 10]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

RbePTenH CaFmµtaduHlUtlas;enAkMritry³kMBs; BInvI sU: muRTdl; 2,000 m a.s.l. [6, 9, 10] (200-2,000
m [5]) b:Eu nþenAevens‘y
u eGLa kUneQIxHø GacduHenAry³kMBs; 3,000 m [13] . kMritePøógFaøk;RbcaMqñaM
sMrab; karlUtlas; 400 enAtMbn;raMgs¶Üt eTAdl; 4,000 mm enAtMbn;mansMenIm [10]
edaymankMrimFüm 600-1,500 mm [10] (400-2,500 mm [9], 600-2,000 mm [5], 600-1,000 mm
[6]) . vaGacFn;ng
w rdUvR)aMg Edlmanry³eBl 6 Ex [5] . kMritsItuNðPaB manBI 10-45°C [9] (1540°C [2], 13-32ºC [5]) edayman kMrtimFümBI 18-38°C [6, 9, 10] (20-29ºC [5]) .
sItuNðPaBTabbMputdac;xat KYrEt x<s;Ca 10ºC [5] nig RbePTeQIenH gaybMpaø jedaysarsenSIm .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 5, 6, 9, 10]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .
:

sENþkRKab;s RtUv)andaMduHenAelIRbePTdICaeRcIn EdlmanlkçN³rUbsaRsþ nigKImxI us²Kña . vaGacduH
lUtlas; enAelIdImni dk;Twk eRCAlµm dIl,ayxSac; . RbePTdI dUcCal,b; vertisols nig alfisols eday
mankMrit pH BI 5 eTA 7 rW x<sC; agenH [6, 9] ( pH EdlGacdaMduH)aneCaKC½yKW 4.5-8.4 [10] edayman
kMritmFüm 5.0 nig 7.0 [10]) . vagayrgeRKaHedaydImanCatiéRb . edImeQIFn;nwgkMritGKÁIsnI
(CatiGMbl
i ) BI 0.6 eTA 1.2 S/m [6] . vagayrgeRKaH enAtMbn;licTwk eRcInCag 3-4 Ex [2, 9] .
dImni sUv manCICati dIxSac; nigsMeNImTab k_vaGacFn;)anpgEdr .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 5, 6, 9, 10]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

4

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

eQI]: sENþkRKab;s manGayu 1-5 qñaM [5] dUcenHvapþl;nvU eQI Edlmanmunkat;tUcNas; .
eQIRtUv)an eRbICa GusenAkñgú tMbn;CaeRcIn . tMélkMedAKW 1,450 kJ/100 g [6] RbEhlBIr
dgx<sC; aFüÚg nig vaedIrtY naTICa eQIRbéBNI edaysarkarduHlUtlas;elOn
pþl;nvU pldUcKñaenAelIépÞdIEtmYy
nigplitkmµRKab;
.
vapþl;nUvkMritplitPaBx<s;
eRcInCaykeTAeFIVeQIfamBl [9] . kareRbIR)as;epSgeTot dUcCa sMNg;Fn; Rsal rYmman dMblU
nigkERBa©g (enA\NÐa) . cMeBaHkarBiesaFn_ sENþkRKab;s RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;kareFIV Rkdas dUcRbePT
eQIxwømepSgeTotEdr nigGaceFIRV kdas EdlmanKuNPaBl¥sMrab;karsresr nigkare)aH Bum<eTotpg
[9] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 6, 9]
[Gnupl]: Gahar : RKab;rbs;vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as; bEnøpgEdr . Epø EdlenAx©IRtUv)anRbmUl muneBlTMu
nig eRbIsMrab;dak;enAkñúgsmørkarI edIm,IeGaymanrsCatiqJaj; . RKab; Edls¶Üt RtUv)aneRbICa tempe
(CaGaharRbéBNIrbs;\NÐeÚ nsIu edayeFIVkarp¥ab;nUv Rhizopus nigcMGinCamYyRKab; legume) nig
'ketchup' (pigeonpea sauce eRbICn
M sY TwksENþkenAkñgú RbeTs\NÐeÚ nsIu EdlRtUv)anp¥ab;CamYy
sENþk RKab;sCamYy Apergillus oryzae) . emSAsENþkRKab;s (layCamYy RsUvsMLI
begánI nUvRbUetGInu enAkñgú kareFInV M) eRbIeFICV amI EdlmanKuNPaBx<s; sENþk mung . RKab;Rss;man
vitamins CaBiess
provitamin A nig vitamin B complex . kñúg
100 g
EpñkEdlbriePaK)anénRKab;sܶtman 7-10.3 g Twk, 14-30 g RbUetGInu , 1-9 g xøaj; , 36-65.8 g
carbohydrates, 5-9.4 g srésr nig 3.8 g eRbH [9] .
eRbg : eRbgGacRtUv)anRbmUltamry³karcMhuysøwk nigsrIragÁepSgeTot . vamanpÞúk nUvsmasFatu
terpenoid alpha - copaene . mungarrbs; glandular minTan;RtUv)andwgenAeLIyeT .
vaGacRtUv)aneRbI CafñakM arBastVl¥it . dUcCasrés glandular manenAelIRKb;Epñkrbs;rukCç ati
elIElgEt Epñkrbs;paá dUcCa RsTab; nigeks [9] .
cMNIstV : sENþkRKab;smYymuxKWmni RKb;RKan;eT nigGacmanfamBlexSay . søkw rbs; alfalfa
k_GacCYy pþl;nvU cMNI Edll¥ CaBiessenAtMbn; EdlminsmRsbsMrab; alfalfa duHlUtlas; .
EpøRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;Ca cMNIdl;eKa b:Eu nþvamanRbUetGIunTab (15-24%énRbUetGIun [2])

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

:

nigmanCatisrésrx<s;
.
BYkvaRtUv)aneRbICa
cMebIgu s¶Üt
sMrab;eKa
nigRKab;RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;;karciBa©wmman;Ta eTotpg . enA Hawaii kMeTcsENþkRKab;s nigeBatlayKña
Gacpþl;Gahardl;l¥sMrab;karciBa©wmman;Ta [9] .
fñaM : vaRtUv)aneRbICa»sfbUraN . enA Java søkw x©IRtUv)anlabeTAelIkEnøgQWcab; [9] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 9]
[epSg²]: vaRtUv)andaMduHCajwkjab; enACitpÞH eFIC
V arbg nigdaMCaCYrenAtamPøEW Rs CaedIm .
vaRtUv)andaMCa eQIpþl;mbø ; KMrbdI rW r)aMgkarBarxül; . RbB½nr§ Ws eRbHEbkenAeBlP¢rÜ dUcenH
vaGacCYybegánI KuNPaBdI eFIeV GaygayeRCobTwk kat;bnßysMNl; nigesµA . søwkRCuH
Gacpþl;nUvsarFatusrIragÁCYydl;dI nigbEnßm GasUtdl;dI . vamanlkçN³Biesskñgú karnaMykpUsVr
BIRbePTdIexµAeTotpg . edayeRbIviFIsaRsþtulüPaB GasUt vabgðaj enAPaKxageCIg\NÐa
EdlCaRbePT Edlmanry³eBlEvgkñgú karpþl;GasUt KW 200 kg N/ha kñgú ry³eBl 40 s)þah_ [9] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 9, 13]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak; .

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: RbePTenH migmanduH enAkñgú éRBeT dUcenHCMrkFmµCatirbs;vamanlkçN³minCak;lak; .
vacUlcitþduHenAtMbn;valesµA enAtMbn; savannas tMbn;manBBYkrukçCatitUc²duH nigtMb;ricril
EdlminEmnCa éRB . vabgðajnUvkarduHExñgeLIgvij ya:gl¥ nigGacpþl;GasUtdl;deI Totpg .
[kardaMduH]: kardaMduHPaKeRcIn RtUv)aneFIeV LIgtamry³kardaMRKab;edaypÞal; b:Eu nþkG
_ actamry³duH
eLIgvij edayFmµCati kardaMedayKl; nigduHedayxøÜnÉg . sMrab;RbB½n§ ÉkRbePT (monocropping
systems) RKab;GacRtUv)ansabenAkñg
ú kMrit dg;seIu tx<s; (50,000+ RKab;/ha [2]) enAelItMbn; Edll¥ .
kEnøgcenøaH RtUv)anbMeBj edaykUneQI EdldaMkgñú fg; .
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

6

karRKb;RKg]: sENþkRKab;s EtgduHlUtlas;CaRbcaMqñaM b:Eu nþkC_ aRbePTrukCç ati legume duHCaerogral;
qñaMpgEdr . sMrab;kardaMCaCYr BYkvaRtUv)ankat;enAkMBs; 0.5-1 m enAeBledImeQIeBjv½y .
CYrRtUv)ankat; 2-3 dg kñgú mYyqñaM enAkEnøg EdlmanrdUvR)aMgya:gehacNas; 4-6 Ex .
enAeBlEpøcas; EmksENþk RKab;s RtUv)ankat;eGaymankMBs; 0.5 m . kMritéRkEmkx<s;
GaceFIVeGayrukçCatigab; . esNUTIbrbs; edImx<s; mankarBi)akkñgú kardaMduH .
karkMcat;esµARtUv)aneFIeV LIg edIm,IeGayrukçCatiduHlUtlas;elOn . xül;GaceFIVeGayedIm ekag
b:Eu nþkardak;begáalsMrab;Tb;mni RtUv)aneFIeV LIy . enAkñgú kardMadMNaM Edlman ry³eBlxøI
RtUvTamTareGaymankareRsacRsB . kardak;CkI G_ acRtUv)aneFIpV gEdr KWkgñú kMrit 20-100 kg/ha.
ÉksarBieRKaH [9]
[karRbmUlpl
nigkarEkécñ]: edImRtUv)anhaleGays¶tÜ
nigeFIkV are)ak edayéd
edIm,IykRKab;mksMGat . CRguksMrab;dak;RKab; GackarBarRKab;BsI tVl¥ti . karrkSaEpø
Edle)akrYcGackat;bnßykarbMpaø jBIBBYk bruchid . karEkécñrYmman kareFIV dhal TaMgs¶Üt rW esIm
edaykarkinRKab; . enAxaglic \NÐa kardak; kMbg:u nigeFIeV GaykknUvRKab;Rss; KWCaCMnYj
EdlTTYl)anrab;landUløa sMrab;karnaMecj CaBiessenA shrdæGaemrik [6] .
[TinñpleQI]: dMNaMduHral;qñaM pleQI 2-10 etñat/ha/qñaM [2] éneQIRtUv)anRbmUl [10].
[TinñplRKab;]:
sENþkEPñkRBab
pþl;plkMritTab
.
karduHlUtlas;rbs;va
KWTTYlrg\T§Bi lBIsItuNðPaB . enAkñgú RbB½nd§ MNaMCaRbéBNI Tinñplrbs;vamandl;eTA 4
etankñúgmYyhicta TTYl)anBIedImEdleBjv½y EdlduHenAtMbn; KµansenSImenAenAPaKkNþal
nigeCIgPaKxaglic\NÐa . ktáasMxan;kúgñ karkMNt;Tinñpl KWcMnYnrbs;Epø CagcMnnY EpøenAkñgú épÞdImyY .
RKab;manTMgn;CamFümdUcKña . [10]
[ksirukçkmµ]: enAGasIuGaeKñy_ sENþkRKab;s RtUv)andaMduHsMrab; vanilla . edayPaKrwgmaMurbs;va
niglT§ PaBkñúgkarduHlUtlas;elIdImansMenImtictYc nigduHlUtlas;ytW enAdMNak;kaldMbgU
RbePTenHmin eFIkV ar RbKYtRbECgCamYydMNaMykRKab;FBaØaCatieT . enAkñgú RbB½n§ dMNaMRbéBNI
vaRtUv)andMalayCamYy BBYk dMNaMykRKab; epSg²eTot edaysarvapþl;CCI atidl;dN
M aMTaMgenaH .
enAeknya: vamansar³sMxan;Nas; sMrab;Ca Gahar nigkareFIBV aNiCk¢ mµRKab;sܶt nigbEnø . enA
esnsIuebo ksikr daMduHvaenAeRkaypÞH nig CMvu ijsYndMNaM . enAG‘uyehànda vaRtUv)andaMlayCamYy
millet . XµMk
ú _RbmUlTwkdm BIrukCç atienHpgEdr . TwkXµúmM anlkçN³xusKña edaymanBN’èbtg .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

7

sENþkRKab;s k_GaceRbICasMbuk rbs;BBYkdgávÚ yksURt (enAma:daháasáa) rW BBYkécstVl¥it
(enAPaKxageCIgebnháal; nigéf) [9] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10]

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

karRbmUl nigrkSaTukRKab;]: EpøRtUv)anRbmUl enAeBlRKab;TMu nigcab;epþmI )at;nUvBN’èbtgrelag .
man RKab;cMnYn 5,000-14,000 RKab;/kg [9] (4-24 g/100 RKab; [10]) . karrkSaTukRKab;manlkçN³Ca
orthodox
edayminmanbBaðacMeBaHkarrkSaTukry³eBlyUr eRkamlkçxN
½ ÐsmRsb .
BYkvaGacrkSaTuk)andl;ry³ eBl 4 Ex [2] enAkñúgGakasFatuRtUBki esIm mankarraMgs¶tÜ yUr.
minTamTarnUvkareFIRV bRBwtþkmµCamun eT . kUneQIminbgðajnUvPaBsMgMrbs;dMNuH nigdMNuHCaRbePT
hypogeal manlkçN³l¥ EtelIkElgenAtMbn; RtCak; . kUneQIduHlUtlas;elOn enAkMritsItuNðPaB
rvag 29 nig 36°C [10] . karelceLIgrbs;kUneQI GacbBa©b;enAkñúgry³eBl 2-3 s)aþh_ [9]
bnÞab;BIkarsab .
[karbnþBUC]: kardaMduHedayRKab;paÞ l;CaviFs
I aRsþ Edll¥bMput eTaHbI karduHlUtlas;GacekIteLIgeday
FmµCati nig kardaMedaykUn k_eday . karkat;edImkMrTTYl)aneCaKC½yNas; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 5, 9, 10]
[

:

stVl¥ti ]: edaysarkarecjpáamanry³eBlEvg mankarbMpøajedayBBYkstVl¥ti dUcCa ruyEpø
agromyza nigBBYkecaHrun§ heliothis EdleFIeV GayrukçCatiduHecjnUvpáafµC
I MnYs . karRKb;RKgeday
sarFatuKmI I mankar Bi)ak nigmantMéléfø cMeBaHedImeQI [9] . kMBkrWs GacRtUv)anbMpøaj edaydgávÚ
Rivellia angulata . eRbgRKab;manlkçN³s¥it EdleFIB
V BYk)a:ra:sti Bi)akkñgú karecaHcUlkñgú Epø
nigRKb;RKgEpø . stVl¥ti epSg eTot : Exelastis atomosa, Helicoverpa armigera nig
Melanagromyza obtusa .
ÉksarBieRKaH [9, 10]
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

8

RbePT EdlrYmmanpSit )ak;etrI vIrus dgávÚ (cyst
nematode, reniform nematode, root-knot nematode) nigsarBagÁkaydUc mycoplasm .
CMgWesdækic© Edlmansar³sMxan;KW fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum) EdlekItmanenA bg;køaeds
háaNa ehánNada \NÐa \NÐeÚ nsIu eknya: ma:LavI ma:LarITUs en)a:l; nigtg;sSanI .
karRKb;RKgGacRtUv)aneFIV edaykardaM duHCargVli CMuCamYyfñaMCk; nigbgáat;BCU EdlFn;CgM W . Sterility
mosaic KWCaCMgW EdlsMxan;bMputenARbeTs \NÐa nigen)a:l; . RbePTepSgeTot dUcCa phytophthora
blight nig cercospora leafspot [9] . pSitepSgeTotmandUcCa Gibberella indica nig Heterodera
cajani .
ÉksarBieRKaH [9]
[

CMgW]: sENþkRKab;s manPñak;bgáCMgWeRcInCag

F> karGPirkS

100

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
r)a:yelIBiPBelak]:
[RbPBkMeNIt]:\NÐa \NÐeÚ nsIu PUma )a:Ks
I aß n .
Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

9

ÉksarBieRKaH [9]
xageCIgPaKxaglicGaeRhVc
ÉksarBieRKaH [10]
karnaMclU ]:
GahàanIsaß n Gg;ehàaLa GasSg;TIn GURsþalI )ahama:s; bg;køaeds Eb‘Lay EbnnIn b‘tU an eRbsIul
b½rKINa hVasU b‘rU ugDI kaemrU km<Cú a kULbMú ‘Í kUsþarIka Kuy)a dUmnI kI a eGkVaD½r GIru IeRTo eGsüÚBI hVCI I háaNa
[

RhIN
Á ada Cb:nu eknya: ma:daháasáa ma:LavI ma:eLsIu ma:rITus en)a:l; jÚsEIu Ln hVlI IBnI RsIlgáa
sVasIeu Ln tg;sSanI èf G‘yu ehànda shrdæGaemrik sSamebo esnsI)u a esnsIu)a .
ÉksarBieRKaH [9]

p> epSg²

:

karviPaKeTAelIkarlUtlas;]: kMritlUtlas; Cab;Tak;TgnwgsnÞsSn_rbs;épÞskøw ( Leaf Area Index
(LAI))
nigkMritdg;sueI téncMnYnx<sb; Mput
.
mSa:gvijeTot
sarFatusܶt
nigcMnnY søkw kñúgrukçCatimyY edImfycuHenAeBl dg;seIu trbs;vaFøak;cHu . enAkñgú RbB½nd§ MNaMCacenøaH
sENþkRKab;sCaRbePTpþl;møb; duHBBYkduHlUtlas; elOn dUcCa sorghum EdlkMritlUtlas; nig LAI
mankMritTab ebIeRbobeFobnwg sENþkRKab;s . eTaHya:gNabnÞab;BIkarRbmUlpl dMNaMenAcenøaH
kMritBnøWnwgekIneLIg . enAkñgú RbB½nd§ MNaM cenøaHrWsrbs; rukCç atiKWduHenAlayLMKña [10] .
[resµs
I eM yaK]: kMritrsµIsMeyaK nigkarrMhYtrbs;sENþkRKab;s mankMritTab .
kMritCMrabrbs;resµsI eM yaK ekItmaneLIgenAkMrit 1/3 énBnøWéf¶eBj enAkñgú søwkx©I nigticCag 1/4
énBnøWeBj enAkñgú søwkcas; . kMritrsµI sMeyaKEdlx<s;bpM tu ekItmaneLIgenAeBlkMritBnøTW ab RbEhl
800
microE/m²/vinaTI
enAkñgú søwkx©I nig 400 microE/m²/vinaTI enAkñgú søwkcas; .
søwksENþkEPñkRBabmankMritRbsiT§PaBpþl;kabUnman
0.27
mg
CO2/m²/(microE/m²)
enAeBlkMritBnømW ankMritTab . karkat;bnßy CO2 manelOnyWt enAkMritBnøTW ab nigkMritrMhYt
RtUv)ankat;bnßy . enAeBlggwt søwkrbs;va)at;bg; 0.25 micro grams H2O/cm²/sec/KPaVPD
EdlesµInwg 5 g énTwkkñúg 100 cm² énsøkw sMrab;sMeNImeBlyb; 80% . rsµsI eM yaKmankarfycuH BI
-10 nig -11 bars (1.0 amd 1.1 Mpa) énTwkenAkñg
ú søwk nig -20 bars Citdl;krM itsUnü . enA -50
bars kMBUlgab; eFIVeGayEmkmankarkMritcMnn
Y søkw [10] .
[karRsUbyksarFatuciBa©wm]: karRsUbykGasUt pUsrV nigb:t
U asüÚmekItmanenAeBldMNak;kalbnþBCU
. enAkMLúgrdUvlUtlas; PaKryrbs;sarFatuTaMgenH manlkçN³xus²Kña . PaKryGasUt
enAkñgú søwkfycuH BI 5% eTA 1.5% enA nigpUsVr 0.3% GacticCa 0.1% [10] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

10

karecjEpø]: manpáa 90% RtUv)anRCuH edayminecjCaEpø . páa EdlmanskþanuBlkñúgkarbgákMeNIt
KWmni ecjEpøeT rhUtdl;vaRtUvebHecj . edaykareBjv½yrbs;va sarFatuciBa©wmRtUv)anrkSa
sMrab;karlUtlas; [10].
[

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Ali SI, 1973. Flora of Pakistan. Caesalpiniaceae. Karachi, Pakistan: University of Karachi.
[9]

Borkar SL, Patil PP, Ingle SN, 1996. Infestation of pod borers in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan
L.) as influenced by different pesticides and spraying schedules. Journal of Soils and
Crops, 6(2):146-150.
[9]

Katayama K, Ito O, Matsunaga R, Adu-Gyamfi JJ, Rao TP, Anders MM, Lee KK, 1995.
Nitrogen balance and root behavior in four pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan]-based
intercropping systems [in India]. Fertilizer Research, 42(1/3):315-319; 14 ref.
[9]

Prasad K, 1995. Weed control in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) maize (Zea mays) intercropping
system under rainfed condition. Journal of Research, Birsa Agricultural University,
7(1):57-59; 4 ref.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[9]

11

Purseglove J.W. (1984) Tropical Crops - Dicotyledons
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=527687
[9]

Rai RK, Singh KP, 1995. Efficacy of certain oilcake amendments on Heterodera cajani,
Fusarium udum and associated wilt of pigeonpea. International Journal of Tropical
Plant Diseases, 13(2):213-219.
[9]

Rao DLN, Gill HS, 1995. Biomass production and nutrient recycling through litter from
pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.). Bioresource Technology, 54(2):123-128; 8 ref.

[9]

Reed W, Lateef SS, 1990. Pigeonpea: pest management. The pigeonpea., 349-374; 27 ref.
[9]

Swaminathan C, 1996. Effect of bark leachates of multipurpose trees on germination and
seedling growth of maize, pigeonpea and sesame. Allelopathy Journal, 3(1):77-80; 8
ref.
[9]

Vandenbeldt RJ. 1988. Cajanus cajan: it’s more than just a pulse crop. NFT Highlights.
Waimanalo, USA.
[9]

van der Maesen, L.J.G., 1985. Cajanus DC. and Atylosia W. & A. (Leguminosae). A revision
of all taxa closely related to the pigeonpea, with notes on other related genera within
the subtribe Cajaninae. Agricultural University Wageningen Papers 85-4. 225 pp.
[9]

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[2] Species Fact Sheets (Module 9), 1994: Forestry / Fuelwood Research and Development
Project. Growing Mulltipurpose Trees on Small Farms (2nd ed.). Bangkok, Thailand:
Winrock Interational. 320pp.
[3] Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[4] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and
Vietnam: a field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.
[5] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).
[6] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8.
(CD-ROM).
[7] CTSP (Cambodia Tree Seed Project), 2003: Institutional Capacity Building of the Tree
Seed Sector , Dec. 2003, Forest Gene Conservation Strategy-Part A: Conservation
of Forest Genetic
Resources.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[1] Sok, Sokunthet (RUA), 2006: Own observations.

12

[8] Various Authors, 1973: Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Viêt-nam (Fascicule 18th),
Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
[9] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database –
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicSearch.asp
(Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[10] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep (Internet source)

13

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr.]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr.]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg

³

Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. [2]

x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

False kelat, freshwater mangrove, corkwood

K> sTisn½y

³

Carallia integerrima DC.,

Carallia lucida Roxb.,
Carallia scortechinii King [26].

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

meransi, sabar buku (Brunei); kitamiyang (Indonesia-

Sundanese);

ringgit

sepat, meransi

darreh

(Indonesia-Sumatra-Kubu);

(Indonesia Java); meransi, (Malaysia-

Peninsular); rabong, radipah (Malaysia-Sarawak); bakawangubat (Philippines-general); anosep (Philippines-tagalog);
katolit (Philippines-Iloko); maniawga-yat (Burma); tra meng

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

(Cambodia); bong nang, halay, koueum (Laos); chiang phra

1

nang aer (Thailand-general);
ma m[ax], s[aw]ng, m[ar], sen d[ow], xâng mâ nguyên
(Vietnam) [2,17].

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

RTEmg
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

tromê:ng [4]

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Myrtales
RKYsar : Rhizophoraceae
ePT : Carallia Roxb. [17].
RbePT : Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. [17]
ÉksarBieRKaH: [8 ; 11 ; 17 ]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: eTaHbIRTEmg zitenAkñgú RKYsar Rizophoraceae nigGacmanduHrWsxül; b:uEnþvaman
lkçN³ mindUcekagkageT . r)a:yrbs;vaman enAtaméRBtMbn;eqñr PaKxageCIgGURsþalI nigvaRtUv)an
ehAeQµaHfa sweetwater mangrove EdlbgðajfavaCaRbePT EdlFn;nwgTwk . edaysarBMuman
B½t’manRKb;RKan; GMBI RbePTenH eTIbeFIVeGayRbePTenHkøayCaRbePTkMr .
CaedImeQImankMBs; 20-25 m CYnkalGacmankMBs;dl;eTA 30 m Ggát;p©it 50-60 cm in . edImRtg;
ragsIuLaMg EmktUcragsMEb:t QmKña BN’ébtg nigERbCaRkhmetñatenAeBleRkay [2] . edImeQI
mankMBs;BI 8-30 m CaBiessmanrWsxül;BIr eTAbI mancMgay 1.0-1.5 m BIKl; [4] .
edImeQIébtg Canic© mankMBs; 20 m GacmanTMhMtcU CagenH [5] . edImeQItUc rW FM mankMBs; 36 (50) m ragmUl Edl manGgát;p©itdl;eTA 50 cm CYnkalmanRBwgtUc²
(enAkMBs; 1 m)
CYnkalmanrWsxül; enAKl;eTopg [17] .
[sMbk]: sMbkmanBN’etñatébtg esþIg nigKµaneram sMbkxagkñúgmanBN’Rkhmetñat
[2] .
manBN’ Bgman;Rsal eTARkhmetñat ragrelag nigmaneramCaeRcIn [5] . épÞsMbkrelag

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

mansñameRbHtambeNþay eRCA manrun§ mansñamrgVg;² BN’RbepH eTA Rkhmetñat rW etñatcas;
sMbkxag kñúgragqñÚt² BN’elOgetñat eTA sIuCm<Úetñat [17] .
[søwk]: samBaØ QmKña manxñaysøwk . bnÞHsøwkmanRbEvg 4-10 cm nigTTwg 2.5-4.5 cm manrUbrag
xus²Kña ragmUl ragRTEvg rageGlIb cugRsYc nigKl;ragdUcesñók EKmsøwkminmaneFµj BN’ébtgcas;
relagenAEpñkxagelI BN’ébtg nigsñamGuC² RkhmetñatenAxageRkam . TgsøwkFM RbEvg 0.5 cm
xñaysøwk manswøktUc²BI enAcugEmk søwkmansñamragmUlBN’etñatenAeBlRCuH [2] .
søwkTMhM 4-17 x 2.5-8.0 cm samBaØ zitenAQm ragmUlFM rW RTEvg mancugTal rW RsYc
nigGacRsYcbnþic enARtg;Kl;søwk KµaneFµj rW maneFµjtic EdlmanlkçN³esµI .
søwkcas;manlkçN³dUcEs,k relag BN’ébtgcas; enAEpñkxagelI nigelOgébtg edaymansñamtUc
GuC² enAxageRkam . ya:gehacNas; vamansrésEv:ncMnYn 15 KU zitenACitEKmsøwk
nigsrésEv:nkNþalelceLIg . TgsøwkmanRbEvg 0.4-1.0 cm manTMhMFM . BnøktUcragmUl
manRsTab;esþIgmanC½r nigrMuedayxñaysøwkmYyKU (1-2 cm) qab;RCuH nigsøwkmansñamragrgVg;xus²Kña .
EmktUc² manBN’etñatcas; nigmanfñaMg [5] . søwkzitenACaKUpÞúyKña samBaØ rageGlIb rW RTEvg
manEKmsøwkminmaneFµj edaymansñamBN’exµAenAEpñkeRkamsøwk manTgsøwk nigragsþÜc [17] .
páa]: CapáaBIrePT manTMhMtUC zitenACakBa©úM EdlmanBN’s zitenAelIG½kS EdlmanpáaBI 3-5 . Rtbk
manragdUckNþwg manftBI 4-8 mineTogTat; . RsTab;páaman 4-8 manTg zitenAfaspáa .
eksmanrag tUc nige)aøklMGgmanragRTEvg . GUvarI zitenAxageRkam manragmUl
Tgrbs;vamanTMrg;qµatUc [2] .
páamanRbEvg ±0.6 cm manBN’s rW ébtgelOgRsal CapáaBIrePT mankBa©úMragdUck,al
enAelIG½kSsøkw . páanimYy² minmanTgeT EtmanTgFMrbs;kBa©úM EtmYyKt; EdlmanRbEvg 1.0-2.5 (6) cm . Rtbk manragdUckNþwg edaymaneFµjBI 5-8 nigRtbkBI 5-8 zitenACaesrI edaymanTgxøI
maneksragsþÜc EdlmancMnYnBI 10-16 Rtbk nigeks P¢ab;nwgkMBUl rbs;RsTab; manTgragRsLÚn
edayman stigma EdlmancMnYnBI 3-4 EdlmanlkçN³relag [5] . páaCacegáam rW zitenAdac;
CapáaBIrePt man rW minTg manRtbk
(4-)5-8
RsTab; 5-8 zitenACaesrI
manekseQµalcMnYndl;eTABIrdgéncMnYnRtbk EdlzitenA CaesrI manRbEvgminesµIKña

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

3

eksjIzitenAxageRkam manftcMnYn 5-8 edaymanGUvulBI 10-12 enAkñúgft nimYy² (kMrmanftmYy
edaymanGUvul 10-12 ) stigma manragdUcfas rW cegáam [17] .
[Epø): EpøragmUl manGgát;p©it 0.5 cm manRtbkenACab;nwgcugEpø manBN’TwkRkUcenAeBlcas; [2] .
Epø manRbEvg 0.5-1.0 (1.8) cm manBN’Rkhm eTATwkRkUcRsal nigGacmanBN’RkhmsIuCMm<Úcas;
ragmUl
nigmanRtbkenACab;
EdlmaneFµjenAkMBUl
nabsac;
Cacg¥Úr²
edaymanRKab;manragdUcRkelon 1-2 RKab; manTMhMFM rMuedayRsTab;esþIg EdlmanBN’Tkw RkUc [5]
. EpømanftmYy tUc mansac; nwgmanpáa enACab;enaHpgEdr manRKab; 1(-5) BN’Rkhm rW
sIuCm<ÚenAeBlTMu . RKab;rageGlIb rW mUl . kUneQI mandMNuHCaRbePT epigeal mankUTIeldUnCasøkw
BN’ébtg hypocotyl manragRTEvg swøkQm Kña RbePTxøHman lkçN³Rkas; nigRsYc [17] .
ecjpáaenA Exmina - emsa enARbeTséf nigecjEpøenAEx kBaØa-vickäi a enAPaKxageCIgGURsþalI [17] .
:

eQIxøwm rbs;edImRTEmg manlkçN³F¶n;mFüm eTAxøaMg edaymankMritTMnajdI 640-1050 kg/m³
enAkMritsMeNIm 15% . eQIxøwmmanBN’elOgRkhm manlkçN³minsUvxusKña nigeQIRsaymanBN’
elOgRsal . sréseQI Rtg; manragTwkrlk rW cak;eRsHKña manlkçN³eRKIm nigminesµIrKña
edaysarEtmanCalika rays FM eQImanBN’TwkR)ak; enAelIépÞmuxkat; . rgVg;lUtlas;
minGacEjkdak; BIKña rW minman srés vessels manTMhMFM rW mFüm zitenAdac;²BIKña b:uEnþ
maneRcInenAelImuxkat; radial rW tangential EdlmanBI 2-3 nigRtUv)anx½NÐeday tyloses manBN’s
man parenchyma BImFümeTAeRcIn ehIy paratracheal manTMrg; aliform EdlduHeLIgmkRBmKña
nig apotracheal manTMhMFM ragTwkrlk EdlduHelIEmk b:uEnþminduHeLIg rays manTMhMxusKña 2 RbePT
TMhMmFüm eTA FM RbePT EdlFMduHeLIg b:uEnþminmansñamragTwkrlkeT [17] .
PaBrYjrbs;eQI edaykarsMgYtedayxül;mankMritTab nigeQIGacs¶Ütl¥ b:uEnþGaceRbHenAmuxkat;
nigépÞrbs;va EdlKYrRtUv)ankarBar edayeRbIkarsMgYt EdlmankMrti elOn . vaRtUvkary³eBlBI 2 - 5
Ex edIm,IsMgYteQI EdlmankMras; 13 mm eTA 38 mm edayhalxül; . eQImanlkçN³maMu
niggayGar ehIygayduHxat; . eQIKYrEtRtUv)aneRbIfñaMKImI eRkayeBlGarrYcPøam .
edIm,ITTYl)annUvsréseQI manBN’R)ak; EdlmanPaBRss;s¥at kþaKYrRtUv)anGarCa quarter-sawn

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

4

EdlkMNt;nUvTTwg RbEhl 20 cm . eQImanlkçN³Fn; b:uEnþenAeBleRbIb:HpÞal;nwgdI vaminsUvFn;eT
edaygayrgkarbMpøajBIkeNþó nigBBYkstVl¥itecaHrun§ . kMriténkareRCob nUvsarFatuKImIsMrab;karBar
manlkçN³mFüm (95-130kg/m³) eQIRsaygaynwgRtUv)anbMpøajeday Lyctus [17] .

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

RTEmgmanRbEhl 15 RbePT EdlmanduHenA Madagascar nigRsIlgáa nig\NÐa nigtMbn;ma:eL .
eTaHbI RbePTPaKeRcIn duHEtenAtamtMbn;kMNt;NamYyk_eday b:uEnþ C. brachiata
manduHesÞIEtRKb;tMbn; [17] . manduHenA Madagascar \NÐa \NÐÚcin nigma:eL rhUtdl;ekaH
Solomon
nigPaKxageCIgGURsþalI . enARbeTsevotNam C. brachiata manduHtictYc
enAkñúgéRBeRsag CaBiesséRBbnÞab;bnSM vaRtUvkarsMeNIm nigduHlUtlas;enAtamRcaMgTenø . enAcin
\NÐa nighVlI IBIn ma:eLsIu nig evotNam duHenAtMbn;éRBRkas;x<g;rab EdlmanTwksab rW TwkéRb [4] .
vakMrduHenAkñúgéRB eRsagesIm nigtMbn;licTwk éRBtMbn;PñM Edlmanry³kMBs; 1800 m . vak_manduH
enAtaméRBbzm nigmantictYcenAkñúgéRBbnÞab;bnSM éRBcMruH dipterocarp éRBlicTwksab kerangas
(éRBtMbn;ekþA) x<g;rab nig dI EdlmanrukC
ç atiBukpuy rW dI podsolic kMrmanenAtMbn;valesµA [17].

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

manduHenAry³kMBs; 1800 m enAkñúgéRBbzm éRBbnÞab;bnSM kMrenAkñúg valesµA . manduHenAtam
dgsÞwg nigtMbn;licTwkmYycMnYn .

5

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minRtUv)ankMNt; .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

cUlcitþduH enAelIdIsMbUrrukçCatiBuk² rW dI b:sU ULic nigRtUvkarsMeNImpgEdr .

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: eQImantMélmFüm eRbIsMrab; karsagsg; nigpliteRKOgeQIeRbIR)as;xagkñúg [2] . eRbIR)as;
sMrab;sMNg;TUeTA karsg;pHÞ srsr TU eKOgsgðarwm kMral ]bkrN_ePøg RCuj s‘umrUbft vIna bnÞHkþa nig
RbGb; . smRsbsMrab;eFIVCa rfkMNl; rbs;rfePøIg begáalExSePIøg nigsMPar³epSg²eTot .
RbePTeQI enHpþl;eQIfamBl EdlmanKuNPaBl¥pgEdr [17] .
[Gnupl]:
eRbIR)as; sMrab;Ca»sfbUraN dUcCa TwkEdl)ancMraj;mkBIsøwkGaceRbI sMrab;
kat;bnßykarRKun ekþA nigsMbkGacykeTArwtelIEs,kenAeBlmansñamGuC² rW rmas; nigsMbk
k_GaceRbIsMrab;Büa)aleraK BulQam nig rmas; [17].
[

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
eQIcMNat;fñak;elx 3 .

:

[4]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .
:

RTEmg GacRtUv)anbnþBUCeday RKab; rW karkat; eTaHbIRKab;rbs;vaqab;)at;bg;lT§PaBdMNuHk_eday .
RKab;rbs;va GacmanGRtadMNuHBI 45% eTA 100% enAkñúgry³eBl 1-3.5 Ex rYmTaMgRKab;
Edlmin)an duHeRkayry³eBl 52 éf¶eTotpg . kUneQIGacRtUv)anrkSaenAkñúgfñal ry³eBl 2 qñaM
muneBlykeTAdaM xageRkA rW TIval . kardaMedayRKab;pÞal; KWminTTYl)aneCaKC½yeT
edaysarkUneQIgayrgeRKaH edayPaBraMgs¶Üt . kUneQIRtUvkarmøb; nigkardaMenATIval
GacTTYlrgeRKaH . RTEmgduH Exñg)anl¥ nigpþl;nUvkUnEdlduHecjBI rWsrbs;edImCaeRcInpgEdr [17].

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

RTEmgminmanduHenARKb;TIkEnøgenaHeT dUcenAtMbn;mYycMnYn dUcCaenARbeTshVIlIBIn vamanlkçN³kMr
nigmanduHtictYcenAkñúgéRB [17].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

6

F> karGPirkS

:

minEmnCaRbePTrgeRKaH [17].

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
manRbPBkMeNIt BI Madagascar RsIlgáa \NÐa \NÐÚ rhUtdl;ma:eL nigPaKxageCIgGURsþalI nigRtUv
)annaMcUl)a:BjU ÚKIeno .

p> epSg²

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor,
Indonesia, 859 pp.

7

P> ÉksarBieRKaH
2)

:

Nguyen, N.C. et al.: Vietnam Forest Trees, Hanoi 1997 788 pp.

4)
Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom
Penh, 915 pp.

11)
Heywood, V.D. (Ed.) 1993: Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford University Press,
New York; 336 pp.

17)
Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor,
Indonesia, 859 pp.

20)
Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor B, and Mutua A, 2002: Agroforestree
Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD ROM).

26)
World Agroforestry Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp?

27)

Wikipedia http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/species name (Internet source)

34)

www.townsville.qld.gov.au/nad/PlantDisplay.asp?species (Internet source).

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

(Internet source)

8

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Carica papaya L.]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Carica papaya L.]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg

³

Carica papaya L.

x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

papaya, pawpaw, melon tree [4]

K> sTisn½y

³

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

lhong, doeum lahong (Cambodia); papaya, gedang, kates
(Indonesia);
houng
(Laos);
papaya,
betek,ketalah,
(Malaysia); thimbaw (Burma); papaya, kapaya, lapaya
(Philippines; malakor, loko mak uaithet (Thailand); du du
(Vietnam) [6], papaye (French); lechoza (Venezuela, Puerto
Rico, Philippines); fruta bomba (Cuba); mamâo (Brazil) [19].

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

lðúg

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

1

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

lhông [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae

fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Violales
RKYsar : Caricaceae
ePT : Carica
RbePT : Carica papaya L.
ÉksarBieRKaH: [4 ; 11 ]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: edImtUc mankMBs;BI 2-8 m [4] CaRbePT EdlduHlUtlaselOn EdnmankMBs;BI 210 m nigGgát;p©it 10-30 cm minmanEmkeT b:uEnþvaGacduHEmkRbsinebIkMBUl rW cugrbs;vaRtUv)an
kat;pþac; [6] edImeQI mankMBs;BI 6-8m kMrmanEmk BN’ébtg manedImTn; rMuB½T§edaysñam ragRtI
ekaN nigkBa©úM søwkzitenAelIEpñkxagcug [13] . søkw FM CaRbePTeQIduHlUtlas;elOn maneQITn;
páajI nigeQµalzit enAelIedImepSgKña RbePT EdlRtUv)annaMecjeRcInCageKKW "solo" eday
manpáaCaRbePT hermaphrodite . RbePT RtUvkaredImeQµalmYyedIm sMrab; edImjI 25 edIm edIm,I
FananUvkarecjEpø rbs;edImjI [19] .
[søwk]: tMerobCarag zitenACakBa©Mú enAcugrbs;edIm edaymanTgsøwkrbs;vaRbEvg 1 m nig ragCabnÞH
edayman rW manCafteRCA² manGgátp; ©it 25-75 cm relag mansrésEv:nelceLIg nigmaneFµj
[6] . søwkmanTMhMFM manTgsøwkEvg manlkçN³dUcRmaméd [13] .
[páa]: manBN’Bgman; eTAelOg eQµal nigjI zitenAelIedImepSgKña nigemIleTAmanlkçN³xusKña [6]
. Capáa manlkçN³CakBa©Mú páajImanEmkmYy nigFaøk;cuH manpáaragdUcCILav manRbEvg 4 cm .
kBa©úMpáajI manlkçN³xøI nigmanEmkminRtg; páaFMmanBN’elOgRsal [13] .
[Epø]: CaEpøsac; manRbEvg 7-30 cm nigTMgn; 10 kg . mansMbkesþIg relag ERbBIBN’ébtg Ca
elOg rW TwkRkUc enAeBlTMu . sac;manBN’elOg rW TwkRkUc Tn; GacbriePaK)an nig Ep¥m
edaymanRKab;BN’exµA zitenAcMkNþal [6] . EpømanragRsedogRtsk;RsUv manTMhMxus²Kña
manTMgn;BI 500g-1000g b:uEnþk_ GacmanTMgn;dl;eTA 10kg nigF¶n;CagenH . EpømanragmUl rW eGlIb
nigragRTEvgdUcRtsk;RsUv. sac;man BN’s rWelOg TwkRkUc rW Rkhm manrs;Catixus²Kña .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Epñkxagkñúgrbs;EpømanlkçN³Rbehag manRKab; EdlmanTMhMb:uneRmc BN’exµA edaymanrs;Ca
RsedognwgrukçCatiesµAeRks (cresse-weed) [13].

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

edImrbs;vaminmanCatieQIeT nigminmansarFatueQI EdlGacykmkeRbIR)as;)aneLIy [13].

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

lðúgmanRbPBkMeNIt BIGaemrikkNþal miucsiuckU nigeRbsIul EdlRbeTsTaMgBIr enHmankarbriyayBI
kareRbIR)as;rku çCatienHsMrab;eFIVCa»sf taMgBIsm½ymunRbvtþisaRsþ . vamanduHenAtMbn;RtUBikesIm eTA
GnutMbn;RtUBik nigtMbn;minmansenSIm [19] . vamkdl;GasIu enAcugstvtSr_TI 18
nigRtUv)andaMduHTUTaMg GasIuGaeKñy_sBVéf¶enH nigenA)a:BUjÚvKIeno nigPaKxageCIgGURsþalI .
vaminEmnCaRbePTeQI EdlduHkñúgéRBeT b:uEnþvaRtUv)andaMduHya:geRcIn enAkñúgcMkar nigksidæan [6,13].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

3

:

lðúgRtUv)andaMduHenAtMbn;RtUBik nigGnuRtUBikekþA bc©úb,nñenH [6,13] . RtUvkareRsacTwkx<s;
nigkMritTwkePøóg 1500 mm/m² manr)a:yeBjmYyqñaM . b:uEnþenAeRkamGakasFaturaMgs¶Üt karRKb;
eTAelIkEnøg EdlmanrWsduH KWmansar³sMxan;Nas; . lðúgKYrRtUv)ankarBar edayr)aMgxül;
edIm,IkMueGay)ak;edImrbs;va [19] . vaGacduHenAtMbn;manGakasFatuekþA EdlmanePøógRKb;RKan;
nigsItuNðPaBBI 21-33ºC nigGacmanduHenAry³kMBs; 1600 m rW eRkamtMbn; EdlmansenSIm [6] .

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minRtUv)ankMNt; .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

lðúgFn;dI EdlmaneRCobTwk)anl¥ nigminFn; nwgdI Edls¶ÜtxøaMg b:uEnþgayrgeRKaHedaysar karCaMTwk
nigelcTwk [6].

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: edImrbs;vaminmanCatieQIeT [6] .
[Gnupl]: Epø EdlTMuRtUv)anbriePaKRss; rW eRbICabEnø ePsC¢³ dMNab; nigsárRKab; . EpøenAx©I
RtUv)ankat; nigeRbIR)as;CabEnø [13,19] .
karekassMbkEpøx©I GacTTYl)annUv alkaloid , carpaine [6] nigC½r EdlRtUv)anTajyk
nigbnSútsMrab; karnaMecj . vaCa C½rvas¶Üt nigCa protein-spitting enzyme . rukçCatimYyedIm
Gacplit)annUvC½r 500 g/qñaM b:uEnþCaFmµtaKWmanEtBI
100-150g
.
karlk;EpøRss;KwmanlkçN³esdækic©xs< ; b:uEnþenAeBlEpøminmanTIpSa karplitC½rRtUv)aneFIVeLIg .
vaRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eFIVeGayRsaebomanesßrPaB eFIVeGaysac;puy eRbIsMrab;CafñaMsMlab;emeraK
nigeRbICaeFIVmineGayrYj edIm,ImUlsURt
[13,19]
. RKab; GacbriePaK)an
BYkvamanrs;CatidUcCaeRKOgeTs [27] .
sarFatuciBa©wmkñúg 100g [27]
famBl : 40kcal 160 kJ
sár 5.9 g
sarFatusrésr 1.8
xøaj; 0.14 g
RbUetGIun 0.61 g
vItamIn A 55 micro gram 6%
ß-carotene 276 microgram 3%
thiamin vitamin B1 0.04mg 3%
riboflavin vitamin B2 0.0mg 3%
niacin vitamin B3 0.338 mg 2%

vItamIn B6 0.1mg 8%
vItamIn C 61.8 mg 103 %
kal;süÚm 24 mg 2%

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

4

Edk 0.10 mg 1%
ma:ejsüÚm 10 mg 3%
pUsVr 5 mg 1%
b:UtasüÚm 257 mg 5%
sUlüÚm 3 mg 0%
EtRtUv)anerobcMBI páa nigsøwk sMrab;Büa)alkarBulGahar . Epø EdlxUc
nigsøwkRtUv)aneRbIsMRab;eFICV acMNI RCUk . søwkmansarFatufñaM
alcaloid
carpain
EdleRbIRbqaMgnwgBBYk)ak;etrI [19] . edIm søwk nigrWs RtUv)anbriePaKenAeBlmaneRKaHGt;køan
[4,19] . lðúgRtUv)anKitfa GacCYyrMlayxøaj; nigbegáInnUv plitkmµG½rmUnrbs;burs nigRsþI [12] .
enA\NÐa )aKIsßan nigRsIlgáa nigtMbn;epSgeToténBiPBelak lðúgRtUv)aneRbIR)as;sMrab;CafñaMBnøÚtkUn
. RbsiT§PaBenH RtUv)anbBa¢ak;tamry³karBiesaFn_eTAelIstVsVa [27] . enAkñúg ethnomedicine
mankareRbIR)as;EpøTMusMrab;Büa)alCMgWERsg Epøx©eI RbIsMrab;RbqaMgnwgkar ekIneLIgsMBaFQam
nigCafñaMseRmIbpgEdr . EpøGaclabedaypÞal;eTAelIEs,k edIm,Ikat;bnßykarQW cab; .
RKab;GaceRbIRbqaMgkarrlak nig eFIVeGays<Wk nigBüa)alkarQWRkBH . rWsRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;Ca fñaM
s<WkpgEdr [27].

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

minmancMNat;fñak; . [18]

5

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

cenøaHsMrab;kardaMduH xus²KñaGaRs½ynwglkçx½NÐrbs;dI nigtMbn; GaccenøaH 2x3m to 2x3.5 m .
enAkñúgcMkar EpøGacRtUv)anRbmUlplelIkdMbUgenAcugqñaM . enAtMbn;RtUBik karecjpáa nigEpø
ekItmanCabnþ bnÞab; cMEnk GnutMbn;RtUBik EdlmanGakasFatuRtCak; GaceFIVkarmankar raMg sÞH
dl;plitkmµEpø . Tinñpl mankMritx<s;bMput KWenAqñaMTIBIr nigGacpþl;pldl;eTA 60-80 t/ha eRkam
lkçx½NÐsmRsb . Tinñpl Føak; cuHenARtwm 50t/ha enAqñaMTbI I nigmankarBi)akedaysar edImman
kMBs;x<s; . enAkñúgcMkarsMrab;BaNiCk¢ mµ edImRtUv)anrkSaRtwmEtGayuBI 3-5 qñaMb:ueNÑaH [19] .

edaysarPaBTn;rbs;Epø niggayxUc BYkRtUv)aneRbIR)as;EtenAkñúgRbeTs EdldaMduHvaEtb:ueNÑaH
[13,19].

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

CaFmµtalðúgRtUv)anbnþBUCedayRKab; . edaymankarduHlUtlas;elOn kUnlðúgcMnYn
5
RtUv)andaMenAkñúgreNþAEtmYy rW daMedayRKab; . enAeBlBnøkpáaecjelIkdMbgU bnÞab;BIry³eBl 5 Ex
kUnlðúg GacRtUv)ankat;rMelaH edayTukEtedIm eQµalEdll¥b:ueNÑaH .

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

lðúgRtUv)anKMramkMEhgedayBBYkPñak;gar dUcCa )ak;etrI CMgWdMe)A rlYy pSit CaMTwk rlYyEpø (Monilia
sp.) dgáÚv CMgW phytoplasmal EdlRtUv)ankt;Rtaeday American Phytopathological Society
[27].

F> karGPirkS

:

minmanCaRbePTrgeRKaHfñak; .
:

duHlUtlas;enATUTaMgRbeTs enAelIdI EdlsmRsb .

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
tMbn;RtUBik nig GnutMbn;RtUBikekþAnigmanRbPBkMeNItenAGaemrikkNþal nig RtUv)annaMcUleTAkEnøg
epSg² eTot .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

6

p> epSg²

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Becker S, 1958: The production of papain - an agricultural industry of tropical America.
Economic Botany, 12:62-79.
Brücher H, 1989: Useful plants of neotropical origin and their wild relatives. Useful plants
of neotropical origin and their wild relatives., 296 pp.; [ref. at ends of chapters, many
fig., many pl.].
Verheij EWM, Coronel RE, 1991: Plant resources of South-East Asia. No. 2. Edible fruits
and nuts. Plant resources of South-East Asia. No. 2. Edible fruits and nuts., 446 pp.;
[and fig.]; many ref.
Nair PKR, 1980: Agroforestry species. A crop sheets manual. Agroforestry species. A
crop sheets manual., ix + 336 pp.; [1 fig., 20 pl. Publication no. ICRAF 003e]; many ref.
Conover RA, Litz RE, Malo SE, 1986: 'Cariflora' - a papaya ringspot virus tolerant papaya
for South Florida and the Caribbean. Hortscience, 21:1072.

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

4)
Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House;
Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

7

6)
Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field
guide. Orchid Press, Bangkok, 234 pp.

11)
Heywood, V.D. (Ed.) 1993: Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford
University Press, New York; 336 pp.

13)
Baertels, A., 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen
(Colour Atlas Tropical Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ.
Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.

19)
Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and
Subtropics. Josef Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552
pp.

17)
Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant
Resources of Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea
Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859 pp.

26)
World Agroforestry Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp
?
(Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

27)
Wikipedia http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/species name (Internet
source)

8

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Cassia fistula L]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Cassia fistula L]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

Cassia fistula L. [4]

³

golden shower, golden rain tree, pudding-pipe tree; Indian
laburnum [4,6, 9,13].

K> sTisn½y

³

C. excelsia Kunth[9]; C.rhombifolia Roxb.; Cathartocarpus
fistulus (L.) Pers. [6]. Bactyrilobium fistula Willd., Cassia
bonplandiana DC., Cassia fistuloides Collad., Cathartocarpus
excelsus G. Don, Cathartocarpus fistuloides (Collad.) G.
Don, Cathartocarpus rhombifolius G. Don

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

caneficier, casse en baton (French); riechhpühss
(Cambodia); ngu, ngu sahwe, pwabet (Burma); khuun,
rajaphruek (Thailand); khoun (general), Lom Leng (Sayaburi
Prov.-Laos); muóng hoà ng yén, bò cap nuóc (Vietnam) [2,
6].

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

raCq<ws
ÉksarBieRKaH : [4]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

1

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

riëch chhpühss [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Fabales
RKYsar : Caesalpinioideae

ePT : Cassia L.
RbePT : Cassia fistula L.
ÉksarBieRKaH: [2 ; 8 ; 13]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaRbePTeQIEdlduHenAkñúgéRBeRsag b¤éRBrel,aH mankMBs; 10-15 m nigGgát;p©it
40-50 cm.[2,4, 6,9] CaRbePTeQIEdlduHkñúgéRBel,aHEdlmanragerovRsYc mankenSamsøwkRkas;
ehIyEmkragRsYcFøak;cuHeRkam.[5] edImRaCq<ws mankMBs;CamFüm 15 m.[6] raCq<ws
CaRbePTeQIEdl CMruHsøwkRbcaMqñaM mankMBs;rhUtdl; 20 m nigmanGgát;p©it 50
cmEdlmankenSamsøwkeRcIn EmkKµaneram ehIyRtdagsMy:ugcuHeRkam.[8,13]
[sMbk]: edImraCq<ws mansMbkBN’etñatRsal relag ehIyrageRbHtic².[5] sMbkmanBN’ébtgx©I
layRbepH enAeBlEdlkUneQIenAtUc bnÞab;mkERbCaBN’etñatlayRkhmRsal nigrbkenAeBl
Edlvakan;EtFM.[6] sMbkedImraCq<wsmanBN’etñatRsal b¤BN’RbepHcas; relagb¤mansñameRbHtic
ehIyEpñkxagkñúgénsMbkmanBN’RkhmRsal layetñat. edImraCq<ws manxñaysÞbsøwktUc. raCq<ws
manTgsøwk 6-10 cm nig rhachis RbEvg 15-20 cm.[8]
[søwk]: søwkRaCq<ws CaRbePTsøwksñitsmasqøas; tMerobelIGkS½RbEvg 15-25 cm. søwktMerobQmKña
BIragdUcs‘utEtFM eTABgRkeBI mancMnYn 3-8 KUr nigmanRbEvg 7-12 cm TMhM 4-6 cm Edlcugsøwkman
ragRsYc Kl;søwkmansNæanesñót nigedImeQIcas;BMumanerameT. TgtMerobsøwkrbs;edIm raCq<ws
manRbEvg 7-10 cm nigTgsøwk manRbEvg 5-10 mm. xñaysÞbsøwksac; ehIyRCuHCaRbcaM.[2]
søwkraCaq<ws manRbEvg 30-40 cm EdlmankUnsøkw cMnYn 3-8 KUr ehIymanTMhM 7-12 x 4-8 cm
manragdUcBgRTEvg EKmsøwkmanragril nigmanduHeramTn;²ehIyrelagEdlmanlkçN³ dUckaMmJIenA
eBlxI© b:uEnþvaERbeTACa relagenAeBlEdlcas;b¤TMu ehIyBMumansrIragÁRkeBjeT.[5] søwkraCq<ws
CaRbePTsøwksmasmanRbEvg 30-60 cm tMerobenAelIGkS½tMerobsøwkRbEvg 7-10 cm
EdlmankUnsøwkEdldUcEs,k cMnYn 3-8 KUr EdlsøwknImYy²manbeNþay 12 cm nigTTwgRbEvg 6
cm.[6] søwkCaRbePTsøwksñitKUr nigmanRbEvgRbEhl 30-40 cm. søwkraCq<ws CaRbePTsøwkQm
FMehIymanragBgRkeBI mancMnYn 3-8KUr b¤ 7-18søwk EdlsøwknImYymanRbEvg 4-8 cm

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

3

Kl;søwkmanragCaesñótTal ehIymaneramTn;Rsal²dUckaMmJI enAeBlEdlsøwkx©I nigrelagenAeBl
Edlcas; b¤TMu nigBMumansrIragÁRkeBjeT ehIymanRTnugTI 2eRcIn nigTgsøwkRbEvg 4-10 mm.[8]
[páa]: edImraCq<ws mankBa©MúpáatMerobenAelIGkS½ CacegáamdUcpáaek¶ak. TgpáamanRbEvg 15-25 mm
ehIyminerameT. RtbkpáaragdUcBgRkeBI manRbEvg 5-10 mm nigmanduHeramenAxageRkA. Rtbkpáa
manBN’elOg ragBgRkeBIehIyFMEdlmanbeNþayRbEhl 30-35 mm nigTTwg 10-15 mm
ehIyRkjaMuxøI. eksreQµalman 10 EdlTgeksreQµal nige)aøklMGgminesµIKña nigminmaneramEkv.
GUEv nigbMBg;eksrjI maneramEkv ehIybMBg;eksrjItUc.[2] páaraCqw<smanERbEvg 3.5-5.0 cm
manBN’elOgPøW ehIysMy:ugcuHeRkam ehIyminmancegáamEmkeT EdlCaFmµta vatMerob enAelI
GkS½EdlenA elIEmkcas;²RbEvg 20-40 cm ehIyvacb;epþImecjmuneBlEdlBnøkRtYysøwkecj.
eksreQµal manRbEvg 3 cm e)a:geLIgFMCageKnUvkNþalTgeksreQµalRbEvg 3 cm
ehIyeksreQµalepSg²eTot manRbEvg 5-10 mm ehIyrelag. GUEv nigbMBg;eksrjI
manduHeramTn;ehIyPøW.[5] kBa©úMpáatMerobenAelIGkS½CacegáamragCabeNþag RbEvg 20-40 cm.
søwkRTnab;páa manRbEvg 8-10 mm ehIyCMruHCaRbcaM. TgpáamanRbEvg 15-35 mm
ehIyminmaneram. páamanBN’elOgPøW EdlmanRtbkpááaragBgRkeBIcMnYn 5 RbEvg 5-10 mm
nigmanragCavilevt. RsTab;páaman 5 manragBgRkeBI manTMhM 20-35 nig 10-15 mm
manTMhMesµIbnþbnÞab;Kña nigjaMuxøI². eksreQµalmancMnnY 10 minesµIrKña Edl 3 Evg
nigmanTgeksreQµalRbEvg 3-4 cm e)aøklMGgRbEvg 5 mmEdlGacebIk)anedaysar apical
nigxageRkaymanRbehag cMENkÉeksreQµalxñI 4 eTot manTgeksreQµalRbEvg 6-10 mm
ehIye)aøklMGgebIk)anedaysar rn§enAxageRkay nig eksreQµal 3cugeRkay
manTgeksreQµalRbEvg 3-5 mm nigmane)aøklMGg biTebikPøibEPøt. GUEv nig
bMBg;eksrjImaneramEkv ehIysÞicma:tcU .[8]
[Epø]: raCq<s
w manEpøCaRbePTEpøkYr manragCasIuLaMg EdlenAeBlx©ImanBN’ébtg ehIyERbeTACa
BN’etñatEbkexµARsal enAeBlTMu manbeNþayRbEvg 20-60 cm nig TTwg 1.5-2.0 cm manTMhMFM
nigmanTgBüÜrFøak;cuH nig relagminmanerameT.[2,6,13]
EpøraCq<ws CaRbePTEpøkYr manTMhM 20-60 x 1.5-2.0 cm manBN’exµA relag EpøsMy:ugcuH
eRkamRtg;dUcCa bMBg; enAeBlFaøk;mkdI minedatCab;ddI UvCaRcnYceT KWvaEbkCacMENktUc²CaeRcIn ray
BaseBjdI.[5] EpøraCq<ws CaEpøKUrFøak;reya:g manragdUcCabMBg; manRbEvg 20-60 cm

nigmanGgátp; ©it 1.5-2.0 cm manBN’exµA relag nigTMunineRbH. RKab;manragBgRkeBIsMEb:trwg
nigmancMnYneRcIn RbEhl 25-100 nig manbeNþay 8-9 mm nig TTwg 5 mm ehIymanBN’etñat
nigrelag.[2] RKab;RtUvEckxNÐedaysnÞHxN½ÐdcU eGb:ug manragBgRkeBIsMEb:tmanTMhM 8-9 x 4-6
mm relag ehIymanBN’etñat.[8] RKab;raCq<ws manBN’TwkRkUc EdlxagkñúgmanrsCatiEp¥m
mansac;s¥it² RtUv)ansIuedayBBYkbkSI nig stVsVa.[9] raCaq<sw cab;epþImpáa nUvExmifuna
rhUtdl;Exkkáda[2] cab;epþImpáaBIExemsa dl;Exkkáda nigcab;epþImpáaBIEx]saPa dl;ExsIha[8]
EtrdUvEdlpáaeRcInCageKKWcab;BIEx mina dl;Ex]sPa.[13]

:

eQIRsay nig eQIxøwmb Eckdac;BIKñaya:c,as; Edlsac;eQIrwg F¶n; ehIymaM.[2,9]
sac;eQIRsaymanBN’s sac;eQIxøwmmanBN’elOg.[17] vamanTMgn; 835kg/m³ enAkMritsMenIm
12%. sac;eQI manséscak;eRsH EdlBi)akkñúgkartubEtg CaBiessvaeRbH ehIysac;eQIekag
Bi)akkñúgkarBuHbMEbkeFVICa]bkrN_epSg² EdleRbIsMrab;sagsg; nigeFVICa]bkrN_CYsCullkçN³
RbéBNI eFVICakg;reTH kaMkg;reTH ssr dg]bkrN_epSg² ssrpÞH CRgukRsUv dgjjÜr EkécñeFVICacan
ngÁ½l ekþagTUk eFVICaeRKOgelgrbs;ekµg nig eFVICaeRKOgcMlak;. raCq<ws CaRbePT eQId¾
l¥sMrab;eFVIFüÚg. ehtudUcenHehIy karnaMecjeQImlU rbs;edImraCq<ws manEdnkMNt; eTaHbICakar
CYjdUrkñúgRsukk¾ eday.[12,17]
raCq<ws CaRbePTeQIF¶n; b¤F¶n;xøaMg sac;eQIrwg ehIymaMEtséseQIcak;eRsHKña nig mansac;eQIeRKIm.
sac;eQIraCq<ws manrn§eRcInEdlelcecjCaRkeyAya:gc,as;. sac;eQIxøwm manBN’elOgRsallay
Rkhm ERbeTABN’RkhmdUcdI\dæ b¤RkhmRsalEbketñat. sac;eQIminsMrbnwgbMErbMrYlGakasFatueT
eRBaHvaGaceRbH Ebk nige)ar b¤ekag dUecñHRtUvKrTukenAeRkamdMbUledIm,IrkSavaeGayenABN’ébtg.
eQImUlrbs;raCq<ws manPaBmaMxøaMgNas; b:uEnþvak¾Bi)akkñúgkarEkécñrEdr eRBaHvaBi)akGar TaMgedayéd
nigma:sIun.[12]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

4

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

GaceFVIkarsnµt;)anfa raCq<wsmanRbPBkMeNItmkBIéRBéntMbn; b‘Uma: \NÐa nig sirIlgáa [9,13]
ehIymankarsayPayeTAdl;RbeTs eGsIub eN)a:l; \NÐa cin \NÐÚcin Lav nig evotNam [2] éf
m:aeLsIu \NÐÚensIu.[8,12] karduHlUtlas; manEdnkMNt;enATisxageCIg nigxagt,Úg EdlCaenA
30ºeCIg eTA 10º t,Úg. edImraCq<ws eRcInmanenAvaléRBtMbn;GasIuRtUBic EdlduHenAéRBesIm
éRBel,aHcMruH nigéRBel,aHs¶Üt éRBGMbUr dipterocarp nigéRBébtgCanic© EdlCaTUeTAvaRtUv)andaMduHeFVI
CaeQIlMGr enAsgxagpøÚv.[4,5,8,12]
enARbeTs\NÐÚensIu PaKeRcIneKeXIjedImraCq<wsduHenAtMbn;TMnabéRBm:Usug EdlduHlaylMCamYynwg
Acacia leucophloea, (Roxb.), Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr nig Butea monosperma
(Lam.) Taub.[16] b:uEnþvak¾duHenAkñúgéRBel,aHs¶ÜtpgEdr.[9]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

5

:

raCq<ws duHenAkñúgGakasFatutMbn;RtUBics¶Üt EdlmansItuNðPaBRbcaMqñaMCamFüm 25ºC
mankMBs;TwkePøóg mFümRbcaMqñaM elIsBI 1200 mm/m² EdlGacduHenArdUvR)aMg)an 4Ex.
vaCaRbePTeQI EdlTuneTareTArkBnøW b:uEnþ eBledImenAtUc vaCaRbePTeQIEdlRtUvkarmøb;
nigmankarFn;RTaMnwgPaB raMgs¶Üt. vaGacduHcab;BItMbn;manry³kMBs; 1,000 m
eFobnwgnIv:UTkw smURT.[2,8] vaduHenAry³kMBs;cab;BI 0-1200 nigkMBs;TwkePøóg 500-3000 mm/ m²
enArdUvR)aMg. 4-5ExcugRkayénrdUvR)aMg mansItuNðPaB RbcaMqñaM CamFüm 18ºC-29ºC. [12]
edImraCq<ws KWmanPaBFn;nwgkarraMgs¶Üt nigGacrs;ran)an eTaHbICamanPaBraMgs¶Üt ePøgI eqH esµAcéRg
møb; nigmanduHExñgeLIgvijbnÞab;BIkat;edIm b¤Emk.[12]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
BMuTan;manTinñny½.

:

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

raCq<ws duHenAelIvaynPaBdImFüm EdlmanCatiGasIuttic nigqab;Rss;Twk. RbePTdIEdl
manlkçN³ smRsbsMrab;edImraCq<wsKW dIfµRkalnIt dIfµ)ayeRkom dIfµPk; b¤dItMbn;RtUBic
b:uEnþraCq<wsGacrs;ran)an enAtMbn;TwkPøav. raCq<ws duHenAtMbn;éRBs¶Üt nigéRBesIm RbB½n§b¤srbs;rak;
Fn;nwgPaBraMgs¶Üt ehIyk¾ninRtUvkarsMenImeRcInEdr vaGacrs;)anenAkNþal xül; ePøóg esµA
nwgGacrs;enAkñúgmøb;. [2,8,12]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: edImraCq<ws mansac;eQIxøwmBN’RkhmRsal EdleRbIsMrab;eFVIkarsagsg;epSg²
nigeRbIsMrab;eFVI Ca]bkrN_ksikmµ.[2,8,9] eQIraCq<wseRbIsMrab;eFVICangÁ½l nigssr.[4] raCq<ws
pþl;nUveQImUlEdlman RbeyaCn_ EdlmanTMhMénkareRbIR)as;ya:geRcIn enAkñúgRsuk. raCq<ws
eRbIsMrab;eFVICakg;reTH reTH eragCagRkLwg dg]bkrN_eRbIR)as;epSg² ngÁ½l rnas; nigRbdab;mUl
eFVICassrpÞH Rbdab;e)akRsUv can ekþagTUk kþarbnÞHeRKOgma:sIun nigl¥sMrab;eFVIFüÚg nigTUk sgðarwm
dgjjÜr eFVICak,alGnøÚgk,alsVa nigesarpøÚvreTHePIøg. eTaHbICaraCq<ws manKuNPaBeQIl¥k¾eday
vamanlT§PaBkMNt; mann¾yfavaminman karCYjdUrFMdMueTénkareFVIBaNiC¢kmµ.[12,27]
[Gnupl]: EpøraCq<ws eRbIsMrab;eFVICaTwkGb; edaysarEtxøinrbs;vaKYreGaycUlcitþ nigsøwkeFVICafñaM.[4]
sac;rbs;EpøraCq<ws nig sMbk ykjaMuCamYynwgswkø søa. TMBarsøwkraCq<wss¶ÜtBüa)alCMgWxYrq¥wg nig
CafñaM »sfTiBVsMrab;bBa©úH.[13] CnCati Santal enARbeTs\NÐasIupáaraCq<ws.
sMbkraCq<ws sMbUreTAedayCati tannin nigsMrab;RClk;BN’. sMbkraCq<ws manpÞúknUvCati tannin
RbEhlCa 10-12% (CSIR, 1948). vaGacCMnYsCati Tannin rbs; (Acacia spp.).[12]
raCq<ws CaRbPBBN’FmµCati. emSAEdlTaj)anBIRKab;raCq<ws eFVICafñaMsMlab;stVl¥it sMrab;
karBarpáaEdl manCMgWpSit.[12]
raCq<ws enAkñúgRsukeRbIeFVICafñaMBüa)aleraK bnÞab;BI xÞyÜ b¤xüadMrITic nigBs;cwk.[2,4,8] enAkNþalPUmi
PaKxagekIténRbeTs\NÐa KYrEpø nigRKab;raCq<ws eRbIeFVICafñaMbBa©úH.[8,20]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

6

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

enA\NÐÚrnsIu páa nigsøwkraCq<ws eRbICafñaMbBa©úH nig b¤s eFVIfañ MlabdMe)ArlYyelIEs,k eGayeLIg
Rkm:.[9] edaysarEtpáarbs;raCq<wsrelag ehIysMbUr eKehAedImraCq<ws faedImRKab;ePøógmas[9]
ehIyCajwkjab; eKdaMvasMrab;eFVICarukçCatilMGr.[8,9]
b¤s sMbl RKab; nig søwk rbs;edImraCq<ws eFVICa»sfburaN. vamansarFatuCaeRcIn EdlsMrab;eFVIfñaM
nigeFVICafñaMRKab;sMrab;briePaK. dUecñHehIy GñkKImvI iTüa)anpSMnUvsar³FatuTaMgGs;enaH. antidiabetic
Ca»sftiNeTs EdleKsakl,geFVeI cjBIraCq<ws.[12] enA Ayurveda sakl,geFVIfñaMEdl
EkécñecjBI raCq<ws edaysMraj;BIRKab; páaRkBMu nigEpø. RKab;raCq<ws eFVICafñaMk¥Üt.
enA Zimbabwe nig Ghana eKykraCq<wseFVICa»sfburaN. enA Est Asia eKbriePaKeqA edIm,I
Büa)al karTl;lamk nigenAekaH Caribbean yksac; nigsøwkraCq<ws eFVICafñaMBüa)alkar
QWcab;.[20,22]
[epSg²]: enAsirIlgáa eKykpáafVayRBHenAÉvtþ enAeBlbuNüsasna.[12]
edImRKab;ePøógmas ehAfaDok Khuen vaCapáaCatirbs;RbeTséf EdlRbCaCnéfeRbIsMrab;
GbGrGVImYy edaysarEtpáaBN’masd¾Rss;s¥atrs;va. vak¾Capáaénrdæ Kerala enAkñúgRbeTs
\NÐapgEdr. enAkñúgbuNüepSg² eKeRbIpáaraCq<ws sMrab;dEgðCak,Ün nigfVaydl;RBHvisñúr. [20, 22,27]
raCq<ws CaRbePTeQIlMGr (Venkataramany, 1968) EdldaMsMrab;eFVIeGaydIEdlxUcxat manlkçN³
RbesIreLIgvij. eRkABIenHraCq<ws vaminEmnCaGaharEdlman»Cars sMrab;bsustVeT
b:uEnþvaRbEhlCa manlkçN³smRsbsMrab;kardaMdHu éRBeLIgvij enAtMbn;Edl)at;bg;éRBF¶n;F¶r.[12]

7

RKab;manpÞúknUvCatiRbUetGIun 24% eRbg 4% Catisés 7% nigkabUnGIuRdat 50% CamYynwg 81%
énkarrMlayvIRTUy:Us. søwkraCq<ws manpÞúkRbUetGIun 16% kabUnGIuRdat 40% CamYynwg 88%
énkarrMlayvIRTUy:Us.[20]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
raCq<ws CaRbePTeQIminmancMNat;fñak;.

:

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

raCq<ws CaRbePTeQIEdlduHlUtlas;yWt b:uEnþ qab;ecjEpøpaá .[5] raCq<sw CaRbePTeQIEdl
manedImRtg; l¥ GaceFVICabegÁal nigkarduHlUtlas;eLIgvijedayFmµCatimanlkçN³yWt ehIyGac
eFVIkardaMduHeday sabpÞal;. eTaHCaya:gNak¾eday raCq<wsBMusUvmankardaMduHeFVCI acMkareT eRBaHTinñpl
rbs;vaminsUvman sar³sMxan;eT.[12]

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

edImraCq<ws BMumandaMduHenAkñúgcMkar b¤CalkçN³cMkareT dUecñHehIyBMusUvmanBt’manénkarRbmUlpl
nigbTBiesaFn¾én karRKb;RKgrbs;vaeT.[12]
EtedImraCq<wsRtUv)aneKeFVIkardaMduHedayeFVIkar sabedaypÞal; sÞMú nig eFVIkardaMduHenAkñúgfñaledayviFI
epSg². kardaMduHedImraCq<ws sMrab;eFVICaedImeQIlMGr KWenAEtCaehtuplcMbgEdleFVIeGay kUn
raCq<wsman karduHlUtlas;FM)an.[9]
:

edImraCq<ws RtUv)andwgfamanstVl¥itcMnYn 2 RbePT EdlbgáreRKaHfñak; nigTamTarnUvkarkarBarKW
Eurema
blanda
nig Xyleutes persona. E. blanda sIukUnraCq<wsEdlenAkñúgfñal
nigvapøas;bþÚrTIkEnøg CahVÚgFM². dgáÚvén X. persona XµúMxYgCaRbehag vaxYgedImrbs;kUnraCq<ws
b¤xYgEmkrbs;edImeQIFM². vamanenAsirIlgáa b‘Um:a nigcin vaeRcInbMpøajBIExkumÖ³ dl; Extula.
Catopsilia pomona mkBI crocale, Catopsilia pomona, Catopsilia pyranthe, Indarbela
quadrinotata, Nephopterix rhodobasalis KWGaceFVIkarTb;sáat; b¤RKb;RKg)an. karsmøab;
nigkardut KWCaviFIsaRsþénkarTb;sáat;karbMpaø jd¾l¥bMput. [12] pSit 3 RbePT
EdlbMpajenAelIsøwkénkUneQIraCq<ws nigedImraCq<wsEdlkMBugduHlUtlas; b:uénþCMgWpSitenHk¾GaceFVIkar
Tb;sáat; nigkarBarpgEdrKW Glomerella cingulata, Khuskia oryzae nig Phyllactinia guttata
EdlCapSitduHenAelIswøk. [12]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

8

F> karGPirkS

:

raCq<wsBMuEmnCaRbePTEdlrgnUveRKaHfñak;enaHeT. [9]

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

BMuTan;manTinñny½.

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
raCq<wsCaRbePTeQIlMGrEdlmanduHenAtMbn;RtUBic nig sab;RtUBic EdlvaRbePTlb;
nigmanRbPBkMeNIt enA GasIu nig SE GasIu nignaMcUleTARbeTsCaeRcInenAtMbn;RtUBic Gaemric
nigGaRBic.[5,13]

p> epSg²

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

ePT

9

:

KWCasmaPaBeQIEdlCaeTogTat;duHenAkñúgéRBs¶Üt nigTIval. RbePTmYycMnnY énePT
Cassia pþl;nUvpáas¥at eBjmYyqñaM. eRkABI edImraCq<ws mankardaMduHeRcInnUvRbePTmYycMnYndUcCa: C.
grandis CaedImeQIFM²EdlmanpáaBN’páaQUk nigmanRbPBmkBI GaemricRtUBic.
C. javanica manRbPBmkBI Java nigmanpáaBN’suICMBU lays.
C. marginata manRbPBmkBI sirIlgáa nig\NÐa EdlmanpáaBN’páaQUk ehIycab;epþImecjpáaenA Ex
kkþda dl;sIha.
C. moschata CaedImeQIx<s²
; enAtMbn;GaemricRtUBic EdlmanpáaBN’TwkRkUc b¤BN’RtIsUm:ug BN’
páaQUk.
C. multijuga manRbPBmkBItMbn;GaemricRtUBic manpáaBN’elOgx©I ehIyCapáaQrRtg;eTAelI.
C. nodosa CaRbePTEdlmanRbPBmkBIRbeTsma:eLsIu páamanBN’páaQUkx©I EdlmankBa©úMpáamUl
FMEvg. [13]
Cassia

tamr)aykarN¾ FAO (Gohl, 1981) bgðajfaenAelIsøwkrbs;raCq<ws BMumanpÞúksMenImeT
vamanpÞúkRbUetGIun 17.6 g kabUnGIuRdat 66.8 g sés 30.2 g epH 7.8 g kal;süÚm 3 270 mg
nigpUsVr½ 330 mg kñúgmYyRkam 100 g. páaraCq<ws manpÞúknUvCatiGakul ceryl kaempferol, rhein
nig a bianthroquinone glycoside EdlenAelI hydrolysis Tinñpl fistulin nig rhamnose.
søwkraCq<wsmanpÞúk rhein, rheinglucoside nig sennosides A, B. sMbkb¤smanpÞúknUvCati tannin,
phlobaphenes, nigsarFatu oxyanthraquinone EdlRbkbeTAeday emodin nigGasIut
chrysophanic
ehIyvak¾manpÞúknUv fistuacacidin, barbaloin,nig rhein enAelIsMbk
nigsac;eQIxømw pgEdr. sMbkrbs;edImraCq<ws manpÞkú nUv lupeol, beta-sitosterol nig hexacosanol
. [20]

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Murthy VK, Rao TVP, Venkateswaran V 1967: Chemical examination of Cassia fistula L.
Tetrahedron 23(1):514-518
Misra TN, Singh RS, Pande HS, Pandey, RP, 1996: Chemical constituents of hexane
fraction of Cassia fistula pods. Fitoterapia 67(2): 173-174;6 ref.
Krishnamurthy T, 1993:Minor forest products of India. New Delhi, India:Oxford&IHB
Vishnava MM, Tripathi AK, Gupta KR 1993: Constituents of Cassia fistula roots.
Fitoterapia 64(1): 93;14 ref.
Abraham KJ, Daniel M, Sabins SD, 1988: Phytoalexins of Cassia fistula L. and Morinda

Barthakur, NN, Arnold, NP, Alli,I, 1995: The Indian Laburnum(Cassia fistula L.) fruit. an
analysis of chemical constituents. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 47(1):55-62[1 pl]; 22
ref.
Khanna, RK, Subhash, Chandra, 1996: Forest/Domestic waste as a source of natural
dyes. J. of Economic & Taxonomic Botany 20(2):497-500;
Kashiwada Y, Iizuka H, Yoshioka K, Che RF, Nonaka G, Nishioka I 1990: Tannins and
related compounds, XCIII. Occurrence of enantiomeric proanthocyanidins in the
Leguminosae plants Cassia fistula L. and C. javanica. Chemical and Pharmaceutical
Bulletin 38(4):888-893;13 ref.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

tomentosa Heyme: National Academy of Science Letters 11(4): 101-102;5 ref.

10

Fagbayide JA and Fawusi MOA 1994: Comparative studies in seed germination and
seedling management in Cassia fistula L. and Cassia nodosa (Buch-Ham ex Roxb).
Indian Journal of Agriculture Research 28(2):133-140.
Chowdhury SA, Kamal AKMM, Alam MN, Gafur MA, Ray BK, Ahmed K, Faruq O, 1996.
Sennoside, B. rich active concentrate from Cassia fistula. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific
and Industrial Research, 31(2):91-97.

Irwin HS, 1964. Monographic Studies in Cassia (Leguminosae - caesalpinioidae) I Sect.
Xenocalyx Memoirs, New York Botanical Garden, 12(1):1-114.

IMorimoto S, Nonaka GI, Chen RF, Nishioka I, 1988. Tannins and related compounds.
LXI. Isolation and structures of novel bi- and triflavonoids from the leaves of Cassia
fistula L. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 36(1):39-47; 9 ref.

Prakash A, Rao J, Gupta SP, Behra J, 1993. Evaluation of botanical pesticides as grain
protectants against rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae Linn. Botanical pesticides in integrated
pest management., 360-365; 17 ref.

Pearson and Brown, 1981
Rao and Purkayastha, 1972,

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

11

:

2)
NGUYEN et al. 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. Agricultural Publishing House,
Hanoi, 788 pp.

4)
DY PHON, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House;
Phnom Penh,. 915 pp.

5)
Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A
Field Guide to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept.
University of Chiang Mai, Thailand; 546 pp.

6)
Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field
guide. Orchid Press, Bangkok, 234 pp.

8)
Sam, H. V.,Nanthavong, Kh.and P.J.A. Kessler 2004: Trees of Laos and
Vietnam: A field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important
species.BLUMEA J. Plant Tax. and Plant Geogr. 49(2004) p. 201- 349 pp., Univ.
Leiden Br., Leiden, The Netherlands

12)

CABI Forestry Compendium Edition 2003 (on CD ROM)

13)
Baertels, A., 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen
(Color Atlas Tropical Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ.
Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.

17)
Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant
Resources of Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea
Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859 pp.

18)
Dept. of Forestry and Wildlife 2003: Cambodia Forestry Statistics to
2002.(in Khmer and English) Planning & Accounting Off., Statistics Sect.,
Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 97 pp.

20)
Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002:
Agroforestree Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD).

22)
International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS).
http://www.ildis.org/LegumeWeb?sciname=. (Internet source).

27)

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/species name (Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

19)
Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and
Subtropics. Josef Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552
pp.

12

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Cassia javanica L]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Cassia javanica L]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y
X> eQµaHepSg²

³

Cassia javanica L.

³

pink shower (Engl.) [17]

³

minTan;manTinñn½y .

³

Johar (trade name); bobondelan (Indonesia-Sundanese);
boking-boking (Indonesia-Sumatera); trengguli (IndonesiaJavanese) bebusok, busok-busok; (Malaysia-Peninsular);
antsoan (Philippines-Bikol); bo pruek, (Cambodia); khoun
loy, (Laos); chaiyaphruk, kalapaphruk (Thailand-central);
kalaphruk (Thailand-northern); b[uf] c[aj]p. [17] Muóng Hoa
Dào (Vietnam)[2].

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

bURBwk
ÉksarBieRKaH : [3]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

1

bô prük [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Fabales
RKYsar : Caesalpinioideae
ePT : Cassia L.
RbePT : Cassia javanica L.

ÉksarBieRKaH: [17]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaedImeQImanTMhMmFüm CMruHsøwk mankMBs; 7-15 m, [4] nigGacmandl;BI 10-20 m
manGgát;p©it 60 cm rWFMCagenH . kenSamsøwkFM ragdUcq½Rt [2,5] . CaedImeQIBak;kNþalCMruHsøwk
TMhMtUceTAmFüm CYnkalCaedImeQIFM mankMBs;dl;eTA 25 (-40) m ragmUlRtg; EtCYnkalekag
manGgát;p©it 60 cm in manRBwgtUc² edImrbs;edImeQItUcnigEmk relag rWmanbnøa [17] .
[sMbk]: sMbkmanBN’etñatcas; mineRbH rW RCYl nigmanrun§CaeRcIn . sMbkxageRkAmanBN’sIuCm<Ú
mankMras; 6-8 mm . EmktUcmaneram bnÞab;minmanerameToteT nigmanBN’exµA [2] .
épÞsMbkman lkçN³relag CYnkarRCYj rW eRbHtambeNþay EdlmanBN’RbepH eTA etñatRsal rW
Rkhmetñat CYnkal manBN’cMruHexµA sMbkxagkñúgmanBN’elOg eTATwkRkUc [17] .
[søwk]: smassøabKU mansøwkBI 6-10 KUr ragmUl Tal rW RsYcbnþicenAkMBUl maneramtic²enAeBlx©I
bnÞab; mknwgRCuHGs; søwkmanRbEvg 5-6 cm nigTTwg 2.5 cm . srésEv:n mmaçgmancMnYn 15-18 KUr
EdlemIl minsUveXIjc,as;eT srésEv:nbnÞab;duHlUtlas;CabNþaj . TgsøwkmanRbEvg 10-15 cm
. xñaysøwk manragmUl nigbnÞHsøwkragebHdUg [2] . søwkmanTMhM 2.5-5.0x1.5-2.5 cm [5] .
søwkqøas; duHlUtlas;CaCYr (distichous) edaymancMnYnsøwkBI 17/-20 KU xñaysøwkmanBIrft
EdlnwgRCuHecjBIedIm [17] .
[páa]: kBa©úMpáa zitenACaG½kS mank,alpáaragsMEb:t manRbEvg 15 cm rW EvgCagenH Tgrbs;vamaneram
. Tgrbs;vamanragdUcxñay . BnøkmanragmUl rW mUlRTEvg . RsTab;páa esÞIrEtesµIKña nigmanRtbk
ragmUl RbEvg 20-25 mm nig TTwg 9-11 mm mancugRsYc manBN’sIuCMBUrRsal .
manekseQµal cMnYn 10 . eksjI maneramtic² man stigma duHeLIgelI [2] . páamanlkçN³CakBa©úM
duHeLIgeTAelI enAeRkamsøwk [5] .
páa duHCaG½kS rW duHenAxagcug manpáaCaeRcIn zitenACakBa©úM manTgpáaxus²Kña man 5 Epñk
RsTab;Eckdac;BI Kña manft zitenAKgKña (imbricate ) RsTab;duHrIkFM manBN’s rW Rkhm rW
BN’etñat edaymanekseQµal cMnYn 10 páamineTogTat; zitenAelIG½kS manragCaGkS S ovary
superior, linear and curved, stigma terminal or subterminal [17].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Epø]: CaEpøKYr ragsIuLaMg Cab;Kña manRbEvg 35 cm rW EvgCagenH TTwg 15-20 mm
EdlmanpÞúknUvRKab; FM² ragmUl [2] . EpømanRbEvg 20-60 cm BN’exµA ragsIuLaMg mineRbH rW ebIk
[5] . EpømanCatieQI Føak;reyag TgxøI manEpøEvg edaymanRKab;CaeRcInenAkñúgenaH minEbkecj
BN’exµAcas; rW etñat . RKab;BN’etñat PWørelag zitenATTwkénEpø [17] .
dMNuHrbs;kUneQI CaRbePTeGBICIl (epigeal germination ) EdlkUTIeldUnduHeLIgmkelI nigman
sac;Bak;kNþal nigmansøwkBIr eTAbItMerobCalkçN³es<ó . bURBwk bgðajnUvlkçN³ CaKMrsU ßabtükmµ
Troll´s architectural model edayduHlUtlas;CalkçN³ sympodial nig EdlG½kSrbs;
vaduHecjeTAtammMuxus²Kña edayminduHeTAtamG½kSbBaÄ EdlvisVkrcab;epþIm eRbIR)as; nUvKMnit enH .
enAPaKxagliccava: bURBwkecjpáaBIEx tula-FñÚ nigEpøenArdUvR)aMg . vaRtUv)anGegát nUvkarecjEpø
nigpáaCaeRcInenA]bTVIbma:eLsIu [17) . karecjpáa manenAExtula-vicäika nigEpøBIEx kumÖ³-emsa [2].
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

3

:

eQImanBN’elOgRsal manlkçN³eRKIm minFn;nwgkeNþó nigstVl¥iteT . bURBwk pþl;nUv eQI
xøwmmanTMng; F¶n; edaymandg;sIuet 400-875kg/m³ enAkMritsMeNIm 15% m.c . eQIxøwm manBN’
elOgRsal enAeBlenARss; nigbþÚrCaBN’Rkhm rW TwkRkUcRsal enAeBlcas; mankarEck
dac;BIeQIRsayedaymankMras; 2-5 cm manvaynPaBrelag nigmanrs;CatilVIg [17] . rgVg;lUt
las;GacEckdac;BIKña manRBMRbTl;c,as;las; edaysarbnÞat; EdlekIteLIgeday parenchyma
b:uEnþrgVg;manlkçN³dac;² mansésrTMhMmFüm eTAFMlµm enAdac;EtÉg nigCagKUr manBN’Rkhm
enAkñúgsrés vessels man parenchyma nig apotracheal duHeLIg nig paratracheal vasicentric,
manragdUcsøab duHenARbsBVKña duHP¢ab;nwgsrés vessels BI 2-4 épÞeQImanlkçN³relag
minGacemIleXIj edayEPñkTeT manlkçN³Twkrlk CYnkalkaremIleXIj .
kMritrYjrbs;eQI mankMrti Tab vaGacsMgYt)anl¥ edayRsk;sac;eQItictYc rW minRsk; .
eQImanlkçN³rwg nigmaMu . vagayeRbIR)as; niggaydusxat; . eQITn; GacmanlkçN³rlYy
eQIxøwmmanlkçN³Fn;mFüm enAeBleRbIenAxageRkA rw b:HpÞal;nwgdI b:uEnþGacFn;CagenHeRbI
R)as;enAxagkñúg . eQIRsay gaynwgRtUv)anbMpøaj eday xñÚt Lyctus [17].

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

bURBwkmanRbePT RbEhl 30 EdlduHlUtlas;enATUTaMgRtUBik . manEtBIr eTAbIRbePTeT EdlduHeday
FmµCatienAtMbn;GasIuRtUBik nig bI RbePTenAma:eLsIuya: . vamanduHlUtlas;ena \NÐa PUma \NÐÚcin
PaKxag t,Úgcin éf nigma:eLsIuya: [2,4,17] . ( pÞúyeTAnwg RbeTs EdlRtUv)anehAfa ma:eLsIu
(Malaysia) ma:eLsIuya: (Malesia) RtUv)ankMNt;fa CatMbn;d_FM EdlmankMritrcnasm<½n§rukçCati dUcKña
EdlrYmman Malay Archipelago \NÐÚensIu ekaH)a:sIuPic éf \NÐÚcin PUma PaKxagt,Úgcin nig
Queensland enAxageCIgeQogxagekIt GURsþalI (Whitmore, T. C. 1993)) . bURBwk RtUv)andaM
Gs;ry³eBlCayUrmkehIy EdlEdnCMrkFmµCatirbs;vaBi)aknwgkMNt; . lkçN³PUmisaRsþa
énPaKxageCIg dl;xagt,Úg RtUv)ankMNt;BI 4ºN eTA 21ºS. [12] . bURBwkk_RtUv)andaMduH CaeQIlMGr
enAGaemrikxagt,Úg nigGaemrikkNþalpgEdr . RbePT C. grandis L.f. nig C. fistula L. RtUv)an
naMcUl eTAtMbn;ma:eLs‘an sMrab;daMduHCaeQIlMGr [17].

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minRtUv)ankMNt; .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

edImeQIcUlcitþduHenAelIdIesIm eRCA nigduHlayCamYyRbePTeQIdUcCa Alangium kurzii, Schima
crenata nig Syzygium zeylanicum [2] . enAcava: vamanduHenAtMbn;dIl,ayPñMePIøg nigvalPk;
dIxSac; nigdIfµxSac; [17].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

bURBwkmanduHlUtlas;enATIval eRcInCagenAkñúgéRB edaymanry³kMBs; 400 m b:uEnþvak_manduHenAkñúg
éRBeRsagbitCitpgEdr . vaEtduHeLIgedayFmµCatienAkñúgéRBbnÞab;bnSM rW ricril nigCakEnøg
EdlvaRtUv )andaMduHeLIgvijpgedr bURBwgminFn;nwgePøIgeqHeT [17] . vaCaRbePT EdlRtUvkarBnøW
nigduHlUtlas; elOn duHenAtammat;sÞgw eCIgPñM rW enACayéRBeRsag rW el,aH enAeRkamry³kMBs; 800
m a.s.l.[2] .

4

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: bURBwkCaRbePT EtmYyKt;kñúgcMenamRbePT dUcKña Edlmansar³sMxan;sMrab;eRbICaeQIh‘ub [17]
. manRbePT Cassia BI BIreTA bI RbePT CaBiess bURBwk RtUv)aneRbIR)as;sMrab;karsagsg;TUeTA
eRKOgsgða rwm nigkarplitTU . eQIks_ mRsbsMrab;eRbICa begÁal eQIGar Fñwm sMrab;sagsg;pÞH
nigbMENktUc² RtUv )aneRbICaeQIfamBl rW FüÚg [12] . RbePTeQIlMGrxøHGacpþl;nUveQIh‘ub
Edlmanmuxkat;FM enAeBlRtUv)ankab; .
[Gnupl]:bURBwkRtUv)aneRbICaeQIlMGr ya:gRss;sa¥ t [2,17] . vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;ya:geRcIn sMrab;
Ca edImeQIlMGr nigdaMtampøÚv CaBiessGnuRbePTrbs;va KW subsp. agnes (de Wit.) K. Larsen
Edlman páaFMCagvaeTAeTot .
RbePTxøHmantMélCarukçCati»sfx<s; (e.g. C.fistula) . EpøRtUv)ancat;TukfñaM bBa©úH ehIyRKab;Gac
eRbI sMrab;TMBarCMnYsøa . eQIRtUv)anes¶areRbIsMrab;mþay EdlenAekµg [4] . Epø nigRKab;RtUv)aneRbI
Ca»sf enAtMbn; CafñaMbBa©úH [17] .
sMbkRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;sMlab;Es,k eTaHRbePTeQIenHmanpÞúktanInkMritticCag 12% k_eday [17] .
kareRbIR)as;epSgeTotrbs;sMbk nigRKab; KWeRbIsMrab;kat;bnßyPaBRKunekþA [22) .
enAkñúgRbB½n§eRbIR)as;dIksirukçkmµ bURBwkGacRtUv)andaM CaeQIpþl;møb; nig famBl b:uEnþvak_RtUvKitfa
GacCYy EklMGrKuNPaBdIpgEdr [12] .
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

5

:

minmancMNat;fñak; .

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

minmanTinñn½y GMBIbTBiesaFn_énkarbegáItcMkar enAekaHcava:eLIy . bURBwk manlkçN³Fn;nwgmøb;
nigkar raMgs¶Üt vaGacduHExñgeLIgvijya:gelOneRkayeBlkat; RKab;CaRbePT orthodox
b:uEnþGacrkSaTuk)an Rtwmry³eBlkMNt;mYyb:ueNÑaH . kardaMduHCacMkarKWGacTTYl)aneCaKC½y
tamry³kardaMedayedIm rW karduHeLIjvijedayFmµCati rW daMedaykUn [17].

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

bURBwkGacbnþBUC edayRKab; rW edaysrIragÁ . vamanRKab;s¶ÜtcMnYn 5700-8400 RKab; /kg .
EpøCaRbePT EpøKYr EdlRtUv)anRbmUlBIelIdI b:uEnþedImykRKab;ecj eKRtUveRbIkaMbitkat;va .
karrkSaTukRKab; KWmanlkçN³xus²Kña RKab;Rss;GacrkSaTuk)anRtwm 6 s)þah_enAkñúgEkvbitCit b:uEnþ
RKab;s¶ÜtGacrkSaTuk)andl;eTAmYyqñaM . RKab;cab;epþImduHenAbnÞab;BIry³eBl 7 eRkayeBlsab
nigkUneQIRbEhl 80% nwgduHenAkñúgry³eBl 14-30 éf¶ . kMritdMNuH manRbEhl 70% nig 50%
Gacpþl;kUneQImanKuNPaBl¥ . karkt;RtaepSgeTot )anbgðajfa dMNuHrbs;vamanBI 20-65%
enAkñúgry³eBl 5 éf¶ nigGacrhUtdl;ry³eBlmYyqñaM . enA\NÐa enAkEnøgEdldMNHu rbs;va
manlkçN³ yWt kareFVIRbRBwtþkmµedayemkarnic GacRtUv)aneRbIedIm,Idas;dMenk rW PaBsMgMrbs;RKab;
rbs;RKab; . kardaMduHCaRTg;RTayFM enAhVIlBI In edaykarkat; KWmin)anTTYleCaKC½yeT
KWmanEtkUnRbEhl 10% b:uNÑaH Edlrs; ehIykarbMe)A k_minTTYl)aneCaKC½yEdr [17].

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

:

minRtUv)ankMNt;faCaRbePTrgeRKaHfñak; rW kar)at;bg;nUvEsn

[17]

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
manEtenAtMbn;RtUBik (Pantropical) \NÐa PUma PaKxagt,Úgcin \NÐÚcin éf nigTUTaMg tMbn;ma:eL
EdlBYkvaduHCalkçN³FmµCati nigbURBwgkmanRbPBkMeNItBI ekaHcava: [17] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

F> karGPirkS

6

p> epSg²

:

bURBwk bgðajnUvlkçN³ CaKMrUsßabtükmµ Troll´s architectural model edayduHlUtlas;CalkçN³
sympodial nig EdlG½kSrbs; vaduHecjeTAtammMuxus²Kña edayminduHeTAtamG½kSbBaÄ EdlvisVkr
cab;epþImeRbIR)as;nUvKMnit enH . enAPaKxagliccava: bURBwkecjpáaBIEx tula-FñÚ nigEpøenArdUvR)aMg .
vaRtUv)anGegát nUvkarecjEpø nigpáaCaeRcInenA]bTVIbma:eLsIu [17) . karecjpáa manenAExtula-vicäika
nigEpøBIEx kumÖ³-emsa [2].
mkdl;edImqñaM 1980´s bURBwk RtUv)ankMNt;faCaePT ( genus)FMCageKkñúgcMeNam 500 RbePT
b:uEnþePTenH RtUv)anEckCa 3 ePT : Cassia s.s. EdlrYmmanBIr eTA bIePT mancMnYn RbePTRbEhl
270 nig 250 RbePT .
C. javanica mansNæanxusKñaCaeRcIn nigGnuRbePTCaeRcIn
EdlmanlkçN³xusKña dUcCa C. agnes (de Wit.) Brenan, C. bartonii F.M. [17] .
bURBwk mantMélRbEhl edImeQI EdldaMduHCacMkarpgEdr . vaRtUv)ankMNt;fa CaRbePT
EdlduHlUtlas;elOn nigGacpþl;nUveQIhu‘b EdlmanKuNPaBmFüm . CaBiess vaCaedImeQI
EdlmanPaKTak;Taj EdlGaceRbICaedImeQIlMGr nigeQIhub‘ pgEdr .

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Guzman E de, Umali RM, Sotalbo ED, 1986: Guide to Philippine flora and fauna. Natural
Resources Management Center, Ministry of Natural Resources and University of the
Philippines. Manila, Philippines: JMC Press Inc.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Gupta RK, 1993: Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilization. New

7

Delhi, India: Oxford & IBH.
Hocking D, 1993: Trees for drylands. Trees for drylands. xiii + 370 pp.; [Originally
published by Oxford & IBH Publishing, New Delhi, India]; 12 pp. of ref.
Luna RK, 1996: Plantation trees. Plantation trees. xii + 975 pp.; [refs at ends of
sections].
Singh SP, 1989: Wasteland development. Wasteland development. xx + 227 pp.; 96 ref.
Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S, eds. 1998: Plant Resources of South-East Asia.
No 5(3). Timber trees: lesser-known timbers. Leiden, Netherlands; Backhuys Publishers.
Todaria NP, Negim AK, 1992: Pretreatment of some Indian Cassia seeds to improve their
germination. Seed Science and Technology, 20(3):583-588; 10 ref.

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

2)
NGUYEN et al.1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. Agricultural Publishing House,
Hanoi, 788 pp.

4)
DY Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House;
Phnom Penh,. 915 pp.

5)
Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A
Field Guide to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept.
University of Chiang Mai, Thailand; 546 pp.

13)
Baertels, A.1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen (Color
Atlas Tropical Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ. Stuttgart,
illustrated, 384 pp.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

17)
SOSEF, M.S.M., HONG, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant
Resources of Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea
Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859 pp.

8

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Cassia siamensis (Lam.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Cassia siamensis (Lam.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

Cassia siamensis (Lam.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby

³

Thailand shower [2], Bombay blackwood, ironwood,
Kassaof tree, kassod tree, Siamese acacia, Siamese
senna, Thai copper pod, yellow cassia [5]

K> sTisn½y

³

Cassia arayatensis Naves,
Cassia florida Vahl,
Cassia siamea Lam.,
Senna sumatrana Roxb.,
Senna siamea

ÉksarBieRKaH [5]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

cassia (France) [5] - minjiri (Bangladesh) [5] - johar,
johor (Indonesia) [5] - beati, kassod, kilek,
manjakonnai, manje-konna, minjori, minjri, ponavari,
sima-tangedu, simaiavari, simethangadi, vakai, vakoi
(India) [5] - khi lek (Laos) [5] - wa (Sri Lanka) [5] - johor,
juah, petai belalang (Malaysia) [5] - casia (Nepal) [5] robles, Thailand shower (Philippines) [5] - minjri
(Pakistan) [5] - khi lek ban, khi lek yai, kilek, phak chili
(Thailand) [5] - mu[oof]ng (Vietnam) [5]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

1

³

Ggáaj;
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

angkanh' [1]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae

fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Leguminosales/Fabales
RKYsar : Caesalpiniaceae
ePT : Cassia
RbePT : Cassia siamensis
ÉksarBieRKaH: [5]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaedImeQIébtgCanic© EdlmanTMhMmFüm edaymankMBs;CamFümRbEhl 20 m [2]
(5 m tMbn;raMgs¶Üt [2]) . kenSamsøk
w Rkas; mUl niglaRtdag . edImmankMBs; 2-3 m
edaymanGgát;pi©t DBH 50 cm [2] enAeBleBjv½y . RbB½nb§ ¤srak; EdlmankaMRbEvg 7 m [8]
enAqañdM MbgU nigeRkaymkmanRbEvg 15 m [8] EdlGacgaynwgdYrlMedaysarxül;xaø gM .
[sMbk] sMbkrelag BN’RbepH nigeRbHtambeNþayedIm .
[søwk]: søk
w qøas; smasragdUcsøab RbEvgBI 23-33 cm [8] (15-30 cm [5]) ragRsLÚn
BN’Rkhmébtg. mansnøwkcMnnY 6-12 KU [8] (6-14 [5]) enAelITg EdlmanRbEvg 3 mm ragRTEvg
beNþay 3-7 cm nigTTwg 12-20 mm manBN’ébtgcas; ragmUlenAEpñkxagcugTaMgBIr
edaykMBUlrbs;vamanerampgEdr .
[páa]: páaecjCakBa©Mú enAxagcugEmk CaBiessEmkEdlFM RbEvg 20-30 cm TTwg 13 cm
EdlmanpáaBN’elOgCaeRcIn duHkat;RbEvg 3 cm nigmanpáa 5 RsedogKña . RsTab;páa duHenACan;Kañ
dUcdMbgU ek,Óg
minRsYlenAxagcugeT
RtbkpáamanragCa
heteromorphic
EdlmanBN’elOgniglkçN³mindUcKña . ekseQµal mancMnYn 10 duHgakecjBIG½kSpáa
bMBugeksduHRtg; nigminmanRbEvgkBa©lMú MGgeT . eksjIzitenAelITMrgpáa ragCabnÞab; nigekag .
ecjpáaenAkMLgú Ex kkáda-FñÚ ngEpømkra-emsa .
[Epø]: EpømancMnYneRcIn Evg manRbEvg 5-25 cm TTwg 12-20 mm sMEb:t BN’etñatcas; ragdUcExS
edaymanTgEvg ragCasILu aMg nighab;ENn eRbHEbkenAeBlTMu edaymanlkçN³Caft
BIRKab;mYyeTARKab;mYy . RKab;ragdUcRKab;sENþk PørW elag BN’etñatcas; RbEvg 8 mm
EdlzitenAkñúgrun§ rW ft xus²Kña .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 5, 8]

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

eQIxwømmanTMgn;mFümeTAF¶n; edaymandg;seIu t 0.6-1.01 g/cm³ [8] enAsMeNIm 15% .
eQIxwømmanBN’etñatcas; edaymansñamQñtÚ ²BN’CaCYr edayEckdac;BIeQIRsay RbEvgRbEhl 6
cm . sréseQIzitenACacenøaH² nigCYnkalmanlkçN³Rtg; . vayn³PaBeQImanlkçN³eRKImbnþt
i
b:Eu nþmanlkçN³esµIKañ . kMritrYjrbs;eQI enAkMLgú eBlsMgYtmanlkçN³mFüm eTAx<s;
b:Eu nþvaRtUv)ansMgYtbnþci mþg² . eQImanlkçN³Fn;nwgkeNþó rwgmaMu Bi)akeFVkI ar edaymanluHRta
EteFVkI arQUs nigTamTarnUvkarduHxat;eGay)an eRcIn . eQIRsayKWmanlkçN³eRCob gayRsYl
beBa¢akCatifñaM . Gacm_rNa rW kMeTceQIGaceFIVeGayman karrlakEs,k enAeBlb:HEs,k .
eQIRsayGacRtUv)ankat;ecjbnÞab;BIkarkat;rMlM edIm,IkarBarkar bMpaø jrbs;stVlt¥i eTAelIeQIxwmø .
ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 8]

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

Ggáaj;manRbPBBIéRBricril (secondary forest)énTMnabtMbn;GasIuGeKñy_ b:Eu nþRtUv)andaMduHenAkñgú tMbn;
RtUBki epSgeToténBiPBelak enAkñgú éRBtMbn;TMnab . enAkm<Cú a vaRtUv)andaMduHenAkñgú TIRkugFM²
sMrab;Ca RbePTeQIpþl;mbø ; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3, 4]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

3

:

Ggáaj;GacduHlUtlas;enAry³kMBs; 1,380 m a.s.l. [5] (0-1,000 m [8], 300-500 (-1000 m) [9])
eRkamlkçxN
½ Ðxsu ²Kña BItMbn;esIm (kMritePøógRbcaMqañ M : 2,800 mm [5]) eTAtMbn;raMgs¶Üt (400-500 mm
[5, 8]) . enARbeTs\NÐaEdlmankMritTwkePøógTabbMpt
u 1,000 mm [5] KWsmRsbsMrab; karduH
lUtlas; . eTaHCaya:gNa vasmRsbnwgtMbn;TMnabRtUBik EdlmanGakasFatumsU ug .
vaGacFn;ngw rdUvraMgs¶Üt Edlmanry³eBlBI 4-6 Ex [5] (4-8 Ex [8]) . kMritsItuNðPaBmFümRbcaMqañ M :
21-24°C [4] (20-28°C [5]). sItuNðPaBdac;xat 24-36°C [5] . eyagtamBnøEW dlRtUvkar
vaCaRbePTedImeQImFüm . vagayrg eRKaHedaysarGakasFatuRtCak; nigG½BÞ . enAeBlv½y
vamanlkçN³Fn;ngw karraMgs¶Üt
b:Eu nþkUneQImni Gac
Fn;ngw karraMgs¶Üt)aneT

niggayrgeRKaHedaysarePøgI eqHeTotpg . vaduHlUtlas;enAeBl EdlrWsGacduH cak;dl; RbPB
TwkeRkamdI .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 5, 8, 9]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

tMbneqñrénPñRM kvaj (B) TMnabPaKBayBü (D),TMnabkNþal (d).
ÉksarBieRKaH [7]
:

edImeQIGacduHlUtlas;enAelIRbePTdIxsu ²Kña b:Eu nþvaRtUvkarduHelIdImansMeNIm eRCA mindk;Twk
nigman CICatil¥ EdlzitenAtamtMbn;TMnab nigx<g;rab edaymanvayPaBdImFüm nig pH BI 5.5-7.5 [2]
. vaduHlUt las;elOn eTaHbIdImni sUvmanCICatik_eday . vaFn;ngw dI EdlminmanrukçCatiduHlUtlas;
b:Eu nþkarduHlUt las;RtUv)anQb;enAeBlmankarraMgs¶tÜ edayedImeQIjkøayCaRkinenA bnÞab;BI
ry³eBlBI 4 eTA 5 qñaM . karduHlUtlas;rbs;ExñgRtUv)ankat;bnßy . vagayrgeRKaH edaysar
Etkardk;Twk b:uEnþduHlUtlas;v; ij enAeBlEdlrWsduHcak;dl;RbB½n§TwkeRkamdI . Ggáaj;sm
RsbsMrab;RbePTdI fluvisols, vertisols, xerosols/calcisols, aerisol/alisols, alfisols, ferrasols,
lateritic nig nitosol/nitisols eyageTAtamcMNat; fñak;rbs;Ggákar FAO . enAPaKxaglic Benga
vaduHlUtlas;enAelIdI lateric bnÞab;BIkarCIreNþAya:g eRCAsMrab;daM [5] . vaminsmRsbsMrab;dI
EdlKµanCICatieT BIeRBaHvaminmanlT§PaBplitGasUtenAkñgú dI .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 5, 8]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: eQImanKuNPaBx<s; sMrab;eQIGar sMPar³eFIBV eI QI begáal sMng;TUeTA TUr eQIeFIVRkdas
eQIfamBl nigFüÚg . enARbeTséf eQIxwømRtUv)aneRbIR)as; CafñaMsnøb; nigfñaRM KunekþA
sMrab;Büa)alCMgWsgÁmmYycMnYn .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3, 5, 9]
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

4

Gnupl]: søkw nigRKab;RtUv)aneRbIR)as;CacMNIstV b:Eu nþGacmanCatiBulsMrab;RCUk . søwkx©I
nigpáaRtUv)aneRbI enAkñgú smøkarI . søwkk_RtUv)aneRbIsrM ab;eFICV afñaM bBa©úHsMrab;Büa)alkarFøak;s nig
karenameRcIn páaeRbICa fñaeM lIsQam fñasM nøb; nigfñabM Ba©úH . CaBiess enAkm<Cú a vaRtUv)anes¶ar
sMrab;RbqaMgnwgkar eLIgRkmr rbs;dMe)A . vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;CarukçCatisrM ab;RKb (mulch)
CaBiessenAkñgú RbB½nd§ MNaMqøas; . edImeQI EdlduHlUtlas;l¥Gacpþl;pl 500 kg/qñaM
énTMgn;swøkRss; . edImRbePTenH KWCaRbPBsMrab;karplit TwkXµúM nigtanIn .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 9]
[epSg²]: vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;CaedImeQITMr sMrab;edImc½nRÞ ksña (Santalum album) nigpþl;mb
ø ;dl;RbePT
dMNaM dUcCa Swietenia mahogani edIm,Ikat;bnßykarvayRbharrbs;RbePTstVecaHeQI . vasmRsb
sMrab;dMNaMqøas; kardaMCarbg r)aMgxül; ExSRkvat;ébtg karRKb;RKgkarhUreRcaH
nigsMrab;pþl;mbø ;dl;ckM ar kakav nig Et . vaCaRbePT edImeQIpþl;mbø ;cMbg enAtamTIRkug
nigTIRbCMCu nkñgú tMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_ . vak_RtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;kardaMduHrukCç atieLIgvij enAelIdIksikmµ
nigRtUv)andaMduHenAkñgú RbB½n§ Taungya . vak_RtUv)aneRbICaRbePTpþl;møbs; rM ab;kaehVpgEdr .
Ggáaj;mni EmnCaRbePTeQI Edlpþl;GasUteTAeGaydI tamry³ kMBkrWs Rhizobium
eTaHbImanP½sútþ agxøHfavaCaRbePT EdlGacpþl;GasUteTAeGaydI EdlGac ekItmaneLIgenAkñgú rWs
nigsMbk lenticellate. dUcenH vaminRtUv)anpþl;eyabl;eGaydaMduHenAelIdI Edl KµanCICatienaHeLIg .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 5]
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

5

:

eQIRbNit .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: Ggáaj;manRbPBBIéRBricril (secondary forest)énTMnabtMbn;GasIuGeKñy_ b:Eu nþRtUv)an
daMduH enAkñgú tMbn; RtUBki epSgeToténBiPBelak enAkñúgéRBtMbn;TMnab . enAkm<Cú a vaRtUv)an daMduH
enAkñgú TIRkug FM² sMrab;Ca RbePTeQIpþl;mbø ; .
[kardaMduH]: karsMGatesµAmansar³sMxan;Nas; enAkñg
ú qñaMTImyY nigBIr . karkarBasMeNIm
(karksagsñam ePøaH nigkEnøgrkSaTwkxñattUc) CYyenAkñúgdMNak;kardaMduHdMbUg nigCMnYydl;kar lUt
[

las;rbs;edImeQIenA tMbn;raMgs¶ÜtmFüm . enAkñgú cMkareQIdaMsrM ab;ykeQIfamBl cenøaHénkardaMKW
1 x 1 m eTA 1 x 3 m [5] (2 x 2 m = 2,000 kUneQI [2]) . enAkñg
ú kardaMduHCaCYr sMrab;dMNaMqøas;
nigExSRkvat;ébtg cenøaHKWrvag edImeQI nigrg KW 0.25-0.5 m .
[karRKb;RKg]: Ggáaj;minEmnCaRbePT Edlpþl;GasUtdl;dIeT . vaduHlUtlas;elOn . kMeNInkMBs;
2.5 m/qñaM RtUv)ankt;Rta nig enAxaglic Bengal vaGacmankMBs;dl;eTA 7.9 m edaymanvimaRtedIm
24.1 cm enAkñg
ú ry³eBl 3 qñaM [5] . vaGacmankMBs; 15 m nigGgát;p©it DBH 15 cm enAkñgú ry³eBl
10 qñaM [2] . RbsinKµankaréRkEmkeGay)anl¥eT eFIT
V Mrg;edImminl¥ nig manEmkduHFøak; cuHmk
eRkameRcIn . vamanlT§ PaBduHedayExñgelOn bnÞab;BIkarkat; . enAkñgú cMkardaMykeQIfamBl Tinñ
pleQImanRbEhl 10-15 m³/ha/qñaM [2] rW 74-198 t/ha enAxYbry³eBlBI 7-10 qñaM . vaRtUv
)aneRbIR)as;CaedImeQITMr eGayRbePT eQI c½nRÞ ksña (Santalum album) nigmøbd; l;sMrab;
Swietenia mahogani edIm,Ikat;bnßykarbMpaø jBI BBYkecaHrun§eQI . vamansar³sMxan;sMrab;dMNaMqaø s;
kardaMCaCYr r)aMgxül; ExSRkvat;ébtg karRKb;RKg karhUreRcaH nigpþl;mbø ;dl;kakav karehV nigcMkarEt
.
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3, 4, 5, 8]
:

karbnþBUCRtUv)anGnuvtþtamry³ kardaMedImedIm karsabedaypÞal; nigkardaMedImKl; .
karrkSaTukRKab;Ca RbePT orthodox . manRKab; 35,000-45,000 RKab;/kg [8] .
RKab;Edlcas;mansMbkrwg
nigkareFIV
RbRBwtþkmµRtUv)aneFIeV LIgmuneBlsab
.
karRtaMenAkñúgGasItu s‘lu pYrIc ry³eBl 10-30 naTIKmW anRbsiT§ PaB . CamYynwgviFsI aRsþTImyY
GaRtadMNuHRbEhl 90% enAkñgú ry³eBl 60 éf¶ . GaRtadMNuHedaymin manRbRBwtþkmµRKab; man
75% enAkñúgry³eBl 4-29 éf¶ [8] (40% [2]) . GaRtars;Gac RtUv)anrkSasMrab; ry³ 3
qñaMenAkñúgbnÞb;bti Cit edaymansMeNIm 11-15% [8] . RKab;sTu § EdlRtUvkarenAkñgú mYy ha: 2,500
RKab; . cMnYnRKab;RtUvkar : 10,420 RKab; rW 0.26 kg/ha . PaBsuT§rbs;RKab; : 95%. GaRtadMNuH :
40%.kMrit)at;bg;rbs;kUneQI : 20% (3,000) enAkEnøgdaM , 10% (3,334) enAkñg
ú kardwkCBa¢nÚ nig 20%
(4,168) enAkñg
ú fñalbNþHú kUneQI [2] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

6

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 5, 8]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVl¥ti ]: Ggáaj;Fn;mFümnwgkeNþó b:Eu nþgayrgeRKaHnwgRbePTstV dgávÚ (Eurema blanda) nigRbePT
eFIeV GayRCuHsøwk . RbePTstVmyY cMnnY dUcCa : Catopsilia crocale, EdleFIeV GayedImeQItUc²RCuHsøwk ;
Xyleutes persona,RbePTXµúeM caHrun§ ; Indarbela sp. dgávÚ bMpøajsMbk ; Celosterna scabrator,
RbePT ecaHrun§elIedIm nigrWs nig dgávÚ Labdia sp., EdlecaHrun§enAkñúgEpø Edls¶Üt .
RbePTepSg²eTotdUcCa Catopsilia pyranthe, Diapromorpha belteata, Eurema blanda,
[

Frankliniella schultzei, Indarbela quadrinotata, Megalurothrips distalis, Scirtothrips

. mankarraykarN_fa
eQIRsayRtUv)ankat;ecj bnÞab;BIedImeQIRtUv)ankab;rMlM edIm,IkarBareQIxwmø BIkarbMpøajrbs;stVl¥it
.
ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 8]
[CMgW]: pSit: RbePT Ganoderma lucidum eFIeV GayrWs nigKl;rlYy . Fomes lucidus Ca)a:ra:sit eFIV
eGaypSitmanrbYs EdleRcotcUleTAkñúgrWsrbs;edImeQI bNþaleGayedImBukpuy nigmanBN’s .
bnÞab;BI edImeQIgab; RbePT blood red sporophore ekItmaneLIg . Phaeolus manihotis
(Polyporus baudonii) KWCaCMgWrWs EdlbNþaleGayedImeQIRCuHsøwk .
[epSg²]: Erianthemum ulugurense RtUv)anraykarN_fa duHlUtlas;enAelIedImeQI CaRbePTrukçCati
)a:ra:sti . KuNvibtþci bM grbs;RbePTenH KW manrWsrak; EdleFIeV GaygayrgeRKaHfñak;ngw xül;bkxøaMg .
[karkarBar]: RtUv)anpþl;eyabl; eGayRKb;RKgCMgW nigstVlt
¥i EdlrYmTaMgkarRKb;RKgedayCIvsaRsþ
edayeRbIR)as;)a:ra:sti
nigstVssIu tVl¥ti CaGahar kareRbIR)as;fñasM lM ab;stVl¥itedayyWt²
eRbIR)as;viFI saRsþrukvç b,kmµ .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

bispinosus, Thrips tabaci, Xyleutes persona, Zeuzera coffeae

7

F> karGPirkS

:

minTan;manTinñn½y . .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

RbePTeQIenHmanduHenA extþkMBg;FM esomrab nigkMBt .

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
RbPBkMeNIt]: bg;køaeds Rb‘yu eN km<Cú a cin PaKxagt,Úg\NÐa Lav ma:eLsIu PUma en)a:l; hVlI IBnI
éf evotNam .
[

karnaMclU ]: GaTIKu nig)ab‘dU a )a)adUs Kuy)a dUmnI kI a eGRTIero eGsüÚBI hÁaNa RhIN
Á ada éhTI camIku a
eknya: nIesrIya:eb:rU esra:elGUn GaeRhVxagt,Úg LÚsIya: tg;sanI tugeháa RTInIedt nigta)aeháa
ekaHvIsIeu no sIum)aev .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [3, 5, 8]

p> epSg²

:

Rbvtþi]: vaRtUv)andaMduHya:geRcInenAkñgú tMbnRtUBki nigduHlUtlas;CaFmµCatipgEdr . cMkarRtUv)an
begátI enAkMLgú TsSvtSqñaM 1920s enARbeTs háaNa nIesrIya: nigesra:elGUn sMrab;pÁt;pÁg;eQIfamBl
.
ÉksarBieRKaH [8]

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Banik S, Nadaf AB, Bhosale LJ, 1995. Growth performance of Cassia siamea and Acacia
auriculiformis plantations under pit method. Journal of Non-Timber Forest Products,
2(1/2):63-66; 3 ref.
[5]

Faridah Hanum I, van der Maesen LJG (eds.). 1997. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No
11. Auxillary Plants. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands.
[8]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

8

Farnsworth N.R. Bunyapraphatsara N. (1992) Thai Medicinal Plants Recommended for
Primary Health Care System.
[9]

Kannan D, Paliwal K, 1995. Effect of nursery fertilization on Cassia siamea seedling growth
and its impact on early field performance. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 8(2):203-212;
21 ref.
[5]

Kiepe P, 1995. Effect of Cassia siamea hedgerow barriers on soil physical properties.
Geoderma, 66(1-2):113-120; 15 ref.
[5]

Kiepe P, 1996. Cover and barrier effect of Cassia siamea hedgerows on soil conservation in
semi-arid Kenya. Soil Technology, 9(3): 161-171.
[5]

Padma V, Satyanarayana G, Reddy BM, 1996. Studies on pre-sowing seed treatments in
three species of Cassia. Seed Research, 24(1): 51-54.
[5]

Pradhan PC, Behera BP, 1997. Efficiency of planting methods on establishment of Cassia
siamea in slopy red lateritic soils of Orissa. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation, 25(1): 86-87.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[5]

9

Rath B, Pradhan PC, Behera BD, Sahu D, 1997. Efficacy of planting methods and
establishment of Cassia siamea in slopy and red laterite soil of Orissa. Environment and
Ecology, 15(1): 49-51.
[5]

Timyan J. 1996. Bwa Yo: important trees of Haiti. South-East Consortium for International
Development. Washington D.C.
[8]

Webb DB, Wood PJ, Henman GS. 1984. A guide to species selection for tropical and subtropical plantations. Tropical Forestry Papers No. 15, 2nd edition. Commonwealth Forestry
Institute, Oxford University Press.
[8]

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] Sok, Sokunthet (RUA), 2006: Own obseravations
[2] Species Fact Sheets (Module 9), 1994: Forestry / Fuel wood Research and Development
Project. Growing Multipurpose Trees on Small Farms (2nd ed.). Bangkok, Thailand:
Winrock International. 320pp.
[3] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[4] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and
Vietnam: a field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.
[5] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).
[6] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8.
(CD-ROM).
[7] AUTHOR, 1973: Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Viêt-nam (Fascicule 18th). Paris.
[8] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicSearch.asp
(Internet source).

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[9] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep (Internet source)

10

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Casuarina equisetifolia L. ]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Casuarina equisetifolia L. ]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

Casuarina equisetifolia L. [1]

³

coast she-oak, whistling pine, Australian pine, Australian oak,
horsetail beefwood, swamp oak, beefwood, ironwood [1],
redwood tree [2], Australian beefwood, beach she-oak,
beefwood tree, casuarina, common ru, horsetail casuarina,
horsetail tree, ironwood, sea pine, she oak, swamp she oak,
wild pepper [4], bull oak, whistling pine [9]

K> sTisn½y

³

Casuarina litorea L. [1],
Casuarina equisetifolia J.R. and G. Forster,
Casuarina littoralis Salisb.,
Casuarina littorea Oken.,
Casuarina muricata Roxb.,
Casuarina sumatrana Jungh. [4]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

X> eQµaHepSg²

1

³

mu ma huang, pu tong mu ma huang (China) [1] - casuarine
a feuilles de prele, bois de fer, fialo, filao, pich pin, pin
d'Australie (France) [1, 4] - Eisenholz, Keulenbaum
(Germany) [4] - cemara laut, jemara laut, ai samara, aru,
eru, tjemara laut (Indonesia) [1, 4] - casuarina, jangli saru,
jau, savukku (India) [1] - mokumao, ogasawa matsu (Japan)
[1] - son th'ale, `sôn tha lé, pè:k namz, pêk nam², sôn th’ale
(Laos) [1, 4] - kasa ghas (Sri Lanka) [1] - pino australiano,
casuarina (Spain) [10] - tin yu, pink-tinyu, tin-yu (Myanmar)
[1, 4] - ru, ru laut (Malaysia) [1] - yar (Papua New Guinea) [1]
- agoho (Philippines) [1] - son thale, ku, son-thale (Thailand)
[1, 4] - phi lao, c[aa]y phi lao, duong, filao, phi-lao (Vietnam)
[1, 4]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

s¶av [3]
ÉksarBieRKaH : [3]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

snga:w [4], sngav [3]

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Casuarinales
RKYsar : Casuarinaceae
ePT : Casuarina
RbePT : Casuarina equisetifolia L.
GnuRbePT:

Casuarina

equisetifolia

equisetifolia, Casuarina equisetifolia incana (Benth.)
L. Johnson

ÉksarBieRKaH: [5]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: s¶av CaedImeQIébtgCanic© EdlmanTMhMmFüm CaRbePTeQI dioecious rW
monoecious EdlmankMBs; 6-35 (60) m [4] (8-16 m enAGURsþalI -35 m tMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_ [1], 1520 m [7], 10-30 [9]) enAeBlcas; . GnuRbePTrbs;va subsp. incana KWCaedImeQItUc
nigGacRtUv)ankat;bnßy kMBs;mk RtWm 6-10 m enAtMbn;mni sUvmanCICati [1] . RbePTenH manGayu
40-50 qñaM [8] edaymankMritlUtlas; yWt . edImRtg; ragsIL
u aMg KµanEmkenAkMBs; 10 m
edaymankMBs; DBH BI 100-150 cm [4] (20-40 cm [7], 50 cm [1], 100 cm [10]) CYnkalmanRBwg .
cMnnY rbs;va enAkñgú FmµCati manlkçN³xus² Kña edImeQI manEmkTab² nigedImRtg;enAkñúgéRBtMbn;eqñr
[8] . sMbkmanBN’etñatRsal relag eRKIm nigRkas;rbk CadM²
u . runx§ ül; ekItmanenAelIsMbkx©I² .
sMbkxagkñúgmanBN’Rkhm rW etñat . vamanCatitanInBI 6-18% [2] . kenSamsøwk manEmk nigragmUl
b:Eu nþragsMEb:tenAeBlcas; . søwk nigEmkGacRCuH rW Bnøk RsYc²k_GacRCuHpgEdr . BYkvamanGgát;p©it
1-2.5 mm [1] (0.5-1 mm [4]) EdlmanbeNþay 23-38 cm [1] nigmanragmUl Kµaneram
CYnkalGacmaneram . eTaH s¶avCaRbePT edImeQI ébtgCanic© vak_CrM uHsøkw Caerogral;qañ pM gEdr .
[søwk]: tUcragdUceFµj mancMnYn 7-8 kñúgmYykg; [1] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

páa páaCapáaGePT (monoecious) . Rtbk nigRsTab;páa minman nigRtUv)anCMnYyedaysøkw cMnYn 2 .
páaeQµal ekItmanenAelIGk½ S samBaØ manRbEvg 7-40 mm [4] nigtMerobCaragKUTxüg edaymancMnYn
7-11.5 CMu kñúgmYy cm [4] énk,alpáa edaymanekseQµaleTal . páajImanragsIL
u aMg ekan rW mUl
10-24 x 9-13 mm [1] nigRtUv)anduH edaymanCatieQIpgEdr . enAtMbn; EdlmanrdUvR)aMg nigvsSa
karecjpáa nigEpø manlkçN³eTogTat; KWmgþ rW BIdgkñúgmYyqñaM . enAkEnøg EdlminmanrdUvR)aMg
nigvsSa karecjpáa KWmanlkçN³mineTotTat; [1] . enA\NÐa karecjpáamanBIrdg nigmanenAExkumÖ³
dl;emsa nigkBaØa dl; tula edaymanEpøBrI dgenAEx mifuna nigFñÚ .
s¶avRtUv)aneFIdV MeNIrlMGgedayxül; .
[Epø]: Epøekan manCatieQI nigragmUl rW sIuLaMg TMhM 10-35 mm x 9-15 mm [1] RTnab;páaRsYc
nigduHecj BIekan . EpømanEtmYy BN’elOgetñat rW etñatcas; edaymansøabRbEvg 6-8 mm [1] .
cMeBaHGnu RbePT incana Bnøkx©I nigekan RtUv)anRKbedaymaneramBN’s . RKab;CaRKab;eTal .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10]
[ ]:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

3

:

s¶avpþl;nvU eQI xømw EdlrwgmaMu nigF¶n; edaymankMritdg;sueI t (r15) én 0.9-1.0 g/cm³ [1, 4] (0.978
g/cm³ [7]) . eQIRsaymanlkçN³F¶n;Cag eQIxwm
ø . eQImni Tan;s¶Üt mankMritsMeNIm 40-60% .
eQIxwømman BN’Rkhmetñat RkhmRsal etñatRsal nigminGacEckdac;BIeQIRsal EdlmanBN’
elOg rW elOgetñat . sréselceLIg manC½r enAelIépÞmnu eQI enAeBlkat; nigmanrgVg;
lUtlas;xsu ²Kña . srésman lkçN³Rtg; rW Twkrlk . srésrmanRbEvg 895-1,230 µm [1] .
sac;eQIrelag nigesµI . kMritrYjKW mankMritmFüm eTAx<s; nigsac;eQImankarBi)akkñgú karsMgYt
edaysarvaGaceRbHEbk . eQIRtUv)aneRbI sMrab;kargarCageQI . kMNat;eQImankarBi)akkñgú karGar
nigkarsMgYtedayxül;mankarBi)akCagkar sMgYt edayma:snIu BIeRBaHdg;sueI t nigPaBrwgrbs;va .
eQIxwøm mankMritFn;x<s; nwgsMBaF b:Eu nþeQIRsay gayeFIRV bRBwtþkmµ . eQImanlkçN³rwg
nigkardMEdkeKalcUl TamTareGaymankarecaHrun§Camun . eQIgayrgkarbMpøajrbs;keNþó
Cryptotermes brevis nigFn; RbsinRtUv)ankarBar edaysarFatuKImI [1] . eTaHya:gNa
RbPBepSgeTot bBa¢ak;faeQIxwmø manlkçN³ Fn;ngw karbMpaø j nwgkeNþó [4] . vamingay eCob

nigsmRsbsMrab;kareRbIR)as;kúgñ Twk . tMélfamBl 24,000 kJ/kg [1] (5,000 kcal/kg [4])cMEnk
tMélfamBlFüÚgman 33,500kJ/kg [1] (7,000 kcal/kg [4]).
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 7, 8, 10]

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

RbEhl : 20°N eTA 32°S [1] (22°N eTA 22°S [10]) . s¶avRtUv)andaMduHenAtMbn;RtUBci tamtMbn;eqñr
nig tMbn;raMgs¶ÜtmFüm . GnuRbePTrbs;vamanduH enAtameqñr nigkMrenAtMbn;xs< r; ab . vamanduH
enAtamval xSac; nigtMbn;CrM almFüm enACitsmuRT . vaduHlUtlas; enAkEnøgmanCatiéRB
nigtMbn;licTwk Edlman kMritTwkeCarx<s; . Subsp. incana k_manduHenAtamsmuRT nigFn;nCw atiéRb .
edImeQImanduH layCamYy BBYk Barringtonia asiatica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Eugenia sp.,
Heritiera littoralis, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Pongamia glabra, Thespesia populnea nig Pandanus sp
. enAGURsþalI vaduHenACaExS Rkvat; énéRBekagkag rhUtdl;BkY éRBeRbgxül; .
vaGacduHenAkñgú éRBekagkag nigéRBtMbn;eqñr [6] . eRkamsßanPaB edaphic vaGacduHlUtlas;sTu § rW
layCamYy Casuarina cunninghamiana Edlman RbPBkMenItenAGURsþalI nig New
Caledonia[10]. enAkm<C
ú aRbePTenH duHlUtlas;enAtMbn;eqñrCaRkum[1].
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 6, 9, 10]
:

enAkñgú FmµCati s¶avmanduHlUtlas; enAtameqñrxSac; kMrenAtamtMbn;xs< r; ab vaduHlUtlas;enAry³kMBs;
0-100 m a.s.l. [1] (0-20 m [6]) . CaTUeTA vamanduHenAry³kMBs; 0-1,400 m a.s.l. [4, 10] (0-1,500
m [1]) enAtg;sSanI manry³kMBs;dl;eTA 1,800 m [10] nigenA Andes Gacdl; 2,000 m [10] .
GakasFatucab; BIBak;NþalraMgs¶Üt dl; Bak;NþalesIm . enAtMbn; EdlnrdUvR)aMgry³eBlBI 4-6 Ex
eTaHbI rdUvenHman karFøak;cHu cMeBaHtMbn;eGkVaT½r énGasIuGaeKñy_ nigPaKxagt,ÚgGURsþalIk_eday .
GnuRbePTs¶av manduHenA tMbn;ekþAesIm enAeBlEdlGnuRbePT incana duHlUtlas;enAtMbn; ekþA
nigesIm . CaTUeTAtMbn; mankMBs; TwkePøógRbcaMqaM 350-5,000 mm [1] (200-3,500 mm [4], 7002,000 mm [10]) edaymanlkçN³xusKña KWrdUvR)aMg nigvsSa KWmanlkçN³smRsb . krNI
EdlvaGaceRbIR)as;TwkeRkamdI enaH vaGacFn;ngw kMrit TwkePøógRbcaMqañ M 300 mm .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

4

kMritsItuNðPaBmFümRbcaMqaMñ rvag 10 nig 35°C [4] (18-26°C [10]) . kMritsItuNðPaBx<sb; Mput
enAExekþA KW 30-35°C [1] enA\NÐamantMélBI 37-47°C [1] . kMritsItuNðPaB mFümTabbMput
enAExRtCak; 10-20°C [1] nig 7-17°C [1] enA\NÐa . GnuRbePT s¶avminFn; nwgsenSImeT
enAeBlGnuRbePT subsp. incana Fn;nwgsenSIm 1-3 kñúgmYyqñaM [1] enAkMrtiBrI
eTAbIKLI ÚEm:RtBIsmuRT . s¶avCaRbePT RtUvkarBnøW Fn;ngw møb; niggayrgeRKaHedaysarePIgø . tMbn;Ca
eRcIn EdlmanRbePTenH duHCaFmµCatiEtgayrgnwgxül;BüúHsIku Únø rW TIhVúg . dUcenH s¶av
CaTUeTAFn;nwgxül;smuRT EdlmankMlaMg xøaMg .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

5

:

s¶avduHlUtlas; enAelIdI Edlmindk;Twk nigmanvaynPaBeRKIm CaBiessmanxSac;kMras; 2 m [1] eRCA
nigRKbedayl,ayxSac; EdlGacrkSasMeNIm . vaGacminduHenAelI dImanxSac;tic
nigsMeNImminRKb;RKan; . RbePTTaMgBIr rbs;sa¶ vmankarFn;nwgdIkal;süÚm nig)as GMbli niglicTwk
b:Eu nþminmanry³eBlyUr . vaduHlUtlas;enAelIdI EdlmankMrit pH BI 5.0 eTA 9.5 [1] . minTamTar
kMritsarFatucBi a©wmx<s; . vaGac duHlUtlas;enAelIRbePTdIrgkarbMpaø j edaysarmIn nigdIfµ [1] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 5, 7, 10]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: s¶avCaRbePT Edlpþl;GasUteTAeGaydI nigCaRbePTeQIeRbIR)as;eRcInya:g
EdlRtUv)an cat;famanRbeyaCn_ sMrab;sgÁm esdækic© nigbrisßan enAkñgú tMbn;RtUBik
edaypþl;nUvplitpl CaeRcIn TaMgplitpl nigesva sMrab;]sSah_kmµ nigGñkeRbIR)as;kgñú tMbn; [1] .
[

eQI]: eQIRtUv)ancat;TukfamanKuNPaBx<s; sMrab;CaeQIfamBl nigFüÚg . tMélfamBlrbs;eQIKW
24,000 kJ/kg (5,000 kcal/kg [4]) nigFüÚgGacpþl; 33,500 kJ/kg (7,000 kcal/kg [4]) [1] .
vaRtUv)aneRbI sMrab;Ca\n§n³enAkñgú pÞH nig]sSah_kmµ dUcCaduHkñgú rfePøgI . kareRbIR)as;epSgeTot
mandUcCa TUkensaT epÞag Rcva:TUk RbGb;sMbRu t begÁalGKIÁsnI eRKOgsgðarwm dgsMPar³epSg²
kg;reTH nigcnÞl;GNþgÚ Er: . enA \NÐaeQI CaRbPBsrèssMrab;plitkmµRkdas edayeRbI s‘ulpat
nigdMeNIrkarBak;kNþalKImI nigCavtßú Fatu edImsMrab;srés rayon . srésmanRbEvg 895-1,230 µm
[1] . [1, 4, 7]
[Gnupl]: s¶avmansar³sMxan;srM ab;plit l½kç nigtanIn . sMbkmanpÞúk 6-18% [2] éntanIn Edlman
BN’Rkhm nigRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eFItV anIn b:Eu nþk_RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eFIeV GaysMNaj; ensaTmanlkçN³sVit
nigmaMu . vaGaceRCobya:gelOn eFIeV GaTn; CaBiessCatiEs,k [4] . enAcin nigkEnøgepSgeTot
enAGasIu søwkrbs;vaRtUv)ankat;BIcMkar nigeRbICaeQIfamBl [1] . EpñkCaeRcInrbs;
edImeQIGaceRbICafñabM uraN : rWseRbIsMrab;Büa)alGasñneraK raK nigQWRkeBH . enAxaglicma:eLsIu
Emkx©I RtUv)anes¶ar eRbIsMrab; Büa)al karehIm nigemSAsMbkeRbIsMrab;Büa)almun ( acne) .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 6, 10]
[epSg²]:
s¶avRtUv)aneRbI sMrab;karBarkarhUreRcaH tameqñrsmuRT mat;smuRT RcaMgTenø
nigdaMeQIeLIgvij tampøvÚ Twk . vaRtUv)andaMduHCaeRcIn enAtameqñrxSac; enAcin nigevotNam
Edlpþl;nUvkarkarBarnwgxül; nigkarhUrnUvBMntU xSac; .
enA Sarawak \NÐeÚ nsIu
RbePTenHRtUv)ankarBar BIeRBaHvamansar³sMxan;kgñú karkarBarkarhUreRcaHenAtMbn;eqñr [4] .
enAcinxagt,Úg manedIms¶avCag 1 lan RtUv)andaMduHsMrab;CaExS Rkvat; tameqñr . PaBsMbrU Emk
rbs;RbePTenH GacCYybnßynUvelOgxül; nigFn;ngw xül;xaø gM dUcCaTIhVúg rW sIuknøÚ . enAtMbn;xül;ekþA
nigs¶Üt RbePTeQIenHGackarBardMNaM nighVgÚ stV . s¶avduHlUtlas;enA tMbn;mni manrukçCatiduH
nigtMbn;rgkarbMBul dUcCatMbn;manbuksItu mIn (dUcCaenA PaKxageCIg Queensland nigGURsþalI ) nig
kEnøgsMNl;kbM g:u Edlcas;² . edImeQIGacpþl;GasUteTAeGaydI : kMBkrWsmanpÞkú nUv actinorhizal
symbiont Frankia enable C. equisetifolia sMrab;pþl;GasUteTAeGaybriyakas . kMBkrWs
TaMgenHKWmanRbeyaCn_xaø gM Nas; . s¶avduHlUtlas;CarukCç atilMGr tampøvÚ sYnc,ar nigeqñrsmuRT .
vasmRsbsMrab;daMCaRBM BIeRBaH vaGaceGay RBHGaTitücaMgcUl)an nigpþl;nUvCIFmµCati
tamry³søkw BN’ èbtg .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

6

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 7, 9 ]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

lkçN³TUeTA]: s¶avRtUv)andaMduHenAtMbn;RtUBci tamtMbn;eqñr nigtMbn;raMgs¶tÜ mFüm .
GnuRbePTrbs;vaman duH enAtameqñr nigkMrenAtMbn;xs< r; ab . vamanduH enAtamvalxSac;
nigtMbn;CrM almFüm enACitsmuRT . vaduHlUtlas; enAkEnøgmanCatiéRB nigtMbn;licTwk
EdlmankMritTwkeCarx<s; . Subsp. incana k_man duHenAtamsmuRT nigFn;nCw atiéRb . edImeQImanduH
layCamYyBBYk Barringtonia asiatica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Eugenia sp., Heritiera
littoralis, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Pongamia glabra, Thespesia populnea nig Pandanus sp .
[kardaMduH]: cMkarRtUv)anbegát
I edaykardaMknU kat;b¤s CaedIm . rukCç atismRsbsMrab;kardaMduH
enAeBlva manGayu 3-4 Ex enAeBlBYkvamankMBs; 25-30 cm [1] (50 cm [10]) . enAevotNam
kUneQImankMBs;BI 1-1.2 m edaymanrWsenACadMu RtUv)anykeTAdaMduH [1] . kUneQIRtUv)andaM enAelIdI
Edlmindk;Twk minEmn \dæ nigminmanCMgW rW stVl¥it . BYkvaRtUv)andaMenACMerA 40 cm [1]
edIm,IGacTb;nwgxül;)an . enAtMbn; EdlmanePøógtic kardaMenAkñúgFug RtUv)aneRbI nigkEnøg
EdlrWsrukCç ati Gaccak;dl;RbPBTwkeRkamdI . kMritdg;sueI tkMrit 2,500 edIm/ha [1] RtUv)aneRbI
b:Eu nþksikrxøH enA\NÐa daMenAkMritdg;seIu t 8,000-10,000 edIm/ha [8] sMrab;plitkmµeQIfamBl
nigbegÁaltUc² . cenøaHénkar daMduHKW 2 x 2 to 3 x 3 m [10] . enAeBldaM
sMrab;karBarRbqaMgnwgkarhUreRcaH cenøaHCit²KñaRtUv)anGnuvtþ . kUneQI GacRtUv)anRKbsgát;
edaykUneQIFM nigrwgmaMCag ya:gqab;rh½s . kUneQImni GacRbECgnwg esµA)aneT dUcenHkareFIeV sµAenA
ry³eBl BIr eTA bIqañ dM MbgU KWmansarsMxan;Nas; . BYkvagayrgeRKaH eday sarkarraMgs¶tÜ
rhUtdl;rWs rbs;vacak;dl;RbPBTwkeRkamdI EdlGacRtUvkarry³eBlBI 2-3 qñaM bnÞab;BIkar daM .
BnøkrWsduHlUtlas; eBjmYyqñaM TaMgExRtCak; nigekþA .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

7

:

karRKb;RKg]: s¶av manGayuBI 40-50 qñaM [1] nigduHlUtlas;enAdMNak;kaldMbgU (RbEhl 2-3 m/qñaM
[1] énkMBs;rbs;va) nigmanTMrg;edIml¥ . xYbrbs;RbePTeQIenH KW 4-5 qñaM [4] (8-15 qñaM [10])
sMrab;eQIfam Bl nig 10-15 qñaM [4] sMrab;CabegÁal . s¶avminéRkEmk edayxøÜnÉgeT .
karéRkEmkman sar³sMxan; Nas; rhUtdl;edImeQImankMBs; 2 m [4] enAkñgú cMkar Edlsþúk . enAcin
\NÐa nigevotNam EmkTaMgGs; RtUv)anéRkedayksikr EdleRbIvaCaeQIfamBl [1] . karkab;rMelaH
mansar³sMxan;Nas; sMrab;kardaM ykeQIhu‘b nigedImeQITamTarnUvBnøxW øagM
.
Rbsinkarkab;rMelaHCit²Kña RtUv)aneRbI manEtedImeQI 50% RtUv)ankat;ecjenAGayuBI 5 eTA 6 [10] .
lT§PaBduHExñg KWmankMrit nigRtUv)ankMritenAGayu
4
qñaM . eTaHbI
edImeQIsmRsbcMeBaHkardaMduHCarbgk_eday . enAeRkamlkçxN
½ Ð minsmRsb vaGacmankMBs; 4-5
m/qñaM [1] (2 m/year [4], >3 m/year [8]) edaypþl;nUvTMrg;edIm ya:gl¥ enAkMLg
ú 2 qñaMdMbgU . enAqñaMTI
10 edImmankMBs; 10 m [8] nigGgát;p©it 20 cm [8] . enAelItMbn; Edlsm Rsb kMritkMenInmaDmFüm
KW 6-18 m³/ha [10] (15 m³/ha enAGayu 10 qñaM [1]) . eTaHya:gNa kMeNInmaD RbcaMqañ M Føak;cHu Rtwm 45 m³/ha/qñaM [4] . enAevotNamkNþal kMeNInmaDmFümman
8-12 m³/ha [1]
EdlGacTTYl)anBIcMkar EdldaMenAkMri 1.5 x 1 m enAxYb 4-7 qñaM . enAeBrUrIkU kMeNInkMBs; nigGgát;pit©
enAGayuticCag 5 qñaMKW 1.1-4.5 m [1] nig 1.3-5.4 cm [1] . kMritlUtlas;RtUv)anraykarN_ enAcin
eGsIub eknya: RsIlgáa étva:n; éf nigevotNam KWmankMBs;x<sC; ag [1] . enAPaKxagt,Úgcin
Edlmans¶avduH tameqñr EdlRtUv)andaM CaExSRkvat;tameqñr smuRT manRbEhl 1 lanhicta
RtUv)anbegátI enAqñaM 1954 nigmankMBs; 7-8 m nigGgát;p©it 5-7 cm GacTTYl)ankñúgry³eBl 4 qñaM .
enA\NÐa cMkarRtUv)andaMenA cenøaH 1 x 1 m rW 2 x 2 m enAkMritxYb 6-15 qñaM edaypþl;pl 50-200 t/ha
[4] . kMritlUtlas;kB
M s; mankMritx<s; enAeBledImeQImanGayu 7 qñaM nigkMenInmaD 25 qñaM [10] .
TMgn;sܶt kñúgedImeQImyY edIm manBI 15 eTA 25 kg [1] enAGayu 3 qñaM Edl
GaRs½yeTAelIKN
u PaBrbs;tMbn; . enAGasIu søwk Edl)anBI cMkar RtUv)anykeTAeRbICaeQIfamBl
nig begánI CatipsU rV nigb:UtasüÚm .
[ksirukçkmµ]: s¶av CaRbePT EdlsmRsbsMrab;RbB½nk
§ sirukçkmµ CaBiessenAtMbn;raMgs¶Üt .
vaGacbegánI GasUt 60 kg N/ha/qñaM [10] eFIeV GaydImanCICati . eTaHsMNl;søkw
mankarrlYyyWtk_eday
karP¢rÜ Gac
CYyeGayedImmankarduHlUtlas;
nigsMrab;kardaMduHéRBeQIeLIgvij . karBiesaFn_enA Prabhunagar enA\NÐa Edlbgðajfa

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

8

edImRkUclUtlas;FMCag s¶av enAeBldaMCacMkarsuT§ [4] . enAGasIu s¶av RtUv)andaM layCamYy
Leucaena leucocephala rW enAelItMbn;minsUvmanCICati CamYyRbePT Vitex spp. .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

9

:

karbgáat;RtUv)aneFIeV LIg edayRKab; nigkarkat; .
[karRbmUl nigrkSaTukRKab;]: ekanjITn
Mu enAkñúgry³eBl 18-20 s)þah_ [1] bnÞab;BI anthesis
nigsøabRKab; duHecjmk enAkMLgú eBl 3 éf¶ edaysMgYtedayBnøWRBHGaTitü . ekanTMu RCuHBIedIm
muneBl eRbHEbk edaysMgYttamry³BnøéW f¶ nige)ak edIm,IbeBa©jRKab; . 1 kg énekan (RbEhl
250 ekan ) manRKab; 20-60 g [1] . manRKab;cn
M nY 650-760 RKab;/g [1] (260 RKab;/g [4] 750-1,000
RKab;/g [5], 300-800 RKab;/g [10]) b:Eu nþCamFümmanRtwmEt 270 RKab; rW 38% [1] (50% [4])
GacduHlUtlas;)an
.
EpøenAelIedImmYy
minGacTMuRsuHKñaeT
EdleFIeV GaymankarBi)akkñgú karRbmUlRKab; . karsMgYtRKab; GacrkSadMNuHry³eBl 20 éf¶ [5] .
karrkSaTukRKab; manlkçN³Ca orthodox nigrkSaenAkñúgbnÞb;bti Cit edImrkSadMNuHeGay)an yUr .
RKab;GacrkSaTuk)anry³eBl 5 qñaM enAkñgú bnÞb;RtCak; (3-5°C) [1] (3°C edaykMritkMedA 5-9% mc
[4]) rW kk r (-16°C) [1] l¥CagbnÞb;mansItuNðPaB (25°C) [1] . RKab;mn
i TamTar nUvkareFVRI bRBwtþkmµ
CamuneT . RbsinrkSaTukenAeRkamlkçN³RtCak; nigs¶Üt dMNuHRKab;GackarBar)anry³eBl 2 qñaM
[10] rW yUrCagenH .
[bec©keTsfñal
nigkUneQI ]: RKab;RtUv)an)acenAelIfñal Edlcak;beM BjedayxSac;
layCamYymemak
.
RKab;GacRtUv)ansab
edaymincaM)ac;eFIVRbRBwtþkmµCamun
b:Eu nþRtUvkareGaymankarkarBarBIRsemac . enA\NÐa fñalcMbgRtUv)anRKbedaycMebIug nigmøb; [5] .
dMNuHCaRbePT epigeal nigcab;epþmI enAeRkay eBl 4-10 éf¶ [10] (14-21 éf¶ [1], 7-20 éf¶ [5]) .
kMritdMNuH : 40-60% [5], 70-80% [10] . kUneQIenA tUcRtUv)aneRsacTwkCaeTotTat;
nigrkSaenAeRkammøb; . bnÞab;BI 4-6 s)aþh_ BYkvaGacmankMBs; 10 cm [10] (3-10 cm [4])
nigRtUv)anykeTAdaMenAkñgú fg;pøasÞik
rW fñal enAkMritdg;seIu t 100-400 edIm/m²
edIm,ITTYl)annUvkUneQIsMrab;daMduH . kareRsacTwkeGay)ansmRsb daMenAcenøaHsmRsb

nigBnøRW Kb;RKan; eCosevogkEnøgdk;Twk mansar³sMxan;Nas; . kareRsacTwkeRcIneBk RtUveCosevog
nigkMritmøb; 50% KWsmRsbsMrab;kUneQI rhUtdl;vaRtUv)andaMenAxageRkA . karcak;bBa¢Úl pSit
mycorrhizal fungus Frankia KYrRtUv)aneFIeV LIgenAeBl kUneQIRtUv)andaMduHenAkEnøgfµI . bnÞab;BI 5-8
Ex kUneQIGacmankMBs; 50 cm [10] nigGacRtUv)andaMduHenAxageRkA .
[bec©keTsfñal nigkarkat; ]: eTaHkarbnþBC
U RtUv)aneFIeV LIg edayRKab; karkat; vak_RtUv)anbnþBCU
eday karkat;rWs bMe)A kat;Emk CaedIm . Bnøk EdlmanGayu 1 qñaM nigGacRtUv)ankat;ecj .
karkat; Edl smRsbKW Ggát;p©it 2 mm [1] nigRbEvg 10-15 cm in [1]
rWseGayduHeLIgedayeRbIfñaMGr½ mUn IBA (Indolebutyric acid) rW IAA (Indoleacetic acid) .
enAxagt,Úgcin karkat;RtUv)aneFIeV LIg BIEmkEdlman Ggát;pit© 1 mm [4] RbEvg 5 cm [4]
nigRClk;enAkñúgsUluysüg; Napthalyacetic acid (NAA) muneBldaM enAkñgú fg;)asÞik [4] . karbMe)A
elIEmkmanGgát;p©it 1-2 cm [1] pþl;nUvlT§pll¥Cagkarkat; enAeBlkønÚ RtUv)aneRbIpgEdr
eTAelIedImeQIcas;²pgEdr . Micropropagation edaydaMCalika k_GacRtUv)aneFIpV g Edr
b:Eu nþceM BaHplitkmµCaRTg;RTayFM kardaMedayedImminRtUv)anGnuvtþeT .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 5, 7, 10]
:

s¶avkMrrgkarvayRbharBICgM W nigstVl¥ti Nas; luHRtavaduHenAelITItaminsmRsb .
[stVl¥t
i ]: manRbEhl 50 RbePT EdlsIubpM aø jRbePTeQIenH b:Eu nþminPaBF¶n;Fr¶ b:unµaneT . xñtÚ ecaHrun§
Sinoxylon anale ecaHCMuvijedIm (Ggát;p©itRbEhl 1 cm) eFVeI GayxUcenAkEnøgEdlecaH . stVl¥t
i rYm
man casuarina tussock moth (Lymantria xylina) white-spotted long-horn beetle (
Anoplophora macularia) nig cotton locust ( Chondracis rosea) . RsemacsIubp
M aø jRKab;Rss; .
stVl¥ti ecaHrun§eQI Zeuzera spp. nig Hypsiptla robusta eFIkV arbMpaø jF¶n;F¶reTAelIeQI . RbePT
EdlminsUvsMxan;epSg eTotKW Apate monachus .
[CMgW]: CMgW EdlF¶nF
; ¶rCageKg KW Bg rW e):agelIsMbk (blister bark) EdlRtUv)anGegát enARbeTséf nig
evotNam . edImeQI EdlrgCMgWenH nwggab;ya:gelOn bnÞab;BIecjeraKsBaØa edaykarRseBansøwk nig
eRbHsMbk enAkEnøg Edle)a:g . CMgWenHCab;Tak;Tagnwg pSit Trichosporum vesiculosum .
karéRkEmk GaceFIVeGay mankarqøgnUvCMgWpSit CaBiessBBYk Trichosporium vesiculosum nig

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

10

. enA\NÐa RbePT 75% énedImeQI RtUv)angab;

Formes lucidus

mandUcCa

. RbePTpSitepSgeTot
noxius nig Phomopsis

[10]

Botryosphaeria ribis, Corticium salmonicolor, Phellinus

. )ak;etrIeFIVeGaysøwk RseBan
(Pseudomonas
solanacearum)
eFIeV Gaysøkw manBN’elOn nigesøak RBmTaMggab; EdlekIt manenAcin nig\NÐa [4] . RbePTCMgW
epSgeTotmandUcCa dMe)AedIm nigRCuHsøwk bNþalmkBI Phomopsis casuarinae nig Botryosphaeria
ribis nig pink disease (Corticium salmonicolor) . Brown rot bNþalmkBI Phellinus noxius
eFIeV GaycMnnY edImeQIfycuH enAétva:n; [1] . CMgW actinorhizal plants nig endomycorrhizal (VAM)
qøgya:ggaybMput . RbePTCMgW)ak;etrIepSgeTot bNþalmkBI Ralstonia solanacearum .
sMrab;karRKb;RKgCMgW karkat; nigéRkEmk KYrRtUv)anbBaÄb; edIm,IkarBarCMgW . CMgWedIm
eQIKrY RtUv)ankMcat;ecj eGay)anqab; .
[epSg²]: kUneQIRtUv)anbMpøaj edaystVkrek nigkþam .
s¶avminFn;nwgePøgI eT enAeBl
enAtUckarkarBar mansar³sMxan;Nas; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 10]
casuarinae

F> karGPirkS

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

11

:

enAkm<Cú a vamanduHCaRkumtUc² BItMbn;eqñr nigenAkñgú RkugRBHsIhnu Ekb ekaHkug kMBt nigPñeM Bj . [11]

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
RbPBkMeNIt]:
GURsþalI bg;køaeds Rb‘yu en km<Cú a hVCI I \NÐeÚ nsIu ma:eLsIu jÚsuIELn )a:BjU KÚ Ieno hVlI IBnI sama:v
ekaHsULmÚ :g; éf tugháa evNUTU evotNam .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 6, 9]
[

karnaMclU ]:
GaTIháa nig)ab‘dU a )ahama: emnIn ebIKN
I ahVasU kaemrUn GaeRhVckNþal eqk cin kugehÁa kUDIv½r Kuy)a
saFarN³rdækugehÁa CIbTU I dUmnI ei xn GIru IeTo eGsüÚBI háabug háaéb: háaNa eháNada háaedLÚb hÁeI no
éhTI \NÐa GIRu saEGl camIka eknya: lIEb‘ero ma:daháas;saá ma:lI ma:TInic ma:rIeTneno m:su Þ½rat PUma
jÚsuIeLn EGnTIl nIC½r nIesrIya: )a:KsI aß n eBr:rU IkU esenháal; esra:eLGUn sUma:lI GaeRhVxagt,Úg s‘Udg;
tg;sSanI tUeháa RTInIedt nigtU)aeháa G‘yu ehánda shrdæGaemrik ekaHvICnI essIu)a .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 6, 9]
[

p> epSg²

:

Bakü]: eQµaHFmµta Casuarina species, ‘she-oak’ RtUv)aneRbIenAGURsþalI EdlsMedAeTAelI
eFIEV dlman lkçN³Tak;Taj EdlmansrésFM Rsedog edImEsn (oak) b:Eu nþmanlkçN³exSayCag .
eQµaHCak;lak; mkBIBaküLataMg ‘equinus’ EdlmankarCab;Tak;TgnwgstVesH nig ‘folium’ KWsøkw
EdlmanlkçN³dUc sk;esH [4] . Casuarina mkBIBaküma:eL ‘kasuari’ EdlmanEmkFM [1] .
[karbgáat;]: enAkardaMduH C. equisetifolia KWCakUnkat; EdlRtUv)anbgáat;rvag C. glauca nig C.
junghuhniana .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4]
[

:

CATIE, 1991. Casuarina equisetifolia, multiple use tree in Central America [Casuarina
equisetifolia L. ex J.R. Forst & G. Forst., árbol de uso múltiple en America Central]. Rep. No.
173, Tech. Series. Turrialba, Costa Rica: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigacíon y
Enseñanza (CATIE).
[1]

Ha Chu Chu, Le Dinh Kha, 1996. Planting and uses of Casuarina equisetifolia in Vietnam. In:
Pinyopusarerk K, Turnbull JW, Midgley SJ, eds. Recent Casuarina Research and
Development. Proceedings of the 3rd International Casuarina Workshop. Canberra,
Australia: CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, 223-225.
[1]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

12

Dahl N, 1996. Cauarina equisetifolia: its use and future in mine rehabilitation in Northern
Australia. In: Pinyopusarerk K, Turnbull JW, Midgley SJ, eds. Proceedings of the 3rd
International Casuarina Workshop. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO Forestry and Forest
Products, 201_203.
[1]

Kondas S, 1983. Casuarina equisetifolia - a multipurpose tree cash crop in India. In: Midgley
SJ, Turnbull JW, Johnston RD, eds. Casuarina Ecology, Management and Utilization.
Proceedings of the 1st International Casuarina Workshop. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO,
66_76.
[1]

National Research Council, 1984. Casuarinas: nitrogen-fixing trees for adverse sites.
Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
[1]

Phi Quang Dien, 1996. Preliminary results of Casuarina equisetifolia provenance trials in
Vietnam. In: Pinyopusarerk K, Turnbull JW, Midgley SJ, eds. Recent Casuarina Research
and Development. Proceedings of the 3rd International Casuarina Workshop. Canberra,
Australia: CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, 113-118.
[1]

Turnbull JW, 1983. The use of Casuarina equisetifolia for protection forests in China. In:
Midgley SJ, Turnbull JW, Johnston RD, eds. Casuarina Ecology, Management and
Utilization. Proceedings of the 1st International Casuarina Workshop. Melbourne, Australia:
CSIRO, 55-57.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[1]

13

Hocking D. 1993. Trees for Drylands. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. New Delhi.
[4]

MacDicken GK. 1994. Selection and management of nitrogen fixing trees. Winrock
International, and Bangkok: FAO.
[4]

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[2] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8.
(CD-ROM).

[3] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names
of
Commercial Woods, unpublished DFSC, 2000, Seed Leaflet No.26

[4] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database –
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=
477. (Internet source)

[5] Andhra Pradesh Forest Department: http://forest.ap.nic.in/Silviculture (Internet source).

[6] ARCBC BISS Species Database: http://arcbc.org/cgibin/abiss.exe/spd?SID=1916179720&spd=5425&sub=0&tx=PL (Internet source).

[7] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning
Institute.

[9] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[10] Lamprecht, H., 1989: Silviculture in the Tropics. GTZ.

[11] Petri, M (DED), 2006: Own observations.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[8] PROSEA, 1997: Plant Resources of South East Asia 11 - Auxiliary plants.

14

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.[2]

³

Silk cotton tree, true kapok, white silk cotton tree, [6] kapok
tree, [26]

K> sTisn½y

³

C. thoningii A.Chev.,
C. guineensis (Thonn.) A.Chev.,
C. casearia L Medicus,
Eriodendron anfractuosum DEC.,
Bombax pentandrum,
B. guineensis Schum. & Thonn.,
B. orientale Sprengel [4,6,20],
Eriodendendron caribaeum G.Don,
E.guineense G.Don [20]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

koo (Cambodia); kapok, randu, kapu (Indonesia); nguiz
baanz (Laos); kabuk-abu pohon kapok (Malaysia); nun
(Thailand); gòn, gau (Vietnam) [4,6], arbre à boure, fromagier
[26].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

1

³

K
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

kôor [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae

fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Malvales
RKYsar : Bombacaceae
ePT : Ceiba
RbePT : Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.
ÉksarBieRKaH: [4 ; 11 ; 27 ]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaedImeQIBak;kNþalCMruHsøwk manTMhMFM EdlmankMBs; 20-30 m nigGgát;p©it 80120 cm tYedImmanragsIuLaMg . EmkenAtUcmanBN’ébtgcas; manbnøa sMbkxagkñúgman
parenchyma sMbUreTAedayTwk . manRBwgduHeRcIn manTMrg;CabnÞH² [2] . edImeQImanTMhMBI 4-15
m
[4] . edImeQI CaRbePTCMruHsøwk EdlmankMMBs;dl;eTA
25 m [5] . CaedImeQI
EdlduHlUtlas;elOn Rtg;mUl CYnkal manRBwg mankMBs; 30 m (var. pentandra) . edIm
nigEmkGacmanbnøaeRcIn rW tic . EmkduHlUtlas; tamTisedk zitCaRkumragKUCxüg EdlmancMnYn 3
ehIyeFIVeGayvamanragdUcviha nigmankenSamsøwkesþIg [6] . CaedImeQIFM EdlmankMBs;dl; 60 m
edaymanedImrelag . enAeBleBjv½y kenSamsøwkmanTMrg; edktMerobelIEmk
enAeBlcas;vamanduHRBwgCaeRcIn EdlmankMBs;BIr eTAbIEm:Rt [13] .
[sMbk]:
sMbkKµaneram BN’ébtg edaymansñamRCYjenAelIedIm manlkçN³relag
edaymanbnøaragdUc ekan [2] .
[søwk]: smas mansnøwkcMnYn 5-7 manTgRbEvg 7-14 cm [2]. søwkmanTMhM 6-12 x 1.5-3.0 cm
Tgsøwkem manRbEvg 8-20 cm [5] . swøkzitenAqøas; manTgRbEvg 8-25 cm søwksmas mancMnYn
5-11 manlkçN³relag ragmUlRTEvg manRbEvg 5-16 cm [6] . søwkmancMnn
Y 2-9 manRbEvg 1018 cm minzitenACaKU manBN’RkhmenAeBlduHecjCaBnøk nigBnøkEvg [13] .
[páa]: s rW sIuCMBU duHenAdac; rW CakBa©úMxøI enAelIG½kSsøwk . RtbkpáaCab; manftcMnYn 5 minesµIKña nig
RsTab;cMnYn 5 manragmUlRTEvg RbEvg 2.5 cm BN’s maneram . ekseQµalBIreTAbI
enAEpñkxagelI EckecjCa 5 )ac; bMBg;eksmanrag dUcRklan . eksjI zitenAxagelI

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

manGUvuleRcIn . páamanRbEvg 2.0-3.5 cm manBN’s RtbkduHecjBiKl; manekscMnYn 5-6
bMBg;eksRsYc [5] . páamancMnYneRcIn BN’s RbEvgRbEhl 3 cm edaymankøwnRsedogTwkedaHeKa
duHCaRkum enAedImrdUvR)aMg enAeBledImeQI RCuHsøwkGs;
[6,9]
. bnÞab;BIsøwkRCuH
páacab;epþImduHecjBIcugBnøk BYkvamanekseRcIn . RtbkmanRbEvg
3.5 cm maneram .
BBYkRbeCovKWCaGñkeFIVeGaymandMeNIrlMGr rbs;páa [13] . páaGacRtUv)anbriyay dUcxageRkam ³
páarIkenAeBlyb; nigkøni xøaMg beBa©jTwkdmenAKl; CapáaBIrePT . páarIkenAeBl EdllMGr
nigTwkdmRtUv)ansIu edayBBYkRbeCov . enAeBlTabPøW XµMúeFIVkareRkblMGrpáavijmþg [26] .
[Epø]: manCatieQI ragmUlRTEvg manRbEvg 15 cm nigTTwg 3-4 cm eRbHEbkCa 5 cMEnk enAeBlTMu
. enAxagkñúgCaeram EdlmanRKab;CaeRcIn mUl BN’exµA [2] . EpømanRbEvg 8-10 cm Rtg; man 5
cg¥Úr [5] . EpømanrageGlIb manRbEvg 7.5-30.0 cm manBN’etñatenAeBlTMu
edaymansnÞHebIkcMnYn 5 . RKab;rMuB½T§edaysMLI EdlmanBN’elOgRsal rW RbepH [6] .
EpømanTMrg;RsedogEs,k rageGlIb RbEvg 10-30 cm manRKab;BN’exµACaeRcIn . ftRKab;manRbEvg
2-4 cm erammincak;cUleTAkñúg edaymansnÞH )aMg . BYkvaminduHecjBI PñasRKab;eT
EtbegáItCaTMrg;CBa¢aMgPñas;EpøEpñkxagkñúg . ecjpáa enAExmina-emsa ecjEpøenAExsIha-kBaØa [2] .
RKab; eRbHEbkCa 5 qñÚt EdlqñÚtmYy² manRKab; 120-170 EdlmanBN’exµA mUl rMueTAedaysMLI .
RKab;maneramCab;CamYy nigRtUv)anbk;paþ c;edayxül; nig ray)a:y RBmTaMgeFIVkarduHlUtlas;pgEdr
[26].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

3

:

eQImanBN’s Tn; nigRsal [2] eQIK manBN’xus²Kñµa BIBN’s dl;etñatRsal b:uEnþsñamCr½
EdlCaRbePTpSit enAcMkNþalBN’exµA . eQImanlkçN³Rsal manTMnaj 250 kg/m³ .
eQIgayeRbI CamYyeRKOgma:sInu . lkçN³enHeFIVeGayvaGaceRbIsMrab; eRKag nigkarxat;
nigFn;nwgkareRbHEbk
enAeBleFIVkarmYl
.
Bi)akeFIVkarkat;tMrwm
nigecaH
eQIrbs;vagayrgnwgkarbMpøajrbs;stVl¥it nigpSit b:uEnþGaceFIVkarkarBaredayeRbIsarFatuKImI
nigsMgYt EdleFIVeGayeQImanlkçN³gayeRCob . eQIGacRtUv)ancitsMrab;eFIVCa veneer .
mankarraykarN_fa eQIRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;Ca eQIemSARkdas; sMPar³vicx©b; eQIGar sMNg;Fn;Rsal
nigplitplRkdas; TUk sMPar³ksikmµ eRKOgsgðarwm nigeQIKUs [20] .

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

vaRtUv)aneCOfaCaRbePTeQI EdlmanRbPBkMeNitBIGaemrikkNþal b:uEnþGs;ry³eBlCayUrqñaMNas;
mkehIy nigr)a:yrbs;vaKwminmanPaBCak;lak;eT . edaysarEtRbePT enHduHlUtlas;enAeRcInkEnøg
nigRtUv)andaMduHGs;ry³eBlCayUrmkehIyenaH vaGacrkeXIjenAtMbn;ExS RtUBki rvag 16º N nig 16º
S [20] . BItMbn;éRBeRsagenARbeTseRbsIul eTAdl;PaKeCIg Gaemrikxagt,Úg nigvalesµA s¶Üt
savannas enAGaeRhVc [11] vak_RtUv)annaMcUlGasIu RbEhlCary³eBl 1500 qñaMmkehIy [5] .
r)a:yrbs;vamanenAPUma cin km<úCa Lav evotNam ma:eLsIu nig\NÐÚensIu nigPaK xagekIt lic
nigkNþalGaeRhVc nigtMbn;RtUBki énTVIbGaemrik
[2,6,26]
. edImeQIGacmanduH
enAkñúgRbePTéRBxus²Kña dUcCaéRBeRsagesIm éRBCMruHsøwk éRBtamRClgPñM . eTaHya:gNa
vaCaRbePT EdlgayduHeLIgvij enAtMbn;éRBricril [26] .

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

vaCaedImeQItMbn;GakasFatuRtUBik
RtUvkarBnøW
duHlUtlas;enAeRkaml½kçx½NÐepSg²Kña
b:uEnþGacduHenAtMbn; Edlmanry³kMBs;eRkam 500 m nigmankMritkMBs;TwkePøógRbcaMqñaM 1000 mm/m²
CaBiess enArdUv EdlrukçCatieFIVkarlUtlas; [6] . kMritCIvsaRsþRtUv)ankMnt;dcU xageRkam : ry³kMBs;
0-900 m kMritTwkePøógmFüm 750-3000 mm/ m² nig sItuNðPaBmFüm 18-38ºC [26].
:

minTanmanTinñn½y .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

cUlcitþdIesIm eRCA b:uEnþRCabTwk)anl¥ [2] GacduHlUtlas;elIdIeRCA RbePTdIPñMePøIgecas;
EdlmanduHenA Java RbeTs\NÐÚensIu [26].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

4

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

eQI]: eRbIsMrab;plitsMPar³Fmµta dUcCaTUk nig]bkrN_ EdlGENþtelITwk
[2]
nigRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eFIV CaeQIKUspgEdr . edImFM RtUv)ankat;CMuvij sMrab;eRbIeFVICaRsTab;kNþalrbs;
veneer enAkñúgplitkmµ eQIIcMNitesþIg .
[Gnupl): páa nigEpøenAx©IRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;CabEnø C½r EdlecjBIedImRtUv)anlk; sMrab;eFIVCaePsC¢³
edaybEnßmsár nigTwk . søwkx©I RtUv)anbukeGayxÞiclayCamYyTwkkk eRbIlabeTAelIf¶as
edIm,IBüa)alkarQWk,al nigsMbkGaceRbIsMrab;Büa)alCMgWraKpgEdr [4] .
Epøpþl;nUvsMLI CasMPar³mincMlgsMeLg [6] . srésK man 65% én cellulose nig hemicellulose
BYkvarelag mineRCobTwk nigmanPaBbt;Ebnx<s; . enAeRkamTwk
vaGacmankMlaMgCMrujeGayGENþt dl;eTA 30 dg énTMgn;rbs;va . enHCaehtueFIVeGayK
CasarFatumincMlg
nigsVit
EdlRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;
eFIVCa
ExSRkvat;suvtßiPaBGs;ry³eBlrab;ryqñaMmkehIy rhUtdl;karrkeXIjnUvsarFatusMeyaK . cMkardaM
duHyksrésenA Java \NÐÚensIu pþl;nUvTinñpl 130-150 kg énsrés bnÞab;BIry³eBl 3 qñaM
nigGacpþl; nUv 2000-4000kg/ha enAqñaMeRkay²eTot . enACnbT KRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eFIVCaBUkGgÁúy
nigkenÞl [13]. sarFatusrésFmµCatimanlkçN³l¥Cag sarFatusMeyaK sMrab;eFIVBUk nigexñIy .
karpÁt;pÁg;K RtUv)anykmkBI Java [16] . eRbgGacbriePaK)an eRbIsMrab;eFIVCasab‘U
EdlGacRtUv)ancMerjykBI RKab;
[2,13]
. r)aykarN_xøHbgðajfa RKab;K
manpÞúknUvsarFatueRbgmins¶ÜtcMnYn
20-25%
RsedogeTA nwgeRbgrbs;RKab;km,as
EdlRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eFIVCaeRbgrMGil plitsab‘U nigkacMGinGahar
[20]
. sMNl;
Edlsl;BIkarcMerjeRbg manpÞkú nUvRbetGIun 26% nigGaceRbIR)as;CacMNIstVpgEdr .
mankareRbIR)as;Ca»sf CaeRcIndUcCa søwkRss; EdlbukkMTicrYc eRbIsMrab;karvilmux nigrWs
Edles¶arYcRtUv )aneRbIsMrab; Büa)al oedema C½rRtUv)anbriePaK edIm,IBüa)alkarQIRkBH
nigBnøkrbs;vaGaceRbICafñaM mineGaymankUn nigsøwkGacbriePaKedIm,IbM)at;k¥k nigQWbMBg;k .
eTaHya:gNa GñkxøHyl;fa sMLI rbs;vaGaceFIVeGayrmas;EPñk nigRcmuH
[26]
.
k_mankareRbIR)as;sMrab;Ca»sfBüa)alstVpgEdr enA Tamilnadu \NÐa søwkRtUv)anbuk
layCamYyRsas nigdak;eGayeKapwk edIm,IBüa)albBaðabnþBCU . kMriteRbIRbEhl 500 ml
bIdgkñúgmYyéf¶ CabnþbnÞab; [26] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

:

KGacRtUv)aneRbICaedImeQItamdgpøÚv nigeQIpþl;møb;dl;cMkareRmc

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

[2,13]

.

:

minmancMNat;fñak; .

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

enAkñúgkareRbIR)as;dI énRbB½n§ksirukçkmµ RbePTeQIK RtUv)andaMduHenAcenøaH 7.3x7,3
edIm,ITukcenøaH sMrab;daMduHdMNaMepSg²eTot ehIyGaceFVIkarbnþrdaMduHrhUtdl;Gayu 5 qñaM .

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

m

:

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVl¥iteFIVeGayRCuHsøwkrYmman Ephyriades arcas, Eulepidotis modestula, Oiketicus kirbiyi nig
Pericalia ricini . edImeQIk_CaCMrkrbs;BBYkrukC
ç ati)a:ra:sit dUcCa Dendropthoe falcata nig
Loranthus spp . RbePTpSit EdleFIVkarbMpøajedImrYmman Armillaria, Calonectria, Camillea,
Cercospora [20].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

gayRsYybnþBUCtamry³RKab; ehIykarecjEpøcab;epþIm BIGayu 3-4 qñaM vaGacduHExñgeLIgvij
eRkayBIkarkat; [2] . EpøRtUv)anRbmUledayeRbITMBk; RKab;GacRtUv)ansMgYtedayeRbIBnøWRBHGaTitü rW
dak;kñúg)av edIm,IvayeGayRCuHRKab; . lT§PaBdMNuHRtUv)ankMrit edaykar)at;bg;CatieRbg
EdlmanenAkñúgRKab; . vamancMnYnRKab;BI 10,000 eTA 45,000 GaRs½yeTAtamtMbn;kñúg 1 kg .
CaTUeTA dMNuHrbs;RKab;gaynwg)at;bg; rW kat;bnßy . karbnþBUCedayFmµCati BIRKab;KWmanPaBkMrNas;
enAeBlEpø
RtUv)anRbmUlsMrab;yksMLI
.
vamankarbnþBUCeLIgvijtictYcNas;
tamry³kardaMedayRKab; [20] elIkElgEtRKab;RtUv)anxül;bk;naMeTAtMbn;dIsMrab;eFIVksikmµ [26].

6

F> karGPirkS

:

minTanmanTinñn½y .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

minTanmanTinñn½y .

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
enAGasIuGaeKñy_ \NÐÚensIu ma:eLsIu RtUv)andaMduHenA Java GaeRhVcxaglic nigenAtMbn;RtUBikénGaemrik
[2,6]

p> epSg²

:

CaRKYsartUcmYyénRbePTeQIRtUBik EdlrYmman Baobab, balsa Fuern nigK .
RbePTenH PaKeRcInmanduHenAGaemrikxagt,Úg eRbsIul GasIuGaeKñy_ tMbn;GaeRhVc nigma:daháasáa .
BYkvaduHenAkñúgéRBeRsag PaKxagt,ÚgGaemrik nigvalesµA nigCMrkvalesµAenAGaeRhVc . RbePTenH
PaKeRcIn CaBBYkCMruHsøwk nigmansøwkmUl ragdUcsøwkBBYketñat rW søkw Rmam nigmanxñaysøwk
nigCMruHsøwkenAcugrdUvvsSa
.
enAkMLúgeBlKµansøwk
páarbs;vacab;epþImrIk
.
BYkvaCaRbePTmanpáaFMbMputenAkñúgRKYsar edaypáamanBN_sPøW . BYkvaCapáaBIrePT EdlduHecjBIEmk rW
edIm enAEk,Kl;RsedognwgePT Durio [11] .
srésr rW sMLI)anBIEpø Tn; nigFn;nwgBBYkdgáÚv EdleFIVeGayvasmRsbsMrab;eFIVCaexñIy nigBUk .
vamanlkçN³Rsal gayeRCobTwk nigGENþt EdleFIVeGayvasmRsbsMrab;eFIVGav GaveBag
nigsMPar³suvtßiPaBkñúgTwkepSg²eTot . vaCasaFatusmRsbsMrab;eFIVCaGgÁFatumincMlgkMedA rWGKÁIsnI
dUcCa RbGb;dak;dMuTwkkk TUTwkkk eragcRksMrab;rkSaPaBRtCak; kariyal½y eragPaBynþ nigynþehaH
.
vaRsUbyksMelg)anl¥
nigRtUv)aneRbI
Ca]bkrN_mincMlgsMelg
vaRtUv)aneRbICaexñIyenAkñúgmnÞIeBTü edaysar vaGacRtUv)ansMgYtedaymin)at;bg;nUvKuNPaB .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Bombacaceae

7

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

White F, 1983. The vegetation of Africa. Natural Resources Research, UNESCO, 20:356
pp.; [Also available in French]; 50 pp. ref.
Zotz G, Winter K, 1994. Photosynthesis of a tropical canopy tree, Ceiba pentandra, in a
lowland forest in Panama. Tree Physiology, 14(11):1291-1301; 30 ref.
Basilevskaia, 1969. Plantes médicinales de la Guinée. Conakry, Guinea.
Berni CA, Bolza E, Christensen FJ, 1979. South American timbers - the characteristics,
properties and uses of 190 species. South American timbers - the characteristics,
properties and uses of 190 species., x + 229 pp.; 154 ref.
Dileep M, Sudhakara K, Santhoshkumar AV, Nazeema KK, Ashokan PK, 1994. Effect of
seed size, rooting medium and fertilizers on the growth of seedlings of Ceiba pentandra
(Linn.) Gaertn. Indian Journal of Forestry, 17(4):293-300; 8 ref.
Lamprecht H, 1989. Silviculture in the tropics; tropical forest ecosystems and their tree
species, possibilities and methods for their long-term utilization. Deutsche Gesellschaft
für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), GmbH, Eschborn, Germany.

Mashingo MSH, Mtenga LA, Lekule FP, 1994. Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seed cake in diets
of fattening pigs. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 42(4):311-315; 13
ref.

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

Nguyen, N.C. et al.: Vietnam Forest Trees, Hanoi 1997 788 pp.

3)
Lamprecht, H. 1989: Silviculture in the Tropics. Tropical Forest Ecosystems and
their Tree Species - Possibilities and Methods for their long-term Utilization. Paul Parey
Publ. Hamburg and GTZ (English Edition) Eschborn 296 pp.

4)
Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House;
Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

5)
Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A Field Guide
to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept. University of Chiang
Mai, Thailand; 546 pp.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

2)

:

8

6)
Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field guide.
Orchid Press, Bangkok, 234 pp.

11)
Heywood, V.D. (Ed.) 1993: Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford University
Press, New York; 336 pp.

12)

CABI Forestry Compendium 2003

17)
Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources
of Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor,
Indonesia, 859 pp.

19)
Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics.
Josef Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552 pp.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

20)
Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002:
Agroforestree Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD ).

9

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Chrysophyllum cainito L]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Chrysophyllum cainito L]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Chrysophyllum cainito L. [4]

³

star apple, golden leaf tree, cainito [6, 32]

³

Chrysophyllum acuminatum Lam.,
C. brachycalix Urb.,
C. claraense Urb.,
C. oliviforme subsp. oliviforme,
Achras caimito Ruiz & Pavon.,
Cynodendron oliviforme (L.),
Baehni.,
Guersentia oliveforme Raf.,
Cainito pomiferum Tuss.,
C. bonplandii Klotzsch. ex Miq.,
C. monopyrenum Spreng.,
C. sericeum Salisb. [32]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

X> eQµaHepSg²

1

³

caimitier, pomme de lait (French); caimito, guayabillo
(Spanish); sawo ijo, sawo hejo, sawo kadu (Indonesia); sawo
duren, pepulut (Malaysia); hnin-thagya (Burma); nam nom
(Laos); caimito (Philippines); chicle durian (Singapore); sataa
appoen (Thailand); vú-sùe (Vietnam) [4,6,32].

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

TwkedaHeKa
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

oek dâh kôôt [4]

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Ebenales
RKYsar : Sapotaceae
ePT : Chrysophyllum
RbePT : Chrysophyllum cainito L. [4,27,32]
ÉksarBieRKaH: [- ]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: edImeQItUc mankMBs; 4-8 m [4] . edImeQIébtgCanic© EdlGacmankMBs;dl;eTA
15 (35) m nigGgát;p©it 60 cm edaymanC½rs¥itBN’s . manEmkCaeRcIn nigmaneram [6,26] .
edImeQI ébtg EdlmanklkçN³Rss;s¥at nigmankMBs;dl;eTA 15 m [13] . edImmanlkçN³Rtg;
ragsIuLaMg mansñamRCYj rW eRbH GacmanRBwg rW minmanenAEpñkKl; [26] .
[sMbk]: manépÞeRKIm eRbH BN’etñat sMbkxagkñúgmanlkçN³Casrésr manBN’TwkRkUcRsal
eTABN’elOgRsal nigmanC½rBN’s . EmktUcmanBN’Rkhmetñat nigmaneram [26] .
[søwk]: qøas; manragRTEvg eTAmUl manTMhM
5-16 cm x 3-6 cm manlkçN³dUcEs,k
manBN’RkhmeRcH enAxageRkam edaymansrésRsb²Kña . EKmsøwkmanlkçN³Rkas; [6] .
søwkqøas; mandUces<ó eTal ragmUl rW RTEvg manRbEvg 7.6-12.7 cm nigTTwg 3.8-5.8 cm
manBN’ébtgcas; Kµaneram nig relagenAEpñkxagelI manBN’etñatmanenAEpñkxageRkam
minmanxñaysøwk mancugxøIRsYc nigKl;RsYc edayminmaneFµj nigRkas; srésEv:n zitenARsbKña
nigsrésrTIBIr nigduHcuHmkBIeKmsøwk . TgsøwkmanRbEvg 1.3-1.6 cm BN’Rkhmetñat nig maneram
[26] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

páa]: páaduHeLIgBIRCugrbs;søwk EdlCaBnøk zitenARkum EdlmancMnYnBI 5-35 tUc² BN’elOg
eTAsIuCm<Ú Rsal páamanRtbkcMnYn 5 RbEvg 1-4 mm [6] . kBa©úMpáazitenACaG½kS ragCa
ramiflorous rW cauliflorous . páaCaRbePTGePT rW BIrePT duHCa)ac; rW dac;eTal tUc² nig
Bik)annwgemIl manBN’sIuCm<Ú Rsal zitenAelIG½kS . RtbkpáaeTalmanragdUcKUTxüg mancMnYn 4-6
CaTUeTAmancMnYn 5 duHCarag imbricate rW quincuncial CYnkalduHecjCaEpø nigmaneram .
RtbkmanftcMnYn 5 ragmUl rW sIuLaMg manTgxøI GacesµI rW EvgCagft famancMnYn 4- 8 zitenAsamBaØ
. TgragsþÜc maneram BN’Rkhmetñat manRbEvg 64-95 mm . ekseQµal mancMnYnBI 4-8
CaTUeTAmanlkçN³Cab; enAelITgRtbk eksjIzit enABIelI mancMnYn 4- 12 manGUvulmYykñgú mYyft
(axile placentation) TgeksjI nigekseQµalmaneram rW minmaneram . Staminodes kMrman
edaymanTMhMtUcRTEvg enAkñúgftrbs; Rtbk zitenAqøas; edaymaneks minfasTMrpáa [26] .
[Epø]: CaEpøsac; EdlmanGgát;p©it 5-10 cm ragmUlrelag BN’elOgébtg rW etñatsVay
edaymansMbk esþIgdUcEs,k nigmanBN’s rW sVay nigmansac;Tn; [6] . EpømanragmUl
TMhMb:unEpøe)a:m edaymansac; Tn; mansnÞHRKab; mancMnYn 9 RCugRsYc dUcpáay enAeBlkat; . sac;Tn;
Ep¥m manrs;Catiq¶aj; b:uEnþminmankøin [13] . EpøCaTUeTAmanragmUl CYnkalragsMEb:tbnþci
nigmanGgátp; ©it 5-10 cm . sMbk EpøesþIg ragdUcEs,k relag manBN’sVayRsGab;
cMeBaHRbePTmYycMnYn nigxøHmanBN’ébtgRsal RBm TaMgmanC½rs¥it mansac;Tn;dUcecAhYy .
enAeBlkat;TTwgEpø sac;GacRtUv)anEckCaBIr EpñkxusKña Epñk EdlenACab;pÞal;nwgsMbk
manlkçN³Tn; manBN’RsedogsMbk nigminsUvmanTwk EdlzitenAB½T§CvMu ij RKab;cnM Yn 8
EdlmanBN’s . CaTUeTARKab;nimyY ²zitenAkñúgEpñkrbs;EpøcnM YnmYyEdr b:uEnþmanEpñkxøH k_min
manRKab;pgEdr EdlGacmanRKab;RtwmEt 3-5 [26] . RKab;manragmUl rW eGlIb ragEvgsþÜt RbEvg
2 cm rwg manBN’etñat nigrelag edaymansñamTl;muxKña (adaxial scar) . enAeBlEpø
RtUv)anBuHcMBak; kNþal cMEnk Edlkat;manrUbragdUcCapáay EdleFIVedImeQIRtUv)andak;eQµaHfa starapple . RbePTBIr EdlmankareBjniym KWRbePT EdlmanEpøBN’ébtg nigBN’sVay
BBYkvamanrs;CatiminxusKñaeT Etman BN’xusKña . eQµaHBitR)akdrbs;va KW )anmkBIBaküRkic
EdlsMedAeTAelImas nigsøwk EdlmaneramBN’ manenAxageRkam [26].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

3

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

eQIrwg nigFn; [13] edImRtUv)andaMsMrab;ykEpø b:uEnþRbsinmankarkab;rMlM eQImanTMrg;elag F¶n;
manTMnajdI 650-900kg/m³ srésRtg; manBN’sIuCm<Úcas; rW etñat . eQIRsay nigeQIxøwm
manBN’Rkhmetñat eTAetñatcas; rwg maMu minsUvFn; mansréseQIRtg; [26] .

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

manRbPBBItMbn;RtUBikénPaKxaglicekaH

Indies

nigGaemrikkNþal

[6]

enAtMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_

CaBiess enAhVIlIBIn b:uEnþk_manduHenAPUma éf evotNam ma:eLsIu \NÐÚensIu nigsIugháaBYr
RBmTaMgRtUv)andaMduH esÞIrEtRKb;tMbn; EdlmanGakasFatuekþA sMrab;CaeQIlMGr nigeQIhUbEpø
.

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

GakasFatuekþA esIm rW s¶Üt b:uEnþekþA (4, 32) enAkñúgtMbn;GakasFatu enAtMbn;TMnabRtUBik
manduHlUtlas;enAkMritry³kMBs; 400 m [26].

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

[6]

.

:

minRtUv)ankMNt; .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

duHlUtlas;)anl¥ enARbePTdI EdlesIm [6] duHlUtlas;l¥elIesÞIrEtRKb;RbePTdITaMgGs; dImanCICati
dImindk;Twk nigdImanCatiGasIutkMritTab KWsmRsbbMput . edImTwkedaHeKaduHlUtlas;enA elIdIxSac;
nigl,ay\dæeRCA [26].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[4,6,19]

4

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: eQIsmRsbsMrab;sMNg; nigGus [6,17] . smRsbsMrab;sMNg; kargareQI eRKOgsgðarwm .
eQI
mankars¶ÜtyWt
edaymankareRbHEbktic²
.
mankarBi)akeRbIR)as;
b:uEnþmankarFn;minFmµtaeLIy . smRsbsMrab;kareRbIR)as;xagkñúg kareFIVBmu < dgrbs;sMPar³ CageQI
eRKOgsgðarwm nigkareFIVTU . pþl;nUv Tinpñ lvInal¥ b:uEnþeQIrbs;RbePTenH enAmanPaBkMrenAeLIy [26]
. smRsbsMrab;karsagsg;enATwksmuRT kMNl;rbs;rfePøIg kMraleragcRk nigsMPar³ksikmµ [32] .
[Gnupl]: EpøPaKeRcInRtUv)anbriePaKRss; eRbIsMrab;eFIVCakaerm rW dMNab; [6,13,32] . EpøminTan;TuM
man Catis¥it Edl)anBIC½r b:uEnþsac;manrs;CatiEp¥m nigkøinRkGUbenAeBlTMu . CaFmµtasréseQIrbs;va
smRsb sMrab;eFIVCaRkdas EdlmanKuNPan b:uEnþvtßúFatuedImBIRbePTeQIenHmanlkçN³kMr [26] .
sMbk Gacpþl;nvU CatitanIn . sMbk C½r nigRKab;RtUv)aneRbICa»sfbUraN [6]
RKab;eRbICafñabM Ba©úHTwkenam søwkeRbI Ca
adstringent
nigsMrab;bitrbYs .
EpøRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;Xat;Qam nigRbqaMgnwgCMgWRKun [32] . épÞxag eRkamsøwk RtUv)anRtduH
nigykeTAlab rW s¥MelIrbYs . søwk Edles¶arrYcRtUv)anbriePaK sMrab;Büa)aleraK xVHCatisár .
EpøRtUv)aneRbIR)as;sMrab;Büa)al karhUrQam rW CMgWRKun . edImTwkedaHeKaRtUv)andaMduHCa
RbePTeQIlMGr
edaysarsøwkrbs;vamanBN’exovébtgPøWenAépÞxagelI
nigBN’sMNenAEpñkxageRkamrbs; søwk [6,9,26] . EmksmRsbCaTMr sMrab;kardaMduHG½rKIed [6].
enAtMbn;GaTik én Costa Rica GaemrikkNþal edImTwkedaHeKaduHlayCamYy Terminalia
amazonia, Averrhoa carambola, Persea americana Diospyros discolor RtUv)andaMduHya:geRcIn
enAtMbn;valesµA enAkñúgKMeragsþaréRBeLIgvij [32] . kMritlUtlas;RbcaMqñaM mankMritl¥
sMrab;CaeQIplþ ;Epø nigsMrab; Terminalia amazonia manlkçN³l¥CagRbePTeQIeTalenAkñúgcMkar rW
éRBlUtlas;eLIgvij enAeRkam kMritmøb; edaymankardaMeBat (Zea mais) enAkñúgRbB½n§ksirukçkmµ
Taungya [32].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
minmancMNat;fñak; [18].

:

:

edImTwkedaHeKa manduHenAkñúgsYn rW cMkar manBt’mantictYcNas;GMBIkarbegáIt nigRKb;RKgcMkar .
cenøaH énkardaMmancab;BI 10x10 m rW 12x12 m edaysar vaminsUvmanEmkeRcIn
eFIVeGayvaminsUvRtUvkaréRk EmkeT . kareRsacTwkRbcaMs)þah_ RtUv)aneFIVenAry³eBl 6 Ex dMbUg
enAeBlkMLúgrdUvecjpáa . enAPaK xaglic Indies edImeQIminRtUv)andak;CIeT
b:uEnþvaGacpþl;TinñplticenAeBldaMenAelIdIminsUvmanCICati
[32]
.
edImeQIxøHGacpþl;Epø)anya:geRcIn nigxøHeTotpþl;pltic . edImeQI EdlenAtUc KWgayrgeRKaH
edaysarkarCaMTkw enAkMLúgqñaMTImYy nigduHlUtlas;yWt . enAeBledImRtUv)andaM kMriténkarlUtlas;
nig
karvivtþ
manlkçN³elOn
.
karRKbedaycMebuIg
dak;CI
nigeRsacTwkGacCYyeGayvaduHlUtlas;)anl¥ . edImeQIGacpþl;Epø enAeBlmanGayu 3-5 qñaM
nigEtGacpþlp; leBjelj enAeBlmanGayuBI 6-7 qñaM . karecjEpø GacekItmanenArdUvekþA
nigEpøcas;enAcugrdUvsøwkeQIRCuH rhUtdl;rdUvekþA . EpøTMu enAExemsa nig mina enAPaKxaglic Indies
vaRtUv)anraykarN_fa minmanecjEpøeT enAkñúgekaH Virgin . Rbecov KW
CaGñkeFVIkarBRgayEpørbs;va[26] .
lT§plénkarviPaKsarFatuciBa©wmmandUcxageRkam :
sár 5%
pUsVr 16mg/100g
kal;süÚm 17 mg/100g
Edk 0.3-0.68 mg/100g
niacine
1mg/100g [32].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

6

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

karrkSaTukRKab;CaRbePT intermediate RKab;GacminKYrRtUv)ansMgYtmineBlrkSaTuk . lT§PaBdMNuH
GacRtUv)anrkSary³eBl 6 Ex RbsinRtUv)anrkSaTukenAkñgú lkçx½NÐsMeNIm enAkMritsItuNðPaB 20 ºC
. dMNuHrbs;RKab;Gacmandl; 81% enAkMritsMenIm 4% m.c.( EdlesñIrnwg 30% énsMeNIm
EdlBak;B½n§). dMNuHrbs;RKab;fycuHeTAdl; 23 % bnÞab;BIry³eBl 14 enArkSaTukenAkMrit 10 ºC.
RKab;GacmanTgn; s 1100 RKab; /kg [26] . karbnþBUC GacRtUv)aneFVIeLIgedayRKab;
EdlRtUv)ansabenAelIdIl,ayxSac;. kMritdMNuHman 70% enAkñúgry³eBl 14-40 éf¶ .
edaysarEtmanPaKxus²KñaeRcIn BIkUneQImYyeTAmYy karbnþBUCedayGePT dUcCakarkat; rW bMe)A
KWmankareBjniym . TaMgeFIVeGaymanCMerIsnUvBUC CaeRcIn EdlmanRbPBepSg²Kña .
karb:HBnøkk_GacTTYl)aneCaKC½ypgEdr . vaRtUv)anraykarN_fa karkat;GaclUtlas;)an
RbsinRtUv)aneFIVeLIgBIBnøk Edlcas;l¥ nigdak;enAkEnøgEdlmanGakaFatuekþAesIm .
karduHlUtlas;eLIgvijedayFmµCatiKWl¥ EdlmankMritRbEhl 50% edaymankMritBnøWRKb;RKan;
[26].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

7

:

RbePTstVl¥itrYmman BBYkecaHEmk ( twig borers) stVl¥iteQI (carpenter moth)
BBYkstVl¥itCBa¢k; (scales) nigruyEpø . RbePruyEpø Dacus dorsalis
eFIVkarbMpøajya:gF¶n;F¶reTAelIEpøkMBugTMu nigeFIVeGayEpø minGacbriePaK)an . karrMuEpø nigkarRbmUl
nigkat;ecjEpø EdlxUcGacCYykat;bnßykarbMpøaj . stVbkSI
Rbecov nigqµaéRB
k_GacRtUv)ancat;TukfaCaPñak;garbMpøajpgEdr . BBYkpSit Lasiodiplodia theobromae
bNþalmkBIPaBraMgs¶Üt eFIVeGaymankarrlYyelIEpø
EdlGacRtUv)ankMcat;tamry³kareRbIfñaM
sMlab;pSit EdlmanCatisMNr . enAXVIneLn RbeTsGURsþalI Fusarium solani sMlab;edImeQI
EdlenAtUc nig bMpøajEmkrbs;edImeQIcas;² . Pñak;garpSit EdlminGaceFVIGtþsBaØaN)an
eFIVkarbMpøajEpø EdlminTan;TMu enA Florida [26].

F> karGPirkS

:

minEmnCaRbePTrgeRKaHfñak; [9].

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

minRtUv)ankMNt; b:uEnþmanduHenAkñúgsYn kñúgRbeTskm<úCa [4].

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
manRbePBkMeNIt enAGaemrikkNþal nigekaH Caribbean RtUv)annaMcUl RbeTs\NÐÚcin éf ma:eLsIu
\NÐÚensIu hVIlIBIn RbeTsPaKxagekIt niglicGaeRhVc nigGaemrikkNþal nigRbeTsRtUBikepSgeTot
[26,32].

p> epSg²

:

Sapotaceae

CaRKYsarFM énedImeQIRtUBki manduHenAtMbn;RtUBki CaBiess enAéRBtMbn;TMnab nigx<g;rab

[11]

:

Anon. 1986. The useful plants of India. Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi,
India.
Dassanayake MD, Fosberg FR. 1983. Flora of Ceylon. Vol. 10. Amerind Publishing Co. New Delhi.
Hearne DA. 1975. Trees for Darwin and northern Australia. Australian Government Publishing
Service.
Hong TD, Linington S, Ellis RH. 1996. Seed storage behaviour: a compendium. Handbooks for
Genebanks: No. 4. IPGRI.
Popenoe W. 1974. Manual of the tropical and subtropical fruits. The Macmillann Company.
Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S. (eds.). 1998. PROSEA 5(3) Timber trees: lesser known
species. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

8

Timyan J. 1996. Bwa Yo: important trees of Haiti. South-East Consortium for International
Development. Washington D.C.
Verheij EWM, Coronel RE (eds.). 1991. Plant Resources of South East Asia No 2. Edible fruits and
nuts. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

4)
Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom Penh,
915 pp.
6)
Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field guide.
Orchid Press, Bangkok, 234 pp.
9)
Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide Encyclopaedic
Guide. Thames & Hudson Ltd., London, 484 pp.

11)
Heywood, V.D. (Ed.) 1993: Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford University Press,
New York; 336 pp.

12)

CABI Forestry Compendium Edition 2003 (on CD ROM)

13)
Baertels, A., 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen (Color Atlas
Tropical Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ. Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

17)
Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor,
Indonesia, 859 pp.

9

19)
Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics.
Josef Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552 pp.

20)
Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor B, and Mutua A, 2002: Agroforestree
Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD ROM).

27)

Wikipedia http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/species name (Internet source)

32)

http://www.herbaria.plants.ox.ac.uk/adc/downloads (Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Chucrasia tabularis Ant. Juss.]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Chucrasia tabularis Ant. Juss.]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

Chucrasia tabularis Ant. Juss. [4]

³

Burma almondwood, chickrassy, chittagong wood [16]
bastard cedar, East Indian mahogany, Indian redwood, white
cedar [12].

K> sTisn½y

³

Chickrassia tabularis (A.Juss.) Wight&Aen., Dysoxylum
esquirolli H. Lev., Swietenia chickrassia Roxb. (8); Chukrasia
velutina M. Roem., Chukrasia velutina (Wallich) Roemer,
Chukrasia tabularis var. velutina (M. Roem.) W. Theob.,
(Botanists do not agree on whether C. velutina is a separate
species or not) [12,16].

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

surian batu, trade name in Indonesia and Malaysia; repoh,
cherana puteh, suntang puteh (Malaysia); yinma, tawyinma,
kinthatputgyi, (Burma); vory yong, (Cambodia); nhom, nhom
hin, nhom khao, (Laos); siat ka (Thailand-SE); yom-hin,
(Thai-general), fakdap (Thai-Chanthaburi), lát hoa, Vietnam.
[2,16,20]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

vlø×eyag/ Ereyag
ÉksarBieRKaH : [4]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

1

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

rê:-yôô:ng, voë(lli) yôông [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Sapindales

RKYsar : Meliaceae subfamily Swietenioideae
ePT : Chukrasia A.H.L. Juss. [16]
RbePT : Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss.
ÉksarBieRKaH: [2 ; 4 ;8 ; 11 ; 12 ]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: vlø×eyag CaRbePTedImeQIFM²EdlmankMBs; 30 m nigmanGgát;p©it 100 cm.
edImrbs; vaRtg;RsLÚnl¥ manRBwgFM² nigmanEmkehIyRkas; .[2] vaCaRbePTeQIEdlmankMBs;BI 820
m
.[4] vaCaRbePT eQIEdlmansøwkébtgCanic© mankMBs;rhUtdl; 35 .[5]
vaCaRbePTeQICMruHsøwkmankMBs;Gac rhUtdl; 40 m nigmanGgát;p©it 120 cm nigEtgEtmanRBwg.[8]
vaCaRbePTeQICMruHsøwk
manpáajI
nigpaáeQµalenAelIedImEtmYy
manTMhMmFüm
CYnkalragx<s;bnþicEdlGacmankMBs;rhUtdl;eTA 30(40) m tall edImmanEmktic
Edlcab;BIKl;dl;EmkTImYymankMBs; 18 (32) m nigmanGgátp; ©it 110(175) cm
nigGt;manRBwgeT.[16]
[sMbk]: sMbkvamanBN’exµARsal manragrbkbBÄr² maneramxøI²BN’RkhmRsal.[2] sMbkman
BN’etat
eRKImehIyrageRbH²
nigsMbkxagkñúgmanBN’Rkhm.[5]
sMbk
ragrbkdMu²tambeNþayedIm. sMbkxagkñúgmanBN’RkhmRsal layetñat b¤BN’páaQUkx©I.
sac;eQIRsaymanBN’TwkRkUcRsal nigsac;eQI xøwmmanBN’elOg b¤RkhmRsalEbketñat.
cMENkÉ EmktUc²manBN’RbepH. [8] sMbkxageRkAeRKIm manBN’etñat b¤etñatcas;
Edlmanragrbk² nigsMbkxagkñúgmanBN’RkhmRsal. [16]
[søwk]:vlø×eyag
mansøwkCaRbePTsøkw smas sñitKUr. Tgsøwk manRbEvg 30-40 cm
nigmanragdUcbMBg;. søwkmancMnYn 7-10 KUr CaRbePTsøwkqøas; EdlCYnkalesÞIrEtQm
manbeNþaymanRbEvg 10-12 cm nigTTwg 5-6 cm manragdUcs‘ut b¤manragCalMEBg
EdlcugsøwkmanragRsYcbnþic. søwkmanTg RbEvg 0.4-0.8 cm. RTnugbnÞab; mancMnYn 10-15 KUr
nigRTnugGkS½maneram .[2] søwkmanRbEvg 30-85 cm nigCaRbePTswksñitess(5) EdlmankUnsøwk
8-13 KUr EdltMerobqøas; b¤esÞIrQm nigmanTMhM 7-13x3.0-4.5 cm ragdUcs‘uterovtUc b¤

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

3

manragRTEvg ehIymanragRsYcenAxagcug nigEpñkKl;manragbBa¢it bnþic. søwkx©I maneram
søwkTMurelag manRTnugsøwkTIBI cMnYn 7-10 KUr. TgkUnsøwkmanRbEvg 0.3-0.5 cm nigTgFMmanRbEvg
7-11 cm. [5]
søwkrbs;va CaRbePTswøksñitKUr EdlsMy:ugcuH nigmanBkkUnsøwkenAeBlenAx©I ehIymanRbEvg 30-80
cm. Tgsøwk manRbEvg 4-9 cm ragbBa¢itenAKl;søwk EKmsøwkmanrageBj (eBlsøwkTMu)
cugsøwkmanrag RsYc ehIyTgsøwkTIBI mancMnYn 10-15 KUr TgsøwkmanRbEvg 2-6 mm .[8]
søwk CaRbePTsøwksñitrYmKUr manEKmsøkw rageBj kUnsøwkGsmmaRt nigragRsYc EdlCaRbePTsøwk
sñitess manBk²enAelIsøwkx©I Edlrelag b¤maneram.[16]
[páa]:vlø×eyag mankBa©Múpaá CaRbePTpáakYr bBaÄrRtg; EdlmanpáasßitenAxagcug² nigmaneramtic².
sÞbpáa manragRTEvg ehIyCMruHral;qñaM. páava CaRbePTpáa 2 ePT manBN’elOgRsal nigmanRbEvg
1.5 cm. Tgpáa xøICagpáa. Rtbkpáa manRbEvg 0.25 cm nigmaneramxøI²enAxageRkA. Rtbkpáa
mancMnYn 5 manRbEvg 1.5-2.0 cm tMerobRtg; ehIymanragekagbnþicenAeBlEdlvarIk
EdlEKm²ragsMyu:gcuH manduHeramxøI²enAxageRkA nigxagkñúgrelag. maneksreQµal cMnYn 10
TgeksreQµalmanragCabMBg; sIuLaMg relag ehIyxøICagRtbkpáabnþic nigmanrage)a:genAKl;.
e)aøklMGg mancMnYn 10 relag ehIyEbrmuxecjeRkA. GUEv rbs;vamaneram sÞicma:xøI
nigmanragCasIuLaMg.[2]
páamanRbEvg
2.5-3.0
cm
manBN’elOgx©I
nigEpñkxageRkAmanBN’RkhmenAeBlpáarIk
enAelIcegáamEmk
b¤enAelIxagcugGkS½søwk
nigTgnImYy²manRbEvg ± 0.3 cm ehIyrelag. RtbkpáamanRbEvg 1-2 mm
maneramRkas;BN’etñat ehIyRsTab;páamancMnYn 4-5 ragerovtUc manRbEvg ± 0.7 cm
ehIyeTAeRkay
ehIymaneramdUckaMxJI.
eksreQµal
manragCabMBg;sLIu aMg
nigmanragerovtUcenAEpñkxagcug mane)aøklMGgcMnYn 10 EdlsMEb:t nigEKmGgáaj;dUceFµj.
GUEvrbs;varelag ehIyEvgCagbMBg;eksrjI nigmanragsMEb:tesþIgmUldUcfas. [5]
kBa©Múpáa manragCacegáam tMerobenAGkS½ ehIymanpáasßti enAEpñkxagcugénGkS½. sÞbpáa
manragRtIekaN erovtUc EdlPaKeRcInCMruHral;qñaM. páarbs;va CaRbePTpáaeFVrePT manRtbkpáacMnYn 5
EdlmaneramRkas; BN’etñat. RsTab;páa mancMnYn 5 esrI manrageekagbnþic enAeBlEdlrIk
EdlEpñkxageRkAmaneram nigEpñkxagkñúgrelag. eksreQµal manragCabMBg;sIuLaMg

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

ehIymanragerovtUcenAEpñkxagcug nigmane)øaklMGgrelag cMnYn 10 nigEKmmanragGgáaj;². GUEv
manduHeram.[8]
páarbs;va CaRbePTpáaeTVePT ehIytMerobenAcugelIGkS½ mancMnYn 4 b¤ 5 manRbEvg 16 mm
Rtbkpáarag Bk² RsTab;páaesrI ragrmUlenAeBlEdlpáarIk ehIymanBN’s
eksreQµalmanragCabMBg;sIuLaMg
nigmanragerovenAEpñkxagcugehIyTn;
mane)aøklMGgEdlmanEKmragGgáaj;² manragtUcsMEb:t GUEvman ragtUcsþÜc manekasikacMnYn 3-5
EdlekasikamYy² manGUv:ulCaeRcIn nigbMBg;eksrjIragRsav.[16]
[Epø]: vlø×eyag manEpøragCaeGlIb mancugRsYcbnþc
i manbeNþayRbEvg 4.0-4.5 cm nigTTwgRbEvg
2.5-3.5 cm manRKab;eRcInenAkñg
ú EpønImYy². RKab;manbeNþayRbEvgBI 1.0-1.2 cm nigTTwg 0.4
cm nigminmanGg;dUEs<m.[2]
Epø GacmanRbEvgrhUtdl;eTA 4 cm manBN’elOg layRbepH maneramtic²eBlEdlEpøx©I
nigRCYjenA eBlEdlEpøTMu ehIyEckxNÐCa 3 xNÐ ehIyRKab;rbs;vamansMbkrwg nigmansab.[5]
Epø rbs;vaCaRbePTEpøs¶Üt manragRTEvg sMbUreTAedayCatoeQI nigmanBN’etñatcas; manTMhM 2.04.5 x 2.0-3.5 cm mansnÞHbiTebIkcMnYn 3-5 enAEpñkxagcugénEpø. RKab;vamaneRcIn
nigCaRbePTRKab;mansøab ehIymanRbEvg 1.0-1.3 cm .[8]
Epørbs;vaRtg; ehIysMbUreTAedayCatieQI manragdUcs‘ut b¤RTEvg nigCaRbePTEKab;s¶Üt mansnÞHbiT
ebIkcMnYn
3-5
enAEpñkxagcugénEpø
ehIyRsTab;xagkñúg
nigRsTab;xageRkA
énsnÞHnImYy²sMbUreTAeday CatieQI ehIyEpñkxagcugénRsTab;xagkñúg manragERBkeRCA. rn§mYy
manRKab;cMnYnBI 60-100 ragsMEb:t nigenAxagcugénRKab;mansøab nigGMRbIy:U mankUTIeldUnesøIg².
vlø×eyag duHenAelIdIesIm² kUTIeldUnduH ecjCasøwkQmdMbUg 2 ehIyduHsøwkCabnþbnÞab;
enAxagcugénedIm nigeBlTMumingayRCuH.[16]
vlø×eyag
cab;epþImecjpáaenAExkkáda
nigecjEpøenAExFñÚ
b¤GacrhUtdlExmkra.
RbsinebIduHedayFmµCati vacab;epþImecjpáaenAExmifuna dl;ExsIha nigecjEpøBEI xvicäika dl;Exmkra.
CaTUeTA edImvlø×eyag ecj páa nigEpøeBjmYyqñaM ehIyRKab;cab;epþImTMuenAcenøaHExmkra dl;Exmina.
Epørbs;va CaRbePTEpøsøab EdlmankarsayPayedaysarxül;. [2,8,16]

4

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

manTMgn;lµm nigmansac;eQIrwg. sac;eQIxøwm manBN’RkhmRsal layetñat
BN’elOgRsal layRkhm EbkRkhm BN’exµA elOsRsay nigetñat ebIdak;vab:HBnøW
manBNíRkhm Rsallayetñat eTABN’ exµAlµmlayetñat EdlmanPaBxusKñaBIsac;eQIRsay
EdlmanBN’elOgx©I
lays
BN’elOgx©IPølW ayetñat
BN’páaQUkRsallayetñat
b¤BN’RbepHRsallayetñat. sac;eQI rbs;vamansñamqñÚtelceLIgya:gc,as;. vamanTMgn; 625880
kg/m³
enAkMritsMenIm 15%. sésreQI rbs;vacak;eRsHKña CYnkalrYj
EdlbegáIt)anCaRkLaBIess
nigmansac;eQIs¥at
b:uEnþminrabesµIeT.
sac;
eQIRss;enAeBlkat;mankøinRkGUb b:uEnþeBlsac;eQIs¶ÜtBMumankøineT ehIyk¾KµanrsCatiEdr. sac;eQI
manPaBPWøxøaMg ehIyføa.[16]
enAkMritsMenIm 15% vamankMritkat;pþac; 82-101 N/mm² manbt;Ebn)an 10,800-14,300 N/mm²
sMm<aFRsb 47-64 N/mm² sm<aFTb; 11-12 N/mm² kMritbMEbkkat; 15-18 N/mm² kMriteRbHTTwg
60 N/mm² nig kMriteRbHEKm 71 N/mm² nigPaBrwgéncug Janka 8,990-9,230 N.
GaRtaénkarrYjrbs; sac;eQITabKW BIkMritsMenImeQIRss; 15% kMriteRbHTTwg 1.3% nigkMriteRbHEKm
1.7%
BIeQIEss; rhUtdl;eQIs¶Üt rYjkaM 3.9% nigEKm 6.0%. CaFmµta
sac;eQImankars¶Ütya:gqab;rhs½ b:uEnþRtUv ]sSah_BinitükMedA eRBaHvaGacFøak;cuHsMenImRCuleBk.
enAelIépÞvamaneram enAeBlsMgYtRtUvBnitüeram rbs;vaeRBaHvanwgeLIgRkas;. enARbeTsm:aeLsIu
cMeBaHkarsMgYtkñúgL RtUvmantarageBlevlac,as; las;. karsakl,gnUvRbeTsma:eLsIubgðajfa
vaCaeQIEdlBi)akkñúgkarGar nigkat;TTWgeQINas; BI)akkñúgkarBt; ehIykan;EtBi)akkñúgkarxYg
b:uEnþgayRsYlkñúgkardaMduH. sac;eQIrbs;vaminsUvrelageT edaymanknÞÜlxøH²enAelIsésr
EdlBI)akkñúgkarGareFVICaeRKag
b¤Bum<.
eTaHCaya:gNak¾eday
karsak
l,genAtMbn;epSgeTot)anbgðajeGayeXIjfa
sac;eQIrbs;vagayRsYlGaredayeRbIma:sIun.
sac;eQI rbs;vagayRsYlkñúgkardMEdkeKal xYgCaRbeLaH b:uEnþvaGacmansñameRbH b¤
manRbeLaHrelags¥atEt mþg. edImrbs;va GacekagEtkñúgkMritl¥GacTTYlyk)an.
vaGackat;ciBa©aMeFVICavIenor b¤ekobeFVICasMbk vIenor. enARbeTsma:eLsIu vlø×eyag manPaBmaM
nigFn;enAeRkamkardak;haléf¶
b:uEnþenAkEnøgepSgeTot
CYnkalvaBMumanPaBFn;eT.
vaFn;cMeBaHkarbMpøajBIBBYkkeNþór. sac;eQImanPaBFn; nwgRbRBwtþkmµ nigkarbgáarepSg².[12,16.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Chukrasia

5

:

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

manmYy b¤BIrRbePT EdlduHenA eN)a:l; \NÐa )a:KIsßan bg;køaeds sirIlgáa
PUmiPaKxagt,ÚgRbeTscin \NÐÚcin ¬Lav km<úCa evotNam¦ éf ePnIsL‘U a énRbeTsma:eLsIu
(Kalimantan)
nigRbeTsCb:un.[8,12,16] vaCaRbePT EdlmanduHenAtMbn;esImRtUBic
EDlnaEBlbc©úb,nñ manduHeRcInbMput BIeRBaHnaeBlfµIenH vamankareFVIGaCIrkmµhYskMrit.[12]
PaKeRcIn vaduHenAtMbn;PñM EdlmandIfµkMe)ar manry³kMBs;TabCag 800 m ehIyduHlaylMCamYy
Dracontomelum dao, Garcinia spp. nig Peltophorum tonkinensis.[8] enARbeTsevotNam
vaduHenAry³kMBs;TabCag
800
m
EdlCaFmµtavaduHenAelIPñMEdlmandIfµkMe)a:r
ehIyduHlayCamYyRbePT Pentace tonkinensis, Garcinia spp., Amoora gigantea nig
Dracontomelum duperreanum.[2] vlø×eyag k¾GacduHenAkñúg éRBRkas;énRbeTs\NÐa \NÐÚeNsIu
nig Malay Peninsulas.[4] vlø×eyag CaFmµtaeKEtgEtRbTHePIjva duHenAtMbn;TMnab
laylMCamYyéRBébtgCanic© dipterocarp EdlCaéRBTwkePøóg éRBesImBak;kNþal eRsag
b¤éRBel,aHEdlmanry³kMBs; 300-800 m . enA Peninsular RbeTsma:eLsIu vaduHenAdI
valrehasßan Edlmanpøúvqøgkat; nigtMbn;dIksikmµ.[5,16,26] tMbn;sMxan;²EdlmanduHvlø×eyagKW
RbeTs\NÐa bg;køaeds éf nig m:aeLsIu. vamanduHenARbeTsmYycMnYneToteRkABI
PUmIPaKxagt,ÚgénGasIu dUcCa nIesrIya: kaemr:Un Gaemricxagt,Úg Hawaii, Puerto Rico nig Costa
Rica .[20]
Chukrasia

:

vlø×eyag duHenAkñúgéRBFmµCati EdlmankMBs;TwkePøógRbcaMqñaM CamFüm 1800-3800 mm nigeRcIn
CagenH. vaRtUvkarsItuNPð aBGb,rmaBI 2.5-15.5 ºC nigGtib,rmaBI 36.0-40.5 ºC [16]. vaduHenA
eRkamry³kMBs;TabCag 800 m ehIymankarduHlUtlas;yWt nigCaRbePTeQIEdlRtUvkarBnøW
b:uEnþeBlvaenAtUcvaFn;nwgmøb;
[2,8]
vaduHenAelIdIfµkMe)ar
enA
Sarawak
(xagekItRbeTsma:eLsIu).[16] vaduHenAry³kMBs;mFümBI 0-900 m RtUvkarkMritTwkePøógRbcaMqñaMBI
1400-4000 mm/ m² eTaHbICaenA rdUvR)aMg vamanPaBFn;nUvedUvR)aMg)anry³eBl 5 Ex.
vaduHenAkMritsItuNðPaBRbcaMqñaMCamFümBI 20-25ºC. vlø×eyag GacduHenAkMritTwkePøógRbcaMqñaM 850

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

6

b:uEnþvamankarduHlUtlas;yWt. vaduHenAtMbn; GDÆeKalxageCIg eTAxagt,ÚgKW 27º N to 0º
N.[12] vaRbePT EdlmanlkçxNÐduHlUtlas;elOn nigCaRbePTEdlFn;nwgmøb;enAeBlEdlvaenAtUc
.[12, 26] vlø×eyag GaceFVIkaréRkEmkedayxøÜnÉg gayduHExñgeBlEdledImkMbutcug ehIyvamanPaB
Fnlnwgmøb; nigxül;. [26]
mm

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y.

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

CaFmµtaKYrEteCosvag daMvaenAelIdIesImxøaMg eKeXIjvaCaFmµtaeRcInduHenAelIdIfµkMe)ar [8]
CYnkalvaduHenAelIdIvalrehasßan.[16] vaduHenAelIdIfµkMe)ar dIéRBEdlmanBN’etñat b:uEnþRtUvcgcaMfa
vaduHenAelIdIkMe)armanCICati. vaduHenAelIdICaeRcInRbePTdUcCa dIl,b; dIfµkMe)ar dI alfisols nigdI
cambisols.[12] vaduHenAelIdIGasIutEdlman pH 4.0 eTAdIesÞIrNWt Edlmanh pH 7.5.
vaduHenAelIdI EdlRss;Twk dIrabesµIr b¤dTI ICMral ehIyvacUlcitþduHenAtMbn;xagt,Úg.[12]
Chukrasia

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

sac;eQI]: vlø×eyag mansac;eQIRss;s¥at dUcedImmhkkanI (mahogany). sac;eQIrbs;va
eRbIsMrab; karsagsg;epSg² nigeFVICasgðarwm.[2] vaCaRbePTeQIEdlmantMélx<s; sMrab;kareFVItu
TU[4] eRKOgcMlak; eFVICaTVar bg¥Üc rnab sMrabqøak; nigRkLwg. vak¾eRbIsMrab;eFVICaTUreTHePøIg TUk k)a:l;
sgðarwm ]bkrN_ePøg dUcCaBüaNUr eFVILaMg sMPar³kILa TUrrfynþFM² k,alGnøgÚ k,alsVa
bøúkEdkRTnab; ]bkrN_KUrKMnUr dgkaMePøIg vIenor kþarbnÞH nigeFVICakþaregO.[12] enARbeTs\NÐa
eRbIsMrab;eFVICakarsagsg; epSg²EdlmanTMgn;mFüm dUcCassr Fñwm nigkþar. [8,16]
[Gnupl]: søk
w Edlx©I nigsMbk manpÞkú nUvCati tannin x<s; ehIysMbkrbs;vapþl;Cr½BN’RkhmRsal
Edl Gaclk;laymYyCr½eQIepSg²eTot.[12.16] sMbkrbs;va GaceRbIeFVICa»sfburaN
Büa)aleraKRKun. ehIysMbkrbs;va k¾manpÞúknUvCati Tannin 15% cMENksøkw manp;ÞúkeRcInCag

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

7

:

. søwkeFVICafñaMRClk; BN’elOg nigRkhm.[12] enAxagt,ÚgRbeTscin eKykEmktUc b¤Exñg
eFVICafñaMEdleFVIeGaystVmni ha‘n mkCit Pieris rapae nigfñaMkarBarstVli¥tbMpøajRsUv.[12]
vlø×eyagGacdaMeFVICaksirukkç mµ. BIRBaH vaGaceFVIkaréRkEmkedayxønÜ va nigmanedImRtg;l¥ EdlGaceRbI
sMrab; daMlayCamYyedImeck RkUcqµar RtEbk nigeQIhUbEpøepSg²eTot.[12]
22%

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

vlø×eyag CaRbePTeQIEdlmancMNat;fñak;elx 1. [4,18]

:

vlø×eyag eRkABIPUmiPaKxagt,ÚgGasIu mandaMenAkñúgRbeTsCaeRcIn ]TahrN_dUcCa³ nIesrIya: GaRBic
xagt,Úg kamemr:Un haév: Puerto Rico nig Costa Rica. kareduHeLIgvijenAedayFmµCati
KWmanduHenAkñúg éRBeRsagRbeTs\NÐa KWkñúgbrimaNlµm nig enAkñúgéRBBak;kNþaleRsag
manduHtictYc.
rlø×eyag
KWCaRbePTEdlcat;Tukfa
manduHenAtMbn;enaHmuneKbg¥s;
nigCaFmµtavadaMedIm,Ipøas;brþÚ tMbn;dIksikmµ.
cMeBaHedImtUc
duHlUtlas;Exñg)anl¥.[16]
enARbeTs\NÐa bgðajfakaedaMduHedaykUneQI mankarduHlUylas;elOnlµm kñúgry³eBl 2qñaMdMbUg.
bnÞab;BIry³eBl 2qñaMdMbUg GaclUt)ankMBs; 1.2-2.1 m qñaMTI 3bnÞab; lUt)ankMBs; 2.8-3.4 m
nigmanGgátp; ©it 4-5 cm nigqñaMTI 6 valUt)ankMBs; 5.5 m nigmanGgát;p©it 15 cm Gacbgðaj)anfa
CamFümkñúgmYyqñaM valUt)anGgát;p©it 2.5 cm. RbPBepSg eTotenARbeTs\NÐa)anbgðajfa
valUtlas;)ankMBs; 6.6 m nigGgát;p©it 5.2 cm kñúgry³eBl 5qñaM. enAPaKxaglicén Java
eKeFVIkardaMduHvlø×eyagedayeRbIRKab;EdlykmkBI ekaHs‘Uma:Rta ehIyvaGacduH lUtlas;)ankMBs; 13
m nigGgát;p©it 18 cm kñúgry³eBl 10qñaM bnÞab;Bd
I aM. enAkñúgkarBiB½N’rukçCati KMrb xYbelIkTI 33
rbs;RKwHsßansikSaRsavRCavGMBIéRBeQI RbeTm:aeLsIu )anbgðajnUredImvlø×eyagFMCaeKbg¥s;
KWmankMBs; 33 m Edlcab;BIKl;dl;EmkTImYymankMBs; 16m nigmanGgát;p©it 66 cm
bnÞab;BIdaMry³eBl 40qñaM. vlø×eyag k¾mankarduHlUtlas;l¥enAkñúgcMkarEdr KWenAtMbn;EdlRtUvBnøWéf¶
niglUtlas;Ggát;p©it )anCag 1 cm Caerogral;qñaM.[16]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

8

vlø×eyag GaceFVIkardaMduHExñgEdlduHecjBIedIm nigkarbgátb; ¤s (Rashid et al., 1986). kargáat;
ExñgEdlduHecjBIedImeBjvy½
nigTTYl)anGaRtaénPaBeCaKCy½dl;eTA
97%
b:uEnþebIbgáat;b¤sTTYl)an Et 50% b:ueNÑaH. kUneQIcMnYn 10,800 Edl)anmkBIkarbgáat;edayExñg
RtUvkarfñalTMhM 100 m² edIm,IeFVIkarrkSakUnTukmYyqñaM.(Pandit, 1996) [12]
sMrab;cMkar TItaMgRtUveFVIkardutsMGat bnÞab;BIkab;sMGat eTaHCaya:gNak¾eday enAeBlEdlkUneQI
cab;epþIms¶ÜtdI KYrEteFVIkarEfTaMeGay)anditdl; edIm,ICyY kat;bnßyGaRtasøab;eGay)anelOn
dUcCadak;va enAkñúgmøb; cMeBaHRbePTeQIEdlmankarduHlUtlas;elOn. viFIsaRsþenH
RtUv)aneRbIR)as;enAxaglic Bengal (Forest Research Institue India, 1974) .[12]
kñúgry³eBl 3qñaMdMbUg caM)ac;RtUveFVIkarsMGat b¤dkesµAecjya:gtic 3dg kñúgrdUvvsSa. vlø×eyag
gayrg
nUvkarbMpøajBIBBYkstVEdlecaH
b¤xYgBnøk
b¤Exñg
dUecñHehIyRtUvdaMvalaylMCamYyRbePTepSg²eTot EdlCaRbePTFn;nwgkarbMpøaj. dUcenH
vaRtUvkaréRkEmk nig edImEdlEbkCMBam CaBiesskaréRkEmk elIkdMbUgKYrEtqab;eFVI
edIm,IeGayvaTTYl)amBnøW. vlø×eyag GacRtUv)ansIuedayeKa RkbI nigkþan;bMpøaj sMbk
dUecñHcaM)ac;RtUveFVIrbgBT§½CMuvijcMkar. [12]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

9

:

BnøkEmkEdlduHmkBIedIm GaceFVIkarkat;ecjral; 21-24 éf¶mþg. EmkEdleBjvy½
manlkçN³smRsb sMrab;BBYkGr½KIed rs;enAelI. karsikSaRsavRCavenAelIdg;sIuetéRB
BIedImeQIepJIrR)aN eRCIserIsTItaMgrs; enA KWTTYl)aneCaKCy½ edaybgðajfaBBYkGr½KIed
Edlrs;enAelIvlø×eyag ehIykarsikSaRsavRCavenH RtUv)aneFVIeday mhaviTüal½y Chittagong
rbs;RbeTsbg;køaeds.
vamanCH\T§iBlmindUcrKñaeT
cMeBaHBBYkGr½KIed
EdlepJIrxøÜnenAelIbMENkénBnøk b¤Emk.[12] vlø×eayag b¤Er:eyag duHeLIgvijedayFmµCati
tamry³RKab; k¾dUcCatamry³Exñg edIm,IbMeBjtMrUvkar. RtUveFVIkarRbmUlEpøTMuBI edImenAkMLúgExmina
dl;ExsIha nigdak;BRgayhaleRkamBnøWéf¶ ry³eBl 2-3éf¶ bnÞab;mkeFVIkarbMEbk
RKab;edayvayRsal² edIm,IkarBarvaxÞatRKab;eTAq¶ay b¤k¾sMgYtEpøenAkñúgmøb; rhUtdl;vaEbk bnÞab;mk
ykRKab;ecjedayTajepþkfñm² b¤GRgYnEpø. edImEdleBjvy½ mankenSamsøkw l¥ Gacpþl;EpøcMnYn 8-

EdlmanRKab;cMnYn 1-2 kg. kñúgRKab; 1kg mancMnYnBI 45,000 eTA 100,000RKab;
manlT§PaBdMNuHBI 25 eTA 90%. RKab; GacrkSaTukenAkñgú fg;ry³eBlRbEhl 5Ex
ehIiyvanwgcab;epþImrwgPøam². KYrEteCosvag sMgYtedaydak;vahaléf¶edaypÞal; vaGacekþARCuleBk
nigs¶ÜteBk
eFVIeGayRKab;xUc.
RKab;rbs;va
minRtUvkareFVIRbRBwtþikmµRKab;eT
nigsabvaenAelIdIEdlRCay² b¤FUr nigenAeRkamBnøWéf¶. vamanGaRtadMNuHKYrsmKW³ enAma:eLsIu
manGaRtadMNuH 35% bNþúHry³eBl 1-2.5 s)aþh_ enARbeTs \NÐa manGaRtadMNuH 80-90%
kñúgry³eBl
1-4
s)aþh_.
viFIsaRsþl¥bMptu
EdleFVIeGayRKab;duH)aneRcIn
KWsabRKab;edaytMerobenAcMgay 0.6 m x 1.8 m XøatBIKña. edIm,IeGayvaTTYl )anGaRtadMNuHl¥KW
sabRKab;enAkñúgfñalsabEdlRss;Twkl¥
b¤enAkñúges,ag
muneBlykeTAsÞÚg.
enAeBlEdlkUneQIman b¤scak;TMluHfñalsab ehIymanGayuRbEhl 1Ex nigmankMBs; 6-8 cm
RtUvykkUneQIeTAsÞÚg. RbePtenHk¾GacdaMedayeRbIb¤sEkv)anEdr KWykvaeTAdaMEtmþg b¤sÞúM.
rebobénkarrkSaRKab;Tuk KWtamk,Ún buraN vanwg)at;bg;lT§PaBdMNuHkñúgry³eBl 1qñaM
ebIrkSavaTukkñúgbnÞb;biTCitEdlGacRKb;RKgsItuNðPaB )an ehIyva)at;bg;GaRtadMNuHtictYcb:ueNþaH
KWva)at;bg;GaRtadMNuH 4% kñúgry³eBl 6Ex ebIrkSavakñúg bnÞb;CitenAkMritsItuNðPaB 10 GgSares
nigkMritsMenIm 6%. RKab;Rss;manpÞúknUvlT§PaBdMNuH)anry³ eBlxøI Et 3Ex b:ueNÑaH. [26]
16 kg

:

vlø×eyag sßitenAkñúgRKYsar Meliaceae Edldg;sIuetrbs;vaenAelIBPi BelakmankarbMpøajya:gF¶n;F¶rBI
BBYkstVxYgBnøkeQIKW Hypsipyla robusta. tamkarBit manRbePTeQIeRcInNas;
EdlEbkCMBamelOn snµt;)anfa edImrbs;vamanRkBMuBnøkeRcIn EdlRtUv)anbMpøajeday Hypsipyla.
vamanBnøWlµm b¤manBnøWenAEpñkxageRkay EdlCYykat;bnßynUvkarbMpøajBIBBYk Hypsipyla.
tamry³karsikSa
RsavRCavGMBIkarkøÚn
sgÇwmfaEsnrbs;vanwgmanPaBsm
b¤GacTb;Tl;nwgkarbMpøajrbs;
Hypsipyla
EdlGacedaHRsaynUvtMrUvkarry³eBlEvg.
Tak;TgnwgkarRsavRCavenaH RtUv)anbBa©ÚleTAkñúgkmµviFIsikSa énRKwHsßanGb;rMEpñkviTüasaRsþéRBeQI
nigbrisßan enAmhaviTüal½y Chittagong enARbeTsbg;køaeds. karbMpøajrbs; Plagiophleus
longiclavis KWeFVIkarecaH b¤xYgvlø×eyag nigGacTb;sáat;)aneday)aj; Furadan 3G enAelIdICMuvijedIm
EdlCaeRKOgpSMCYybegáIteGayman carbofuran.[12]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

10

F> karGPirkS

:

vlø×eyag CaRbePTEdlrgeRKaHfñak; eRBaHRKab;rbs;vaesÞIrEtputBUC dUecñHehIy enARbeTsevotNam
va)an køayCaRbePTEdlrgeRKaHfñak;. [2]

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

minmanTinñn½y.

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
vlø×eyag manenAxagekIténPUmiPaKxagt,ÚgGasIu nigvamanRbPBkMeNIt enAxaglic nigxagt,Úg
GaRBic nignaMykeTAGaemrickNþal.[12,16]

p> epSg²

:

CaRbePTEdlmanPaBxusEbøkBIRbePTepSg²eTotenAkñúgePT (genus) vaCaBYkén
Swietenieae nigCaRKYsarrg (subfamily) én Swietenioideae. vlø×eyag manlkçN³dUcteTAKW
manpáa
FM
EdlmanbMBgeksrragmUl
CYnkalmantic
nigCYnkalmaneRcIn
nigmancMnYnRKab;tMerobKñaeRcIn. [11,16]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Chukrasia

11

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Chudnoff, M., 1980:Tropical timbers of the world.For.Prod. Lab., USDAForest Service
pp.591-592.
Gamble JS, 1984. A manual of Indian timbers. (Reprint) Dehra Dun, India: Bishen Singh
Mahendra Pal Singh.
Latif MA, Younus-uzzaman M, Gupta SRD, De BC, 1989. Natural durability of some
important timber species of Bangladesh. Bano Biggyan Patrika, 18(1-2):31-35; 6 ref

Mabberley DJ, 1995. Meliaceae. In: Dassanayake MD, ed. A Revised handbook to the
flora of Ceylon. Vol.9. Washington D.C., USA: Smithsonian Institution and National
Science Foundation, 229-30
Rai SN, 1985. Notes on nursery and regeneration technique of some species occurring in
southern tropical wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests of Karnataka (India) Part II.
Indian Forester, 111(8):644-657; 3 ref.
Sekhar AC, Sharma RS, 1965. Physical and mechanical properties of woods tested at
FRI. Report 9. Indian Forest Records.
Venkataramany P, Rashid MA, Joshi HB, Venkataramanan SV, Ram Parkash, 1981.
Troup's The Silviculture of Indian Trees. Vol. 3. India: Govt. of Indian Press, 160-164.

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

2)
NGUYEN et al.1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. Agricultural Publishing House,
Hanoi, 788 pp.

4)
DY PHON, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House;
Phnom Penh,. 915 pp.

8)
Sam, H. V.,Nanthavong, Kh.and P.J.A. Kessler 2004: Trees of Laos and
Vietnam: A field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important
species.BLUMEA J. Plant Tax. and Plant Geogr. , Nat. Herbar. Nederlande, Univ.
Leiden Br. Leiden The Netherlands , 349 pp.

12)

CABI Forestry Compendium Edition 2003 (on CD ROM)

16)
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. And W.C. Wong (Eds.) 1995: Plant
Resources of Southeast Asia 5(2) Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers.
Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 655 pp.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

5)
Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A
Field Guide to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept.
University of Chiang Mai, Thailand; 546 pp.

12

20)
Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002:
Agroforestree Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD ).

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

26)
World Agroforestry Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp
? (Internet source)

13

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Cinnamomum cambodianum Lecomte ]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Cinnamomum cambodianum Lecomte ]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y
X> eQµaHepSg²
g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

Cinnamomum cambodianum Lecomte [1]

³

Chinese cassia [7]

³

None known.

³

cannelier, cannelle (France) [4, 7] - gudatvak (India) [7]

³

eTBirU
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

1

tep porou [1], tep tieru [4], tepirou [5], teep piiruu [7]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Laurales
RKYsar : Lauraceae
ePT : Cinnamomum Schaefer
RbePT : Cinnamomum cambodianum
Lecomte

ÉksarBieRKaH: [5, 8]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: eTBirUCaRbePTedImeQIFM ébtgCanic© EdlmankMBs; 15-25 m [1] (-17 m [2], 10-15 m
[4, 7]) nigmankenSamsøwkFM RBmTaMgRkas; . edImRtg;RsLÚn nigragCasIuLaMg edaymanTMrg;Rss;sa¥ t
nig manGgát;p©it DBH BI 30-80 cm [1] (30-50 cm [2]) . RKb;EpñkTaMgGs;rbs;edImKWmankøinRkGUb .
[sMbk]: sMbkxageRkAmanBN’eRbH nigRKbeTAedayrun§tUc² . sMbkxagkñúgmankMras; 1.2-1.5 cm [2]
manBN’elOg nigmankøin .
[søwk]: søwkragmUl zitenAQmKñaCaragmUl manTMhM 6-15 x 3-8 cm [1] (9 x 4 cm [7], 12-14 x 7-9
cm [2]) .
[páa]: páatUc CaRbePTpáaBIrePT (=hermaphrodite) tMerobCaG½kSenAelITgpáa nigmanBN’elOgRbElt
.
[Epø]: EpømanragdUcs‘ut nigmanGgát;p©it
6-8 mm [1] . manBN’elOgRbepHeBlminTan;TMu
nigERbCaBN’Rkhmcas;enAeBlTMu .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 7]
[

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

lkçN³eQI]: Cinnamomum spp. maneQIxwøm EdlmanTMgn;F¶n; nigRsalmFüm .
eQIxwømmanBN’xsu ²Kña BIBN’ébtgcas;eTAsICu m<Ú rWRkhmcas; CYnkalmanBN’Rkhmetñat rW etñat
(RkhmragRbepHsMrab;
C. cambodianum [1]) nigEtgEtminGacEckdac;BIKañ BIBN’dUccMebIg
nigetñatRsalrbs;eQIRsay (RbepHRsalsMrab; C. cambodianum [1] . dg;seIu t 0.37-0.86 g/cm³
enAsMeNIm 15% . lkçN³eQI epSgeTot karbMEbkedaysMelg (Modulus of rupture) enA 12% mc:
44-93.5 N/mm². PaBGacbt;)an
(Modulus of elasticity) 7,315-12,570 N/mm² .
sMBaFRsbrbs;séseQI (Compression parallel to grain) : 28-52 N/mm² . sMBaFEkg
(Compression perpendicular to grain) : RbEhl 5.5N/ mm² . kMritrYj (Rates of shrinkage)
(BIBN’ébtgeTA 12% mc): 1.6% (radial), 4.8% (tangential) . kMritrYj (Rates of shrinkage)
(BIBN’ébtgeTAkarsMgYtRCul): 3.3% (radial), 5.7% (tangential)" [9] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 9]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

RbEhlkMrit : 30°N to 30°S [8] . RbePTeQIenH manduHlUtlas;enAkñúgRbeTskm<Cú a nigevotNam
enAkñgú éRBeRsamRkas; nigéRBeRsagesImenAtambeNþayTenø nigsÞwg tamRClgPñM nigeCIgPñM .
BYkvaduHlUtlas;CaRkum EdlmaneedImeQIBI 5-10 edIm edayduHlayCamYy Elaeocarpus dubius,
Actinodaphne pilosa, Polyanthia cerasoides, Michelia balansae nig Canarium album .
enARbeTskm<Cú a vaGacrkeXIjenAkñgú éRBeRsag tamtMbn;PñM énPñbM UkeKa (Bokor) nigPñRM kvaj
(Cardamon Mountains) nigkñúgextþrtnKIrI nigkMBg;FM .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 7, 8]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

CaTUeTA vaduHlUtlas;enAry³kMBs; 600-700 m a.s.l. [1, 4] (200-600 m [2]) b:Eu nþenARbeTskm<Cú a
vaduHenAry³kMBs;dl;eTA 1,500 m a.s.l. pgEdr [1] . eTBirURtUv)ansMrbeTAnwg lkçN³Gakas
Fatuxus²Kña . vaFnnwgkarraMgs¶Ütry³eBlxøI . kñúglkçN³CaedImeQIéRB vamankarFnnwgmøb;
b:Eu nþduHlUtlas;)anl¥enAkñúgBnøéW f¶eBj enAeBlcas; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 8]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
Annamites

:

kNþal
[1]

TItaMgRbPBRKab;BUC (Projection: UTM; Horizontal Datum: Indian coordinates)]:
rtnKIrI (X:732948 Y:1551895), rtnKIrI (X:732419 Y:1567241), rtnKIrI (X:766785 Y:1500486),
rtnKIrI (X:701601 Y:1570885),rtnKIrI (X:728014 Y:1536309), kMBg;FM (X:544510 Y:1403022) .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

3

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

eTBirUdHu lUtlas;l¥ enAelIdImanCICati nigsMeNIm . eTaHbI vaduHEtenAelIdIEdlmindkTwk éntMbn;PñM
Edl manCICati nigmanCatiGasIuxaø gM edayman pH of 4-6 [8] . vaFn;nwgkarrCaMTwkry³eBlxøI .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 8]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: eQImanlkçN³Rtg; nigBN’s GacRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;snM g; kþa begáal nigsMPar³ksikmµ .
vak_RtUv )aneRbIR)as;CaeQIfamBlpgEdr .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 6]
[Gnupl]:
sMbkRtUv)anTMBalayCamYysøa rWeRbIR)as;enAkñgú pÞH)aysMrab;CaGahar .
vamanpÞúknUvsarFatu eRbgya:gsMxan; EdleRbIsMrab;CafñaMbru aN eFIeV GaymankMedA bM)at;ehImeBaH
RbqaMgnwgkark®nþak; nig sMlab;emeraK . vamanRbsiT§PaBcMeBaH karminrMlayGahar rebg
nigQWcab;eBlmanrdUv .
sMbkedIm RtUv)aneRbICafñaCM MnYyebHdUg RbqaMgkarehImeBaH
nigkarGs;kMlaMg . EpSgEdl)anBIkarcMhuyénsøkw RtUv )aneRbIsMrab;karhUrsMe)a rWTwktamRcmuH .
GñkCMgWRtUv)anBüa)al fñaMEdkRbqaMgnwgkareLIgkk EdlRtUv )anRtYtBinti üya:gRbugRby½tñ
enAeBleRbIR)as;rukçCatienH edaysarEtvamanpÞúksarFatu coumarin [7] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 6, 7]
[epSg²]: minTan;manTinñn½y ..
[

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

ÉksarBieRKaH [10]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]:eTBirUduHlUtlas;enAkñúgéRBbzmesIm nigéRBbnÞab;bnSMenAtamdgTenø nigsÞwg tameCIgPñM
. vaduHlUtlas;CaRkum EdlmancMnYnBI 5-10 edIm [1] ehIyEtduHlayCamYy Elaeocarpus dubius,
Actinodaphne pilosa, Polyanthia cerasoides, Michelia balansae nig Canarium album .
enARbeTskm<Cú a vamanduHlUtlas;enAkñúgéRBeRsagtMbn;PñM . vaRtUvkarmøb;enAeBlenAtUc
b:Eu nþduHlUtlas;
)anl¥enAeBlmanBnøéW f¶eBj enAeBlvaeBjv½y .
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

minmancMNat;fñak; .

4

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 7]

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

CaTUeTA karduHlUtlas;eLIgvij edayFmµCati KWmanlkçN³l¥ enAeRkamKMrbéRB .
[karRbmUlRKab;BUC]:
RKab;BCU RtUv)anRbmUlBIedIm nigRbmUlBIelIdI edaykarGRgugEmk
.enAkñúgtMbn;RbPB RKab;BCU dIRtUv)ansMGat CYnkalRtUv)andut sMrab;karRbmUlRKab;BCU .
edIm,IeGaymanPaBgayRsYlkñgú karRbmUlRKab;BUC kMralRtUv)andak;enAelIdpI gEdr . eBlevla
Edll¥bpM tu sMrab;karRbmUlRKab;BUC KWenAeBlEdlEpømankarpøas;brþÚ BN’BI ébtgeTACaetñat .
karTMurbs;EpøGaceGaydwgtamry³karkat;Epø edIm,IBinitüemIl .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

EdlRtUv)anraykarN_faCa dgávÚ énRbePTembMe)A
cinnamon butterfly (Chilasa clytia) nig leafminers (Acrocerops spp.) dgávÚ leafwebber
(Sorolopha archimedias) nigcRgit (Gryllotalpha spp.) EdlbMpøajkUneQItUc² " [8] .
[CMgW]: "CMgWmandUcCa dMe)AqñÚt (Phytophtora cinnamomi), CMgWBN’sC
Iu m<Ú (Corticium salmonicolor,
Syn: C. javanicum), rlYy (Fomes lignosus), eRcH (Aecidium cinnamomi) nig anthracnose
(Glomerella cingulata) . CMgW witches broom EdlmanlkçN³Fn;F¶r RtUv)anrkeXIjedIm Chinese
cassia enAkñg
ú RbeTsevotNam . karkMcat; edaykar antibiotic berberine FmµCatiKWTTYl )an
eCaKC½y .
ÉksarBieRKaH [8].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

stVl¥ti ]: "RbePTstV

:

F> karGPirkS

Ceylon

cinnamon

:

edaysartMél nigtMrUvkarx<ss; rM ab;eTBirU
eFIeV GayRbePTeQIenHziteRkamsMBaFya:gxøaMg
edaykarukrk hYsehtu nigrgeRKaHfñak;esÞIrputBUC RbsinkarkarBarminRtUv)aneFIeV LIg CaBiesskar
kab;edayxusc,ab; . cMnnY edImeQI Edlcas;RtUv)anfycuHCabnþbnÞab; nigvamankar lM)ak
kñúgkarEsVgrksMPar³tMnBUC
(germplasm)
. enAqñaM 2002 karRbCMru bs; CTSP
elIyTu §saRsþkúgñ karGPirkSEsnéRBeQI (Forest Gene Conservation Strategy) )anbgðajfa
"

KWCaRbePTcMbgkñúgkar GPirkSCabnÞan; nigeFIV
GnþraKmn_kúgñ karkarBareGay)ansmRsb . ÉksarBieRKaH [1].
Cinnamomum

cambodianum

Lecomte

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

vamanduHlUtlas;enACMralPñbM UkeKa nigPñRM kvaj nigextþrnKIrI nigkMBg;FMénRbeTskm<úCa .
eTBirUKwmanduH lUtlas; edaytMbn;enAkñúgRbeTskm<Cú a .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4]

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
[

r)a:yelIBiPBelak]

[

RbPBkMeNIt]: RbeTskm<Cú a evotNam [1]

karnaMclU ]: Cak;EsþgNas; RbePTenHminRtUv)annaMykeTAdaMduHenAtMbn;eRkABIRbPBkMeNIt FmµCatienA
eLIyeT .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3]

p> epSg²

:

sarFatuKmI I]: "eRbg Volatile dl;eTA 4% (cinnamaldehyde 65-75% & eugenol 4-10%), tanIn
(tannins), coumarins nig mucilage . " ÉksarBieRKaH [7].
[

B> GMnanepSg²eTot
minTan;manTinñn½y .

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

6

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] CTSP, 2003: Forest Gene Conservation Strategy - Gene Conservation Strategy, Species
Monographs, Gene Ecological Zonation, Species Site Matching Model. (CD-ROM).

[2] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning
Institute.

[3] Bertram, A. (2006): Own observations.

[4] Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[5] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species. 7pp.

[6] FAO: The State of Forest Management and Conservation in Cambodia http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/005/AC648E/ac648e04.
htm (Internet source)

[7] Kham, L., 2004: Medicinal Plants of Cambodia - Habitat, Chemical Constituents and
Ethnobotanical Uses.

[8] PROSEA, 1999: Plant Resources of South East Asia 13 - Spices

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[9] PROSEA, 1995: Plant Resources of South East Asia 5 - (2) Timber trees: Minor
commercial timbers.

7

[10] Department of Forestry and Wildlife, 1988: Cambodian Forestry Law No. 35, 25th June
1988. Phnom Penh.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. & Panzer) Swingle]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. & Panzer) Swingle]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. & Panzer) Swingle [1]

³

lime, sour lime, common lime [1]

³

Limonia aurantifolia Christm. & Panzer (1777),
Citrus javanica Blume (1825),
Citrus notissima Blanco (1837) [1],
Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle,
Citrus acida Roxb.,
Citrus hystrix ssp. acida (Roxb.) Engl.,
Citrus lima Lunan,
Citrus limetta var. aromatica Wester,
Citrus medica var. acida (Roxb.) Hook. f.,
Limonia acidissima Christm. [2]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

lime acide, limettier, limettier acide (France) [1, 4] jeruk nipis, jeruk pecel (Indonesia) [1] - limau asam, limau
nipis (Malaysia) [1] - muli (Papua New Guinea) [1] - dayap
(Philippines) [1] - naaw (Laos) [1] - somma nao, manao
(Thailand) [1] - chanh, chanh ta (Vietnam) [1]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

1

³

RkUcqµa
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

krôôch chhmaa muul [1], kroôch chmâa [4], kro:ch chma:
khmè [7]

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae

fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Rutales [2] / Sapindales [5]
RKYsar : Rutaceae
ePT : Citrus
RbePT : Citrus aurantifolia
ÉksarBieRKaH: [2]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: edImeQItUcébtgCanic© EdlmankMBs;dl; 5 m [1] (8 m [4]) . kenSamsøwkRkas;
nigmanEmkmineTogTat; ehIymanEmktUc²eRcIn nigmanbnøa . kUnEdlduHecjBIrWs manlkçN³FMl¥ .
RKb;EpñkTaMgGs;énrukçCatimankøni RkGUb .
[søwk]: søwkqøas; ragCaeGlIb rWst
‘u EdlmanTMhM 4-8 cm x 2-5 cm [1] (3-8 cm × 2-5 cm [5])
edaymanEKmsøwkminmut rW ril. cugsøwkRsYc TgsøwkmanragmUledaymansñamGuC nigKµaneram .
[páa ]: kBa©úp
M aá xøI nigqøas;Kña manpáaBI 1-7(-10) [1] (7 páa [4]) . páamanlkçN³eBjelg rWpáaeQµal
manTMhMtUc nigEtzitenAdac; rWCacegáamenAelIGk½ Sénsøkw rbs;Bnøk EdleTIbduHecjmk . Rtbkpáaxag
eRkAmanragdUcEBg man 4-6 ft . RsTab;páa 4-6 [1] (4 [4]) EdlmYy²manbeNþay 8-12 mm [1]
nigkøinRkGUb . ekseQµalmancMnnY 20-25(-34) [1] . GUvarI (=female organ) mancMnYn 9-12(-15) [1]
EdlmanlkçN³xus²Kña . sþima: (stigma) RTpáaenAeBlrIk nigzitenAelIenHry³eBl BIreTAbIéf¶ .
eksminRtUv)anBRgayrhUtdl;paá rIk . Twkdmd_l¥RtUv)anbit)aMg edaypáa BIkarvaRbharBIsN
M ak; XµMú
EdlCaGñkeFIeV GaymandMeNIrlMGg . dMeNIrlMGgedayxøÜnÉg ekIteLIg b:Eu nþcMnYnEpømankMNt; .
[Epø]: Epø (=berry) ragmUldUcs‘t
u manGgát;pit© 3-6 cm [1] (4-6 cm [5]) CYnkalmankNþlÜ ekItelIEpø .
sMbkd_esþgI manBN’ébtgelOg enAeBlTMu ragdUcEs,k eRKIm nigmaneRbgEdlmankøin .
EkøbmanpÞkú nUvsac;Casrés² EdlmanBN’ébtgelOg EdlmanCatiGasIut sMbUrTwk nigkøinRkGUb .
RKab;manTMhMtUc e):ag nigrelagedaymanGMRb‘yÍ g:u BN’s (polyembryonic) . CaTUeTA RbePT
RkUcqµaPaKxaglic\NÐa EdlmkBIGaemrikkNþalmanEpøFMCagtMbn;epSg²eTot . EpøTbMu nÞab;
BIry³eBl 5.5-6 Ex [1] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 5]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

minTan;manTinñn½y . .

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

RkUcqµaduHlUtlas;edayFmµCatienAkñúgtMbn;TMnabRtUBci
eRcInenAkñgú tMbn;RtUBci nig subtropic .

PaKeRcInenAtMbn;eqñrnigRtUv)andaMduHya:g
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 5].

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

vaduHlUtlas;enAry³kMBs;BI 0-1,000 m a.s.l. [1] rW x<sC; agenH (0-2,200 m [5]) . edImeQI
RtUvkarGakasFatuekþA niggayrgeRKaHnwgGakasFatuRtCak; b:uEnþFn;ngw karraMgs¶Üt .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 5]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

3

:

RkUcqµaGacduHlUtlas;enAelIdImni sUvmanCICati nigmanlkçN³FnnwgdICaRkUceBaF×sat; RbsibdImni dk;
Twk nigGackarBarkarelcTwk.
ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

enARbeTskm<Cú a edImRkUcqµaRtUv)andaMsrM ab;CaeQIhUbEpø .
[eQI]: minTan;manTinñn½y .

Gnupl]: RkUcqµaCaeRKOgpSMragral;éf¶sMrab;Gahar enARbeTsGasuIGaeKñy_ . EpøRtUv)aneRbIR)as;
esÞIrEtral;éf¶enApÞH sMrab;CnM yY Gahar b:Eu nþk_RtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;eFVICaePsC¢³pgEdr . rs;Cati
nigCatiGasIuteFIVeGayRkUcqµasmRsbsMrab;Gahar Edlhil nigsMbUreKOgeTs TaMgRss; rWCaRbePT
RCk; nigTwkRClk; . KuNPaB EdlenARss;Edl)anBIRkUcqµa RtUv)aneRbICa TwkRkUcqµa EtRkUcqµa nigeRbI
CamYyEpøeQIepSg²eTotdUcCa lðgú CaedIm . enARbeTsma:eLsIEu pø RtUv)ankarBarTwkGMbli nigTwkexµH
vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;CaePsC¢³ rW Gahars enAeBldak;econCamYyeRbg nigsár . enARbeTskm<Cú a
Epørbs;va RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eFIsV árRKab;nigdak;bEnßmeTAelImbðÚ EdleFIBV sI ac; . vak_RtUv)aneRbI ya:g
eRcInenAkñgú RbeTskm<Cú a sMrab;Ca»sfburaNsøwk nigEpømanpÞkú CatifñaMeRcIn nigmYycMnYneTotTak;Tgnwg
CMenO EdlfaRkUcqµaGacedjnUvviBaØaNGaRkk;eGayecjq¶aypgEdr . Epø nigsac; manpÞkú nUv GasIut
citric nig vitamin C . TaMgsøwkcas; nigx©ImanpÞúknUv coumarin isopimpinellin . eRbgrbs;vamanpÞk
ú
limonene. sabinene, terpinolene, citral, alpha- nig beta pinenes, alpha terpinol, linalool, alpha
bergamotene nig beta bisabolene . sarFatu coumarins rYmman limettin, bergamottin,
bergapten, dimethoxycoumarin nig gamma geranoxypsoralen isoimperatoren . vaCa
RbPBsMxan;én vitamin C . søwkRtUv)ancMhuy CamYy Cymbopogon nardus edIm,IBüa)alCMgW
pþasay nigRKun . EpøRss; ¬sMbkxageRkA¦ RtUv)aneRbIR)as; sMrab;Büa)alCMgWkk¥ . kareRbI
R)as;RkUcqµasMrab;C]sf enAmankMritenAeLIy eTaHbICamankarsikSaCaeRcIneTAelIRbsiT§PaBén
immuno-modulatory k_eday . RkUcqµaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;Ca
photosynthesizer sMrab;
labkarBarkMedAéf¶ .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4]
[epSg²]: minTan;manTinñn½y .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 7]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
minmancMNat;fñak; [3]

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

4

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

kardaMduH]: kareBlv½yrbs;edImRkUcqµaGacmanry³eBldl;eTA 5 qñaM . [5]
[karRKb;RKg]: RkUcqµaCaRbePTedImeQI EdlecjpáaRKb;rdUv . eRkamlkçxN
½ ÐraMgs¶Üt kareRsacRsB
mansar³sMxan;kgñú karTTYl)annUvEpø EdlmanKuNPaBl¥ . edImeQI Edlmin)anéRkEmk nwgman
EmkRkas; rWeRcIn nigkenSamsøwkGacRCuHsøwk BIeRBaHEtkarRbKYtRbECg . dUcenH edImeQIRtUv
)anéRkEmk edIm,IkMcat;RbePTstVl¥ti nigdMe)AEdlmanelIEmk . edIm,IeGayman \T§iBldl;
eBlRbmUlpl kareRsacTwkRtUv)anp¥aksMrab;ry³eBl 3 s)aþh_enAkñgú rdUvR)aMg kareRsacTwkeLIgvij
nwgCYyeGayedImecjpáaeLIgvij .
[karRbmUlpl]: karEpøRtUvkarry³eBl 5.5-6 Ex [1] cab;BIeBlecjpáa . EpøRtUv)anebHRbmUledayéd
enAvacas; manBN’ébtg rWelOg . EpøEdlminTan;cas; eTaHCamanTwktic k_GacebHRbmUlpgEdr
enArdUvEdlkarpÁt;pÁg;EpømankMritTab . enARbeTséf EpømancMnYnticenAkñgú Ex mina-emsa .
enHedaysar Etkarqab;TeMu Bkrbs;Epø enArdUvRtCak; kñúgEx FñÚ-kumÖ³ . CagenHeTAeTot cenøaH
énkarpÁt;pgÁ ;GacbNþaeGaypáa nig EpømancMnnY tic enAkMLúgEx kBaØa-tula ¬Bak;kNþalénrdUvvsSa¦ .
[plitkmµ]:
edImEdl)anpSaMGu acpþl;nUvEpø enAkñúgqñaMTIBIr bnÞab;BIkardaM b:uEnþGñkdaM
manbMNgbegánI nUvkarlUtlas; edIm,ITTYl)annUvTinñplx<s;enAqñaMTIbI . TinñplCamFümrbs; RkUc
qµaenARbeTséf enAkMLgú qñaM 1988/1989 KW 2,400 kg/ha . enARbeTs\NÐaGacmancMnYn 600-1,500
Epøkúgñ 1 qñaM . edImRkUcqµamYy edImEdldaMenA Ek,rpÞHGacbMeBjtMrUvkarrbs;RKYsarmYy)an .
RbCaCnenATIRkugBwgEp¥keTAelIEpø Edl)anmkBIckM arRkUcqµa .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

mindUcRbePTRkUcd_éTeTot RkUcqµakMrRtUv)anbgáat;edayBnøk . enAGasIuGaeKñy_ karbMe)AKWCaviFsI aRsþ
Fmµta enAkEnøkxøHedImRtUv)anbNþHú ecjBIRKab; . EmkEdlmaMl¥ RtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;bNþHú Bnøk
edaykarbMe)A edaydak;sMbkdUg ¬RskIdUg¦rMCu vMu ij RtUv)aneRbIR)as;enARbeTséf . edImTMr
RtUv)andak;kgñú fg;nigEfrkSaenAkñúgfñal ry³eBl 2-4 s)þah_muneBlykeTAdaM .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1].
"

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVl¥ti ]: stVlt¥i ecaHsøkw (Phyllocnistis citrella) eFIeV Gaysøkw xUcRTg;RTay nigCuHmineBlTMu .
stVenHCH\T§Bi leTAelIedImeQITaMgGs; nigbMpøajpáaeTotpg . karkMcat;edayeRbIR)as; fñasM lM ab;
stVl¥ti KWmankarlM)ak BIeRBaHdgávÚ RtUv)ankarBarya:gmansuvtßiPaBenAkñgú sMbkrbs;BkY va enAxag
eRkamsøwk nigvdþCvI itrbs;BYkvaxøI nigmanry³eBlCan; rWpnÞÜ ²Kña . karbegánI kareRbIR)as;fñaM sMlab;
stVl¥ti eFIeV GaystVl¥ti mankarsauM nigGacbNþaleGaymaneRKaHfñak;dl;RbePTstVl¥ti EdlsIuBYkva
CaGaharEfmeTotpg .
[CMgW]: CMgWdMe)A ekItBI)ak;etrI (bacterial canker) KWRtUv)anekItmanenAtMbn;RtUBc
i esIm .
RkUcqµagayrgnwgvIrus tristeza b:Eu nþCMgW EdlFn;Fr¶ KW dMe)AekItBI)at;etrI (Xanthomonas campestris
p.v. citri) EdleFIV eGayvamanGayuxIø edaydMe)ACMuvijedIm . )ak;etrIGaceFIVeGayedImeQImanrbYs
EdlekItBIkarTic rWCBa¢k;rbs;stVl¥it . )ak;etrIRtUv)anEbgEck tamry³ePøóg . kareFIGV nam½ycMkar
edaym:t;ct; tamry³karykrW kat;nUvEmkEdlrgnUvCMgW )aj;nvU sarFatusN
M r enAmunrdUvePøóg nig
)aj;nvU streptomycin RtUv)anpþl; Gnusasn_ .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1].
[

F> karGPirkS

:

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

vaRtUv)annaMcUlRbeTskm<Cú a enAkEnøgEdlmankardMaduHeQIhUbEpøeRcIn .

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
[

RbPBkMeNIt]: RbeTs\NÐa
[7]

[

karnaMclU ]: GasIu (Rb‘eu N km<Cú a \NÐeÚ nsIu Lav ma:eLsIu hVlI IBnI )a:BUNUKeI no éf nigevotNam )

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

minTan;manTinñn½y.

6

GaemrikkNþal : (misu uikU, dUmnI kI a)
GaRhVci : (hÁaNa)
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 7]

p> epSg²

:

plitkmµenAelIBPi Belak]: "eyagtamsßti i FAO BiPBelak)anplitnUvRkUcqµa nigRkUc (Citrus limon
(L.) Burm.f.) cMnYn 6 lanetan enAqñaM 1988 tYelx)anbgðajnUvkarekIneLIg . dMNaMRkUcKW
enAmanlkçN³ tUcenAeLIy edaysarRkUc (lemons) mankarBi)akkñgú kardaMduH enAtMbn; GasIuGaeKñy_
eyagtam FAO )anbgðajtYelx: RbeTskm<Cú a 1,000 t, RbeTsLav 8000 t,RbeTsma:eLsIu 3,000 t,
RbeTséf 1,000 t . Tinñn½ysßiti)anBIRbeTséf KWmanlkçN³c,as;las; KW 53,600 t BItMbn;
Edl)andaMduHcMnYn 29,100 ha kñgú 1987/1988 . sßitiBaNiCk¢ mµ)anbgðajfa karnaMecj BIRbeTs
\NÐeÚ nsIu hVlI IBnI nigéf KWmanTMnak; TMngnwgkareRbIR)as;kúgñ Rsuk . plitkmµ CaRTug
RTayFMsrM ab;BaNiC¢kmµGnþrCati enAkñgú karplitTwkRkUc nig eRbgKWmanenAGaemrikkNþal ( Central
America) (EdlmanRbePTRkUc Mexican rW West Indian ) dUmn
I kI a (Dominica) nigháaNa (Ghana) .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1]
[lkçN³Epø]: EpøTm
Mu anBN’elOg EdlmansMbkesþgI nigCatiGasIut : 7-8% GasIut citric
eyagtamTMgn; . TwkEdl)ancMraj;RbEhl 41% énTMgn;Epø . karviPaKenARbeTséf cMeBaH 100 g
Epñk EdlGacbriePaK )an man : Twk 91 g, RbUetG‘nÍu 0.5 g, xøaj; 2.4 g,kabUnGIRu tat (carbohydrates)
5.9 g, sarFatu srés (fibre) 0.3 g, vitamin A 17 IU, vitamin C 46 mg; nigtMélfamBl 150 kJ
kñúg 100 g .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

7

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Sethpakdee, R., 1992. Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. & Panzer) Swingle. In Coronel, R.E. &
Verheij, E.W.M. (Eds.): Plant Resources of South-East Asia. No. 2: Edible fruits and nuts.
Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. pp. 126-128.
[6]

B> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8.
(CD-ROM).

[2] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[3] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names
of
Commercial Woods, unpublished

[4] Kham, L., 2004: Medicinal Plants of Cambodia - Habitat, Chemical Constituents and
Ethnobotanical Uses.

[5] ECOPORT:
http://ecoport.org/ep?Plant=2242&entityType=PL****&entityDisplayCategory=full (Internet
source)

[6] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=
18077 (Internet source)

[7] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[8] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

8

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Citrus hystrix DC.]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Citrus hystrix DC.]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

Citrus hystrix DC. [1]

³

Mauritius papeda, leech-lime [1], kaffir lime, kieffer lime
[5], Indonesian lime, wild lime [7]

K> sTisn½y
X> eQµaHepSg²

³

Citrus papuana Bail. [6]

³

citron combera, citron ride (France) [1, 3] - jeruk purut,
limo purut, jeruk obat (Indonesia) [1, 5] - limau purut
(Malaysia) [1] - kabuyau, kulubut, kolobot (Philippines)
[1] - shouk-pote (Myanmar) [1] - 'khi 'hout. (Laos) [1] ma kruut (Thailand) [1] - tr[us]c, chanh s[as]c (Vietnam)
[1]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

RkUcesIc
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

1

krauch soeuch [1]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Rutales [4] / Sapindales [6]
RKYsar : Rutaceae
ePT : Citrus
RbePT : Citrus hystrix DC.
ÉksarBieRKaH: [4]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: edImeQItUc rW culøRBwkS EdlmankMBs; 12 m [1] (5-10 m [3, 8], 6-8 m [6]) .
edImragekagnigtUc edaymanbnøaRsYc²CaeRcIn . manTMrg;kat; ( hybrid forms) rvag C. hystrix and
C. aurantifolia.
[søwk]: søwk nigkBa©p
úM aá RsedogeTAnwg C. aurantifolia . søwkmanTMhMFM ragdUcs‘ut rWRTEvg manTMhM 3-15
cm x 2-6 cm [1] nigmanBN’exµArelag edaymanTgsøwkragdUcsøab begát
I CaragnaLikardIxSac;
rvagsøkw nigTgsøkw .
[páa]: páatUcmanBN’s nigkøinRkGUb .
[Epø]: Epø (=berry) manragdUcs‘ut eTACaeGlIb RbEvgGgát;pit
© 5-7 cm [1] (4 cm [5], 8 cm [6])
manBN’exov eTACaelOn edaymanbnøamineTogTat;enAelIsMbk nigmansac;Edl GacbriePaK )an
tictYc EdlmanBN’exovragelOg mancMnYn 10-12 Ekøb . sMbkrbs;vamankøinxøagM nigmanrsCati
CUrxøaMg .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3, 5, 6, 8]
[

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .
:

RkUcesIcRtUv)andaMenAkñúgsYnCMvu ijpÞH (home gardens) b:Eu nþminmancMnYneRcInenaHeT .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

RbePTenHduHlUtlas;eRcIn enAtMbn;TMnab nigRtUv)andaMduHenAtMbn;ekþA .
ÉksarBieRKaH [6, 8]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

2

minTan;manTinñn½y .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

eQI]: minTan;manTinñn½y.
[Gnupl]: enARbeTskm<C
ú a vaRtUv)andaMduHsMrab;eRbIR)as;enAkñúgpÞH . vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as; ya:geRcIn
enAkñgú kareFImV bðÚ rbs;éf nigLav . søkw rbs;va k_mankareBjniymenAPaKxaglic RbeTskm<Cú a
b:Eu nþminsUveBj niymenARbeTsevotNam . enAma:eLsIu nig\NÐeÚ nsIu (CaBiess Balinese)
mðbÚ PaKeRcIneRbIR)as;BkY va CamYyman; nigRtI. søwkGacRtUv)aneRbIR)as;TaMgRss; rWsMgYteGays¶tÜ
nigRtUv)anTukenAkñgú kEnøgRtCak; . eTaHbICa plitplEdl)anmkBIswøk (EdlmaneRbgsøwk
sMrab;mÚbð éf dUcCa tom yum nigmðbÚ \NÐeÚ nsIu 'sayur assam' Edlmann½yfa bEnøCrU ) .
enAkñgú kareFImV bðÚ rbs;éf RkUcesIcRtUv)aneRbIR)as;Cajwkjab; edaylayCamYyxÞmw s galanga xJI nig
fingerroot CamYynwgemÞspgEdr . CIRkhmRss;rbs;éf RtUv)an lay edIm,IeGaymankøn
i l¥ .
Twkrbs;Epø Edlmanrs;CatiCUrxøaMg nigmankøindUcsøwkrbs;vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as; CaeRKOgpSMsMrab;eFImV ðbÚ
nigCYnkalRtUv)anbEnßmeTAelImbðÚ EdleFVBI RI tI rWsac;enAkñgú RbeTséf nigma:eLsI.u
vak_
RtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;CaePsC¢³pgEdr . EpøGacRtUv)anbriePaK b:Eu nþRtUv)ancitCacMnit sMrab; eRbIR)as;
enAkñgú BiFIsasna EdlvaRtUv)anlayCamYyTwk . EpøRtUv)aneRbIR)as;CafñaMsMlab;stVl¥ti sab‘kU k;sk;
nig eRbIsMrab;slM ab;eQIgø EdlTameCIgpgEdr . søwk nigsMbkEpøeRbIsMrab;eFICV aeRKOgeTs .
BYkvaRtUv)anlk; enARKb;haglk;eRKOgeTsrbs;RbeTsGasIu enATUTaMgBiPBelak .
sMbkRtUv)ancitCacMnit halsMgYt nigbukCaemSA niglayCamYyemSA Tinospora sMrab; Büa)al
karQWRkBH . Twkrbs;vaRtUv eRbIR)as;fñaM sMrab;ClY TMlak;kMhak . sMbkEpømanpÞúkCatifñaM
EdlCYyeGay)at;ehImBYk . RbqaMgnwgkarbgákMeNIt nigkarRCabcUl Edl\TiB§ lTaMgenHRtUv )an
sikSaeTAelIrukçCatiRbePTenH . sMbkRkUcesIcmanpÞúknUveRbg Edlmansar³sMxan; RsedognwgeRbg
rbs;RkUcqµa smasFatusxM an;KW limonene nig β-pinene [7] .
[epSg²]: minTan;manTinñn½y .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

3

:

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3, 5, 7, 8]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMnat;fñak; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

F> karGPirkS

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

ÉksarBieRKaH [3]

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
[

RbPBkMeNIt]: RbeTsma:eLsIu .
ÉksarBieRKaH [8]

karnaMclU ]: RbeTsm<úCa PUma \NÐa \NÐeÚ nsIu Lav Rb‘uyeN hVlI IBnI )a:BUNUhÁIeN RsIlgáa éf
nigevotNam .
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

RkUcesIcRtUv)andaMduHenAtMbn;ekþA énRbeTskm<Cú a .

4

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 9]

p> epSg²

:

Bakübec©keTs]: "The Oxford Companion to Food (ISBN 0192115790) pþl;Gnusasn_fa eQµaH
'kaffir lime' KYrEteCosevog BIeRBaHBaküenH CaBaküRbmatenAkñg
ú vb,Fm’RbeTsxøH nigminehtuNamYy
EdlPa¢b;nUvkareRbIR)as;BaküenHCamYyrukCç atienHeLIy . eTaHbICa kaffir lime eRcIneRbIR)as;ya:gjwk
jab;k_eday . eQµaHRbePTenHKW hystrix (Greek hystrix [ὕστριξ] “porcupine”) EdlsMedAeTAelI
rukCç ati EdlmanbnøaeRcIn [7] .
[sarFatuKm
I I]: smasFatu niglkçN³køinRtUv)anviPaB EdlbgðajnUv (-)-(S)-citronellal EdlmanpÞúkenA
kñúgsøkw eTAdl; 80% . smasFatubnÞab;bnSMKW citronellol (10%) nerol nig limonene .
ÉksarBieRKaH [7]
[

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[1] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8.
(CD-ROM).

5

[2] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names
of
Commercial Woods, unpublished.

[3] Kham, L., 2004: Medicinal Plants of Cambodia - Habitat, Chemical Constituents and
Ethnobotanical Uses.

[4] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[5] Answers.Com: http://www.answers.com/topic/kaffir-lime (Internet source)

[6] ECOPORT:
http://ecoport.org/ep?Plant=713&entityType=PL****&entityDisplayCategory=full (Internet
source)

[7] Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages Table of Content page:
http://www.kfunigraz.ac.at/~katzer/engl/Citr_hys.html (Internet source)

[8] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[9] Petri, M (DED), 2006: Own observations.

6

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg

³

Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.

x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

pummelo, shaddock, pomelo [1], pompelmous [3]

K> sTisn½y

³

Citrus aurantium L. var. grandis L. (1753)
Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (1757)
Citrus decumana L. (1767). [1]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

pamplemoussier (France) [1] - jeruk besar, jeruk bali
(Indonesia) [1] - jambua, limau betawi, limau bali (Malaysia)
[1] - muli (Papua New Guinea) [1] - lukban, suha
(Philippines) [1] - shouk-ton-oh (Myanmar) [1] - kièngz
s'aangz, ph'uk, sômz 'ôô (Laos) [1] - som-o, ma-o (Thailand)
[1] - b[uw][owr]i (Vietnam) [1]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

RkUcføúg
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

1

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

krôoch thlông [1]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Rutales

RKYsar : Rutaceae
ePT : Citrus
RbePT : Citrus maxima
ÉksarBieRKaH: [4]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkNç³TUeTA]: manTMhMtUc eTAmFüm manEmkTab nigmanbnøa EdlmankMBs; 5-10(-15) m [1] (10-15
m [3]) . edImtUcmaneram nigeBlxøHmanbnøa . EmkduHEbkecj manbnøaeRcIn ¬bnþBUCedayRKab;¦
rWKµanbnøa¬bnþBUCedaysrIragÁrukçCati¦ EdlmanbnøaRbEvg 5 cm nigmaneramenAeBlenAtUc .
[søwk]: søk
w manragCas‘ut rW eGlIb manTMhM 5-10 (-20) cm x 2-5 (-12) cm [1] EdlmanKl;skøw mUl .
EKmsøwkTaMgmUlragCaTwkrlk edayRsYcenAEpñkxagcugsøwk manRkeBjCacMnnu ² . TgsøwkduHCasøabFM
EdlmanTTWg 7 cm [5] .
[páa]: kBa©úp
M aá duHelIG½kS edayzitCabNþúM énpáa 2-3 rW eTal . páaFMmanTMhM 2-3 cm x 3-5 cm [1]
enAeBl EdlrIkFM nigmaneram . RtbkpáamanBN’s nigmanekseQµal 20-25 (-35) [5] nigeksjI
11-16 . enAkñg
ú tMbn;RtUBci vapþl;páa 2-4 dgkñgú mYyqñaM CaBiessenAeBlcab;duHBnøkfµI . ry³eBlén
karecjpáaKW eyageTAtamePøógmUsug eTaHbITwkRtUv)anpþl;eGaytamry³ RbB½n§FarasaRsþ dUcenA
RbeTséfk_eday ¬páaenAEx mkra-kumÖ³¦ . EpøTeMu nAry³eBl 7-10 ExbnÞab;BIkarpáa . enARbeTséf
PaKeRcInBI ExsIha dl; tula . rukçCatiEdldaMPaKeRcInKWmni GacbgákMeNIt)an .
[Epø]: Epø (=berry) ragmUl rWragdUcdb nigmanTMhMFM edaymanGgát;pit
© 10-20(-30) cm [1] man
BN’ébtglayelOg nigcMncu tUc²eRcIn . sMbkmankMras; 1-3(-4) cm [1] EdlmanEckdac;
BIKñaedaysrésmanBN’elOgRsal rIpáaQUk edaymanrsCatiEp¥m nigCYnkallVgI pgEdr . ral;cMEnk
nimYy²énEpøRtUv)anrMueTAedayPñas (membrane) ya:gmaMu . RKab;mancMnYn BIreTAbI TMhMFM Ggáaj;
BN’elOg nigmanGMRb‘yÍ g:u EtmYy (monoembryonic) .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3, 5, 7]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

RkUcføgú duHlUtlas;enAtMbn;TMnabRtUBci nigRtUv)andaMCacMkar nigenACMuvijpÞH ( home gardens) sMrab;Ca
RbePTeQIhUbEpø .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 7]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

RkUcføgú GacduHlUtlas;enAry³kMBs; 900 m a.s.l. [5], eTaHbIkMrix<s;bpM tu sMrab;plitkmµCaBNiCk¢ mµ
RtwmEt 400 m a.s.l [1, 5] . vaRtUv)andaMduHenAtMbn;EdlmankMritePøogRbcaMqañ M 1,500-1,800 mm [1]
nigrdUvR)aMgBI 3-4 (-5) Ex [1, 5] . enARbeTséfkMritsItuNðPaBmFümRbcaMEx 25-30°C Edlman
GakasFatuRtCak; BIreTAbIEx [1] .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3, 5, 7]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y . .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

1

:

RkUcføgú GacFnnwgRbePTdIeRcInTMrg; dUcCadIxSac;eRKIM nigdIEdlman\dæeRcIn rYmmandImanCatiGbM il .
eTaHCavasmRsbcMeBaHdIEdlmanvaynPaBmFüm manCICati nigKµanCatiGbM ilk_eday . tMbn;Edl
l¥bMputsMrab;RbePTeQIenH KWzitenAtamRcaMgTenøfµI nigcas; .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 5]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: eQIRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;eFIVCadg rWédkan;srM ab;]bkrN_eRbIR)as; .
[Gnupl]:RkUcføg
ú RtUv)andaMduHya:geRcInsMrab;kareRbIR)as;kúgñ Rsuk . enARbeTskm<Cú a Epørbs;vaRtUv)an
[

briePaKTaMgenARss; rWeRbIR)as;CabEnß . EpñksEdlenAxagkñúgénsMbkGaceRbIR)as;eFICV asá bnÞab;BIcit
ykecjnUvEpñkxageRkAEdlmanpÞúkCatieRbg . CYnkarTwkRkUcRtUv)ancMerjykmkpgEdr . páaEdl
manxøinRkGUbRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;eFIVCaTwkGb;enARbeTsevotNam . eTaHEpørbs;vaminsUvmanKuN
PaB nigtMélx<s; edImrbs;vaenAEtRtUv)andaM sMrab;eRbIR)as;CafñaM Edlsøwk páa Epø nigRKab;GacBüa)al
CMgWk¥k RKun nig RkBH .
[epSg²]: minTan;manTinñn½y .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3, 7]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak; [2]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: enAGasIGu aeKñy_ RkUcføgú RtUv)andaMenAkñgú sYnc,arCMuvijpÞH edaylayCamYyRkUc
eBaF×sat; nigCaRbePTcMkarRkUcføúgsuT§pgEdr ¬éf nighVlI IBnI ¦ . enARbeTséf søa ( areca palm)
RtUv)andaMenAcenøaHcMkarRkUcføgú rWweFIVCaRBMRbTl;karBarenAkEnøgEdlRkUcføúgRtUv)andaMedaykarelIk
rg .
[kardaMduH]: edImRtUv)andaMenAcenøaH 8-10 m x 6-8 m [1],GaRs½yPaBrwgmauM karerobcMdIeGay)anl¥
BYkvaRtUv)ankat; nigeRsacTwkCajwkjab; rdUvdl;dHu )anl¥ . srIragÁsMrab;daMRtUv)ankat; CaBiess
karkat;eday rWsminCab;dI . kardaMeckenAcenøaHRbePTeQIenH GacCYykarBarxül; nigpþl;møb; RBm
TaMgRbPB cMNUl pgEdr .
[karRKb;RKg]: edImeQItUcRtUv)ankat; edayTukEtEmksMxan;cn
M nY 3 EmkEdlTabbMputKWya:gehac
Nas; 30-40 cm [1] BIdI . edImeQIRtUvkarkaréRkEmk enAcugqñaM edIm,IrkSaeGay)anl¥ edIm,IFanafaEpø
EdlenAelIEmk minb:HnwgdI nigkat;nUvEmkEdlgab;ecj . edImeQIEdlEpøl¥RtUv)an edatbegáab¤sSI
kñúgkarCYyTb;edIm . RbePTrukCç atiKMrbdImYycMnYnCYykat; bnßykarlUtlas;rbs;esµA b:Eu nþenArdUvvsSa
karsMGatesµARtUv)aneFIeV LIg enAedImrdUvR)aMgcMkarRtUv)an )aj;edayfñaMsMlab;esµA . karRKbenAxag
eRkamedIm edayeRbI R)as;ceM bIg rWsMPar³d_eTotKYrEtRtUv )aneFIVeLIg edIm,IrkSarWsenAkñúgRsTab; dIEpñk
xagelI . kareRsacRsBKWmansar³sMxan;Nas;enAkMLúg eBlecjpáa nigkarRbmUlpl edIm,IbEnøm

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

eTAelIkareRsacRsBedayTwk ePøóg . enAkMLgú rdUvR)aMg kareRsacRtUv)anBnüaeBlrhUtdl;edIm
bgðajnUvlkçN³RseBan . vaKWCakarCMrujeGayedImecjpáaenAeBlEdleRsacTwkenAeBledIm RseBan
edIm,Ipþl;TwkeGayedImrs;rhUtdl; rdUv vsSa . karbgçM eGayedImRbmUlpl)anmunrdUv RbmUlpl
KwmankMritkMNt; vamankarBi)akkñúgrkSanUvBnøk EdlduHfµI nigkarpáaenArdUvekþAmuneBlePøógFaøk; .
kardak;CIRtUv)aneFIsV rM ab;RkUcqµa k_GacGnuvtþsrM ab;RkUc føúg)anEdr rYmTaMgkarepþateTAelI RbePTCI
ma:ejsüÚm (magnesium) nigmIRkUGasUt (micro-nutrients) (Zn, Mn, Cu, B) . kardak;CICaRbcaM
edayeRbIR)as;lamkstVKCW akareFIeV GayRbesIrdl;rukçCati . enA Nakhon Prathom (RbeTséf) Gñk
daMduHRtUv)anpþl;eyabl;eGayeRbIR)as;nvU 5 kg én NPK 16-16-16/edIm/qñaM [1] edaydak;BIrExmþg
nigCICnM yY søkw enAeBlvaeLIgRkhm . kardak;mþgeTotmuneBl RbmUlplnUv CI NPK 13-13-21 RtUv
)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;begánI nUvrsCatirbs;Epø . enAkEnøgepSg²eTot kardak;CIBrI dgRtUv)aneFIeV LIg
muneBlecjpáa nig 4-6 ExeRkaymkeTot . Tinñn½ypleyageTAtam kardaMduH nigbrisßan . 70-100
Epø/edIm/qñaM (RbeTséf) nig 20 etan/hicta kñgú mYyqñaM (RbeTsma:eLsIu).

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

eTaHbIedImeQIPaKeRcInEdlRtUv)andaMenAkñgú sYnCMuvijpÞHRtUv)andaMBRI Kab;viFsI aRsþEdleKniymeRbI
R)as;kúgñ karbnþBUCRbePTeQIenH enAtMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_ KWkarpSaMu . enAeBlkarBiesaFn_nUvemeraK rbs;
edImeQIemrYcral;ehIykarkat;BnøkRtUv)aneFIV . kUnRkUcføgú GaceRbIR)as;CaTMrbgáat;pgEdr . enA
RbeTs hVlI IBnI karrMuBnøkRtUv)aneFIeV LIgenAelIedIm .
Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

"

1

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

kardaMnUvRbePTRkUcepSg²layKñaenAtMbn;EtmYyGacCYykarBarcMkarpgEdr .
[stVl¥t
i ]: stVlt¥i bMpøaj RkUcPaKeRcInrs;enAelIRkUcføúg EdlmandUcCa RbePTecaHsøkw Phyllocnistis
citrella (enA Java karkarBarRtUv)aneFIeV LIgedaykardak;sN
M aj; b¤mgu enAelIedImeQItUc²) dgávÚ sIusøwk
dgávÚ ecaHEpø (Citripestis sp.) keNþóRkhm ruyEpø RBUn nigBBYkNþlú .

CMgW]: RkUcføgú gayrgnwgCMgWdMe)Aedaysar)at;etrI enAelIEpøedaysarkarTicrbs;ruy . kar)aj;fñaM
sMlab; pSitEdlmansMNr enARbeTséfminTTYl)aneCaKC½yeT . karrlYyrWs enAedIm nigrlYyEpø
TaMgGs;enH bNþalmkBI pSit Phytophthora EdleFIeV GayedImeQIqab;gab;enAtMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_
eTaHCaRkUcføgú minRtUv )ancat;TukCaRbePTEdlgayrgnUvCMgWenHk_eday .
[

F> karGPirkS

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

RkUcføgú duHenAtMbn;ekþAénRbeTskm<Cú a nigCaRbePTEdlRtUv)annaMcUl .

ÉksarBieRKaH [3]

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
[

RbPBkMeNIt]: RbeTsma:eLsIu

ÉksarBieRKaH [7]
[

karnaMclU ]: RbeTskm<Cú a éf evotNam hVlI IBnI )a:BUjÚheÁI no PUma Lav .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1]
:

FatupSMrbs;Epø]: EpñkEdlbriePaK)anmanlkçN³CabMENktUc énsMbkEpøEdlesþIg . tamRbPBBI
RbeTséfsmasPaBpSMén 100 g EpñkEdlbriePaK)anman: Twk 89 g RbUetG‘nÍu 0.5 g, xøaj; 0.4 g,
kabUnG‘uÍRdat 9.3 g, vItamIn A 49 IU, vItamIn B1 0.07 mg, vItamIn B2 0.02 mg, NaysInu (niacin)
0.4 mg nig vItamIn C 44 mg . Naringin KWCalkçN³ glucoside EdlRtUv)anrkeXIjenAkñg
ú Epø . .
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

p> epSg²

2

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Chaiwongkeit, D. & Chaireongyod, T., 1988. Som O - The pummelo. Bangkok. 76 pp.
[1]
Chomchalow, N., 1984. Genetic wealth of pummelos in Thailand. IBPGR Newsletter, Regional
Committee for South-East Asia 8(3): 27-29.
[1]

Fachzurozi, L., 1978. Apakah benar jeruk besar (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) mulai menghilang? [Is
the pummelo really disappearing?]. Buletin Kebun Raya 3(4): 133-136.
[1]

Martin, F.W. & Cooper, W.C., 1977. Cultivation of neglected tropical fruits with promise. Part 3: The
pummelo. ARS-S-157, U.S. Department of Agriculture, New Orleans. 17 pp.
[1]

Ochse, J.J., Soule, M.J., Dijkman, M.J. & Wehlburg, C., 1961. Tropical and subtropical agriculture.
Vol. 1. Macmillan, New York, pp. 486-488.
[1]

P>ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).

[2] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names of

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Commercial Woods, unpublished.

1

[3] Kham, L., 2004: Medicinal Plants of Cambodia - Habitat, Chemical Constituents and
Ethnobotanical Uses.

[4] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[5] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep?Plant=712&entityType=PL****&entityDisplayCategory=full
(Internet source)

[6] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database –
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=18078
(Internet source)

[7] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[8] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

2

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Cocos nucifera L]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Cocos nucifera L]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Cocos nucifera L.

³

coconut [2], copra, coconut palm [4]

³

Calappa nucifera (L.) Kuntze,
Cocos nana Griffith [4]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

coconut (trade name) [8] - narikel (Bangladesh) [8] mak-un, on (Myanmar) [8] - kokoye (Caribbean) [8] - Coco,
Cocos, Cocospalm, Klapperboom (Netherlands) [8] - coco,
cocotier, cocoyer, coq au lait, noix de coco (France) [8] Kokospalme (Germany) [8] - kelapa (Indonesia) [8] - kelapa
(Malaysia) [8] - coc, tubab sibo (W-Africa) [8] - coco da
Bahia, coco da India, coqueiro de Bahia (Portugal) [8] - coco,
coco de agua, cocotero, palma de coco, palmera de coco
(Spain) [8] - mnazi (E-Africa) [8] - tennai-maram (Sri Lanka)
[8]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

dUg
ÉksarBieRKaH : [3]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

1

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

daung, dong

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Palmales / Principes [3] / Arecales [4]
RKYsar : Palmae [3] / Arecaceae [4]

ePT : Cocos
RbePT : Cocos nucifera
ÉksarBieRKaH: [3, 4]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaedImeQI EdlmanTMhMmFüm eTA FM mankMBs; 20-25 m [2] (2-30 m [3])
edaymanedImragsILu aMg Ggát;p©it 20-40 cm [2] DBH (45 cm [7]) . mansñamCargVg;enAelIedIm
EdlsMKal;BTI ItaMg rbs;swkø cas;duH . "enAkMBUl manduHkenSamsøwk EdlmansøwkRbEhl 20
EdlduHragekagcuHmkeRkam EdlsøwknimYy² manRbEvgBI 3 eTA 4.5 m (RbEhl 10 eTA 15 ft) [7] .
[Epø] EpømUl nigeRKIm manTMhM 5 cm x 3 cm EdlmankMras;Rkas; manCasrés enACMuvijCarages<ó rwg
RsYy nigmansMbkmaneram . EpømanTMhM 2-2.5 cm x 3-4 cm . manrun§cMnYn bI EdlmanlkçN³Tn;
nigRtUv)anehAfa EPñk EdlzitenAcugénEpø . enAxagkñgú sMbk manRsTab;esþgI BN’s
EdlRtUv)anehAfa sac; . EpñkxagkñúgEpø Rbehag rW xUg b:Eu nþmanTwkenAxagkñúg EdlRtUv)anehAfa
TwkdUg . sac;manlkçN³Tn; dUccahYy enAeBlminTan;cas; nigrwgenAeBlcas; . TwkdUgmanenAkñgú Epø
EdlminTan;TMu nigRtUv)ankat;bnßyenAeBlEpøcab;epþmI TMu . EpømanBN’ébtgenAeBldMbgU enAbþrÚ
CaBN’etñatenAeBlTMu GacmanBN’elOgcas; eTABN’etñat .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 7, 8]
[

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

sac;eQImankarBi)akkñgú karGar TamTareFµjrNa tungsten carbide " [4] . enAEpñkkNþaledIm
manpÞkú nUvCalika parenchymatic EdlrMuB½T§eday vascular nigsésCaeRcIn . bNþúM vascular
énsMbkxageRkA mandgsIuetx<s;CagEpñkkNþal EdlRKbedayRsTab;esþgI ² enAcenøaHekasika .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 9]

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

kMritRbEhl: 27°N eTA 25°S [4], 20°N eTA 20°S (BaNiCk¢ mµ) . vaEtduHlUtlas;enA
cenøaHExSry³TTwg xagt,Úg nigeCIgeGkVaT½r éntMbn;RtUBik . CYnkalduHenA 30°N nig S [9] nigtMbn;ekþA
50°+ N nig S [9] (sMKal;ExSry³kMBs;kan;Etx<s; kMritry³TTwgkan;EtTab edaymansItuNðPaBTab

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

"

2

EdlCaktþaRtUvRKb;RKg) vaGacekItmanenAtMbn;RtUBikesIm dUcCatMbn;smuRT EdlmanéRBduH rWRtUv
)andaMduH EdlzitenAtamRcaMg .
ÉksarBieRKaH [8, 9]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

dUgduHlUtlas;enAry³kMBs; 520-900 m a.s.l. [8] (0-1,000 m [2], 0-1,200 m [4]) b:Eu nþRtUv)andaM
sMrab;BaNiCk¢ mµenAeRkam 300 m [9] . "enA 1,000 m BYkvaGacduHlUtlas;)an Etminpþl;EpøeLIy
(sMKal; kMritry³kMBs;kan;EtTab enAeBlry³TTwgkan;Etx<s; nigsItuNðPaBkan;EtTab ) [9] . kMBs;
TwkePøóg 1,000-1,500 mm [9] (1,200-2,300 mm [4]) KWsmRsbsMrab;k; ardaMduH . dUgman karFn;
nwgrdUvR)aMg Edlmanry³eBlBI 0-3 Ex [2] (0-4 Ex [4]) b:Eu nþplþ ;nvU EpøkMritTab . eRkaykarraMgs¶Üt
ry³eBl 6 Ex vanwgQb;ecjpáanig gab;enAeBlmankarraMgs¶tÜ dl;eTAry³eBl 9 Ex . kMrit
sItuNðPaBmFümRbcaMqañ M : 22-35°C [4] (20-28°C [8]) edaymansItuNðPaBx<sb; Mput 27-32°C . kMrit
sItuNðPaBx<sb; Mptu enArdUvekþA : 30-38°C [4] .sItuNðPaBTabbMputenArdUvRtCak; : 16-23°C [4] .
sItuNðPaBPaBTabbMput : >7°C [4] . eTaHbICa kardaMduHdUg Gacrs;)anenAkñgú ry³eBlxøI éntMbn;
sItuNðPaB sUnü (sub-zero temperatures) k_eday [9] . vaTamTarnUvBnøéW f¶ BImFümeTA x<s;
nigminFn;ngw møb; . karqab;ecjpáa RtUv)anBnüaeBl edaysarmøb; nigkarlUtlas; páa nigEpøRtUv)an
karBaredaysarmøbx; øaMgeBk . vamankarFn;xs< n; gw xül; nig CatiéRb . dUgminGac duHlUtlas;enAkñúg
éRBeT .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 8, 9]

3

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y . .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

dImanCMerAeRCA manCICati nigl,b;xSac;RKb;RKan; nigl,ayxSac; . vaduHminl¥enAelIdI\dæ EdlRtUv)aneFIV
eGayhab;edaysaryanþCMniH nigstV . manfµ nigdIfµ)ayeRkom KWmni smRsbsMrab;RbePTenHeT.
luHRta EtsarFatusrIragÁRtUv)anRKb;RKg)anRtwmRtUv . man pH of 5.5-6.5 [4] KWsmRsb b:Eu nþ

vaGacduHlUtlas;BI kMrit 5.0-8.0 [2] . dIEdlmanRbPBTwk nigsMeNImenAEpñkxagelI smRsbbMptu
. dUgKWmankarFn;ngw CatiGMbli enAtameqñr nigGaceFIVeGaymanCIICatil¥ edaysarsUlüÚm kørYl
enAeBlenAq¶ayBIsmuRT b:Eu nþ vaminEmnCa halophile nigkarekIneLIgnUvCatiGMbli TamTarkarkat;bnßy
edaykarhUrrbs;TwkeRkamdI ePøóg nig RbB½nF§ arasaRsþ .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 8, 9]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan

:

eQI]: eQIRtUv)aneRbIR)as;Ca srsr sMNg; eRKOgsgðarwm RbGb; fñaMsMrab;KUKnM rU bnÞHkþa eQIplit
RkdasFüÚg nigCYnkalCavIna (veneers) EdlmanKuNPaBTab .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4]
[Gnupl]: "eRkABIEpø edImdUgGaceRbIR)as;)aneRcInya:g . TwkdUgGacRtUv)anbriePaK rW eRbIR)as;Ca
sMPar³sMrab;daMCalikar . sac;dUgs¶tÜ GacRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;cMerjykeRbg eRbIR)as;srM ab;Ca
Gahar eRKOgsMGag nig »sf . RskIdUg (cori: mesocarp fibres) RtUv)aneRbIR)as;eFICV asMPar³ Edl
eFIeV dayéddUcCa kenþ ExS kMral Rcas; GMe)as k®nþk nigsMPar³sMrab;vciu x©b; . RteLakdUg (shell)
RtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;eFVICacan EBg søab;RBa Evk exSó caneKaH)arI fUpaá RbGb; nigrbs;ekµgelg .
søwkRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;Rbk;dMblU pÞH nigsøwk nigedIm Edlx©IRtUv)aneRbIR)as;CabEnø pgEdr .
rWsrbs;vamanCatifñaM nigeRbIR)as;srM ab;ciBa©wmstV edayBüa)alkarehIm nigkarTullamk .
dUgpþl;nUvCatisrU‘ Us (sucrose-rich) EdlmanCati Ep¥m EdlRtUv)ansÁal;fa TwkdUg (toddy) .
kñúgkarlay CamYyCI sMbkdUgRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;bNþHú kUneQIya:gl¥ . vamansar³sMxan;Nas;
sMrab;CarukçCatiplitl½kç nigCatitanIn . EpøRtUv)aneRbIsMrab; RClk BN’sURteGaymanBN’ébtg
nigTgEpøRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eFIeV GayeFµjmanBN’exµA .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 5]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
minmancMNat;fñak; [1]

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

4

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

karRKb;RKg]: dUgminGacduHlUtlas;enAkñúgéRBeT b:uEnþvaGacRtUv)andaMduHenAkñgú RbB½nk§ sirukçkmµ .
kardaM duHCacenøaHCamYy dMLgÚ CVa dMLgÚ mI Rtav kaehV nigRbePTepSg²eTot . kardaMenAcenøaHeck
sMrab;qañ TM ImyY rWlayCamYysVay kakav ekAs‘U RkUc nigdMNuHepSgeTotk_RtUv)aneFIeV LIgpgEdr .
eKaGacRtUv)anciBa©wmeGaysIuesµAEdlenAcenøaHedIm EdlmanGayu 6-8 qñaM CaTUeTA GacciBa©wmeKa BI 2-3
k,alkñgú mYy ha . kareRsacTwkenArdUvR)aMgGacCYybegánI nUvTinpñ lEpø . kardaMduHRbePTdMNaM
EdlCYybegánI GasUtenAkñgú dI enAxageRkamedImk_GacbegánI Tinñplpg Edr . karlUtlas;: 20 cm/qñaM
bnÞab;BIeBjv½y . dUgmankarduHlUtlas;yWt . vaTamTarnUvkMlaMgBlkmµx<s; enAeBlRbmUlplEpø .
vamanlT§PaBéRkEmkedayxøÜnÉg . "kardak;CGI acCYybEnßmnUvGasUteTAelIdI nigCYnbegánI nUvkarlUt
las;rbs;swøk nigEpø b:Eu nþgayrgkarbMpaø jBIBBYkpSit . CIpUsVatGacRtUv)andak;eTAelIdI EdlminsUv
manCICat nigdIxSac; . b:Utas;KWCasarFatuciBa©wmya:gsMxan; sMrab;begánI nUvEpø nigeFIeV GaymankarFn;
nwgCMgW EdlbMpaø jsøwk . ma:ejsüÚmKWTamTa b:Eu nþmni RtUvdak;CaRbcaMeT nigsarFatu (boron) RtUv)an
dak;enAeBl EdlmaneraKsBaØafamankarxVHRbePTsarFatuenHb:eNÑaH . sarFatubnÞab;bnSMd_éTeTot
TamTarbEnßmeTAelIRbePTdItameqñr (coral atoll soils) . .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 9, 10]
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

5

:

CaFmµCati Epørbs;va RtUv)anray)a:yenAtamsmuRT . CaTUeTA dUgGacduHlUtlas;BIRKab; ¬Epø¦ Edl
TamTarkarRtaMTwkry³eBl 1-2 s)þah_ nig 8-10 s)þah_kgñú karduHlUtlas; . mincaM)ac;RKbfñalbNþHú
eGaymanmøb;eT . eRkay 30 s)þah_ [4] (20-24 s)þah_ [2]) BYkvaGacykeTAdaM)an bnÞab;BIBnøk
duHlUtlas;)anl¥ nigrwgmaM . RKab;Gacrs;)an rWrkSadMNuHdl;eTA 2 qñaM . karbgáat; eday
srIragÁGaceFIeV TA)antamry³ karbNþHú Calika (tissue culture) . kardaMduHRtUv)an eFIeV LIgedayeRbI
R)as;karduHeLIgvijedayFmµCati nigkardaMedayRKab;paÞ l; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar
[

stVl¥ti ]: stVl¥ti rYmman

:

Aceria guerreronis, Aleurodicus destructor, Artona catoxantha,

Aspidiotus destructor, Brontispa longissima, Hidari irava, Homaledra sabalella, Oryctes
monoceros, Oryctes rhinoceros, Parasa lepida, Promecotheca, Rhadinaphelenchus
cocophilus, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, Setora nitens, Tirathaba, Xylotrupes gideon

.

stVmanq¥wgkg EdlCYb RbTHjwkjab;KW Rattus rattus .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4]
[

CMgW]: CMgWpSitmandUcCa Bipolaris incurvata, Cerastomella paradoxa, Corticium penicillatum,

Drechslera halodes, Ganoderma boninense, Pestalotiopsis palmarum, Phytophthora
palmivora, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

F> karGPirkS

. CMgWekItBIvIrus RtUv)ansÁal;faCa Cadang-cadang .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4]

:

minTan;manTinñn½y . .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
dUgmanRbPBBI \NÐmÚ a:eLyan (Indo-Malayan) nigtMbn;xaglic)a:sPIu ic nigtMbn;RtUBci .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4]
[

RbPBkMeNIt]: Rb‘yu eN km<Cú a \NÐeÚ nsIu Lav ma:eLsIu PUma hVlI IBnI sgðabUrI éf evotNam .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

RkugRBHsIhnu kMBt ekaHkug PñeM Bj kNþal esomrab )at;dMbg kMBg;cam RkecH kMBg;s<W kMBg;qñaMg
kMBg;FM eBaF×sat; éRBEvg sVayerog bnÞaymanC½y taEkv .
ÉksarBieRKaH [10]

6

ÉksarBieRKaH [8]
karnaMclU ]: GasSg;TIn ebnIn bU‘lIevo eRbsIul b½rKINahVasU kama:rU eqd qIlI cin kULbúM ‘Í ekaHkUk kIDIv½r
eGkVad½r hVCI I eRhnhÁINa ehÁmebo hÁaNa hÁeI no hÁaya:Na éhTI \NÐa caém:ka eknya: KIrI)aTI
lIebrIya: ma:daháasáa ma:lI ekaHma:sal; jÚvkalIdeU no nIesrIya: nIC½rero )a:BUjÚKeI no )a:ra:hÁay eb:rU
sama:v esenháal; esra:eLGUn el)anun ekaHsULmÚ un RsIlgáa sUrInam tUehÁa tughÁa shrdæGaemrik
G‘yu ra:hÁay evNaTU evens‘yu eGLa esnsI)u a .
ÉksarBieRKaH [8]
[

p> epSg²

:

Bakübec©keTs]: "eQµaHRbePTeQIenH )anmkBIBakü b:uTyu háal;fa ‘coco’mann½yfa ‘sVa’" [8] .
[Rbvtþi]: "dUgmanvtþmanCag
4,000 qñaMknøgmkehIy (dMbg
U dUgRtUv)anrkeXIj enAkñgú kMNaBü
rbs;cinenA kñgú stvtSTI 20 munRKissá kraC)" . ÉksarBieRKaH [3].
[

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Andrew M.H. (1972) A Century of Coconuts.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=523894

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Anonymous IBPGR (1992) Descriptors for Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=523935

7

Anonymous Coconis (1983) Production physiology in coconut.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=523941

Child R. (1974) Coconuts. http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=3328

Edmonson CH, 1941. Viability of coconut seeds after floating in the sea. Bishop Museum.
Occasional Papers 16, No. 2.

Foale M.A. (1986) Tabular descriptions of crops grown in the Tropics. 10. Coconut (Cocos
nucifera L.). http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=7887

Frémond Y. Ziller R. Nucé de Lamothe M. (1966) Le cocotier. G.P.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=524485

Gallego VC, San Juan NC, Gallego CE, Concibido EC, Aterrado ED, 1987. Survey and
Evaluation of Coconut Pest and Disease Incidence in the Philippines. PCA-ARDB
Annual Report, 77-78.

Grimwood EB. 1975. Coconut palm products. FAO, Rome.

Gupta RK, 1993. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation. Multipurpose
trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation., xv + 562 pp.; [18 pp. of ref + refs in text].

Haas A, Wilson L, 1985. Coconut wood. Processing and use. FAO Forestry Paper, No. 57:ii
+ 58 pp.; [18 pl.]; 12 pp. ref.

Harries H.C. (1978) The evolution, dissemination and classification of Cocos nucifera L.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=524389

IBPGR (1992) Descriptors for coconut.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=524538

Menon K.P.V. Pandalai K.M. (1958) The coconut palm, a monograph.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=494188

Ohler J.G. (1999) Modern Coconut Management. Palm Cultivation and Products.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=497805

Parrotta JA, 1993. Cocos nucifera (L.) Palmae. SO-ITF-SM-57. USDA Forest service,
Southern Forest Experiment Station, Institute of Tropical Ecology, New Orleans, LA.

Patel J.S. (1938) The Coconut.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=524452

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Ohler JG. 1984. Coconut, tree of life. Plant Production and Protection Paper No.57. FAO,
Rome. http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=212303

8

PCARRD, 1993. The Philippine Recommends for Coconut. Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines:
PCARRD-DOST.

Ratnambal M.J. Nair M.K. Muralidharan K. Bhaskara Rao E.V.V. Pillai R.V. (1995) Coconut
descriptors Part 1. http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=500163

Thampan P.K. (1981) Handbook on coconut palm.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=524420

Thanh-Tuyen NT, Apurillo DI, 1992. Plant Regeneration through Somatic Embryogenesis
from cultured zygotic embryos of coconut. Philippine Journal of Coconut Studies, 17(1):June
1992.

Velasco JR, 1997. Review of studies on the cadang-cadang disease of coconut. Botanical
Review 63: 2, 182-196; 33 ref.

Watling D. Bennett G. (2005) Palms of the Fiji Islands.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=555625

Sources: [1, 4, 5, 9]

B> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[1] Sok, Sokunthet (RUA), 2006: Own observations.

9

[2] Species Fact Sheets (Module 9), 1994: Forestry / Fuelwood Research and Development
Project. Growing Mulltipurpose Trees on Small Farms (2nd ed.). Bangkok, Thailand:
Winrock Interational. 320pp.
[3] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[4] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).
[5] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8.
(CD-ROM).
[6] CTSP, Cambodia Tree Seed Project-Institutional Capacity Building of the Tree Seed
Sector , Dec 2003, Forest Gene Conservation Strategy-Part A: Conservation of Forest
Genetic Resources.

[7] Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2005 © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. (CDROM).
[8] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database –
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicSearch.asp
(Internet source).
[9] EcoPort Report: http://ecoport.org/ep (Internet source).

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[10] Petri, Mathias (DED), 2006: Own observations.

10

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Dacrydium elatum (Roxb.) Wallich ex Hook]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Dacrydium elatum (Roxb.) Wallich ex Hook]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg

³

Dacrydium elatum (Roxb.) Wallich ex Hook.
[8,27]

x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

melur, also called meloor in English, American,(comprising 4
Dacrydium species);

K> sTisn½y

³

Dacrydium pierrei Hickel [4]; D. junghuhnii Miq.; D. beccarii
Parl. var.subelatum Corner, Juniperus elata Roxb. [8,16,31]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

Trade name: melur; in Indonesia all timber of the genus
Podocarpaceae is traded under the name melur(meloor, En),
this includes D. elatum, D. beccarii, D. nidulum; other names
are: cemara gunung, sampinur pali, melur ; sangur
(Indonesia-Sumatera); ekor kuda, ru bukit, (MalaysiaPeninsular); melor (Malaysia-East); lokinai, (Philippines);
taw-kyet, gale pan, (Burma); long len, hi9ng horm, hing nam
(Laos); srol kraham (Cambodia); samphanpi, (Thailand-NE);
son hang-karok (Thailand-central); phayamakampom
(Thailand-SE); hoàng dàn giâ, (Vietnam).[2,8,16]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

RsUlRkhm

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

1

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

srô:l krâhâ:m [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae

lMdab; : Pinales
RKYsar : Podocarpaceae
ePT : Dacrydium Sol. ex J.G.Forster [16].
RbePT : Dacrydium elatum (Roxb.) Wall. ex
Hook.

ÉksarBieRKaH: [2 ; 4 ; 11 ; 16 ]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaedImeQIFM mankMBs; 30 m edaymanGgát;p©it 80 cm edImmUlRtg; [2]
edImeQIman kMBs; 20-30 m manedImRtg;RsLÚn [4] GacmankMBs;dl; 20 m [5]
edImeQImankMBs;dl;eTA 40 m Ggát;p©ti 100 cm manedImRtg; kenSamsøwkFøak;cuH manEmkeRcIn [8]
. edImeQIébgtCanic© eFIkIV arCMruHsøwk CaedImeQImankMBs; 40 m . edImmanragsIuLaMg manGgát;p©it
70 (100) cm edaymanrUbragCaBIra:mt
I manEmkQr rW eTrbnþit enAeBltUc EmkragekageLIgelI
EmkeRcinRkas; [8, 16].
[sMbk]: BN’etñat eTAetñatcas; rW etñatRkhm nwgGackøayeTACaBN’RbepH eRbH nigRCYjenARtg;Kl;
[5] épÞsMbkrwg nigrerag mansñameRbHrbkCapÞH² [8,16] .
[søwk]: manRbePTsøwkcMnYn 2 (dimorphic): enAelIedIm nigEmkx©ImansøwkragekagcuHeRkam
TMrg;CaBhuekan EdlmanRbEvg 0.8-1.6 cm CYnkalRbEvg 2.0-2.1 cm . enAelIedIm
nigEmkcas;mansøwkxøI nigekagbnþic nigEmkEdlecjEpømansøwkdUcRska ekag RsYc manRbEvg 0.30.5 cm eRbHtambeNþat [2] . søwkRbEvg 0.8-1.6 cm zitenARtYtKña ragdUcm¢úl PøWrelag .
søwkEdlenAelI Emkx©ImanTMhMtUc RbEvg ± 0.15 cm nigragdUcRska [5] . søwkmanlkçN³xus²Kña
tMerobCarages<ó . søwkx©I nigsøwkenAelIedImtUc manragekag RtYsuIKña manRbEvg 0.8-2.0 cm . søwk
nigEmktUc manekan ragdUcRska nigragRtIekan rwg Kl;ekagcuHeRkam nigkMBlU ekagpgEdr [8 ] .
søwkcas; zitenARtYtKña ragRtIekan nigmanlkçN³dUcRskar manCayxageRkARsYc TMhM 1.0-1.5 mm
x 0.4-0.6 mmm kMBUl man microsporophyll RtIekaN RKab;cas;manekanxøI nigRbEvg 4.0-4.5

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

. EmkEdlRTpáa nigEpømansøwklkçN³dUcRskar ragekag RtYssIuKña mancugRsYc nigRbEvg
0.3-0.5 cm RBmTaMgeRbHtambeNþay [2] .
[Epø]: CaEpøekanÉkePT EdlEpøjI nigeQµalzitenAelIedImxusKña Rsedognwg Podocarpus .
ekaneQµal duHenAEtÉg nigcugmanragsIuLaMg RbEvg 0.7-0.8 cm . ekanjIzitenAEtÉg rW
tMerobCaRkumtUc² cugRsYc microsporophyll ragRtIekan . manEtRtbklMGg nigeksEtmYy .
RKab;manragmUl TMrg;dUcepH manRbEvg 0.2-0.3 cm Edl 1/3 énKl;rMuB½Te§ day pseudopericarp
[2] . RKab;ekanmanTMhM 0.5 x 0.3 cm CaEpøs¶ÜtragmUl zitenAkñúgftsac; EdlmanBN’Rkhmcas;
(podophyll) [5] . RKab;ragmUl ragRtg;bnþic Edl 1/3 Kl;RKbeTAeday epimatium [8] .
RKab;cas; manlkçN³xøI RbEvg 4.0-4.5 mm . ecjpáa enAExmina nigEpøenAEx tula-vicäika [2] .
cab;ecjekan enAExkumÖ³ TMuenAExtula nigvicäika [8].
mm [16]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

3

:

xageRkamenHCaTinñn½yGMBIePT Dacrydium edayBt’maneTARbePTKWmankMritkMNt; . Dacrydium
pþl;nUveQIRsay EdlmanTMgn;Rsal nigmFüm . ( enAkñúgBNiC¢kmµ eQIRsaysMedAelIRbePTeQI
søwkm¢úl eQIxøwmsMedAelIBBYkeQIsøwkFM EtCaeKalkarN_BBYkeQIRsayGacmanlkçN³rwgCageQIxøwm
nigpÞúymkvij) . eQIxøwmanBN’elOgetñat elOgsIuCMBU etñatRsal rW etñatRkhm
minGacEckdak;BIeQIRsay . kMritTMnaje 425-720kg/m³ enAkMritsMeNIm 15% . srésreQIRtg;
kMrkmanTwkrlk Fn;ngw karsgát; nigbt; . eQImanlkçN³relagBN’exµA EdlmanPaBRss;s¥at
EtKµankøin nigrsCati [16] .
karsakl,genA Fiji eTAelIeQIRsUlRkhm enAkMritsMeNIm 12% pþl;nUvB½t’mandUcxageRkam :
kMritGackat;pþac;)an 106 N/mm², kMritGacbt;Ebn)an 11590 N/mm² sMBaFtambeNþaysac;eQI
(TisedAsréseQI) 61.5 N/mm² kMritkMlaMgkat; 14 N/mm² kMritbMEbk 38 N/mm² radial nig
54.5 N/mm² tangential kMritrwgrbs;eQI 5430 N nigkMritrwgEpñkxagcug 8635 N .
kMritrYj (bgðajenAeBlEdlsMeNImFøak;cuH eFIVeGaymanesßrPaBépÞmuxkat;) mankMritTabeTAmFüm
enAeBlenARss; kMritsMeNIm 12% Edl 2.0% radial nig 4.5% tangential . karsMgYteQIGaceFIV
eGayeRbH b:uEnþbnÞHeQI EdlesþIgRtUv)ansMgYt edayyWt² edIm,IeCosevogkareRbH .

PaBekagGacekItmaneLIg enAeBleQIrmYl rW enAeBlkat;min)anRtwmRtUv . vaRtUv)anpþlG; nusasn_
eGayeFIVkarsMgYtedayL
(sMrab;karsMgYtedaysib,nimiµt)
edayeRbIGMBUlePøIg
EdlmankMritsItuNðPaB 65-80 ºC . karsMgYtedayL 25 mm (=1 inch ) énRbePTeQI D.
nidulum BIRss;rhUtdl; kMritsMeNIm 12% EdlRtUvkareBlRbEhl 3-4 éf¶ nigkMras;kþa 50 mm
RtUvkareBlrhUtdl; 2 s)þah_ . eQIrbs;vagayRsYlsMgYt edayhalxül; enAeRkamkarRKbpgEdr
. kareFIVRbRBwtþikmµ edaysMeNImxøaMg GaceFIVkat;bnßynUvTMgn; b:uEnþGaceFIVeGayrmYl
dUcenHkareFIVRbRBwtþikmµedaybeRBa¢obnUv cMhayry³eBl 2-4 ema:gKYrRtUv)aneFIVeLIgCMnYsvij .
eQImanesßrPaBkñúgkareRbIR)as; .
RsUlRkhmgayRsYlkñúgkarGar nigeRbIR)as; CamYyéd nigma:sI;un . eQImanlkçN³relag
niggayRsYlduHxat; . karbitkav dMuEdknigkat; manPaBgayRsYl [16].
:

CaRbePTkMr
EdlmanduHenAextþxøHénRbeTsevotNam
[2].
vaduHenARbeTstMbn;PñM
edaymanePøógmUsug dUcCa \NÐa PUma km<úCa evotNam Malay Archipelago hVIlIBIn PaKxaglic
Borneo/\NÐÚensIu ekaHhVICI . enAkm<úVCa manenAelIPb
ñM UkeKa duHlayCamYy Dacrycarpus imbricatus
eTaHbI TaMgkMBs;rbs;RbePT TaMgBIr minelIsBI 2-4 m edaysarEtGakaFatuminGMeNaypl
nigpøas;bþÚrtamrdUv dUcCaraMgs¶Üt niglicTwkCaedIm . vamanduHenAtMbn;éRBtammat;eqñr
b:uEnþminmankMBs;x<s;eT [4] manduHenAtMbn;éRBPñM layCamYy Rsl;søwkBIr (Pinus merkusii)
enAtamRClgx<s; ² . TICMrkrbs;vahak;dUcCakMNt;nUv r)a:yrbs;RbePTeQIenH
ehIyvak_manenALavpgEdr [7] .
ePT Dacrydium mancMnYn RbEhl 25 RbePT nigduHenAkñúgtMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_ rhUtdl;eTA Malesia
ekaH)a:sIuPic jÚsIueLn nigPaKxagt,Úg Chile (Gaemrikxagt,Úg) .
5
RbePTeTotmanduHenA]bTVbI ma:eLsIu tMbn;éRBesIm manry³kMBs; 1300-1700 m
b:uEnþk_manduHenAtMbn; éRBRtUBik Edlmanry³kMBs; 2000 m [8] . vaEtgduHlayCamYy
Podocarpus spp.nig Agathis spp. [2] RBmTaMg Castanopsis spp., Cupressus spp.,

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

4

Dacrycarpus imbricatus, Fokienia hodginsii
16]

nig Illicium griffithii enAkñúgéRBeRsagtMbn;PñM [4,8,

.

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

RsUlRkhmanduHenAtMbn;éRBeRsagesIm tMbn;PñM manry³kMBs;BI 500-2000 m a.s.l .
vaCaRbePTeQIRtUvkarBnøW nigGakasFatuRtCak; duHelIdIBN’elOg esIm nigsMbUrmemak [2,4, 8] .

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minRtUv)andwg .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

RsUlRkhmmanduHenAelIdI limestone rW dIfµenAtMbn;PñM mansMeNIm dIsMbUreTAedaymemak nigRbePTdI
podsolic pgEdr [2,4,7.8]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: RsUlRkhmCaRbPBsMxan;éneQIh‘ub enAtMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_ . eQIrbs;vamanBN’Rkhm manC½r
nigrWg EdlGaceRbIR)as;enAkñúgsMNg;Fn;Rsal eRKOgsgðarwm Bum< kMral TVa nigs‘umbg¥Üc dgekþag vIna
nigeQIeFIVRkdas nigRbGb;sMrab;viucx©b; . vasmRsbsMrab;eFIVRkdas nigbnÞHeQI
b:uEnþk_GaceRbIR)as;sMrab; eFIVs<an TUk nava nigeKOgsil,³pgEdr .
[Gnupl]:eRbgGacRtUv)ancMraj;ykBIeQI . vaRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eFIVCaFUb ehIyk_GaceRbIsMrab;eraK
snøak; q¥wg nigbBaðaeBaHpgEdr [2,4,8,16] . C½rs¶ÜtRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eFIVCacnøúHeTotpg .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
minmancMNat;fñak; .

:

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

RsUlRkhmCaRbePTRtUvkarBnøW . duHlUtlas;eLIgvijedayFmµCati enARKb;kEnøg .
vaGaceFIVkarrMelaH edayxøÜnÉg enAeBlmancMnYneRcIneBk . kMrmankarduHeLIgvijCasuT§
enAeBlEdlminmanedImem [16]

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

GacRtUv)anbnþBUCedayRKab; duHedayFmµCati rW karkat; . RKab;rbs;va minRtUvkareFIVRbRBwtþkmµ
CamuneT . karduHlUtlas;edayFmµCati KW manlkçN³cenøaH² k_dUcCakardaMpgEdr [7, 16]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

RtUv)ancuHkñúgbBa¢IRkhm faCaRbePTrgeRKaH eday IUCN edaysarkareFIVGaCIvkmµhYtehtu nigkar
)at;bg; edImeQIem [27].

F> karGPirkS

:

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

zitenAry³kMBs;x<s; enAtMbn;éRBmat;smuRT nigelIPñMbUkeKa .

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
\NÐa en)a:l; PUma RsIlgáa \NÐÚcin éf ma:eLsIu nigEpñkxøHénekaH

Borneo

EdlCaRbPBkMeNIt .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

minEmnCaRbePTrgeRKaHfñak; [9].

6

p> epSg²

:

minTanmanTinñn½y .

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Brown FG, 1955. Forest trees of Sarawak and Brunei and their products. Kuching:
Government Printing Office.

de Laubenfels DJ, 1969. A revision of the Malesian and Pacific rainforest Conifers I.
Podocarpaceae, in part. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 50:274-314.

Burkill IH, 1966. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula (2nd
edition). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives.

de Laubenfels DJ,1988

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

2)
Nguyen et al.1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi,
788 pp.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

4)
Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom
Penh,. 915 pp.

7

7)
Lehmann, L.,Grejmans, M. and Shenman, D., 2003: Forest Trees of the Central
Highlands of Xieng Khouang, Lao P.D.R. – A field guide. DANIDA-DED-NAWACOP,
Vientiane-Laos. 246 pp.

8)
Sam, H. V.,Nanthavong, Kh.and P.J.A. Kessler 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam:
A field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species.BLUMEA J. Plant Tax.
and Plant Geogr. 49(2004) p. 201- 349 pp., Univ. Leiden Br., Leiden, The Netherlands

16)
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. And W.C. Wong (Eds.) 1995: Plant
Resources of Southeast Asia 5(2) Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. Prosea
Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 655 pp.

18)
Dept. of Forestry and Wildlife 2003: Cambodia Forestry Statistics to 2002.(in
Khmer and English) Planning & Accounting Off., Statistics Sect., Phnom Penh, Cambodia,
97 pp.

27)

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/species name (Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

31)
http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/earle/po/ da_m/elatum.
htm:(internet source).

8

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Dalbergia cochinchinensis Lanessan , Dalbergia cochinchinensis Pierre]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Dalbergia cochinchinensis Lanessan , Dalbergia cochinchinensis Pierre]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg

³

Dalbergia cochinchinensis Lanessan [1],
Dalbergia cochinchinensis Pierre [2]

x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

Siamese rosewood, Thailand rosewood [1]

K> sTisn½y

³

Dalbergia cambodiana Pierre [4]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

mai ka young [1], khanhung (Laos) [2] - payoong (Thailand)
[1] - trac, suá nam bo (Vietnam) [2] - shisham, sissoo, biti,
eravadi, kalaruk (India) [7]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

RkjÜg
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

1

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

kra-nhourng [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Fabales
RKYsar : Fabaceae [1] / Leguminosae [6]
ePT : Dalbergia

RbePT : Dalbergia cochinchinensis
ÉksarBieRKaH: [1, 6]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: edImeQIFéM btgCanic© mankMBs;BI 8-30 m [5] (15-30 m [2], 25-30 m [4])
edaymanGgát;pi©t DBH rhUtdl; 60 cm [5] (CYnkal 120 cm [5]) sMbrU EmkeRcIn
edaymankenSamsøwkragCaes<ó .
[sMbk]: sMbkmanBN’elOgRsal eRbHtambeNþay CYnkalrbkCadM²
u .
[søwk]: søwkCaRbePTsøab manTgcMnn
Y BI 7-9 Tg EpñkenAxagelImanTMhMFMCageK . søwkman beNþay
RbEvg 13-25 cm ragdUcEs,k TMrg;dUcs‘ut manTMhM 3-8 (-10) x 1.8-4 (-5) cm cugsøwkminRsYc rWxøIRsYc
Kl;søkw mUl Kµaneram srésTIBIr mansréscMnYn 7-9 KU manrujxül;CabNþaj enAxageRkam .
Tgsøwk manRbEvg 3-4 mm .
[páa]: kBa©úp
M aá enAelIGk½ S rWCakenSamenAelIk,alRKab; manbeNþay 10-20 cm . páamanBN’s
manbeNþay 5-6 mm kMrmaneram . ecjpáaenAEx ]sPa nigmifuna .
[Epø] Epø (=pods) TMeu nAEx vick
äi ar nigFñÚ . BYkvamanlkçN³sMEb:t tUc Rtg; TMhM 4-7.5 x 0.8-1.2
cm,Edl manRKab; 1 rW 2 RKab; CayTaMgBIzitenARsbKña enARtg;kEnøgEdlmanRKab; sMbkesþg
I
Kµaneram . RKab;ragdUcRklan manTMhM 6 x 4 mm zitenAcMkNþal manBN’Rkhm rWetñat .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 5]
[

:

lkçN³eQI]: eQImanBN’RkhmRss;sa¥ t edaymanlkçN³xusKñarvageQIRsay nigxømw .
eQIRsaymanBN’etñat nigeQIxwmø manBN’etñatRkhm rWsCIu m<cÚ as; edaymansrèsya:gRss;sa¥ t .
vaynPaBsac;eQImanlkçN³ÉksNæan nigrelag . eQImanlkçN³rwg Fn nigF¶n;edaymandg;seIu t
1.0-1.8 g/cm³ [4] (1.09 g/cm³ [9], TMnajEpndI 15 of 0.85 g/cm³ [7]) b:Eu nþgayRsYlkñg
ú kareRbIR)as;
. vamanèpÞrelag nig eQIEdlkat;rYcmanBN’Rkhm nigkøni . GacBt; nigsgát;xøaMg)an
edaymanlkçN³minsUvrwg nigFn mFümnwgkarRTTMgn; . FnnwgstVl¥it nigkeNþó . minEbk rW
eRbHenAeBls¶Üt . duHnUvRBwgCaeRcIn nigekag ehIymanBN’exµAenAeBlcas; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9].
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

2

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

EdnCMrk : duHlUtlas;enArvag 22°N nig 10°N [1] . manRbPBkMenIt enA\NÐcÚ i nig RbeTsCitenH .
kMrduHlUtlas;enATIval nig éRBBak;kNþalCMruHsøwk CYnkalduHCaÉkRbePT .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 6]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

Ednry³kMBs; : 400-500 m a.s.l. [4, 6] (100-350 m a.s.l. [1]) . CaBiesstMbn; Edlman
ePøógeTogTat; edaymankMBs;TwkePøógRbcaMqañ M 1200-1650 mm/qñaM . Fn;nwgrdUvR)aMg Edlman
ry³eBl 3-6 Ex . sItuNðPaBRbcaMqañ mM Füm : 20-32ºC . sItuNðPaBmFümx<sb; Mput enAExekþAbMput :
27-39ºC . sItuNðPaBmFümTabbMput enAExRtCak;bMpt
u : 12-24ºC . sItuNðPaBdac;xatTabbMput :
>10ºC . Fn;nwgmøb; enAeBltUc EtRtUvkarBnøWxaø g
M enAeBlFM nigFn;ngw karraMgs¶Üt .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 6]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
PñRM kvajEb:ksmuRT (A), xageCIgPñRM kvaj
GaNamkNþal (G), GaNamxagt,Úg (g)

(B),

:

TMnabPaKBayBü

(D),

TMnabkNþal

(d),

ÉksarBieRKaH [4]
tMbn;RbPBRKab;BCU (Projection: UTM; Horizontal Datum: Indian coordinates)]:
kMBg;FM (X:566524 Y:1400818), kMBg;FM (X:535833 Y:1441034), kMBg;FM (X:551179 Y:1433097),
kMBg;FM (X:540066 Y:1423043), kMBg;FM (X:533981 Y:1446062), kMBg;FM (X:530806 Y:1401082),
RBHvihar (X:514728 Y:1535416), rtnKIrI (X:712611 Y:1549021), eBaF×sat; (X:354350
Y:1348656), kMBg;FM (X:561743 Y:1395530), esomrab (X:400806 Y:1543940), RkecH
(X:594844 Y:1446830), esomrab (X:430346 Y:1472875), kMBg;FM (X:534018 Y:1458959),
esomrab (X:400757 Y:1520273), ekaHkug (X:285400 Y:1263350), sÞwgERtg (X:589200
Y:1518300), RBHvihar (X:516893 Y:1536291), mNÐlKIrI (X:720556 Y:1351058) .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

3

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

RkjÚgGacduHlUtlas;enAelIdIPaKeRcIn minsUvTamTarlkçxN
½ ÐdIbun: µaneT . vacUlcitþduHenAelIdI
Edlman xSac;eRCA \dæ rW dImanCatikMe)ar edaymanvaynPaBdImFüm mindkTwk nig pH eRkam 7
(dIGasIut) .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 6, 9]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan

:

eQI]: eQImanlkçN³eBjniymsMrab;karpliteRKOgsgðarwm EdlmanKuNPaBx<s; nigRbNit eFIV vIna
sMrab; Rkal sMPar³eFIBV éI d ]bkrN_ePøg TU brikaç pÁt;pÁg; hag kariyal½y nigFanaKa kMral Fñmw sMPar³
eFIV BIeQI dg cMlak;eQI eQIRkLwg ma:snIu edr dMRu )aMg karsagsg;TUk nigeQITMr sMrab;sMng;FnF¶n; .
Kl;rWs nig rWsRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM abeFIsV PM ar³eFIBV éI d nigeRbIR)as;CaeQIfamBl nigFüÚg .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7]
[Gnupl]: minTan;manTinn
ñ y½ .
[epSg²]:vamanlT§PaBbegán
I GasUtenAkñgú dI nigEklMGrKuNPaBdI. vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;
daMCaeQIlMGr.
ÉksarBieRKaH [1]
[

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

ÉksarBieRKaH [3, 4]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: kMrduHlUtlas;enATIval nig éRBBak;kNþalCMruHsøwk CYnkalduHCaÉkRbePT .éRkEmk
edayxøÜnÉg cMEnkkardaMduH edayeRbIR)as;karduHlUtlas;eLIgvijedayFmµCati rWkardaM RtUv)aneRbI
R)as; kñúgksirukçkmµ (agroforestry) nigkarbegItá rukçCatieLIgvij . edayRtYv)ancat;fñak;eday
rdæ)alèRBeQI faCaRbePTeQIsMrab;plitkmµeQIhb‘u enARbeTskm<Cú a nigCaRbePTeQIsMrab;kar
daMCacMkar . RkjÚgmankarduHlUtlas;yWt b:Eu nþduHExñgeLIgvijelOn .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 6, 8, 9]
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

eQIRbNit .

4

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

vaRtUv)ancat;TukfaCa "RbePTeQI Edlmanry³eBlEvg" edayrdæ)aléRBeQI RbePTénkar sþúkTuk
RKab;KW orthodox karbnþBUCedaysrIragÁ edaykarkat; bMe)A pSauM nigdaMCalika .
RKab;EdlmanBN’etñatcas; KWCaRKab;TMu . Epø ¬EpøK¦Y RtUv)anRbmUlenAeBl EdlBN’ERb BI èbtg eTA
CaelOg edIm,Ikat;bnßykarbMpaø jBIstVl¥ti . EmkRtUv)ankat; rW GRgun nigRKab;RtUv)anRbmUleday
Rkalfg;pøas;siÞcenAelIdI . bnÞab;BIkarRbmUl EpøRtUv)anhaléf¶ ry³eBl 3 éf¶ . Epø Edls¶Üt
EdlminTan;eRbHEbk RtUv)ankat;ykRKab;ecj . ]bkrN_srM ab;e)akykRKab; KWmanRbsiT§PaBkñúgkar
TajykRKab; b:Eu nþRtUveFIeV LIgedayRbugRby½tñ edIm,IeCosvagkarbMpaø jRKab; . RKab;cnM Yn 100 man
TMgn; 18.5 g, nig 100 g RKab;Gacpþl;kUndMnuH dl;eTA 54,000 [4] . cMnnY RKab; EdlRtUvkarkñgú 1 ha
sMrab;kardaMenAcMkar : cMnnY RKab; /kg = 40,000. cenøaHénkar daM 3 x 3 m. kUneQIsuT§ EdlRtUvkarkñgú
1 ha = 1,112. GRtagab; : 1,335 = 20% (enAkEnøgdaM), 1484 = 10% kñúgkardwkCBa¢nÚ , 1855 = 20%
enAkñgú fñal . GRtadMNuH : 50%. PaBsuT§ : 95%. RKab;BCU srub EdlRtUvkar 0.11 kg" [10] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 10]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar
[

stVl¥ti ]: stVl¥ti mandUcCa

:

:

Apoderus,

Aristobia

approximator,

Aristobia

horridula,

Hypomeces squamosus, Plecoptera reflexa, Psilogramma menephron, Sphenoptera,
Threnetica lacrymans.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

CMgWpSit]: CMgWpSit: Maravalia pterocarpi, Phyllachora pterocarpi.
ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

F> karGPirkS

:

cMNat;fñak;GPirkSrbs; IUCN (Conservation category) : VU A1c,d (Asia Regional
Workshop,1997) . )ancat;TukenAkñg
ú RbeTsevotNam nigéf faCaRbePTgayrgeRKaHfñak; .
karkab;bpM aø jéRBeQI nig karrukrkd_eRcInelIslub GacKMramkMEhgRbePTenH .
ÉksarBieRKaH [6]

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

kMBg;Fm RBHvihar rtnKIrI eBaF×sat; esomrab RkecH ekaHkug sÞwgERtg nig mNÐlKIrI .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4]

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
[

[

RbPBkMeNIt]: RbeTskm<Cú a \NÐa Lav PUma cinxagt,Úg étva:n; éf evotNam .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 7]
RbePTnaMcUl]: minTan;manTinñn½y .

p> epSg²

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project
workshop held in Hanoi, VietNam, August 1997

Chính, N.N, Chung, C.T., Cân, V.V., Dung, N.X., Dung, N.K., Dào, N.K., Hop, T., Oanh, T.T.,
Quynh, N.B., Thìn, N.N., 1996. Viet Nam Forest Trees. Forest Inventory and Planning
Institute. Agricultural Publishing House: Hanoi. pp.788.
[6]

Phan Thuc Vat 1996. Red data book of Viet Nam. Volume 2 Plants. Science and Technics
Publishing House.
[6]

Vu Van Dung (Ed.) 1996. Viet Nam Forest Trees. Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi.
[6]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[6]

6

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[2] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng: Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and
Vietnam: a field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.

[3] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names
of
Commercial Woods, unpublished.

[4] CTSP, 2003: Forest Gene Conservation Strategy - Gene Conservation Strategy, Species
Monographs, Gene Ecological Zonation, Species Site Matching Model. (CD-ROM).

[5] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[6] Tree Conservation Information Service : http://www.unepwcmc.org/trees/trade/dal_coc.htm. (Internet source).

[7] Rosewood Facts: http://www.1-unicarpenteroy.com/Wood%20facts/Rosewood%20facts.htm. (Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[8] Dept. of Forestry and Wildlife, 2003: Cambodia Forestry Statistics to 2002.

7

[9] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning
Institute.

[10] FA/CTSP-DANIDA, 2005: Farmers Tree Planting Manual - Guidelines for Site Selection
and Tree Planting. (CD-ROM).

[11] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Dalbergia oliveri ]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Dalbergia oliveri ]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg

³

Dalbergia oliveri

x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

minTan;manTinñn½y.

K> sTisn½y

³

Dalbergia bariensis Pierre
Dalbergia dongnaiensis Pierre
Dalbergia duperreana Pierre
Dalbergia mammosa Pierre [1]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

kham phi leung, padong deng, cam lai, cam lai bong,
cam lai mat (Laos) [1] - trac lai (Vietnam) [1]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

nagnYn

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

1

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati ³

neang nuon [2, 4]

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae

lMdab; : Fabales
RKYsar : Fabaceae
ePT : Dalbergia
RbePT : Dalbergia oliveri
ÉksarBieRKaH: [1- 6]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]:edImeQICrM uHsøkw mFüm eTAFM kMBs; 15-30 m [1] (20-25 m [7], 20-35 m [2]) Ggát;p©it
DBH 50-60 cm [2] (40-60 cm [7], 60-90 cm [1, 6]) . kenSamsøwkebIkFM enAeBleBjv½y . EmkFM
maneramtic² .
[sMbk]: sMbkmanBN’RbepHcas; mancMnucBN’elOg nigs EtmineRbHrbkCadMt
u Uc² .
[søwk]: søwkmanRbEvg 15-25 (-30) cm . TgsøwkzienAqøas;Kañ 13-17 minsUvman 9-11 b¤ 19-21
ragdUcs‘ut 4-8 x 1.2-3 cm lat nigduHenAxagcugTgsøwk kMBlU søwkminRsYc Kl;skøw ragmUl .
mansrésEvnCabNþajsrésTI 2mancMnYn 9-12 KU. søwkx©ImanBN’sIuCm<Ú maneramTn; nigsøwkcas;
manBN’ébtgcas; nigrelag. [páa]: kBa©púM aá zitenACaG½kSduHEbkecjmk edaymanRbEvg 10-45 cm
. TgkBa©úpM áamanRbEvg 8-10 cm maneramtic . páamanBN’sVayenAeBlminTan;rIk manBN’sVay
RbEltenAelIbNþúcM ugEmk EdlmanRbEvg 10-12 mm .
[Epø]: Epø ¬EpøK¦
Y ragCaeGlIb manTMhM 9-14 x 2.5-4.5 cm sMEb:t ragmUlenAelIRKab; TgEpømanRbEvg
1-1.5 cm . manRKab; CaTUeTA 1 nigCYnkalman 2 rW 3 ragdUcRKab;sENþk TMhM 12.5 x 9 mm enAEpñk
kNþalsMEb:t manBN’etñat rWRkhm .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 6]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

lkçN³eQI]: eQIrWg nigF¶n; edaymandg;seIu t 1.07-1.15 g/cm³ [2] . vamansrésd_Rss;sa¥ t
gayRsYlkñgú kardusxat; nigFnnwgkarbMpaø jrbs;keNþó . RbePTeQIBNiCk¢ mµ CaeRcInGacRtUv )an
Eckdak;BIKañ edayBN’rbs;eQI ³ BN’kUlabelOg sréseQIBN’etñat rW Rkhmcas; nigmansñamqñÚt
BN’sVay edaylay elOg .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 5]

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

RbePTeQIenHduHlUtlas;EtÉg rWCaRkumEdlmancMnYn 5–10 edIm nigduHenAkñgú tMbn;éRBeRsag rWBak;
kNþaléRBrel,aH EdlmanRbePTeQIlubCa Lagerstroemia nig dipterocarps .

ÉksarBieRKaH [2]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

ry³kMBs;EdlRbePTenH GacduHlUtlas;KW 1,100 m [5] (1,200
edImeQIGacFn;ngw møbe; nAeBlmanGayutic b:Eu nþRtUvkarBnøW enAeBlFM .

m. [1], <900 m [2])

.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 5]

3

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

PaKxageCIgPñRM kvaj (B), TMnabPaKBayBü (D), TMnabkNþal (d), TMnabelcTwkTenøemKgÁeRkam (E),
Annamites kNþal (G)

ÉksarBieRKaH [2]
[

TItaMgRbPBRKab;BCU (Projection: UTM; Horizontal Datum: Indian coordinates)]:

RBHvihar (X:491881 Y:1560352), RkecH (X:575520 Y:1453205), kMBg;FM (X:570229 Y:1406639),
RBHvihar (X:498262 Y:1514060), RkecH (X:606741 Y:1423572), RkecH (X:631083 Y:1419339),
RBHvihar (X:494558 Y:1517764), RkecH (X:586368 Y:1412724), RkecH (X:594306 Y:1376211),
rtnKIrI (X:710881 Y:1547976), RBHvihar (X:511900 Y:1531250), RBHvihar (X:519800
Y:1541250), RBHvihar (X:511900 Y:1534350), RBHvihar (X:515564 Y:1536686), rtnKIrI
(X:704001 Y:1504648), rtnKIrI (X:708916 Y:1550449), kMBg;FM (X:561882 Y:1396560), RkecH
(X:595445 Y:1447118), sÞwgERtg (X:636350 Y:1522763), esomrab (X:396300 Y:1539500),
sÞwgERtg (X:589200 Y:1518300), eBaF×sat; (X:354350 Y:1348650), RBHvihar (X:494650
Y:1516781), Ratanak Kiri (X:721623 Y:1515900), esomrab (X:400757 Y:1520273)

ÉksarBieRKaH [2]

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

CaTUeTAduHlUtlas;enAtMbn;mansMeNIm tamsÞgw nigTenø nigenAelItMbn;x<g;rab . duHlUtlas;)anl¥
enAelIdI ferralitic BN’Rkhmcas; nigelOgcas; . eCosvagtMbn;EdlricrilxøaMg .

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 6, 7]

:

eQI]: eQIRsedognwgRbePTeQIrbs;RbeTseRbsIul ( Brazilian rosewood) EdlRtUv)aneRbIR)as;
ya:gTUlMTUlaysMrab;eFIVCa eRKOgsgðarwm EdlmanKuNPaBx<s; TURbNit sMPar³sil, nigsMPar³eFIV
edayéd nigkartubEtCaedIm .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 5]
Gnupl]: minTan;manTinnñ y½ .
[epSg²]: minTan;manTinñn½y . .
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| snøwkTinñn½y

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

4

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

RbePTeQIRbNit [2, 3]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: duHlUtlas;EtgÉg rW CaRkumEdlmancMnYn 5-10 enAkñgú éRBbzm nigricril
dipterocarp éRBel,aHcMruH éRBeRsag rWéRBBak;kNþalel,aHtambeNþalsÞwg rWGrU .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 7]
[

karRKb;RKg]: edImeQIduHlUtlas;ytW TaMgenAkñgú éRBFmµCati nigéRBdaM .

ÉksarBieRKaH [2]

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

edImeQInimyY ²énRbePTenH Etpþl;nUvRKab;eRcIn b:uEnþkarduHlUtlas;eLIgvijedayFmµCati manlkçN³
TabedaysarEtGRtadMNuHmankMriTab rWedaysarktþaGakasFatumni l¥rbs;tbM n; . RKab;EdlRtUvkar
sMrab;épÞdI mYyhictasMrab;kardaMCacMkarenARbeTskm<úCa cMnnY RKab;kúgñ mYy kg: 5,000 . cenøaHkñgú kar
daM : 3 x 3 m. cMnYnkUneQIsuT§EdlRtUvkarkñgú mYy ha: 1,112 . GRtasøab; : 1,335 = 20% (planting
site), 1,484 = 10% kñúgkarepÞr rW dwkCBa¢n
Ú , 1,855 = 20% enAkñgú fñalbNþHú . GRtadMNuH : 50%.
Purity: 95% . RKab;BC
U srubEdlRtUvkarsMrab;daM : 0.79 kg" [8] .

5

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 8]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar
minTan;manTinñn½y.

:

F> karGPirkS

:

edaysarEttMélesdækic©rbs;va nagnYnkMBugEtRbQmmuxnwgkarkab;bpM aø jedayxusc,ab;ya:gF¶n;F¶
. cMnnY edImeQI EdlenAsl;mancMnnY tictYcbMptu nigenAtMbn;xHø RbePTeQIenH)an)at;vtþmanEfmeTot
pg . enAkñgú tMbn;FmµCatid_FrM bs;va edImeQIFM nigmFümKWkMrCYbRbTHNas; . karxMRbwgERbgkñúg kareFIV
eGay RbePTenH duHeLIgvijenAenAmankMritenAeLIy . RbePTeQIenH RbQmmux nwgkarputBUC
RbsinebIkar karBarRbkbedayRbsiT§PaBminRtUv)aneFIVeLIg . enAqñaM 2002 karRbCMeu lIk TIBIr rbs;
CTSP eTAelI yuT§saRsþkarGPirkSesnéRBeQI ( Forest Gene Conservation Strategy) )an
bgðajfa nagnYnCaRbePT GaTiPaB nigRbePTmYyEdlTamTarnUvGnþraKmn_kúgñ karGPirkS nig karBar
eGay)ansmRsb . RbePTenH RtUv)ankarBaredayc,ab;éRBeQIkm<Cú a elx 35 [2].
"

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

RkecH RBHvihar kMBg;FM rtnKIrI sÞgw ERtg eBaF×sat; nigesomrab .

ÉksarBieRKaH [2]

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
[

RbPBkMeNIt]: km<Cú a Lav PUma éf nigevotNam .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2]
karnaMclU ]: minTan;manTinñny½ .

p> epSg²

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

B> GMnanepSg²eTot
minTan;manTinñn½y.

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| snøwkTinñn½y

[

6

P>ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng: Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a
field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA

[2] CTSP, 2003: Forest Gene Conservation Strategy - Gene Conservation Strategy, Species
Monographs, Gene Ecological Zonation, Species Site Matching Model. (CD-ROM)

[3] FA, 2002 (draft), List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names of
Commercial Woods, unpublished.

[4] Rollet, B., 1979: The Vegetation of Cambdia. (Draft Translation into English by K. Panzer)

[5] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[6] Gardner,S.; Sidisunthorn, P.; Anusarnsunthorn, V., 2000: A Field Guide to Forest Trees of
Northern Thailand.

[7] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning Institute.

[8] FA/CTSP-DANIDA, 2005: Farmers Tree Planting Manual - Guidelines for Site Selection and Tree
Planting. (CD-ROM)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[9] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

7

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg

³

Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf. [4].

x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

flame tree, peacock flower, fire tree [4]

K> sTisn½y

³

basionym: Poinciana regia Bojer ex Hook. [8,20].

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

seinban (Burma); fang han nhoung, in si (Laos); hang nok
yung farang (Thailand); phuong, diêp bông do, diêp tây
(Vietnam) [6,8], flamboyant, poinciana (French) [20]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

ek¶ak)araMg
ÉksarBieRKaH : [4]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

1

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

k´ngaôk barang [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Fabales
RKYsar : Caesalpinioideae
ePT : Delonix

RbePT :

Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf. [4]

ÉksarBieRKaH: [ 11 ; 4 ]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: ek¶ak)araMg CaRbePTeQItUc² duHenAkñúgéRBBak;kNþalel,aH EdlmanTMhMmFüm nig
man tYedImxøI CaTUeTAb¤srbs;vamanragCacnÞl; ehIyEbksaxaFM kenSamsøwkmanragdUcqRt½
EdlmanGgátT; MhM rhUtdl;eTA 15 m.[6,8] edImek¶ak)araMgmankMBs; 10-15m (kMBs;GtibrmaKW
18m) manGgát;p©itrhUt dl;eTA 60 cm tYedImFMEdlEpñkKl;manragCacnÞl;eRCagtY edImeLIg
elI.[26] kenSamsøwkmanragdUcqRt½ EbkEmksaxaEvg EdleFVIeGayEmkmanTMrg;esÞIrEtepþk
nigmanbrimaRtFMCagedImeQIx<s;²d¾éTeTot. Exñg b¤ EmktUc²rwg manBN’èbtgRsal
ehIyERbeTABN’etñat EmktUc² b¤Emkx©ICaFmµtamaneram. b¤srbs; vacak;rak;. [26]
[sMbk]: ek¶ak)araMgmansMbkBN’RbepH relag manxñaysÞbCasñitcMnYn 4 b¤ 5 Rtbk
EdlenAelIRtbk nimYy²mancMnucBN’etñat ehIytMerobragbBaÄr²CabnÞat;.[6,8] sMbkrelag
manBN’RbepHRsallay etñat EdlCYnkalmanrageRbHtic² EdlmancMnucmYycMnYnmanragrbk
beNþay² ehIysMbkxagkñúgman BN’etñatx©I. [26]
[swøk]: ek¶ak)araMgmansøwk CaRbePTsøwksmasqøas; manRbEvg 20-60 cm nigmansñitsøwk cMnYn 1525 KUr Edlsñt
i nimYy²mankUnsøwkcMnYn 14-30 KUr nigtYsøwknImYy²manragRTEvg manbeNþayRbEvg 810 mm nig TTwgRbEvg 3-4 mm .[6]
søwkCaRbePTsøwksñitKUr EdlRTnugemmanRbEvg 50-60 cm sñitsøwknImYy²tMerobqøas;Kña cMnYn 9-24
KUr nigmanRbEvgGacrhUtdl; 10 cm. kUnsøwkmancMnYn 10-40 KUr enAelIsñitnImYy² EdltMerob
qøas;Kña CaRbePTsøwk manTgxøI b¤KµanTg manragBgRkeBIRTEvg manTMhM 5-15 x 2-5 mm
ehIyKl;søwkmanrag bBaäitbnþic cugmanragTal nigépÞsøwkTaMgsgxagmaneramEkv.[8]
søwkCaRbePTswksñitKUr qøas; manBN’ èbtgx©I mansNæandUcEs,k RbEvg 20-60 cm
mansñitsøwkcMnYn 10-25 KUr EdlmanRbEvg 5-12 cm EdlsñitnimYy²mankUnsøwk 12-40 KUr
manragTalRTEvg EdlmanRbEvg 0.5-2.0 cm nigTTwg 0.3 cm nigmanTgsøwkrage)a:gFMehIyrwg.
kUnsøwkPaKeRcInmanTgxøI Kl;nigcugsøwkmanragTal EKmsøwkmanrag eBj søwkesþgw

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

3

EdlèpÞsøwkTaMgsgxagmaneram nigèpÞsøwkEpñkxagelImanBN’èbtg. Kl;søwk manxñay sÞbsøwkcMnYn
2 EdlmanragerovEvg EdlmanragdUcsñiteFµj. [26]
[páa]: ek¶ak)araMg manpàaPaKeRcInmanBN’Rkhm EdlEKmmanBN’elOg ehIyduHCacegàamRkas;
EdlCYn kal esÞIrEtRKb;dNþb;BaseBjkenSamsøwk.[6] kBa©úMpáa tMerobenAelIGkS½Cacegáam
EdlmanRbEvg 10-15 cm nigminmanerameT. páa mancMnYn 5-10 nigmanTgpáaRbEvg 5-8 cm.
Hypanthium xøI ehIymanrag dUcCYg. Rtbkpáa mancMnYn 5 manragBgRkeBIRTEvg manTMhM 4-7 x
2.0-2.5 mm EdlcugmanragRsYcEvg nigEpñkxagkñúgmanBN’Rkhm. RsTab;pàa mancMnYn 5
EdlmansNæanminesµIrKña manbeNáayRbEvg 3-7 cm nigTTwg 3-4 cm manragdUcEpøkaMbit
tMerobCavg;mlU sþÜcenAEpñkxagcug EdlkBa©úMpáaRbEvg 3 cm EdlpàamYymanBN’elOgRsal
layBN’s nigBN’Rkhmq¥al nigpàaepSg²eTotmanBN’Rkhmq¥al. eksreQµalmancMnnY 10
EdlmanRbEvgesµIr²Kña TgekareQµalmanRbEvg 4 cm manBN’Rkhmlay BN’enAEpñkxagKl;
ehIye)aøklMGgragmUlRTEvg nigmanRbEvg 4 mm. GUEv manragesþIgesÞIrEtdUcés,
bMBg;eksrjIqµardUcsésGMe)aH relagehIyKµaneram EdlmanRbEvg 2.5 cm nigsÞicma: manPaBRcbUk
Rcbl;Bi)akkt;sMKal;.[8] páaek¶ak)araMg CaRbePTpáacegáamRtwm manRbEvg 15-30 cm
EdlsßitenAbnÞab; EpñkxagcugEmk EdlcegáampáanImYy²tMerobCab;bnþbnÞab;Kña ehIypáa
rbs;vamankñni RkGUbtic². cegáampáa manTTwg 5-13 cm CamYynwgRsTab;páaesµI²KñacMnYn 5
enAelITgragesþIgsþÜcEdlmanRbEvg 5.0-7.6 cm. RtbkpáanImYy² manRbEvg 5.0-6.5 cm
nigmanTTwg 2-3 cm erobragCavg;mUl EdlRtbknImYy²FM manragdUcsøabRBa Talb:uEnþFMehIyEvg
ehIyEKm²manragdUcTwkrlktic² b¤ragRkeqtRkqt EdlduHCa kBa©úMmanRbEvgRbEhl 2.5 cm
varIkFMehIyekagfyeRkaymuneBlEdlvaFøak;. RsTab;páamancMnYn 4 manBN’TwkRkUclayRkhm
EdlesÞIrEtmanBN’Rkhmq¥al ehIymanRsTab; 1 manragerovEvgCag RsTab;epSg²eTot
EdlxagkñúgmanBN’s laynwgcMnucGuC²BN’Rkhm nigsñamqñÚt² manTgEvgEdlman ragCasIuLaMg
nigmaneram. RtbkpáamancMnnY 5 Rkas; EdlEpñkxageRkAmanBN’èbtg nigEpñkxagkñúgman
BN’RkhmRsal nigEKmmanBN’elOg enAeBlEdlpàarIkRtbkvanwgBt;ekag ehIymansñamGuC² man
eram nigmanRbEvgRbEhl 2.5 cm. eksreQµalmancMnnY 5 CamYynwgTgeksrBN’RkhmcMnYn 10
eksrjImaneram EdlGUEvmanekasikarcMnYn 1 ehIymanRbEvgRbEhl 1.3 cm
nigmanbMBg;eksrjIrag sþÜc EdlmanRbEvgRbEhl 3 cm.[26]

Epø ]: Epøek¶ak)araMg CaRbePTEpøkYr EdlsMbUreTAedayCatieQI manBN’RkhmRsal etñat b¤exµA
manragsMEb:t nigmanRbEvgGacrhUtdl;eTA 40 cm.[6] vaCaRbePTEpøkYrEdlmanragerovmUl RTEvg
sMEb:t manragekagbnþic ehIyBüÜrTMlak;cuHeRkam EdlmanTMhM 30-80 x 3.5-7.0 cm sMbUreTA
edayCatieQI manBN’RsedogexµA nigRsYcsgxag. Epørbs;vamanRKab;cnM Yn 20-40 RKab; manragBg
RkeBI ehIysMEb:t EdlmanTMhM 25 x 8 mm. Epørbs;vaCaEpøkYr EdlenAeBlx©TI n;
ehIymanBN’èbtg nigERbeTACaBN’etñatcas;ehIyrwg nigcugsgxagmanragRsYcenAcas; b¤TMu
manRbEvg 30-75 cm mankMras; 3.8 cm nigTTwg 5.0-7.6 cm EdlEpñkxag
kñúgRKab;tMerobepþk²edaymansnÞHxNв½ enAeBlTMu minEbkecjCaBIeT. Epørbs;vaCaRbePT
EpøkYrEdlBüÜrsMy:gcuHeRkam gayemIleXIj EdlKYreGaymankar cab;GarmµN¾ enArdUvsøwkeQIRCuH.
RKab;rbs;varwg EdlEpønImYy²manRKab;cMnnY BI 30-45RKab; relagehIy manBN’RbepHRsal
EdlmanRbEvg 2 cm manragRTEvg nigTMrg;RKab;mansNæandUcRKab;elµI Edlman
BN’cMruHenATTwg²RKab; nigmansMbkrwgdUcq¥wg. RKab;nImYy² tMerobRCUgeTAtambeNþayénEpøkYr.
RbePT "Delonix" KW)anmkBIPasaRkic "delos" (GacemIleXIj) nig "onyx" (RkjaMu)
Edlmann½yfaRtbkpáa rbs;vamanragCacegáamelceFøa. eQµaHtamtMbn;eKehAfa "regia"
)anmkBIBaküLataMg "regis" (RBHraCa b¤esþc EdlrugerOg b¤RbesIrelIslub).
PaKeRcInvamaneQµaHsamBaØ Edl)anmkBI kenSamsøwkFM nigpàaBN’ePøIgRkhmdUcGNþatePøIg.[26]
ek¶ak)araMgcab;ecjpáaBI Exemsa dl; Exkkáda nig ecjEpøBI Ex ]sPa dl; ExsIha.[8]
[

:

sac;eQIRsaymanBN’elOgx©I nig sac;eQIxøwmmanBN’elOgcas; ERbCaBN’etñatRsal.
sac;eQITn; F¶n; EdlmanTMgn; 800kg/m³ (440kg/m³ [12] sac;eQIeRKIm Rsal puy b¤RsYy
EdlmanPaBgay RsYlkñúgkarxat; ehIyvamanPaBFn;eTAnwgsMenIm nigstVl¥itpgEdr
eTaHbICavagayrgnUvkarbMpøajBIBBYk keNþórEdlbMpøajeQIs¶Ütk¾eday. [20,26]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

4

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

ek¶ak)araMgmanduHenAtMbn;mYycMnYnenA
Madagascar.
vaRtUv)andaMCaeRcInenAtMbn;RtUBic
eFVICarukçCatilMGr manenARbeTsGaRBic Gaemricxagt,Úg nig GasIu nigrYmman b‘mU a: RbeTséf \NÐÚcin
nigPIlIBIn Edlman eQµaHehAfa edImGNþatePøIg.[6,8] ek¶ak)araMgmanRbPBkMeNItenA
Madagascar nigmankarrIksay PaydaMduH kalBI 150qñaM mun EdlPaKeRcIndaMeFVICasYnc,ar
rukçCatilMGrtamdgvifI enAtMbn;RtUBicesIm nigs¶Üt dUcCaenABayBüénRbeTs\NÐa.
vaCarukçCatiEdlmankardaMduHeRcIn sMrab;eFVICarukçCatilMGr enAtMbn;RtUBic nig sab;RtUBic
nigtMbn;mYycMnYnBaseBjBiPBelak. enARbeTs sirIlgáa ek¶ak)araMgRtUv )aneKdaMduHeFVICarukçCatilMGr
ehIyk¾mankarsakl,gdaMenA Cyprus Edr b:uEnþvaminGacduH)annUvGakasFatu RtCak;nardUvrMehIy.
cMeBaHkarsakl,gdaMenA Ghana BMuTTYl)aneCaKCy½eT b:uEnþcMeBaHkarsakl,gdaM enARbeTs\NÐa
KWTTYl)aneCaKCy½edaymankarduHlUtlas;enAb‘Uma: nIesrIya: Jamaica, Borneo GaRhVicxagt,Úg
eGsIub Tanzania nig Uganda. vak¾Føab;RtUv)aneFVkI ardaMduHenAPaKxagt,Úgén Florida rYmmandUcCa
Florida Keys PaKxagt,ÚgénkalIhVja: Bermuda miucsIukU eRbsIul nigBaseBjxaglic
RbeTs\NÐa.[26]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

5

:

ek¶ak)araMg RtUv)aneFVIkardaMduHenAkñúgPUmi sMng;FM² sUnc,ar tampøÚv nigRcktUc². vaCaRbePT
eQIEdlman karduHlUtlas;elOn ehIyvaCaRbePT EdlRtUvkarry³eBl 5qñaM edIm,Iecjpáa
bnÞab;BIdaM.[9] ek¶al)araMg GacduHenAry³kMBs;xs< ;Cag ry³kMBs;EdlvaRtUvkar b:uEnþecjpáa
mineTogTat;. vaCaRbePTeQI EdlRtUv karBnøW RbsinebIdak;vaenAkñúgmøb;vanwgmankarlUtlas;yWt.
vaduHenAtMbn;Edlmanry³kMBs;x<s; nigman ePøógFøak;tic. ek¶al)araMg Caruk©Catipþl;páa
Edlpáarbs;vaFM² nigsaykøinenAeBlEdlvaFøak;cuHelIdIeRkam kenSamsøwkrbs;va ehIy
manRbBn§½b¤srak; EtTTYl)aneCaKCy½kñúgkarRbECgCamYyculøRBwkSEdlduHenA Cit. dUecñH eBl
daMvaenAkñúgsYnc,arKYrEtdaMvaeGayq¶ayBIrukçCatiepSg²eTot. CaeTogTat; vaCMruHsøwkEtenA rdUvR)aMg
Edlmanry³eBlEvg.[26] ek¶ak)araMgduHlUtlas;enAry³kMBs;cab;BI 0-2000 eFobnwgnIv:UsmuRT
nigkMBs;TwkePøógRbcaMqñaMBI 700mm/m² eTA 1800mm/m² CamYyr)aysNæanTwkePøógrdUvR)aMg.

rdUvR)aMgRbEhlCakñgú kMLúgeBlcenøaH 1 nig 6 ExcugeRkay. vaRtUvkarsItuNðPaBRbcaMqñaM cab;BI 14
eTA 26ºC. b:uEnþminFøak;cuHTabCag 6ºC eT. [12]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

BMuTan;manTinñn½y.

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

ek¶ak)araMg EdlduHenAelIdIEdlmanCICati ehIyRss;Twkl¥ pþl;nUvpáanigkarlUtlas;RbesIrbMput.[9]
vaRtUv)andaMnUvry³kMBs;RbEhl 2000 m enAelIdIl,b; dIfµPaCn¾¬fµRsTab;²¦ dIfµkMe)ar nigduHenAelIdI
RbePTepSg²CaeRcIn. eTaHCaya:gNak¾eday vaduHlUtlas;l¥enAelIdIRss;Twk nigeRkamBnøW.
vaRtUvkardI EdlmanCatiGMbiltic.[12] vaynPaBdIKYrEtmanPaBCak;lak; faCadIRss;Twk
dIesÞIrEtNWt b¤dINWt ehIydIEdlmanPaBsmRsbcMeBaHkarduHlUtlas;rbs;va KWdIl,b; dIfµkMe)ar
nigdIEdlmanCatiéRb. [12]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

sac;eQI]: ek¶ak)araMg pþl;nUveQImUlEdlmanPaBmaMsMrab;karsagsg; b:uEnþkMrpþl;nUvelI eQImUl
Edlman TMhMFM²Nas;.[13] sac;eQI nigEpøek¶ak)araMgGaceRbIeFVCI aeQIfamBl.[17,26]
[Gnupl]: ek¶ak)araMg CaRbePTrukçCatilb
u EdldaMsMrab;eFVICarukCç atilMGr nigCarukçCat;pþl;møb;.[6,8]
páarbs;va GaceFVICacMNIXMúµ.[20,26]
edImek¶ak)araMg pþl;nUvCr½s¥itd¾Rkas; EdlGacrlayeTACaCr½Twk EdlmanBN’elOgRsal b¤Rkhm
Rsal laynwgsès²BN’etñat RKab;manpÞúknUvCatiCr½EdlGaceRbIenAkñgú vaynPNЬtM)aj¦ nig
]sSahkmµcN
M I Gahar. [20,26] Cr½Edl)anmkBIsbM k eFVIVCafñaMRClk;BN’sMBt;.[13]
RKab;rbs;vaGacbriePaK)an. [8]
sMbkrbs;va CaFnFansMrab;eFVIfñaM nigsøwkrbs;vaGaces¶arrMgas; briePaKedIm,IBüa)aleraKsnøak;q¥wg.
[4, 26] RKab;ek¶ak)araMg EdlEvgrwg eKeRbIeFVICaRKab;GgáaM.[26]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

6

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

7

sMbkek¶ak)araMg pþl;nUvRKab;Cr½tUc²CaeRcInEdlmanBN’elOgRsal b¤BN’RkhmRsallay BN’
etñat. Cr½rbs;vanwgrlaynUvedUvrMehIy eTACakard¾Rkas;Xµwk. vamanpÞúknUvbrimaN kal;süÚmd¾
eRcIn.[12]
RKab;ek¶ak)araMg GaceFVICaExSk ehIyvamanpÞúknUvCatiCr½ EdlGaceRbIeFVICavaynPNЬtM)aj¦ nig
]sSahkmµcN
M IGahar. Epørbs;vaGacbriePaK)an nigmanskþanuBll¥ edayCaRbPBRbUetGuIn
sMrab;mnusS nigcMNIstV. søwk ¬pÞúknUvCati 39.5%¦ pþl;nUvsarFatuciBa©wmeFVICacMNIstV
nigstVBahn³¬eKa RkbI>>>>>¦. enAekaH Virgin karRbmUlplcMNIstVCamass¶ÜtRbcaMqñaM
Edl)anmkBIek¶ak)araMg manRbEhlCa 13.45 t/ha nigRbUetGIunRbEhlCa 1.45 t/ha. [12]
karTajykCatiTwkrbs;ek¶ak)araMg manpÞúknUvsarFatuTaMgGs;rYmman GasIutehVNul alkaloids nig
flavonoids EdlGaceRbIeFVICatiNXatFmµCati nigeFVICafñaMsMlab;stVl¥it sMrab;eFVIeGayTinñpldMNaM
ksikmµmankarekIneLIg. yksøwkrbs;ek¶ak)araMg eTAkMcat; b¤bg¥ak;karduHlUtlas;
nigkarvivtþn¾rbs;stV l¥it. [12]
ek¶ak)araMg CaRbePTeQIEdldaMduHkñúgeKalbMNgeRcInya:g dUcCa daMsMrab;Tb;sáat;karhUreRcaHdI
enAtMbn; EdlmankarhUreRcaH nigsMrab;eFVIeGaydImanPaBRbesIeLIgvij nigeFVIeGaykMritGasUt kñúg
briyakas man karekIneLIg. enAkñúgkarsikSaBIkardaMdMNaMqøas; (alley cropping) enAtMbn;x<g;rabén
Sierra Leone ek¶ak)araMg CaRbePTrukçCatiEdlman\T§iBlbMputsMrab;karrkSasMeNImdI nigkat;bnßy
kMedAdI (Karim, 1987). ek¶ak)araMg RtUv)andaMnUvkñúgcMkarEt sMrab;pþl;møb;. vaCaRbePTeQIEdlman
RbCaRbiybMptu sMrab; kareFVIksirku çkmµ sMrab;eFVIeGaydImanPaBRbsIreLIg GPirkSdI Tb;sáat;karhUr
eRcaH nigCarukçCatilMGrEdl manPaBRss;eqItqay.[12]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

ek¶ak)araMg CaRbePTeQIEdlBMumancMNat;fñak;eT. [18]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

ek¶ak)araMg GacdaMenAtMbn;EdlePøógFøak;ticCagtMrUvkar ehIyvanwgduH)anyUrRbsinebIeRsacTwk
CaRbcaM. edImrbs;vagayduHlUtlas;ExñgelOn RbsinebImankarGnuvtþ ¬karkab;¦smRsb.
karéRkEmk eFVIeGay kenSamsøwkmanTMrg;l¥. ek¶ak)araMg manRbBn§½cak;rak; ehIysac;eQIRsYy
dUecñHehIyvagaynwgrelIgb¤s enAeBlEdlmanxül;xøaMg b¤BüúH nig)ak;edaysarxül;. edImek¶ak)araMg
mankarTak;TajGarmµN¾tic bnÞab;BIedImrbs;vaRCuHsøwk sl;EtEpøEdlBüÜrCab;eTAnwgEmkTeT
nigsMbukBBYkkeNþórEdllyecjmk eRkA nigeRcaHrUgedIm EdlCaktþavayRbharedImek¶ak)araMg.
lkN³GviC©manepSgeTitKW RbBn§½b¤s EdlCYnkal mankar)ak;EbkCBa¢aMgekasika nig
ekasikarbs;b¤s.
BIeRBaHEtlkçN³minKm,ImYycMnYn
KWedaysarGñkmanGMNacmYycMnYn
eFVIkarcat;TukvaCaRbePTeQIEdlminKYrdaM.[26]
:

ek¶ak)araMg CaRbePTeQIEdlRtUvkarBnøW nigCaRbePTeQIEdlduHlUtlas;yWtenAeRkamlkçN³møb;.
vaCa RbePTrukçCatiEdlesÞIrEtmanBN’èbtgCanic© KWvaeFVIkarCMruHsøwkbnþicb:eNÑaH nardUvR)aMg.
vamanRbBn§½b¤s cak;rak; EdlgayeGayvarlMeTAtamxül;bk; enAeBlEdlmanBüúH b¤xül;xøaMg.
edaysarEtRbBn§½b¤s rbs;vamankarrIksayPayCMuvijedImenAeRkamdI eFVIeGayedImeQIepSg²eTot
EdlduHCitvasøab; edaysar EtkarRbkYtRbECglUtlas;b¤s.[12] ek¶ak)araMg GacduHeLIgvij
edayFmµCati edaysarRKab; EdlGacduH BnøkrIkrayBaseBjenAelIdIEdlmantMél pH BI 4.9 eTA
10.6
b:uEnþvaRtUvkarry³eBlyUrkñúgkarduHBnøk b¤k¾kb;enAkñúgdIry³eBl 2-3qñaM edayBMucaM)ac;
eFVIkarbNþúH. vamankarduHlUtlas;elOn KWmankMBs;Gac rhUtdl;eTA 8 m kñúgry³eBl 3 qñaM. vaFn;
nwgxül;éb nig karéRkEmkRtwmRtUv. vaCaRbePTrukCç atiEdl CYsCussarFatuGasUt nigb¤smanpÞúknUv
mycorrhizas . [12]
ek¶ak)araMg CaFmµtaduHBIRKab;. kñúgRKab; 1kg manbrimaNRKab;cMnnY BI 1600-3700RKab;
enAkñúgkMritsMenIm RbEhl 10.5%. RKab;rbs;vaGacrkSaTuk)anry³eBl 4-5
qñaMedayBMu)at;bg;nUvlT§PaBdMNuHeT ebIrkSa vaTukkñúgkEnøgEdls¥atehIys¶Üt. RKab;rbs;va
caM)ac;TamTareGayeFVIRbRBwtþkmµsakl,g
edIm,ICYysMrYl
dl;karduHBnøk

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

8

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

9

nigedIm,IeGaymankarenArs;zitefr. RKab;rbs;vaeFVIRbRBwtþkmµCamYyGasIuts‘ulpYric RbEhlCa 3
ema:g RtaMnwgTwkekþAry³eBlRbEhlCa 24 ema:g b¤qabedaym:asIun muneBlykeTAsab.
edayRtaMenAkñúgTwkekþAEdlmansItuNðPaB 90°C ry³eBl 10 vinaTI EtebIRtaMnUvkñúgTwkekþAry³eBl 24
ema:g enAeRkam lkçxNÐsItuNðPaB 28.2°C nigkMritsMenIm 83% EdlGacpþl;nvU BnøkRbEhlCa
80%. qabvaehIy RtaMvaenAkñúgGasIut
Gibberelic
400
ppm
ry³eBl 48 ema:g
k¾CaktþaEdleFVIeGaydMNuH manPaBRbesIeLIg. [12]
sabRKab;ek¶ak)araMg enAsßanIy¾bNþúHkUneQIkñúgfñalsab kñúges,ag b¤kñúgfU ehIyminRtUvkarmøb;eT.
ehIy kUnsMNabGacykeTAdaMduHenATIval)an eRkayBMubNþúHry³eBl 4 Ex. cMeBaHkUnEdlsÞúM
GacTukrhUtdl; ry³eBl 10 Ex eTIbykeTAdaM KWrhUtdl;BnøkedImmankMBs; 5 cm nigmanb¤sRbEvg
25
cm.
kUneQI
EdlduHecjBIRKab;
GacmanpàaBN’xus²Kña.
dUecñH
karbNþúHrukçCatiedaybgáat;edImGacmanlkçN³l¥KYrsm
CaBiesscMeBaHkarbgàat;edImeQIEdlmanpàaBN’Rkhmeq¥A.
enAeRkamlkçxNÐFmµta
karbgáat;b¤sBMuTTYl )anpll¥eT b:uEnþvaGacduHlUtlas;)anedaybEnßmsarFatuciBa©wm dUcCa IBA.
karbgáat;edayb¤sk¾mankar duHlUtlas;)anEdr ebIGnuvtþtambec©keTsbgáat; edayrkSabnÞb;bgáat;
eGaymansMeNImCanic©. ek¶ak)araMg k¾Føab;TTYleCaKCy½edaykarbgáat;ekasika Edltamry³
Bt’manbgðajfamanbrimaNxus²Kña. [12]
bnÞab;BIRKab;EdlsabenAkñúgfñalsabEdlRtUvéf¶ vacab;duHBnøkkñgú ry³eBl 5-10 éf¶
EdlmanGaRtadMNuH rhUtdl;eTA 90% nigkarduHlUtlas;bnþbnÞab;mk cab;epþImduHyWteTA².
pÞúymkvij RKab;ek¶ak)araMgGac eFVIkarsabRKab;edaypÞal;enAkñúges,ag Edlkñúg 1 es,ag
dak;RKab;cMnYn 4-5 RKab;. RtUveFVIkareRsacTwk nigdkesµACaRbcaM ehIyRtUvykkUnek¶ak
)araMgeTAdaMenAcMkar b¤TIvalenArdUvvsSa bnÞab;BIrkSaTukenAkñúg fñal ry³eBl 3-5 Ex. Rbsin
ebIminTan;cg;daM
GacrkSakUneQITukenAkñúgfñalry³eBl
9
Ex
b¤yUrCagenH
EtkUneQIGacmankMBs;x<s;eBkBi)akkñúkarEfTaM b:uEnþvaenAEtGacdaMduH)an eTaHbICavamankMBs;rhUtdl;
20 eTA 25 cm k¾eday. CaFmµta ek¶ak)araMgduHeLIgedayFmµCati. kUnEdlenAtUcBMuGac
rs;)anedaysarePøIg dUecñHehIyKYrEteFVIkarEfTaMvaeGayrYcputBIePøIgeqH.[20,26]
ek¶ak)araMg manPaBgayRsYlkñúgkarbNþúHedayeRbIRKab;Edlrwg b:uEnþeRbIry³eBlyUrkñúgkarecjBnøk.
eRBaHRKab;rbs;vaGacsMgMenAkúñgdIry³eBl 2-3qñaM edayBMuecjBnøk EdlCaFmµtaeRbIry³eBlEt 12-

éf¶ b:eu NÑaHkñúgkarecjBnøk. edIm,IkMcat;karminduHlUtlas;enH KYrEtGnuvtþkareFVIRbRBwtþRKab;
edaykMcat; sMbkRKab;d¾EsnrwgCamunsin b¤edayes¶arRKab;enAkñúgTwkekþA bnÞab;mkRtaMry³eBl 24
ema:g. ek¶ak)araMg k¾GaceFIVkarbNþúHedaybgáat;EmkpgEdr. [20]
349

:

BBYkstVl¥itmYycMnYn ¬dUcCaBBYkGeNþIkmas kEBa©>>>.l.¦ nigBBYkdgáÜvrbs; Poecilips
sierralemensis rMxandl;EpøedayeFVIkarbMpøajRKab;. ek¶ak)araMg rgnUvkarvayRbhar edayman
karrMxandl;karlUtlas; rbs;Bnøk nigeBlxøHeFVIeGayRCuHsøwkedaysarBBYkdgáÚvemGMe)A b¤k¾stVl¥it
EdlsøwkesÞIrEtRCuHTaMgGs;. ek¶ak)araMgrgnUvkarvayRbharBIBBYk Ganoderma lucidum
EdleFVIeGayrlYyb¤s CaBiessenAtMbn; EdlmanePøógFøak;eRcIn.[17] ek¶ak)araMg gayrgnUvkar
vayRbharBIBBYkkeNþór EdlrMxandl;BnøkeQI. cMeBaH Pteroma plagiophleps
mankarbMpøajya:gF¶n;F¶reTAelIedImek¶ak)araMgEdldaMtamdgvifI. mankar bMpøajya:gF¶n;F¶rBIBBYk
bostrichid Sinoxylon anale eTAelIek¶ak)araMgKYreGaykt;sMKal; enAGIuRsaEGl enAqñaM 1984.
RsedognwgKñaenHEdr KWBBYkdgáÚv noctuid Pericyma cruegeri k¾mankarbMpøajKYreGaykt; sMKal;Edr
edayeFVIeGayek¶ak)araMgRCuHsøwkesÞIrEtGs; enA Nagaland RbeTs\NÐa.
Acanthopsyche reimeri KWCadgáÚvenAtMbn;RtUBic énTVIbGaRhVic. vaCadgáÚv EdlsIucMNIRKb;mux
vaciBa©wmCIvit enAelIswøkrukçCatiDIkUTIeldUn CaBiesscMeBaHrukçCatilMGr nigrukçCatiEdlduHenATIval.
vaeFVIeGayek¶ak)araMg RCuHsøwkesÞIrEtGs; enA Kenya.
Anoplocnemis
curvipes
CaBBYkstVl¥itcéRgEdlmaneCIgEkk ehIyvamanrayeBseBj
enAtMbn;RtUBic énTVIbGaRhVic. TaMgstVCMTg; nigemFM²énRbePTenH KWsIucMNIRKb;mux nigciBa©wc
CIvitenAelIrukrç sdMNaMksikmµ nigrukçCatiEdldaMenAsYnc,ar. enA Malawi eK)aneFVIkarkt;Rtafa
vaCastVl¥itEdlrMxanelIBnøkedImrbs;
ek¶ak)araMg
EdleFVIeGayxUcxatRTg;RTayedIm
nigmankarkat;bnßycMnYn EdltamBt’manbgðajfavabMpøaj edImek¶ak)araMgEdlmanGayu !qñaM
eGaysøab;.
Leptostylus praemorsus RtUv)aneKkt;RtaenA Antigua, Bermuda, Dominica nig St. Lucia.
vaCa stVl¥itmYyEbbEdlmanEsñgEvg EdlRtUv)aneKdwgfavaCastVl¥itEdlenAelIedImRkUc

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

10

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

11

Etvak¾rMxandl; rukçCatiepSg²eTotEdr CaBiessBBYkrukçCatiDIkUTIeldUnTaMgGs; EdlrYmmanek¶ak)araMg
nigsrlkUl¬snþan edImRsl;¦ pgEdr.
Orthezia insignis KWmanrayeBseBjenAtMbn;RtUBic sab;RtUBic nigtMbn;mYycMnYnEdlmansIutNðPaB
esIm. enA Malawi vabgárPaBGnþraydl;ek¶ak)araMgCaerOy² nig RbePTrukçCatiepSg²eTot CaBiess
rukçCatilMGr EdlCajWkjab;vaeFVIeGaylkUneQIgab; b¤mankarrMxand¾F¶n;F¶rEdleFVIeGayedImeQIduHmin
eBjlkçN³.
Oxyrhachis latipes KWCastVkNþÚbbMpøajedImeQI EdlciBa©wmCIvitenAelIrukçrs rbs;edImek¶ak)araMg enA
Malawi. tamkarkt;Rta bgðajfavamankarbMpøajtictYc EdltamkarCak;Esþg karbMpøajrbs;vaBMusUv
sMxan;eT. karxUcxatedaysar Schedorhinotermes lamanianus eTAelIedImek¶ak)araMg RtUv)ankt;
RtaTuk. stVl¥itcéRg nigdgáÚv Poecilips sierraleonensis vamankarrMxandl;Epø
nigRKab;rbs;ek¶ak)araMg. [12]
RbePT Ganoderma sp. RtUv)ankt;sMKal;fa vamankarbMpøajeTAelIkUnek¶ak)araMg
enARbeTsGURsþalI. Fusarium oxysporum eFVIeGayek¶ak)araMgrlYyb¤senAtMbn;xageCIg Guinea
énRbeTsnIesrIya:. CMgWelIb¤s nigBkb¤s CH\T§iBl dl;edImmankarrIklUtlas;yWt
nigkarvivtþn¾kMras;
nigmanBkpSitBN’
etñatcas;enACMuvijKl;ènedImEdlmanCMgW.
tamr)aykarbgðajfa esøaksøwk nigERbBN’søwk edaysarman kMralpSitBN’etñatenAelIb¤s
nigenAelIedIm EdlGaceFVIeGayek¶ak)araMgsøab;)an.
pSit Pleiochaeta setosa RtUv)ankt;sMKalfamanenAelIedImek¶ak)araMg enARbeTs\NÐa. vabMpøaj
elI kUTIeldUnrbs;kUneQIEdlbNþúH nigsøwkrbs;kUneQIEdltUc² krNIenHeFVIeGaysøwks¶Üt ehIygab;
nigRCuH søwk. EteTaHCaya:gNak¾eday k¾mineFVIeGaykUneQIgab;eT.
mankarbgðajeGaydwgya:gc,as;fa BBYkpSit Armillaria mellea manrayBaseBjBiPBelak nigman
cMnYnd¾eRcInenAelIrukçCatiepSg² rYmmanek¶ak)araMgpgEdr EdlvaCaRbePTpSiteFVIeGayrlYyb¤s.
vaCapSit EdlRkas; manBN’s manragdUcsMBt;EdlsßitenAcenøaHRsTab;sMbkeQI nigsMbkgab;
nigEpñkxageRkam.
Sphaerostilbe repens man\T§iBleTAelIek¶ak)araMg edayvaCaCMgWs¥úyb¤s. vaqøgtamry³s,:
EdlenA kñgú Twk enAeBlEdlb¤scab;yk. vaeFVIeGaysMbkb¤sxageRkam manBN’etñat b¤

BN’Rkhmcas;. nigeFVIeGayEpñkxagkñúgènb¤smanBN’s nigmankarsaykøinEdl)anmk BIskmµPaB
bBa©ÚlKñarbs;pSit nig )ak;etrI.[12]

F> karGPirkS

:

ek¶ak)araMg minEmnCaRbePTEdlrgnUvkarKMramkMEhgenaHeT. [17].

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

ek¶ak)araMg manduHesÞIrEtRKb;extþ Rkug nigPUmi.

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
ek¶ak)araMg
RtUv)annaMykeTAdaM
nigduHedayFmµCatienARKb;extþRkug
nigPUmi
enAkñúgRbeTsEdlmanGakas FatutMbn;RtUBic.[8] vaduHedayFmµCatienA Madagascar, Zambia
nignaMykeTAdaMenA eRbsIul Burkina Faso, Cyprus, eGsIub, Eritrea, Ethiopia, \NÐa, Jamaica,
eknya:, miucsIuk,U Niger, nIesrIya:, Puerto Rico, saMgkaBYr GaRhVicxagt,Úg sirIlgàa s‘Udg;
Tanzania, Uganda nigshrdæGaemric. [26]
:

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Anon. 1986: The useful plants of India. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR,
New Delhi, India
Bein E. 1996: Useful trees and shrubs in Eritrea. Regional Soil Conservation Unit (RSCU),
Nairobi, Kenya.
Bekele-Tesemma A, Birnie A, Tengnas B. 1993: Useful trees and shrubs for Ethiopia.
Regional Soil Conservation Unit (RSCU), Swedish International Development Authority
(SIDA).

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

p> epSg²

12

Birnie A. 1997: What tree is that? A beginner's guide to 40 trees in Kenya. Jacaranda
Designs Ltd.
Gbadegesin RA, 1993: Root rot of Delonix regia caused by Fusarium oxysporum in the
northern Guinea zone of Nigeria. Discovery and Innovation, 5(3):255-259; 18 ref.
Grant G, More LJ, McKenzie NH, Dorward PM, Buchan WC, Telek L, Pusztai A, 1995:
Nutritional and haemaglutination properties of several tropical seeds. Journal of
Agricultural Science, 124(3):437-445; 32 ref.
Hood IA, Ramsden M, Allen P, 1996: Taxonomic delimitation and pathogenicity to
seedlings of Delonix regia and Albizia lebbeck of a species related to Ganoderma lucidum
on broadleaf trees in Queensland. Australasian Plant Pathology, 25(2):86-98; 27 ref.
Hutchinson J, 1964: The genera of the flowering plants. Oxford, UK: The Clarendon
Press.

Luna RK. 1996: Plantation trees. International Book Distributors, Dehra Dun, India.

Millat-E-Mustafa M, 1989: Effect of hot water treatment on the germination of seeds of
Albizia lebbeck and Delonix regia.. Bano Biggyan Patrika, 18(1-2):63-64; 4 ref.
Pandey J, Agrawal M, 1994: Evaluation of air pollution phytotoxicity in a seasonally dry
tropical urban environment using three woody perennials. New Phytologist, 126(1):5361; 56 ref.
Saxena SC, Yadav RS, 1986: A preliminary laboratory evaluation of an extract of leaves
of Delonix regia Raf. as a disruptor of insect growth and development. Tropical Pest
Management, 32(1):58-59; 10 ref.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Streets RJ. 1962: Exotic forest trees of the British Commonwealth. Claredon Press,
Oxford.

13

Vogt K. 1995: A field guide to the identification, propagation and uses of common trees
and shrubs of dryland Sudan. SOS Sahel International (UK).

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

4 ) Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House; Phnom
Penh, 915 pp.
6) Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field guide. Orchid
Press, Bangkok, 234 pp.

8) Sam, H. V.,Nanthavong, Kh.and P.J.A. Kessler 2004: Trees of Laos and Vietnam: A field
guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species.BLUMEA J. Plant Tax. and Plant

Geogr. 49(2004) p. 201- 349 pp., Univ. Leiden Br., Leiden, The Netherlands,
9) Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide.
Thames & Hudson Ltd., London, 484 pp.

11) Heywood, V.D. (Ed.) 1993: Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford University Press, New
York; 336 pp.

12) CABI Forestry Compendium Edition 2003 (on CD ROM)

13) Baertels, A., 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen (Colour Atlas
Tropical Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ. Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.

17) Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant Resources of
Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor,
Indonesia, 859 pp.

18) Dept. of Forestry and Wildlife 2003: Cambodia Forestry Statistics to 2002.(in Khmer and
English) Planning & Accounting Off., Statistics Sect., Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 97 pp.

19) Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics. Josef
Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552 pp.

26) World Agroforestry Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp?
(Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

20) Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002: Agroforestree
Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD ROM).

14

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Dimocarpus longan Lour]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Dimocarpus longan Lour]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Dimocarpus longan Lour.

³

longan [1], dragon's eye, longan tree, lungan [5]

³

[for ssp. longan var. longan]: Dimocarpus longan Lour. (1790),
Euphoria longana Lamk. (1792) nom. illeg.,
Nephelium longana Cambess. (1829)

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2],

Euphoria longan Steud.

ÉksarBieRKaH [4],

Nephelium long-yan Bl.

ÉksarBieRKaH [5]

[for ssp. longan var. longepetiolulatus Leenh.]: Euphoria morigera
Gagnep. (1950) nom. inval.

ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

[for ssp. longan var. obtusus (Pierre) Leenh.]: Euphoria scandens
Winit & Kerr.

ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

[for ssp. malesianus Leenh. var. malesianus]: Nephelium malaiense
Griff. (1854),
Euphoria cinerea Radlk. (1878) nom. illeg.,
Euphoria malaiensis Radlk. (1879) nom. illeg.,

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Euphoria gracilis Radlk. (1913) nom. illeg.

1

ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

[for ssp. malesianus Leenh. var. echinatus Leenh.]: Euphoria
nephelioides Radlk. (1914) nom. illeg.

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

longanier, oeil de dragon (France) [1] - lengkeng, buku, ihau,
medaru, kyet mouk (Indonesia) [1, 4] - lengkeng, mata
kucing, isau, sau, kakus (Malaysia) [1] - kyet mouk
(Myanmar) [1] - lam nhai, nam nhai (Laos) [1] - lamyai pa,
lamyai khruer, lamyai tao, lahm-yai (Thailand) [1, 4] nh[ax]n, nam:nhan (Vietnam) [1, 4] - mamoncillo chino
(Spain) [5]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

emon
ÉksarBieRKaH : [7]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

mien [1]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Sapindales
RKYsar : Sapindaceae
ePT : Dimocarpus
RbePT : Dimocarpus longan Lour.
GnuRbePT

1

: Dimocarpus longan longan

Lour. / Dimocarpous longan malesianus Leenh.

ÉksarBieRKaH: [1]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaedImeQImanTMhMtUc eTAmFüm CaedImeQIébtgCanic© cMeBaHkardaMduH
vaGacmankMBs; dl;eTA 9-14 m [4] (9-12 m [5], 10-20 m [3]) nigmankenSamsøwkmUl
ehIyRkas; EdlGacman TTwgdl;eTA 14 m [4] . edImeQI EdlRKb;RKgmin)anl¥ GacmankMBs;dl;
eTA 40 m [1, 4] (-30 m [2, 8], 20-40 m [11]) b:Eu nþCYnkalvaGackøayeTACarukCç ativlø×pgEdr .
eBlxøH edImrbs;vamanduHnUvRBwg EdlGacmanGgát;p©itdl;eTA 75-100 cm [4] (76.2 cm [5], 100
cm [1] 20-40 cm [11]) . Emk manlkçN³Evg EbkEmkeRcIn ragFøak;cuHeRkam
.
rWsGacduHlUtlas; dl;CMerABI 2-4 m [3, 4] eTAdl; RbPBTwkeRkamdI .
[sMbk]:sMbkmanlkçN³relagenAeBldMbg
U nigeRkammkeRKIm nigrbk .
1 Information regarding subspecies is not available for all tree species.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

søwk]: søwkqøak;CaKU EdlmancMnnY BI 4-10 [4, 5] snøkw (2-6 søkw [1], 6-8 snøkw [11]) ragCaeGlIb
nigdUcs‘ut rW ragRTEvgdUces<ó nigminRsYnenAkMBUl . sønkw nimyY ² manTMhM 10-20 x 3.5-5 cm [5]
(3-45 x 1.5-20 cm EvgCagTTwgBI 1-5 dg [1], 9-18 x 3.2-6 cm [8], 7-20 x 2.5 x 5 cm
[11])
nigragdUcEs,k Twkrlk BN’ébtgrelag enAEpñkxagelI maneramtic²
nigBN’ébtgcas;enAxageRkam . søwkx©ImanBN’RkhmsVay . søwknImyY ² mansréscMnYn 14-17 KU
[8] (10-14 KU [11]) EdlminCab;Kña . TgsøwkmanRbEvg 1-20 cm [1, 4] (7-12 cm [11])
Tgsnøkw manRbEvg 0.5-35 mm [4] (2-10 mm [8]) .
[páa]:kBa©úp
M áamanRbEvg 8-40 cm [1] nigRKbdNþbe; dayeramya:gRkas; . k,alpáamanpáacMnnY BI 3-5
[4] EdljI nigeQµalenArYmKña edaymanRbEvg 1-4 mm [4] TgpáamanRbEvg 1.5-5 mm .
páamanTMhM 2-5 mm x 1-3 mm [1] Rtbkpáa nigRsTab;páamanBN’elOgetñat rW elOgRsal
edaymanTMhM 1.5-6 mm x 0.6-2 mm [1] maneramRkas; rWKµaneram nigTMhMFM²CaKUelneTAeTot .
páaeQµal manekscMnnY (6-) 8
(-10)
[1]
edaymanTgeksRbEvg 1-6 mm .
dMNak;kalecjpáajI
nigeQµalRbRBwtþeTAkñgú ry³eBl 4-6 s)aþh_GaRs½½yeTAelIRbePTedIm . dMeNIrkarlMGg
edaystVl¥itdUcCa Rsemac ruy nigXµMú (Apis cerana, Apis florea nig Apis dorsata) KWman
RbsiT§PaBrvagema:g 8.00 RBwk nig 2.00 l¶ac . ry³eBlsmRsbsMrab;karRbmUlpl KW 5-7 Ex
eyageTAtamRbePT nigGakasFatu . enARbeTséf vaecjpáabnÞab;BIsItuNðPaB eLIgx<se; nA
cugrdUvRtCak; nigedImrdUvekþA . EpøPaKeRcInRtUv)anRbmUlplenA kñgú Ex sIha nig kBaØ .
[Epø]:EpøCacegáam nigmanragmUl edaymanGgát;pit
© BI 1-3 cm [1] (1.25-2.5 cm [5]) .
sMbkrbs;vaesþgI nigpuyRsYy manBN’elOgetñat ERbCaRkhmPøW nigeRKImtic² . sac;manTwk nig
s¥it BN’sRsGab;edaymankøin nigrsCatiEp¥m b:Eu nþminEp¥mdUcCa KUeln eT nigmancegáamticCag .
Ep¥manragmUl manBN’exµAetñat PøW nigmansñamGuCBN’sragmUlenAKl; pþl;nUvkarTak;EPñk .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

3

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

lkçN³eQI]:eQIxwmø manBN’Rkhm rwg mineRbH rW rbk nigrelagl¥ . eQIRsaymanlkçN³rwg
nigmanBN’elOgeTAetñatRsal .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 6, 11]

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

RbEhlkMrit: ExSRsbBI 15°N eTA 15°S edaymankMritdac;xat 20°N eTA 20°S [3]. GnuRbePT
malesianus GacRtUv)anrkeXIjenAkMrit 10°N nig 10°S [1] . GñkniBn§xHø )ankMnt;nUv
tMbn;RbPBkMeNItrbs;RbePTenH
famkBItMbn;CrY PñPM Uma
qøgkat;PaKxagt,Úgcin
nigbnþeTAdl;PaKnirtIén\NÐa nigRsIlgáa EdlrYmTaMgtMbn;TMnabpgEdr . dMNaMenHPaKeRcIn
mandaMduHenAPaKxagt,Úgcin étva:n; nigPaKxageCIgéf nigkardaMelIépÞdItUc² dUcCa\NÐcÚ ni (km<úCa
evotNam) k_dUcCa Queensland (GURsþalI) nig Florida (shrdæGaemrik)
nigedImeQIeFIVkarpøas;TIeTAtMbn; Edlmanry³kMBs;x<s; enAtMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_ . GnuRbePTrbs;emon
duHlUtlas;enARsTab;xageRkaménéRBbzm CYnkaléRBricril éntMbn;TMnab eTA x<g;rab
EdlminmanePøgI eqHjwkjab; . eRkamkardaMduH vaduHlUtlas;)anl¥enAelIdI EdlenACitRsH nigkñúg
cMkar )anl¥CagKUeln . GnuRbePT malesianus duHlUtlas;eBjtMbn;\NÐcÚ ni nigma:eLsüa:
(ma:eLsIu
\NÐeÚ nsIu hVlI IBnI ) nigmancMnnY d_eRcInxus²Kña enAkñgú
Borneo
CaBiessenARsTab;xageRkaménéRBbzm rW CYnkaléRBricril .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 8, 10]
:

GnuRbePTemon duHlUtlas;BtI Mbn;TMnab eTAx<g;rab nigGacduHenAkMritry³kMBs; 1,500 m a.s.l. [1]
enA PaKnirtI\NÐa ry³kMBs; 900 m [1] enA Giava nig 1,300 m [1] enA Bengala .
RbePTenHGacFn; nwg tMbn;TMnabesImRtUBki EdlenACitsmuRT Edlmanry³kMBs; 150-450 m a.s.l.
[5] . emonCaRbePTeQI GnutMbn;RtUBc
i EdlduHlUtlas;l¥enAtMbn;RtUBci b:Eu nþTamTarnUvkarpøas;bÚrþ rdUv
sMrab;karecjpáa . tMbn; GakasFatuxageRkamenH KWmanlkçN³saksmsMrab;kardaMduH : RtUBicekþA
ehIyesIm RtUBci esIm GnuRtUBci esIm nigGnuRtUBci ekþA . D. longan ssp. RtUvkarkMritTwkePøóg 1,3002,000 mm/qñaM [3] (1,500-2,000 mm [1]) sMrab;karlUtlas;)anl¥ nigkMritePøógFaøk;dac;xat 800
eTA 3,000 mm [3] . kMritePøógFaøk; sMrab; ssp. malesianus KWBI 2,500 mm eTAeRcInCag 4,000
mm kñúgmYyqñaM [1] edaymankMritsMenIm 65-95% [1] . vaRtUvkarkarpÁt;pÁg;TwkeGay)anRKb;RKan;

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

4

nigGacelcTwkry³eBlxøI b:Eu nþminmankarraMg s¶ÜtyUr . sItuNðPaBsMrab;karlUtlas; 7-36°C [4]
edaymankMritmFüm 18-30°C [4] [15°C [5]] cMeBaH ssp. longan nig 25-30°C [1] cMeBaH ssp.
malesianus . cMeBaHGnuRbePTRtUvkarsItuNðPaB RtCak; BI 7-12°C rW 2-3 ExedaymansItuNðPaB
15-22°C nigrdUvR)aMgry³eBlxøI sMrab;karecjpáa . enAeBlEpøcab;epþm
I ecj sItuNðPaBminKYreQIBI
20-25°C [3] . vaminGacFn;nwgG½BÞ)aneT . edImeQIenA tUc GacRtUvbMpaø jedaysItuNðPaBBI -0.5º
eTA -1ºC [4] nigGacRtUv)ansMlab;enAkMrit sItuNðPaBTab . edImeQI
EdlFMbgðajnUvkarrbYssøwkenAkMritsItuNðPaB -2º eTA -3ºC EmkEdltUcGacrgrbYsenA sItuNðPaBBI
-3º eTA -4ºC [4] Emk nigedImEdlFMbgðajkarbMpaø j enAkMritsItuNðPaB
-4.5°C [4] nig
CYnkalminGacCasHes,IyeLIgvijeT . edImeQIeBlv½yGacFn;nwgsItN
u ðPaBBI -3 eTA -5°C [3]
ry³ eBl 4-5 em:ag . enAeBleFIrV sµIsMeyaK vamingayrgeRKaHfañke; T Fn;nwgeBléf¶
Edlmanry³eBlxøI (<12 em:ag [3]) éf¶Fmµta (12-14 em:ag [3]) nigéf¶Evg (>14 em:ag [3]) .
edImeQItUcRtUvkarmøb; nig RtUvkarBnøWeBjenAeBlcas; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

5

:

emonGacduHlUtlas;)anl¥enAelIdIeRCA mindkTwk l,ayxSac; nigsMbUrsarFatusrIragÁ .
vak_GacduHenAelI dI Edlmanfµ oolitic FM² . Fn;nwgkarraMgs¶Üt)anl¥ (kMriteRCob >50% kñúgmYyqñaM
[3]) . kMrit pH sMrab; ssp. longan rvagBI 5.5 eTA 6 [3] edaymankMritdac;xatBI 5-8 [3] .
enAdImansarFatusrIragÁmni sUvl¥ karecjpáa nigEpøminRKb;RKan; BIeRBaHBnøkbnþlUtlas;ry³eBlEvg
eBk . enAPaKxageCIgRbeTséf kardaMCacMkarsmRsbcMeBaHRbePTdIRsal CadIenAtammat;Tenø .
edaymansarFatumankñgú dI ³ CMerAdI (>150 cm) . CMerAdac;xat : mineRCA (20-50 cm) .
CICatidI:x<s; nigkMritCICatidac;xat: mFüm . dImanCaéRb : kMritTab (<4 dS/m) [3] . enA

duHlUtlas;enAelIdIl,b; CaBiessenA tammat;Tenø . enAtMbn;epSg
eTot edImeQIduHlUtlas;enAelIRbePTdIxsu Kña . kMrit pH BI 4.5-6.5 KW sMbrU enAkñgú tMbn;enH .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3, 4]
Sarawak, ssp. malesianus

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: emonminRtUv)ankab;sMrab;eFICV aeQIh‘ubeT . eQIGaceRbIR)as;Cabegáal sMNg; nig eFIsV PM ar³
ksikmµ . RbsinebIeQImanKuNPaBl¥ vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;CaeQIcMlak; eFICV aBum< nig eRKOgsgðarwm
pgEdr . kareRbIR)as;srM ab;CaeQIfamBlKWRtUv)ankMNt; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [6, 11, 12]
[Gnupl]:
EpøénRbePTenHRtUv)anbriePaKTaMgRss; . RbPBxøHniyayfa EpøRtUv)aneRbIR)as;
sMrab;bEnßm eTAelIkarcMGni Gahar . man]sSah_kmµplitenAemonkMbg:u enAkñgú RbeTs éf cin
nigétva:n; . EpøF²M RtUv )aneRbIR)as; CaBiessEpø EdlmanRKab;tUc² . EpøGacRtUv)andak;kgñú kMb:gu
CamYynwgTwkrbs;va edaymin eRbIR)as;sá rW eRbIR)as;tictYc edayeyageTAelIkMritrlayx<s; .
enARbeTscin PaKeRcInRtUv)andak;kbM g:u CalkçN³ rav rW s¶Üt . EpøEdl)an
dak;kMbu:grYcRtUv)andwkCBa¢nÚ BI Shanghai eTAshrdæGaemrik kalBI GtItkal . bc©úb,nñ
BYkvaRtUv)annaMecjeTAkan; hugkug nigétva:n; . emonkMbug: rkSarsCati nigKuNPaB
rbs;va)anRbesIrCag savma:v rW KUeln . emonGacRtUv)anrkSaTukCalkçN³s¶Üt
bnÞab;BIyksMbkecj. sMrab;karsMgYt EpøRtUv)ankMedAeGayrYj nigcitsMbkecj . bnÞab;mk
RKab;RtUv)anykecj nig sac;RtUv )an sMgYtedaykMedA . plitpls¶tÜ manBN’exµA dUcEs,k
nigmankøni EpSg ehIyRtUv)an eRbIR)as;srM ab; eFIeV GayePsC¢³manlkçN³Rss;eLIgvij .
RsaRtUv)aneFIeV LIgedayRtaMemonRss;enAkñgú Gal;klu . edaymanpÞúknUvsarFatu saponin
RKab;RtUv)aneRbIR)as;dUcCa soapberries (Sapindus saponaria L.) sMrab;kk;sk; . Epøemon
nigRKab;Rss;RtUv)aneRbIR)as;sMrab;Ca»sf :sac;rbs;vaGacCYy dl;karrMlay Gahar CafñaMRKun
fñasM lM ab;dgávÚ nigGaceRbICafñabM nSabCatiBlu pgEdr . kares¶arMgas;sac; Edlhals¶Üt
RtUv)anTTYlTanCaePsC¢³elIkkMlaMg
nigmineGayguyedk
RBmTaMgBüa)alCMgWsk<w srésR)asaTpgEdr . enAevotNamxageCIg nigt,Úg EPñkrbs;RKab;emon (eye
of the longan seed) RtUv)anykmk sgát;enA kEnøg EdlBs;xaM edIm,IbnSabBis .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

6

RKab;karBarmineGaymankarEbkejIsxøaMg nigkMTicRKab; manpÞkú nUv saponin tanIn nig xøaj; .
søwkmanpÞkú quercetin nig quercitrin nigpáaRtUv)anlk;enAkñgú TIpSar»sf buraNrbs;cin .
páas¶tÜ RtUv)annaMecjeTARbeTsma:eLsIu sMrab;eFIVCafñaM . RKab; nigsMbkRtUv )andutsMrab;
CaeQIfamBl .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3, 5, 6]
[epSg²]: enAPaKxagekItRbeTséf ssp. longan var. obtusus RtUv)andaMduHCarukC
ç atlMGr . enA
Bengal nigkEnøgepSgeTot edImemonRtUv)andaMduHCarukçCatilMGr nigpþl;møb; ehIyRtUv)an cat;TukfaCa
RbePTeQI EdlmanRbeyaCn_sMrab;RbB½½n§ksirukçkmµ .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3, 5]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak;.
ÉksarBieRKaH [9]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

lkçN³TUeTA]: GnuRbePTrbs;emon duHlUtlas;enARsTab;xageRkaménéRBbzm CYnkaléRBricril én
tMbn;TMnab eTA x<g;rab EdlminmanePøgI eqHjwkjab; . eRkamkardaMduH vaduHlUtlas;)anl¥enAelIdI Edl
enACitRsH nigkñúgcMkar )anl¥CagKUeln . GnuRbePT malesianus duHlUtlas;eBjtMbn;\NÐcÚ ni
nigma:eLsüa: (ma:eLsIu \NÐeÚ nsIu hVlI IBnI ) nigmancMnnY d_eRcInxus²Kña enAkñúg Borneo CaBiessenA
RsTab;xageRkaménéRBbzm rW CYnkaléRBricril .
[kardaMduH]:cenøaHénkardaMKW
6 m x 6 m eTA 12 m x 12 m [1] EdlkardaMenACitKña
TamTarnUvkarkab; rMelaHeGay)anjwkjab; . sMrab;cMkareQI kardaMGacmancenøaH 10 m x 10 m [1]
CaTMrg;kaer rW qekan . CaTUeTA kardaMduHPaKeRcIn mancenøaHCit²Kña . karEfTaM eGay)aneTogTat;
GacCYykMnt;nvU TMhMedIm eGay smRsbeTAnwgcenøaHdaM 6 m x 8 m eTA 7 m x 10 m [1] .
enARbeTscin RbsinemonRtUv)andaMenAelI dITMnab vaEtgRtUv)andaMenAelIPøW EdlRtUv)anelIkeGayx<s;
. enAelIdIxs< ; edImeQIRtUv)andaM reNþAEdl )anerobcM enAelIépÞdI .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

7

:

karRKb;RKg]: edImeQIcab;ecjEpøenAGayu 4-5 qñaM [3] bnÞab;BI)andaM .
Gayurbs;eQIRbePTenHGacdl; eTA 25 qñaM [3] . edImemon EdlenAtUc RtUv)anéRkEmk edIm,IkMnt;
cMnnY Emk . edImeQIGaceRbIR)as;CaTMr bgáat; tamry³karkat; EdlvaGacduHnUvBnøkfµyI a:gelOn .
kñúgkarRbmUlpl edImRtUv)ankéRkEmk BIeRBaHTg nigEmkxøHRtUv)ankat; . bnÞab;BIkarRbmUlpl
karkat;nUvEmktUcRtUv)aneFIeV LIg . karkat;Emk TaMgenH eFIeV GaykenSamsøkw lUtlas;)anl¥
nigeGayBnøcW lU eTAkñúgedImeQI)an
ehIyeKk_Gackat;ecjnUv
EmkEdlTMngCapþl;Epøtic
enAqñaeM RkaypgEdr eTaHbIvamanEpøenAqñaeM nHk_eday . RbsinmineFIVdUcenHeT BnøknwgduHecjtamkEnøg
Edl)ankat;RbmUlpl
.
BnøkTaMgenHeFIVeGaykenSamsøkw Rkas;
nigyUrecjpáa.
eyagtamGñkdaMduHenAkñgú extþ Fukien enARbeTscin )anraykarN_fa karkat;rMelaH
páaenAqñaMCabnþbnÞab; Gacpþl;nUvEpøya:geRcIn ehIyeRKaHfañk; EdlekItBIkarkat;rMelaH
eRcInhYsehtuKmW ankMritTab nigenAeBl 50% éncegáampáaRtUv)ankat; (3/4 = 75% énk,alkBaM©pú aá
RtUv)ankat; [5]) . karecjBnøk eRkaykar kat;smRsb GaceFIVeGayqab;ecjpáakñúgedImrdUv .
karGnuvtþkarkat;rMelaHfµ²I enH KW edIm,Ikat;ecjnUv RbePTkUneQI EdlduHBIedIm nigEmk
EdleFIeV Gay)at;bg;nUvkBa©púM áa EdlenAsl;bnÞab;BI karRbmUlpl . karkat;rMelaHenHminkMNt;nUvTMhM
edImeQIeT . emonRtUvkareRsacTwkeGay)anRKb;RKan; nigGacrs;enA kñúgTwk)anry³eBlxøI
b:Eu nþminFn;nwgkarraMgs¶ÜtyUr . kareRsacTwkmansar³sMxan;Nas;enA rdUvR)aMg .
sMeNImTamTarenAeBlecjpáa rhUtdl;muneBlRbmUlpl nigGackarBaredaykarRKb . enAeBledIm
eQIbBaÄb;karlUtlas;enAcugrdUv ePøógGacCYyCMrujkarduHlUtlas;BnøkfµI eFIeV Gaymankarecjpáa
xusrdUvU nigRCuHpáa . minmanB½tmanCak;lak;GBM Ikardak;CIeT . CnCaticinbgðajfa TinñplmankMritx<s;
mankarTak; TgnwgkMritsarFatucBi a©wmrbs;søwk dUcxageRkam ³ GasUt (N) x<sC; ag 1.70% pUsVr (P)
0.12-0.20% ma:ejsüÚm (Mg) 0.20-0.30% . kMrit
0.60-0.80% nig 1.50-2.50%
RtUv)anpþl;CaGnusasn_srM ab; b:tU asüÚm (K) nigkal;süÚm (Ca) b:uEnþminTan;rkeXIj
GMBITMnak;TMngrbs;BkY va eTAelITinñplenAeLIyeT . sMrab; 'mata kucing' nigRbePTEdl
RtUv)andaMduHepSgeTot RtUv)ankMnt;nvU karRbmUlpl nigkarkat;Emk EdlecjEpø .
kMLúgeBlsmRsbsMrab;karRbmUlpl KW 5-7 Ex [5] GaRs½yeTAelIkUneQI nig GakasFatu .
[karRbmUlplEpø]: Epøemon EdlrYmman ssp. malesianus KWRtUvRbmUlplenAeBlTMu . karTMRu tUv)an
kMNt;eTAelIragEpø BN’ nigrsCati . Epø EdlminTan;TKMu WKaµ nrsCati . Epøemon EdlTMumanBN’exµA

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

8

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

9

relag nigmanrsCatiEp¥m . edImemonRbmUlplBIrdg enAcenøaHry³eBlBI 7-10 éf¶ Epø 'mata
kucing' RtUv)an ebHRbmUlplEtmþgeT . cegáamEpøRtUv)ankat;edaykaMbt
i rW ké®nþ . cegáamEpø
minKYrebHTMlak;eT . BYkvaRtUv)anerobcM nigcgCa)ac;eGay)anl¥ .
[Tinñpl]: enARbeTséf TinñplCamFümKW 0.99-1.65 t/ha BIqañ M 1981 eTA 1987 [1] (1-6 t/ha
[3]). TinñplmankMritTabebIeRbobeFobeTAnwgcMkar EdlmankarEfTaMl¥ EdlGacpþl;pl 12
t/hakñg
ú mYyqñaM . sMrab;edIm EdlmanGayuBI 10-15 qñaM pþl;plBI 60-190 kg/edIm [1] (120
kg/edIm [3]). enAPaKxag ekIt Java edImeQIEdll¥bp
M tu Gacpþl;Epø 150-300 kg [1]
enAqñaEM dlsmRsb (200-300 kg [3]) . enARbeTscin edImeQIEdllUtlas;l¥
edaypþl;nUvlMhRKb;RKan; ya:gehacNas; 12 m BIKñaGacpþl;pl 180-225 kg [5] . enA Florida
cMeBaHedImeQImankMBs; 6 m nigTMhMFM TTYlnUvplxus²Kña tic (22.5-45 kg [1]) mFüm (68-113
kg [1]) nigeRcIn (135-225 kg [1]) . kMrkmanedImeQI EdlGacpþl;pl 272-317 kg Nas; [5] .
PaBxus²Kñaénkarpþl;pl GaRs½yeTAelIPaBmineTogTat;énkarecjEpø CYn kal qñaMmyY l¥
nigqñaMeRkayeTotminl¥ .
[karRKb;RKgeRkayeBlRbmUlpl]: GñkdaMduHenARbeTséfrMEu pøemonedayk®nþk; EdleFIB
V bI ¤sSITMhM 35
cm x 50 cm EdlGacpÞúk)an 21-22 kg . EpøRtUv)annaMecj edaykat;ecjBIcegáam nigvicx©b;eday
RbGb;esña rW )aøskÞi . edaysarEpøemon manpÞkú Catisrá x<s; vaGacenARss;)anry³eBlBIr eTAbIéf¶ enA
sItuNðPaB (25-31°C) . EpøemonRtUvkarPaBRtCak;edaycMhayTwk rW xül;RtCak; Edlman
sItuNðPaB 5°C GacrkSaTuk)an 40-45 éf¶ nig 10°C ry³eBl 20 éf¶ edaymansMeNIm 85-90% .
sMrab;karrkSa Tukry³eBlEvg EpøRtUv)ankarBaredaysarFatuKImI dUcCa s<an;Fr½ DIGuk‘ sIut (SO2)
CaedIm [1] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 12]

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

karRbmUl nigsþúkTukRKab;BCU ]: karrkSaTukRKab;BCU KW CaRbePT
recalcitrant
.
RKab;Gac)at;bg;dMNuH enAsMeNIm 18% . manEtRKab;RbEhl 70% Edlrs;bnÞab;BIry³eBl 7
s)aþh_ edaymaneRbIR)as;sar FatuKImCI MnYy nigkMritsMeNImenAsItuNðPaB 8-10°C KWkMrit 100%
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

rYmCamYynIRtaGuksItu 80% + GuksIuEsn 20% b:Eu nþminmankarduHlUtlas;eT
enAeBlTwkRtUv)aneRbIR)as; kMritdMNuHman 67% bnÞab;BI ry³eBl 250 éf¶enAkMrit (20 %) én
perlite + 4% chlorthalonil enAsItuNðPaB 15°C [5] . kMritdMnuHRKab;BC
U GacRtUv)anBnüaeBl
edayeFIkV areRbIR)as;fñaMsMlab;pSit nigrkSakMritsMeNIm énRKab; elIs 30% [1] .
[karbnþBUCedayRKab;]: edImmanPaKeRcInduHlUtlas;BIRKab; . bnÞab;BIsMgYtenAkñg
ú møbr; y³eBl 4 éf¶
BYkvaKYrRtUv)andaMedayminmankarBnüaeBleT b:Eu nþmineGayeRCACag
2
cm
[5]
eTaHbIvaGacduHecjedIm
eRcInCamYyk_eday . dMnuHGacRtUvkarry³eBl 7-10 éf¶ . kUneQIRtUv)andaMenAkñgú fñaleRkammøb;
nigRtUv )anykeTAdaMenAeBlmanGayuBI 2-3 qñaM . karlUtlas;rbs;kUneQImankMrityWt
nigRtUvkarry³eBl 7 qñaM edIm,IeBjv½y .
[karbnþBUCedaysrIragÁ]: enARbeTséf edImemonRtUv)anbnþBC
U edaykarbMe)A enARbeTscin
vaRtUv)anpSauM edayeRbIR)as;edImTMr)anBIkUneQI edayeRbIviFIsaRsþ Forkert . eTaHbI karduHBnøkmin
esµIKañ k_edayKWCa bBaða EdlekItmaneLIgk_eday . enArdUvvsSa rWsGacduHecjmktamry³karbMe)A
enAkMLgú 2-2.5 Ex BYkvaRtUv)anEfrkSaenAkñúgmøbr; y³eBl 6-12 Ex bnÞab;BIkarkat;ecj . edImeQI
Edl)anBIkarbMe)A KWgay rgeRKaHfñak;edayxül; CaedImeQIEdlpSaMu dUcenH BYkvaRtUv)andaM
edaymanbegáalb¤sSITb; karBUndIenAKl; rW enACitkUneQI EdldaMedayRKab; edIm,IbegánI nUvesßrPaBedIm
. enAextþ Kwangtung (cin) enAeBl karbnþBUCedaysrIragÁRtUv)aneFIeV LIg vaRtUv)andaMenACit edIm
'Wu Yuan' EdlmanGayu 3-5 qñaM nigman kMBs; 5 eTA 6 ft (1.5-1.8 m) . cenøaHKWmineGayticCag
4 ft (1.2 m) BIeRBaHvamanlkçN³gayRsYl . karpSauMKm
W insUvGnuvtþeT nigenAeBlvaRtUv)aneFIV
viFsI aRsþ sandwich graft RtUv)aneFIV ehIymankarpSaMu 3 rW 4 EdlTTYl)aneCaKC½y . viFsI aRsþ
Conventional
modes
KWmni TTYl)aneCaKC½yeTenA Florida b:Eu nþ whip-grafting
pþl;nvU PaBeCaKC½ydl;eTA 80% enAétva:n; . karbMe)A CaTUeTARtUv)aneFIeV LIgenAextþ Fukien (cin)
nig RtUv)ankMnt;faCameFüa)ay EdlGaceFI)V an nigmanRbPBBI Hawaii . karbMe)AEfrkSa 2 eTA 3
qñaMeTIbykeTAdaM . edImeQIGaceFIVeGayeTACaTMrgbgáat; edaykarkat; eGayduHBnøkfµI . karkat;
edImminsUvRtUv)aneRbIeT .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 5, 6]

10

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVlit¥ ]: stVl¥ti CaeRcInRtUv)anrkeXIjenAelIedImemon dUcCa stink bug (Tessaratoma
javanica) EdleFIk
V arbMpaø jeTApáa . k_manRbePTstVdgávÚ EdlsIupáapgEdr . kareRbIR)as;sarFatuKImI
GaceFIVeGay b:HBal;dl;dMenIrlMGg nigRbePTstVXúMµ cMeBaH stink bug GacRtUv)ankMcat;eday
hymenopterous parasitoid Edlrs;elIst
u‘ dgávÚ nag . EpøRtUv)anbMpøajeday xµtÚ ecaHrun§ (piercing
moths) dgávÚ ecaHrun§ (borer caterpillars) nigruyEpø (fruit flies) . GñkdaMduHenARbeTséf
(nigk_dUcCaenA RbeTskm<C
ú a [13]) CYnkaleRbIR)as;fg;)aø sÞci edIm,IkarBarEpø . Epø nig 'mata
kucing' c.s. - RtUv)ansIuedayBBYkRbecov (enAkm<C
ú a nigéf cegáamEpøRtUv)ankarBaredayk®nþkb¤sSI
[13]) . viFs
I aRsþ draconian CakarsMlab; edaycrnþGKÁIsnI edayeRbIR)as;tg;RKb
CamYysMNaj;lYs EdlmancrnþGKÁsI nI . RbPBepSgeTot)an Bnül;fa edImemonCaRbePTeQI
EdlminrgkarvayRbharBIBBYkstVl¥it . ([5])
[CMgW]:CMgW EdlsMxan;EtmYyKt;enA kñúgRbeTséfKW rosette shoot rW witches' broom
EdlbNþalmkBI mycoplasm . edImeQI EdlrgnUvCMgW nwgbgðajnUvkarlUtlas;minFmµta
nigecjpáatic . minTan;manviFI kñúgkarBüa)alenAeLIyeT nigedImeQIEdlmanCMgWRtUvkab;ykecj
ehIyeFIkV ardutkMeTcecal . Powdery mildew bMpøajkBa©úMpáa nigEpø Edlx©Ién 'mata kucing'
EdlmanlkçN³ RsedognwgkarbMpaø j eTAelI savem:A . Thread blight ekItmaneLIgenAelIEmk
nigsøwkrbs; 'mata kucing'" [1] .
[epSg²]: enAeBlCamYyKñaenaHEdr mansBaØaBIkarxVHnUvsarFatuEr: EdlRtUv)anBüa)aleday bEnßmnUv
sarFatuTaMgenaH kñúgeBleFIkV ardak;CI [5].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

11

F> karGPirkS

:

edayehtufaRbePTenHRtUv)andaMduHCaeRcInenaH vaminRtUv)ancat;TukfaCaRbePTEdlrgeRKaHfañkeLIy
.
ÉksarBieRKaH [12]

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
r)a:yelIBiPBelak]
[RbPBkMeNIt]:
PaKxagt,Úgcin \NÐa PUma RsIlgáa .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3, 5]
karnaMclU ]:
GURsaþlI (Queensland) b½rmUda km<Cú a cin Kuy)a \NÐeÚ nsIu (manEt ssp. malesianus) Lav ma:rITus
ma:eLsIu (manEt ssp. malesianus ) eBrUrIkU hVlI IBnI ( manEt ssp. malesianus) rIyeU non étva:n; éf
shrdæGaemrik evotNam .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 5]
[

p> epSg²

:

plitkmµ nigBaNiCk¢ mµGnþrCati]:plitkmµemonenARbeTséf KW 20,100 t enAkMLgú qñaM 1986/1987
nig 58,660 t enAqñaMbnÞab;eTot EdlbgðajBI karecjEpøBrI rdUv BItMbn; EdlmanépÞRkla RbEhl
23,500 ha. karnaMecjEpøRss; Epødak;kMbug
: nigEpøsܶt eTAkan;sgw ðbrU I hugkug nig EC mancMnYn
10600, 2950 nig 0.4 t enAqñaM 1986 . enAkEnøgepSgeTotenAGasIG
u aeKñy_ enARtwmEtxagekIt cava:
(Java) KWCakEnøgEdlplit emon EdlmanbrimaNx<s.
; Epød_éTeTotdUcCa 'mata kucing'
manlk;enAtamrdUv enAkñgú TIpSarkñgú tMbn; . ÉksarBieRKaH [1]
[sarFatu EdlmankñúgEpø]: kñúgEpø 100 g énEpñkEdlbriePaK)anman : Calories: 61 (Rss;), 286
(s¶Üt) sMenIm : 82.4 g (Rss;), 17.6 g (s¶t
Ü ) (458 kJ/100 g [1]) . Protein: 1.0 g (Rss;), 4.9
g (s¶Üt) . xøaj; : 0.1 g (Rss;), 0.4 g (s¶Üt). Carbohydrates: 15.8 g (Rss;), 74.0 g (s¶Üt)
(25.2 g [1]). sarFatusrés: 0.4 g (Rss;), 2.0 g (s¶Üt). epH: 0.7 g (Rss;) (0.5 g [1]), 3.1 g

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

12

s¶Üt) kal;süÚm : 10 mg (2 mg [1]) (Rss;), 45 mg (s¶Üt) pUsrV : 42 mg (Rss;) (6 mg [1]),
196 mg (s¶Üt) Edk : 1.2 mg (Rss;) (0.3 mg [1]), 5.4 mg (s¶Üt). Thiamine: 0.04 mg (s¶t
Ü ).
Ascorbic Acid: 6 mg (Rss;), 28 mg (s¶t
Ü )" [6] . "Vitamin A 28 IU, vitamin B1 0.04 mg,
vitamin B2 0.07 mg, niacin 0.6 mg nig vitamin C 8 mg . smasFatupSMénEpø 'mata kucing'
KWmni sUvCaxusKñab:nu aµ neT b:uEnþ
carbohydrates
nigfamBlKWmankMritTabCag
eTaHbIkrM itsarFatiEr:x<sk; e_ day [1] .
[GnuRbePT nigkUn]: BIr GnuRbePT nigR)aMBUCrbs;emonRtUv)anEckdac;BIKañ edaysarTgsøk
w . cMeBaH
ssp. malesianus, var. malesianus bgðajnUvlkçN³xusKñaenA Borneo . EpøragmUl nigrelag .
enA]bTIbV ma:eLsIu TMrg;EdlKYreGaykt;sKM al;KEW pømUlrelag EdlbþrÚ CaBN’etañtenAeBlTMu . RbePT
'mata
kucing'
RtUv)ankMNt;faCa Euphoria malaiensis . vamansMbkxageRkAesþgI
nigBi)akbriePaK .TMrg;enH k_manenA Borneo nig Sumatra pgEdr . TMrg;Edll¥bpM tu manenA
Sarawak
edaymanEpøFM nig sMbk Rkas; . TMrg;TaMgenHGacRtUv)ancat;fñak;Ca bI
RbePTedayeyageTAtamlkçN³Epø : 'isau' EdlmanEpø ragmUl nigmanBN’ébtgenAeBlTMu 'sau'
EpømUlRTEvg nigmanBN’ébtgenAeBlTMu nig 'kakus' manrag mUl nigBN’etñatenAeBlTMu . søwk páa
nigTMrg;edImk_manlkçN³xusKñapgEdr . 'kakus' manduHBaseBj Sarawak cMEnk 'isau' nig 'sau'
eRcInduHenAtamdgTenøén Tenø Rajang nigRClg Bareo . Var. echinatus manlkçN³xusKñaBI
var. malesianus edayEpømanlkçN³Evg RsedogsavemA: (Nephelium lappaceum L.) .
BUCenHRtUv)anrkeXIjenA Sabah EdlCakEnøgman 'kakus' duHlUtlas;pgEdr . RbePTemon
EdlGacbriePaK)anRtUv)anEbgEckenAkñgú RbeTséf EdlRtUv)ansnñdi æanfazitkñúgRbePT ssp.
longan. RbePTTImy
Y CaedImeQIéRBFM EdlmanEpøtUc nigsMbkesþgI EdlGaceRbIR)as;srM ab;karbgáat;
BUC . RbePTTIBIrCaRbePTemonFmµta ('lamyai kraduk') RtUv)andaMduHenAPaKxageCIg rbs;RbeTs
Edl manedImRtg; pþl;nUvEpøtUc nigRKab;FM nigeRbIR)as;karbgáat;edImsMrab;knU eQIeFIBV aNiC¢kmµ .
RbePTTIbCI a RbePTkUneQIBaNiCk¢ mµ ('lamyai kraloke') Edlpþl;nUvEpøFM nigRKab;tUc . RbePTkUn
EdlnaMclU RbeTs éfrYmman : 'Daw', 'Chompoo', 'Haew', 'Biew Kiew', 'Dang', 'Baidum',
'Luang' nig 'Talub Nak' . enARbeTscin 'Fu Yan', 'Wu Long Ling' (TaMgenA Fujian), 'Wu Yuan'
nig 'Shi Xia' (TaMgenAkñgú extþ) KWkEnøgEdlplitkUnd_FM enAétva:n; 'Yong Tao Ye' nig 'Chiau On
Diao'" [1] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

(

13

FnFanesenTic]: RKab;BCU manCivitxøeI BksMrab;karRbmUlsMPar³tMnrBUC (germplasm collection).
RbeTséfKWCaTIkEnøgEdlRbmUlpþMúnUvRbePTemonya:geRcIn enA Chiang Mai nig Lamphun.
kUneQIrbs;
éfmanlkçN³xusKañTaMgBnøk páa niglkçN³EpøBkI nU eQIrbs;cin b:Eu nþPaBcMruHrbs;EsnmankMritTab .
mankarRbmUlnUvkUneQICaeRcInRbePTenARbeTsGURsþalI karRbmUleRcInbMptu KWenA Kamerunga
Horticultural
Research
Station
zitenACit Cairns nig Queensland .
saklviTüal½yksikmµma:eLsIu (The University of Agriculture Malaysia) edaymansaxaenA
Bintulu nig Sarawak \LÚvkøayCaGñk RbmUlsMPar³tMNBUCrbs; D. longan ssp. malesianus
ya:gFM
.
PaBxus²Kña
enA
Sarawak
pþl;nUv
»kaskñgú karTTYl)annUvsMPar³tMnBUCEdlmanKuNPaBx<s.;
karEsVgrkenAkñgú tMbn;qa¶ y
dac;RsyalRtUv )aneFIVeLIgCaeTogTat; edIm,IeFIVGtþsBaØaNedImeQI EdlmanKuNPaBEpøx<s;
sac;Rkas; cegáamEpøeRcIn nig RbmUlnUvBnøkrbs;RbePTeQI .
[karbgáat;]:
kUneQICnM an;eRkaymanlkçN³xusBIKañ ya:gxøaMg nigEpømanTMhMtUc . dUcenH
karEklMGrnUvkUn
eQIRtUv)aneFIeV LIgtamry³kareRCIserIs
CaBiess
EpøTMhMFM
EpñkEdlGacbriePaK)aneRcIn sac;RsYy rsCatiqa¶ j; nigCatisxá <s; . kñúgkarpþl;nUv TinñpleRcIn
nigeTogTat; emonGacqab;gab; ebIeRbobeFobeTA emon FmµtaenARbeTséf . bc©úb,nñlkçN³TIpSar
dUcCakarqab;
rW
yWtkñgú karRbmUlpl
sMrab;eFICV aemon
kMb:gu RtUv)aneFIeV LIgedaymankarRbugRby½tñbpM tu .
[GnaKt]:EpøEdlmanTMhMtUc
nigpþl;EpøBrI rdUv
KWCakarsMxan;kúgñ karBRgIkdMNaM
.
karpþl;eyabl;CaeRcIn RtUv)aneFIeV LIg edIm,IFananUvkarecjEpøeGay)aneTogTat; Edleyagtam
P½sþtú agmYycMnYn b:Eu nþvaRKab;Et Cakarsakl,b:ueNÑaH . vagayRsYlkñgú karTTYl)annUvTinñpll¥
nigmanesßrPaBBIemon
eRcInCagKUeln
BIeRBaHRbePTTaMgBIrenHGacCMnsY Kña)an
ehIymanKWmankarsaksmCagKUeln
.
RbsinedImRtUv)anecaH
runC§ aeTogTat;
karlUtlas;mankMritmFüm niggayRsYléRkEmk edIm,IrkSaTMhMedImeGaymanTMhM EdlGac
RKb;RKg)an . edImtUc EdldaMenACitKña pþl;EpøeTogTat; nigpþl;plx<s; . RbePTemon
Edll¥bpM tu enaHKW spp. malesianus CaBiess var. malesianus enA Sarawak nigtMbn;d_éTeTotén
Borneo EdlGacpþl; nUvkarTak;Tajdl;RbePTemon edaysarvazitenAtMbn;TMnabRtUBicesIm .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

14

karrkSaTukEpø]: enAkñgú bnÞb;rkSasItuNðPaB emonenArkSalkçN³l¥)anry³eBlCaeRcInéf¶ . BIeRBaH
sMbkd_rwgmaMu CYyeGayEpøminqab;sy¥ú rlYydUcCa KUelneT . karsakl,genA Florida
bgðajfaEpøemon Gackk nigminEbkya:gelOn dUcKUeln enAeBlvarlayenaHeT .
[

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Anonymous, 1987. Lychees and longan. Union Offset, Bangkok. pp. 44-71. (Thai).
[1]

Holtum, R.E., 1953. Gardening in the lowlands of Malaya. The mata kucing. The Straits
Times Press, Singapore. pp. 294-295.
[1]

Knight Jr., R.J., Manis, W.E., Kosel, G.W. & White, C.A., 1968. Evaluation of longan and
lychee introductions. Proceedings Florida State Horticultural Society 84: 314-317.
[1]

Leenhouts, P.W., 1971. A revision of Dimocarpus (Sapindaceae). Blumea 19: 113-131.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[1]

15

Liu, X., Zheng, J., Pan, D. & Xie, H., 1986. An investigation on the leaf nutritional
diagnosis criteria of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.). Journal of the Fujian Agricultural
College 15 (3): 237-247.
[1]

Menzel, C.M., Watson, B.J. & Simpson, D.R., 1989. Longans - a place in Queensland's
horticulture? Queensland Agricultural Journal 113(5): 251-265.
[1]

Morton J. (1987) Fruits of warm climates; Longan.

[4]

Tongdee, S.S., 1977. Study on the characteristics of longans during storage. Kasikorn
50(2): 95-97. (Thai).
[1]

Verheij, E.W.M. & Koopmans, A., 1984. Flowering and fruiting of longan (Euphoria
longana Lam.) in East Java in 1983. Agrivita 7(1): 14-19.
[1]

van Welzen, P.C., Lamb, A. & Wong, W.W.W., 1988. Edible Sapindaceae in Sabah.
Nature Malaysiana 13: 10-25.
[1]

Wong, K.C., Ibrahim Yusof, Pearce, K.G. & Alau Tayan, D., 1988. Isau - A potential
tropical longan (Dimocarpus longan) of Sarawak. Proceedings of the Third National
Biology Symposium, Subang Jaya (in print).
[1]

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[2] ARCBC BISS Species Database: http://arcbc.org/cgi-bin/abiss.exe (Internet
source)

[3] ECOCROP: http://ecocrop.fao.org (Internet source)

[4] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep (Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[1] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4,
5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).

16

[5] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Species
Info.asp?SpID=17976 (Internet source)

[6] Morton, J. 1987: Longan. p. 259–262. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F.
Morton, Miami, FL.

[7] Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[8] Gardner,S.; Sidisunthorn, P.; Anusarnsunthorn, V., 2000: A Field Guide to
Forest Trees of Northern Thailand.

[9] Department of Forestry and Wildlife, 1988: Cambodian Forestry Law No. 35,
25th June 1988. Phnom Penh.

[10] Rehm, S.; Espig, G., 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and
Subtropics.

[11] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and
Planning Institute. Hanoi

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[12] Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees. A Worldwide
Encyclopedic Guide.

17

[13] Petri, M (DED), 2006: Own observations.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. ex G. Don]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. ex G. Don]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. ex G. Don [10]

³

hairy-leafed apitong [10], Indonesian gurjun [9]

³

Dipterocarpus gonopterus Turcz.,
Dipterocarpus lemeslei Vesque,
Dipterocarpus incanus Roxb.,
Dipterocarpus unesbi Vesque [4],
Dipterocarpus philippinensis Foxw. [7]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

keruing yang, keruing (Trade name) [9, 10] - yang-na
(Thailand) [7] - dàu rái, d[aaf]u r[as]i , dau nuoc, dzau con rai
trang, dau con rai (Vietnam) [5, 11, 12, 16] - nha:ng, nha:ng
kha:w, nhang, nhang khao, nhang mouk (Laos) [9, 10] hairy-leafed apitong, apinau, ayamban (Philippines) [10] keruing, kruen (France) [9] - dulia garjan, garjan
(Bangladesh) [9] - gurjin (India) [9] - kanyin, kanyin-byu
(Myanmar) [9]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

1

³

eQITalTwk
ÉksarBieRKaH : [15]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

chhe tiel tuk, chhe tiel thom [3], chhë: ti:ël bângku:ëy, chhë:
ti:ël ba:y [10], chhoeuteal tan, chur tuk, gnang [9],
chheutealteuk [15]

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati
rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta

³

Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Malvales
RKYsar : Dipterocarpaceae
ePT : Dipterocarpus Gaertner f.
RbePT : Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. ex G.
Don

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

ÉksarBieRKaH: [9]

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: eQITalTwkCaedImeQICrM uHsøkw manTMhMmFüm eTAFM EdlGacmankMBs;dl;eTA 40 m
x<s; CagenH [10, 11] (-45 m [16], 25-40 m [3], 45-53 m [4]) . edImmanlkçN³mUl x<s; Rtg;
ragsIuLaMg nigKµanEmkenA rhUtdl;kBM s; 20 m [10] (20-30 m [4]) edaymanGgát;pti© DBH Gtibrima
150 cm [10, 11, 16] (200 cm [12] RbEvgCMvu ij 3-4 m [4]) . kenSamsøwkragdUcq½Rt .
EmkenAtUcmaneram nigBnøkrag Caes<ó nigrMueTAedayeramBN’elOg .
[sMbk]: sMbkxageRkAesþg
I BN’RbepHRsal nigrelagenAeBltUc eRkammkmanlkçN³Rkas; enAeBl
edImcas; nigeRbHeRCA² . RsbesþgI ² RCuHFøak;CadM²u . sMbgxagkñúgmanBN’etñatlayelOg
nigmanC½r .
[søwk]: søwkragdUcs‘ut rW eGlIb EdlmanRbEvgare 9-25 x 3.5-15 cm [11] (10-20 x 6-11 cm [4], 1620 x 8-10 cm [12], 14-25 x 6-15 cm [16]) edaymanBN’ébtgRsalenAelIépÞxageRkam .
Kl;søkw ragdUc esñók nigmUl cugsøkw xøIRsYc rW BITaleTARsYc . srésrEv:nTIBIzitenACaKUmancMnYn 1118(-20) [11] (15 KU [4], 11-20 KU [16] minsUvmaneramenABIelI nigmanerameRcInenAxageRkam .
TgsøwkmanRbEvg 2.5-4.5 cm [11] (2.5 - 3.5 cm [4]) edaymanBN’elOgcas; nigmaneram .
karduHsøwk nigBnøkenAelIedIm eBjv½yekIt maneLIgenAEx mkra dl; mifuna bnÞab;BIsItuNðPaB
nigsMeNImminsUvERbRbYl søwkcab;epþImRCuHenABak; kNþal Exvickäi a (enAeBlsItuNðPaBTab
nigsMeNImTab RBmTaMgmanry³eBlxøI ) [11] .
[páa]: kenSampáamanragCaG½kS nigzitenAcugEmk nigBnøk.
páamanlkçN³FM tMerobCaRbB½n§
CapáaBIrePT nig mankøni . manRtbkpáa 5 RbEvg 8 mm manTMrg;mlU Kµaneram zitenAB½T§GvU :lu

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

EdlmanragmUlbnþic . RtbkpáacMnnY BIrmanlkçN³Evg manTMhM 14 cm x 3 cm [10] (12-15 x 3-5 cm
[12]) ragRTEvgman srésEv:n
3 xus²Kña . bIeTotxøI manTMhM 12 mm x 14 mm [10]
b:Eu nþCYnkalxøITaMg 5 Etmþg . RsTab;páa FM manragRTEvg rmYl nigmaneramenAxageRkA BN’Bgman; rW
sIuCm<Ú nigmanqñÚtBN’Rkhm enAkNþal . EpømanekseQµaleRcIn Edlmansrés filaments sMEb:t
. eksjImaneramRkas; manRbEvg 1 cm [4]FM nigmaneramenAEpñkxageRkam . ecjpáaenAExvickäi a- FñÚ
[12, 16](éf: edImExFñÚ[11]).
[Epø]: ecjEpø enAExemsa-]sPa [12, 16] (éf: Bak;kNþalExkum³Ö [11]) . ecjEpøCaerogral;qañ M
nigpþl;nvU RKab;ya:geRcIn . EpømanRbEvg 1.8-2.4 cm [4] Ggát;p©it 2-3 cm [12] kMBUl (Ggáaj;² )
cMnnY 5 Edlman RbEvg 8 mm [16] BN’ébtgenAeBlenAtUc nigERbCaBN’RkhmetñatenAeBlTMu
nigmaneramesþgI
ragdUc páayRKbBIelI . vaRtUv)anrMuB½T§ edaybMBg;Kµaneram
edaymanRtbkpáaxageRkAcMnYn 5 EdlmancMnnY 2 FM EdlmanTMhMrhUtdl; 14 cm x 3 cm [11] (12 x
2.5 cm [4], 10-14 x 2-3 cm [16]) nig 3 eTotxøI Edlman TMhM 1.2 x 1.4 cm [11] (1-1.4 x 1-1.3 cm
[16]) Edlbegát
I CaTMrg;søabrbs;Epø . søabman BN’RkhmenA eBlenAtUc .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3, 4, 6, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17]

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

lkçN³eQI]: eQImanlkçN³rwgmFüm nigmanBN’PøW edaymaneQIRsal nigxømw xus²Kña .
eQIRsayman BN’esÞrI Et s rW sIuCm<Úcas; eQIxwmø manBN’sCIu m<Ú rW etñatcas; nigmansrésrRtg; .
rgVg;lUtlas;RbcaMqañ M manlkçN³minc,as; . srés vessels manGgát;p©itFM nigmancMnYntickñgú mYy
mm² [12] . sréseQICa bMBg;xül; EdlmanRbEvg 1.1-1.4 mm [12] edaymankMras;Rkas; .
vamandg;sIeu t 0.62-0.905 g/cm³ enAkMritsMeNIm 15% [10] (0.78 g/cm³ eQIst¶Ü [12] TMnajEpndI
0.574 [4], 0.72-0.8 g/cm³ enAkMrit 12% mc [4]) . lkçN³eQIepSgeTot : PaKry³énkarrYj (ébtg
eTAs¶tÜ ): Radial 3.0%, tangential 7.5% nig maD 10.8% . kMritsMelgqøgkat; (kg/cm²): 661.5
(ébtg), 1020.7 (sMgYt edayxül;) . kMrit elastic (kg/cm²): 103,900 (ébtg), 151,900
(sMgYtedayxül;) . kMrtibEM bk (kg/cm² ): 318.4 (Rss;), 552.1 (s¶t
Ü ) [4] . emKuNrYjmaD : 0.51
kMriteRCob : 26% kMlaMgsMBaF (tam beNþay): 586 kg/cm² . kMlaMgbt; : 0.6 [12] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 10, 12]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

3

:

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

RbEhl: 22°N eTA 2°N [9] (15°N eTA 5°N [6]) . eQITalTwk manRbPBkMeNIt BI\NÐeÚ nsIu éf
xaglic \NÐa (ekaH Andaman) ]bTIbV ma:eL nighVlI IBnI (Luzon) . vaGacsMrbeTAnwg
tMbn;éRBeRcInRbePT BItMbn; TMnab dl;tMbn;PñM nigCaBiess duHenAkñgú éRBeRsagesIm éRBeRsags¶Üt
éRBBak;kNþalCMruHsøwk éRBCMruHsøkw esIm nigéRBCMruHsøkw s¶tÜ . vamanduHtictYc enAtamsÞwg RcaMgTenø
nigRClgPñM . enAtMbn;éRBeRsag rW mUs sug vaEtduHlayCamYy Dalbergia cochichinensis,
Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Pterocarpus macrocarpus nig Sindora siamensis . enAkñg
ú éRBtMbn;PñM
vaduHlayCamYy Swintonia floribunda nig Artocarpus chaplasha ehIyk_manduHlayCamYy
Shorea cochinchinensis nig Irvingia spp. enA cenøaHrvagéRBeRsag nigéRBel,aH
EdlmanRsTab;xageRkamRkas; . enAkñgú éRB dipterocarp eQITal TwkbegátI CaTMrg;RkumeGkULsÚ Iu
CamYy Dipteroarpaceae dUcCa Hopea odorata nig Anisoptera costata .
CYnkalRbePTenHbegátI CaTMrg;suT§ EdlkenSamsøwk eQITallb;eTAelIRbePTepSg²eTot . enAkñgú
brievnGgár (extþesomrab RbeTskm<Cú a) Dipterocarpus alatus, Lagerstroemia spp. nig
Tretrameles nudiflora mancMnYneRcIn EdlbNþalmkBIkareFIk
V sikmµBencr enAsm½yburaN .
CaTUeTA vaRtUv)andaMenA tamR)asaT nig tampøvÚ .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20]
:

eQITalTwk CaedImeQItMbn;PñM nigTMnab EdlmanenAkMritry³kMBs;BI 0-500 m a.s.l [2, 11, 17] (30500 m [9], 0-450 m [6], 300-900 m [3], 0-800 m [5], 200-500(-800) m [16]).
GakasFatumsU gu RtUBki (RtUBki esIm nigs¶Üt (Aw) [6]) edaymankMritsMeNImCamFüm 75-85% [12]
kMritePøógFøak;CamFüm 1,100-2,200 mm/ qñaM [9] (1,500-2,200 mm [12], 3,500-4,500 mm
(x<sb
; Mput) [6], 3,000-5,200 mm (dac;xat) [6]) nigrdUvR)aMgBI 3-6 Ex [9] (4-6 Ex [12])
KWsmRsbbMptu . cMnYnrbs;va enARbeTshVlI IBnI KWGaRs½yeTAtamrdUv eRcInCagenAtMbn;\NÐcÚ in [11]
.kMritsItuNðPaBx<sb; Mput sMrab;karlUtlas; 22-32ºC [6] (20-30ºC [9], 25-27ºC [12])
edaymankMritsItuNðPaBTabbMput enAExRtCak;bpM tu 12-18ºC [9] nigsItuNðPaBTabbMput 10ºC [6, 9]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

4

. sItuNðPaBx<sb; Mput 30-40ºC [9] (36ºC [6]) enAExekþAbMput . eyagtamRbPBxøH eQITalTwk
CaRbePTFn;ngw møb; [4, 9] RbPBepSgeTot )aneGaydwgfa vaCaRbePT eQI RtUvkarBnøWenAeBlFM
nigFn;ngw BnøeW nAeBlenAtUc [5, 16] . vaGacsmrb eTAnwgry³eBl eFIrV sµI sMeyaK ry³eBlxøI ticCag
12 ema:g/éf¶ [6] (eBléf¶ manry³eBlxøI) . Fn;nwgkarlicTwk eTaHbIgayrg eRKaHedaysarePøg
I
nigxül;k_eday .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

5

:

edImeQIRbePTenH cUlcitþdI Edlmindk;Twk manCICati manl,aytic rWmFüm rW xSac;enAtamdgTenø nig
dITMnabmansMenIm . Fn;nwgkarlicTwkry³eBlxøI . manlkçN³dUc Hopea odorata nig Anisoptera
costata eQITalTwkduHlUtlas;enAelIdI BN’RbepH EdlCaRbePTl,b;cas; nigman ferallit . dI
Edlman memaktick_smRsbsMrab;RbePTenHpg Edr . vaduHlUtlas;)anl¥
enAelIdImanCatiGasIuttictYc eday man pH BI 5-6 [12] nigdINWt . lkçN³dI : CMerAeRCAbMput (>150
cm) CMerAdac;xat : mFüm (50-150 cm) kMritCICatirbs;dI : x<s; kMritCICatidac;xat : mFüm kMritGMbil:
Tab (<4 dS/m) kareRCobTwk : l¥ [6].
ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 20]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: eQIeQITalRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;BaNiCk¢ mµ 'keruing' enAeBlvaminRtUv)ankab;eQIenH
RtUv)an rkSaTuksMrab;karRbmUlC½r enAtMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_ CaBiess enAxagt,Úg\NÐa RsIlgáa PUma éf
nigevotNam . enARbeTséf vaKWCaRbePTsMxan;sMrab;eQIh‘ub bnÞab;BIém:sak; . eQId_mantMélenH
[

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
RbePTeQIlMdab;fñak;TI 2 [1].

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

GaceRbIR)as;Ca sMng;Epñkxagkñúg vIna eQIemSARkdas kþakMral kþarCBa¢aMg TU begáal Fñmw
sMPar³sMrab;Ekécñ sarFatuKmI I sMPar³eFIBV eI QI TUrrfePøgI eQIfamBl nigsMng;TUk .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3, 9, 10, 11, 22]
[Gnupl]: eRbgBN’s EdlTTYl)anBIeQIRsay RtUv)ansÁal;faCa 'minyak keruing', 'damar
minyak', 'minyak lagan' rW 'balau' . eRbg EdlTTYl)anBI oleoresin RtUv)anehAfa 'gurjun
balsam' . enHminEmnCa balsam mankøin nigminmanpÞúk GasuIt cinnamic rW benzoic acid [17] .
enARbeTséf vaRtUv)ancat;TukfaCaC½r Edll¥bpM ut . vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as; sMrab;eFIVTwkGb;
nigCaBiesssab‘U . vaCaeRbg EdlGaceRbICnM sY nigmantMélefakCag 'patchouli oil' Edl)anmkBI
Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth . eRbg oleoresin RtUv)aneRbIR)as;CaRbéBNIsMrab;dutbMPWø
eFIeV RKOgsgðarwm bitTUk eFIkV ERBa¢g nig labeTAelIeQI edIm,IkarBar . enAkñgú »sfburraN
vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as; sMrab;sMlab;emeraK fñabM Ba©úH fañM sMrab;elIkkMlaMg nigCafñaMrwteGays<kW . sMbk
edImeQItUc² Edlmansøwk 2-4 RtUv)aneCOfa mansarFatu RbqaMgeraKsnøak;qg¥w CMgWeføIm nigCacMNId_l¥
sMrab;eKa . enAkñgú sgÁmrIkcMerIn eRbgRtUv)aneRbI sMrab; (manCatisg½ ásI) fñaKM UrKMnUr TwkfñasM rM ab;e)aHBum<
lagsMGatCBa¢aMg nigeRKOgsgðarwm nigCaRm½kSN_sMrab;lab . vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;
CaeRbgenAkñgú ma:sIunma:s‘UtpgEdr .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3, 9, 11, 12, 13, 17]
[epSg²]: eQITalTwkk_manskþanuBl sMrab;ksirukk
ç mµpgEdr . enARbeTséf viFsI aRsþ taungya
RtUv)an Gnuvtþ edIm,IsþaréRBeQIeLIgvij enAelIdImni sUvmanCICati . sarFatusrIragÁ nigdIman NPK
enAxageRkam smRsbsMrab;karlUtlas; [11] . vaCaedImeQI eRbIkgñú kardaMCacenøaH
CamYyedImeQIhUbEpø . eTaHbI karsikSaenAevotNam bgðajfakardaMCacenøaHCamYykaehV (Coffea
spp.) minRtUv)anpþl;db
M Unµan.
ÉksarBieRKaH [9, 11, 12]

6

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

lkçN³TUeTA]: vaGacsMrbeTAnwgtMbn;éRBeRcInRbePT BItMbn;TMnab dl;tMbn;PñM nigCaBiess
duHenAkñgú éRB eRsagesIm éRBeRsags¶Üt éRBBak;kNþalCMruHsøkw éRBCMruHsøkw esIm nigéRBCMruHsøkw s¶tÜ .
vamanduHtictYc enAtamsÞwg RcaMgTenø nigRClgPñM . enAtMbn;éRBeRsag rW mUssug vaEtduHlayCamYy
Dalbergia cochichinensis, Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Pterocarpus macrocarpus nig Sindora
siamensis . enAkñg
ú éRBtMbn;PñM vaduHlayCamYy Swintonia floribunda nig Artocarpus chaplasha
ehIyk_manduH layCamYy Shorea cochinchinensis nig Irvingia spp. enAcenøaHrvagéRBeRsag
nigéRBel,aH Edlman RsTab;xageRkamRkas; . enAkñgú éRB dipterocarp eQITalTwk begátI
CaTMrg;RkumeGkULsÚ uI CamYy Dipteroarpaceae dUcCa Hopea odorata nig Anisoptera costata .
CYnkalRbePTenHbegátI CaTMrg;suT§ EdlkenSamsøwk eQITallb;eTAelIRbePTepSg²eTot .
eyagtamRbPBxøH eQITalTwk CaRbePTFn; nwgmøb; [4, 9] RbPBepSgeTot )aneGaydwgfa
vaCaRbePTeQI RtUvkarBnøWenAeBlFM nig Fn;ngw BnøeW nAeBl enAtUc [5, 16] . vamanlT§PaBéRkEmk
edayxøÚnÉgpgEdr .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 16, 20]
[karduHeLIgvijedayFmµCati]: enAkñg
ú éRB Dipterocarpus FmµCati kUneQI nigkUneQIbun: efñal
Gacrs;enA kñúgéRB ry³eBleRcInqñaeM nAkñgú møb; . karduHlUtlas;edayFmµCatimanlkçN³l¥
CaBiessenAtambeNþay dgTenø rWtMbn;TMnabesIm . enAqñaMTI 2 karebIkKMrbmøb; minRtUv)anFn;eT
b:Eu nþknU eQIGacduH)anl¥ (RbEhl 120 cm ) KMrbmøbG; acRtUv)anebIk edIm,IeFIVeGay
kUneQIduHlUtlas;)anelOn . RbePTeQIPaK eRcInduH lUtlas;)anl¥ enAkñgú éRBbzmEtb:eu NÑaH [17]
. karduHeLIgvij edayFmµCatirbs;eQITalTwk RtUv)anduH eLIgvijCaeRcIn enAtamdIsMrab;eFIkV sikmµ
nigéRBkarBarbnÞab;BIkareFVGI aCIvkmµ .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 11, 16, 17]
[kardaMduH]: kUneQIsMrab;daMduH KYrRtUv)andaMenAeBlBYkvamanGayu 12-14 Ex [12] edaymankMBs;
CamFüm 60-80 cm [12] . vaRtUv)anpþl;eyabl;eGaydaM eQITalenAelIdIRbepH dIl,b;cas; Edl
mankardaMduH edayenAkMrittMbn;FM enAbrievN 15-30 m [12] . sßanPaBdIKrY EtesµI edaymanéRBtUc²
rW esµA . enAPaK xagt,ÚgevotNam kardaMduHRtUv)andaM bnÞab;BIePøógFaøk; elIkdMbgU (mifuna - kkáda) [12]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

7

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

. vaRtUv)andaMCa cMkarsuT§ enAeRkammøbe; dImeQIdUcCa Indigofera teysmanii, Cassia siamensis,
Acacia auriculiformis nig Paraserianthes falcataria edaymandg;seIu tdMbUg 1,000 edIm/ha (3 x 3
m) [12] rW 600 edIm/ha [12] (km<C
ú a : 625 edIm/ha [19]) (4 x 4 m) [12] . kardMaedaypÞal;
enAeRkamedImeQI k_GacRtUv)aneFIeV LIgpg Edr RbsinebIvamanmøb;RKb;RKan; . kUneQI
GacduHlUtlas;l¥ CamYy ectomycorrhizae énePT (genus) Russula .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 9, 12, 17]
[karRKb;RKg]: karEfTaMRtUv)aneFIeV LIg ry³eBl 7 bnþbnÞab; . BIqñaMTI 1 eTA 3 : karsMGatesµABIrdg
(2x = mun nigeRkayrdUvePøóg ). enAqñaT
M I 4 eTA 5 :karkat;rMelaHBnøk ebIkKMrbmøb; kMNt;
dg;sIeu tRtUv)aneFIeV LIg. enArdUvR)aMg RtUvmankarRKb;RKgePøgI eqH . enAqñaMTI 7-10 karkab;rMelaH
RtUv)aeFIeV LIg edIm,IkMNt;dg;seIu t edImeQIRtwm 280-300 edIm/ha (4 x 8 or 6 x 6 m) [12] .
[karRbmUlC½r]: bec©keTskñúgkarRbmUlC½r éneQITalTwk manlkçN³dUcKñaTUTaMgtMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_ nig
minRtUv)anvivtþ rWpøas;brþÚ eT enAkñgú kMLúgry³eBl 100 qñaMknøgmkenH . karykC½r TamTareGay
mankar ecaHrun§ enAelIedIm edaybBaÄiteTAkNþaledIm . dMenIrkarenHRtUv)anehAfa 'boxing' .
CYnkal CeNþrI RtUv )anksagedIm,I eFVkI arecaHykC½r EdlenAkEnøgelIRBwgénedImeQIF²M .
eQITalTwkKWCaedImeQIEtmYyKt; EdlRtUv)anecaHykC½renAeBlvamanGgát;p©itelIsBI 50 cm
enAeBledImeQItUcCaenH vaminpþl;plRKb; RKan;eT . rn§manlkçN³bBaäti nigGacBRgIg
dl;Bak;kNþaledIm . vaRtUv)anecaH enARCug EdlkenSam søwkmanEmk nigsøwkeRcIn . Boxing
GacRtUv)aneFIeV LIgenATabCag 2-3 m énedIm nigedIm EdlmanGgát; p©it 75 cm EdlGac
RtUv)anecaHBI 2-3 run§ . CaTUeTA C½rGachUrkñúgry³eBlmYyema:g nigRtUv)anrkSaTuk enAkñgú run§ .
vaRtUv)andgmþgeRkayry³eBl 7-8 éf¶ . bnÞab;BIkarRbmUl C½rEdlrwgRtUv)andut edIm,IkarBar
mineGaysÞHkarhUrC½r nigeFIeV GayvahUr)anelOn . kareqH RtUvkary³eBl 20 vinaTI eTA 2 naTI
CYnkal dl;eTA 20 naTI . bnÞab;BIePøgI rlt; C½rEdleqH RCuHcUleTAkñgú run§ nigeFIeV Gay
C½rcab;epþmI hUrmþg;eTot . enAeBl run§ElgmanC½rhUr vaRtUv)ane)aHbg;ecal . kareRbIR)as; ethrel
CMnYskardut edImeFIVeGayC½rhUr RtUv)anGegát b:uEnþminmanRbsiT§PaBxøagM eT rW
b:HBal;eTAelIedImeQIenaHeT . karykC½rRtUv)aneFIeV LIg ry³eBleRcInqñaM nigkarhUrrbs;C½r man
eRcInenArdUvvsSa nigkarRbmUlC½rRtUv)ankMNt; . GñkRbmUlC½rCn CatiLav GHGagfaedImeQIGacpþl;
C½rrhUtdl;ry³eBl 50-80 qñaM . GñkykC½r mansiT§ieTAelIedImeQI nimYy²

8

nigTTYlsiT§ti amry³karsñgmrtk . edImeQI EdlRtUv)andaMduHRtUv)an RKb;RKgedayma©sE; tmñak; Kt;
. enAeBledImeQIRtUv)anTukecal enAeBlsiTy§i kC½rRtUv)an)at;bg; . enAma:eLsIu karykC½rRtUv)an
GPivDÆn_ Edlpþl;plx<sC; agmun . viFsI aRsþ 'bark chipping' Tak;Tgnwgkarkat;sbM kxageRkA bnÞab;BI
sMbkRtUv)anykecjBIedIm EdlmanTTWg 2.5 . sñamenH manRbEvg 1 m nigmanTiseTAxagelI eday
mankMritmMu 30º eFobnwgG½kSedk . RbB½nT§ RtUv)anbitenAxag eRkam edaydak;EBgenAEpñkxageRkam
. GasuIts‘ulpYric RtUv)an)aj;eTAelIeQI . enAkñgú karBiesaFn_ eTAedImeQIcMnYn 4 )anbgðajnUv
kMritkMhab; cMnnY 10% Edlpþl;nUvTinpñ lRbcMaéf¶ BI 78-320 g . søwk)øasiÞk RtUv)anRKbeTAelIRbB½nT§
nig karBarnUv ePøóg nigPaBkxVk; eTAelIC½r EdlhUr . minmankarGnuvtþnvU viFsI aRsþenH
plitkmµCr½ GacRtUv)anx¢Hx¢ay . vamankarsgS½y eTAelIbec©keTsenH faetIvaGacCMnsY
viFsI aRsþburaN rW k_Gt; enAeBl EdlvaTamTarnUv kargarbEnßmsMrab;Gkñ ykC½r [17] .
[karrkSaTuk bnÞab;BIkarRbmUl]: enA]bTIb
V ma:eLsIu karRbmUlC½reQITalTwk RtUv)ancMeraH eday)av rW
és, EdlPa¢b;nwgs‘mu eQI . eRbgRtUv)anhUrqøgkat; enAeBlkMeTc rW kkRtUv)anXaMgTukenAkñgú és, rW
)av . enAkMLgú eBldMenIrkarenH eRbgGacRtUv)anhYt nigeRbg migRtUv)anEjkecj
BIC½rTaMgRsugenaHeT . karcMhuyCamYyTwk Gacpþl;nUveRbgkMritx<s; [17] .
[Tinñpl]: TinñplRbcaMqñaM énedImeQITalTwk enARbeTsLavKWRbEhl 22.5-31 l/edIm [11, 17] .

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

karRbmUl nigkarrkSaTukRKab;BCU ]: eQITalTwkCaRbePT Edlecjpáa nigEpøCaerogral;qñaM
b:Eu nþkarplit RKab;Kwmni eTogTat; edaymanry³eBl 1-3 qñaM rW 1-6 qñaM [9] GaRs½yeTAelITItaMgtMbn; .
karRbmUlEpøRtUv )aneFIVeLIgBI Exmina- emsa [12] enAeBl EdlEpøERbBIBN’ébtg eTACaébtgcas; .
EpøGacRtUv)an RbmUlBIedImeQI rW bnÞab;BIBYkvaFøak;mkelIdI . eTaHbI BYkvaminRtUv)anRbmUlTan;eBl
k_EpøTaMgenaHnwgRtUv )anbMpaø j edaystVkekr rW BBYkstVl¥ti . bnÞab;BIkarRbmUlEpø
søabrbs;vaRtUv)ankat;ecj nigdak;RtaM enAkñgú TwkekþAlµm RbEhl 5-6 em:ag [12] . karrkSaTukRKab;
mankMrtimFüm kMritsMeNIm 17% KµanRKab; NamYyGacrs;)aneTenA eBlsMeNImmanEt 8% .
enAkMritsMeNIm 12% kMrtidMNuHmanRtwmEt 36% bnÞab;BIry³eBl 939 éf¶ edayrkSaenAkñgú bnÞb;bti Cit
enAkMritsItuNðPaB -18ºC dMNuHGacdl;eTA 80% [11] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

9

:

karbnþBUCedayRKab;]: manRKab;BI 130-500 RKab;/kg [11] . RKab;Gac)at;bg;dMNuH ya:gqab;rh½s
(eRkayry³eBl 10-15 éf¶ kMritdMNuHRtUv)ankat;bnßy 50% [12]) dUcenH BYkRtUv)anlagsMGat
nigsab eTAkñúgfñaleRkayeBlRbmUl . BYkvaRtUv)anRKbedaycMebIug edIm,IeGayduHBnøk
nigbnÞab;mkdaM enAkñgú fg;pøasÞic (15-20 cm [12]) edaydIRtUv)anlay dIfñal 80-85% [12]
nigkaksMNl;CIkMbus: þ× 15-20% [12] . enAkñgú fñal dMNuHcab;epþmI kñgú ry³eBlRbEhl 10 éf¶ [4] (4-7
éf enA 25ºC [11]) nigbnþrhUtdl;ry³ eBlmYyEx nigTTYl)abnkMritdMNuHRbEhl 27% [4] .
kMritdMNuHmanGRtax<se; nAeRkammøb; . RKab; Edl RtUvkarsMrab;daMkñúg cMkarmYyhicta enAkñgú
RbeTskm<Cú a : 300 RKab;/kg cenøaHdaMduH : 4 x 4 m kUneQIsuT § RtUvkarkñgú mYyhicta : 625 GRtagab;
: 750 (20% enAkñg
ú cMkar), 834 (10% enAkñgú kardwkCBa¢Ún), 1,043 (20% enAkñgú fñal) kMritdMNuH : 50%
PaBsuT§ : 90%. cMnYnRKab;srub EdlRtUvkar : 7.74 kg [19] .
[karbnþBUCedaysrIragÁ]:
plitkmµRKab;mineTogTat; nigRKab;CaRbePT
recalcitrant
EdleFIeV Gayvamankar Bi)akkñgú karbnþBUC edayePT . . enAkMLgú qñaM 1980s edImeQIRtUv)anbnþBCU
edaymanCMnYyFmµCati nig sib,nimitµ minRtUv)aneFIeV LIgeLIy
[4]
. sBVéf¶
eTaHya:gNakarbnþBCU edaysrIragÁ RtUv)aneFIeV LIgtam ry³karkat; pSaMu nigbNþHú Calikar .
karkat;RtUv)aneFIeV TAelIBnøk nigExñg bnÞab;BIkarkat;rWs EdlTTYl )aneCaKC½yBI 44.5% [11] (>75%
énkarkat;rWs [12]) EdlbgðajnUvskþanuBlPaBénplitkmµ tamry³ karkat;rWs
sMrab;eKalbMNgdaMduHeQIeLIgvij .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 9, 11, 12, 19]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVl¥ti ]: RtUv)ansÁal;faCaRbePTstVlt¥i dUcCa
siamensis .
[

Coryphothrips trochiceps

nig

Gynaikothrips

ÉksarBieRKaH [9]
[

CMgW]:

The cerambycid, Celosterna pollinosa sulphurea (Synonym: Cerosterna pollinosa

sulphurea)

bMpøajedImeQIenARbeTséf .

Celosterna scabrator (Synonym: Cerosterna

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

10

k_bpM aø jeQITalTwkpgEdr . RbePTpSitepSgeTotdUcCa
sublyratus, Fomes albomarginatus nig Ganoderma applanatum .
scabrator)

Croton lucidum, Croton

ÉksarBieRKaH [9, 11]
[

epSg²]:gayrgnwgePøgI eqH nigxül; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [6]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

F> karGPirkS

11

:

karkab;bpM aø jéRBeQI nigkarrukrkhYsehtu)anKMramKMEhgRbePTenH . dUcenHvaRtUv)ancat;cUlCa
RbePT rgeRKaHfñak; (EN A1cd+2cd, B1+2c [2, 7, 12, 18]) eyagtam IUCN (International Union
for the Conservation of Nature) World List of Threatened Trees . edaymankarkab;bp
M aø j
enAevotNam RbB½ne§ GkULsÚ uIrbs;RbePTenHRtUv)anbMpøajesÞIrEtTaMgRsug . enAmunqñaM 1975
manKMeragkarkñgú kardaMduH eLIgvijRbEhl 6,000 ha én D. alatus nig D. cochichinensis b:Eu nþ
edaysarEtmans®gÁam KMeragenH RtUv)anbraC½y . bnÞab;mkenA eRkayqñaM 1975
cMkareQITalTwkrab;Ban;hictaRtUv)anbegátI edayrdæ cMkarÉkCn karEkrlMGréRBeLIgvij ksirukçkmµ
CaedIm . KMrUdaMduH CaeRcInRtUv)anTTYleCaKC½y cMeBaHkar daMduHCaRTg;RTayFM KW 300-1,200 ha
CalkçN³cMkar [12] . enARbeTséf vamanduHenAtMbn;CaeRcIn b:Eu nþ k_man karfycuHvijpgEdr .
kar)a:n;sµan;cMnYnedImeQI EdlRtUv)anKMramKMEhg enARbeTskm<Cú a (kMNt;enAkñúgsikçasalafñak;CatieTA
elIRbePTeQICaGaTiPaB erobcMeday rdæ)aléRBeQI nigKMeragRKab; BUCeQIkm<Cú a enAqñaM 2000)
edImeQI >10,000 RtUv)anKMramKMEhgtamry³karkab;bpM aø j nigedImeQI >1,000 RtUv)anKMramKMEhg
edayePøgI eqH .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 7, 8, 12, 18, 21]

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
r)a:yelIBiPBelak]
[RbPBkMeNIt]: km<C
ú a Lav xagekIt\NÐa (ekaH
(Luzon) éf evotNam .
[

Andaman )

PaKxageCIg\NÐeÚ nsIu PUma hVlI IBnI
ÉksarBieRKaH [11, 13]

[

karnaMclU ]: bg;køaeds \NÐa \NÐeÚ nsIu RsIlgáa .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 5, 10, 13]

p> epSg²

:

cMNat;fñak;]: enAqñaM 1993 vaRtUv)anrkeXIjfa D. alatus nig D. philippinensis KWCaRbePTrYmKña
(=RbePT EdldUcKña) [10] .
[karbgáat;]: karbgáat; rvag Dipterocarpus alatus x D. costatus RtUv)anraykarN_fµI²enH BI Khong
Chiam Ubon Ratchathani EdlCakEnøgbgáat;
D. costatus x D. obtusifolius .
vaduHlUtlas;enAtMbn; Edlman Rsl;swkø BIrduH rvagéRBCMruHsøkw dipterocarp Edllb;eday D.
obtusifolius nig D. intricatus nigéRBébtgCanic© dipterocarp RtUv)anlb;eday D. costatus nig D.
alatus . TMrg;sk
øw niglkçN³Epø rYmanTMhM nigBN’Tak;Taj mankMritmFüm . kUnkat;rvag
Dipterocarpus alatus x D. chartaceus RtUv)anraykarN_famanduHenAtampøÚv rvag Songkhla nig
Ranote
(éf¶) RbEhl
100-200
m BIeqñrsmuRT
. eramenAelIEmktUc² nigsøkw
zitenAelIbMBg;RsTab;páa EdlmanlkçN³dUc D. alatus b:Eu nþRtbkcMnYn 3 tUcCag nigKµaneramdUc D.
chartaceus [2] .
[plitkmµCr½ ]: karxYgykedaypÞal;enAkMritsItuNðPaB 255ºC énC½rrbs;eQITalTwkpþl;nvU
70%
eRbg Rkhm nig C½r 30% . enAkMLgú qñaM 1920 enAxagt,ÚgevotNam manC½rcMnYn 1,000 t
RtUv)anRbmUlBIeQI TalTwk [17] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

12

BNiCk¢ mµeQIhb‘u ]: tMéleQImlU enAqñaM 2003 enAkñgú BiPBelak RbEhl US$ 1,500-2,000/m³
.
[sarFatuBul]: kMTiceQI rW Gacm_rNa rbs;eQITalTwkGacbNþaleGayrmas; [11].
[

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

[12]

:

Ankarfjard R and Kegl M. 1998. Tapping oleoresin from Dipterocarpus alatus
(Dipterocarpaceae) in a Lao village. Economic Botany. 52(1): 7-14.
[11]

Aniwat C, 1989. Common forest tree diseases in Thailand. Thailand Journal of Forestry,
8:216-226.
[10]

Hans JW, Valeriano SB, 1982. Aspects of Management and Silviculture of Philippine
Dipterocarp Forests. Philippine-German Rain Forest Development Project, Schriftenreihe
der GTZ No. 132, 17-34.
[10]

Linington IM, 1991. In vitro propagation of Dipterocarpus alatus and Dipterocarpus
intricatus.. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 27(1):81-88; 21 ref.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[10]

13

Namura J, 1986. Forest management in Bangladesh. Tropical Forestry, No. 7:29-35.
[10]

Ngampongsai C, Aksornkoae S, Tamanontha P, Sahunalu P, 1967. The Influence of
Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. on Soil Properties. Research note. Bangkok, Thailand: Faculty of
Forestry, Kasetsart University.
[10]

RAPA, 1985. Dipterocarps of South Asia. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
(RAPA) Monograph 4/85. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO.
[10]

Sabhasri S, Boonnitee A, 1967. Growth and Development of Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. in
Natural Forest. Bangkok, Thailand: Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University.
[10]

Smitinand T, Santisuk T, 1981. Dipterocarpaceae of Thailand with special reference to
silvicultural ecology. Malaysian Forester, 44(2/3):377-385; 9 ref.
[10]

Soerianegara I, Lemmens RHMJ, 1993. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1) Timber
trees: major commercial timbers. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1) Timber trees:
major commercial timbers., 610 pp.; [Also published by Prosea Foundation, Bogor,
Indonesia. PROSEA NUGI 835.]; 817 ref.
[10]

Soonhuae P, Limpiyaprapant S, 1996. Rooting cutting of Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. and
Shorea roxburghii Roxb. in nonmist propagators. Information note, ASEAN Forest Tree Seed
Centre Project, Muak-lek, Saraburi, Thailand.
[10]

Watanabe H, Sahunalu P and Khemnark C. 1988. Combinations of trees and crops in the
taungya method as applied in Thailand. Agroforestry Systems. 6(2): 169-177.
[11]

:

[1] Department of Forestry and Wildlife, 1988: Cambodian Forestry Law No. 35, 25th June
1988. Phnom Penh.

[2] Dipterocarpaceae in Thailand - Taxonomic and Biogeographical Analysis:
http://www.forest.go.th/Botany/main/Research/RP_thesis/taxonomy/Dipterocarpus.htm
(Internet source)

[3] Dy Phon, 2000, Dictionary of Plants used in Cambodia

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

14

[4] Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1985: Dipterocarps of South Asia. RAPA
Monograph 1985/4. Regional office for Asia and the Pacific. 321 pp.

[5] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning
Institute.

[6] ECOCROP: http://ecocrop.fao.org (Internet source)

[7] Forest Herbarium (BKF) National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department,
Thailand – http://www.dnp.go.th/Botany (Internet source)

[8] Sontara, S. (PNSA); Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

[9] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[10] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8.
(CD-ROM).

[11] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID
=10 (Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[12] JICA, 2003: Use of indigenous tree species in reforestation in Vietnam.

15

[13] ARCBC BISS Species Database: http://arcbc.org/cgi-bin/abiss.exe

[14] Gardner,S.; Sidisunthorn, P.; Anusarnsunthorn, V., 2000: A Field Guide to Forest Trees
of Northern Thailand.

[15] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species. 7pp.

[16] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and
Vietnam: a field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.

[17] PROSEA, 2001: Plant Resources of South East Asia 18 - Plant producing exudates.

[18] CTSP, 2003: Forest Gene Conservation Strategy - Gene Conservation Strategy,
Species Monographs, Gene Ecological Zonation, Species Site Matching Model. (CDROM).

[19] FA/CTSP, 2005: Guidelines for site selection and tree planting in Cambodia. 90pp.
Phnom Penh

[20] Rollet, B., 1979: The Vegetation of Cambdia. (Draft Translation into English by K.
Panzer).

[21] FAO:
http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/005/AC648E/ac648e04
.htm (Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[22] WWF Tropical Timbers - http://assets.panda.org/downloads/tropical_wood_images.pdf
(Internet source)

16

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Dipterocarpus costatus Gaertner f.]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Dipterocarpus costatus Gaertner f.]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg

³

Dipterocarpus costatus Gaertner f.

x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

minTan;manTinñn½y.

K> sTisn½y

³

Dipterocarpus insula[1] / Dipterocarpus insularis
Hance (1876) [6] / Dipterocarpus artocarpifolius Pierre ex
Lanessan (1889) [6]
Dipterocarpus parvifolius Heim (1903) [6]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

keruing bukit (Malaysia) [6] - kanyin in, kanyin po,
kanyin-ywet-the (Myanmar) [6] - nha:ng dè:ng (Laos) [6] yang-pai, yang-khao, yang-kabueang (Thailand) [6] - d[aaf]u
m[is]t, d[aaf]u c[as]t (Vietnam) [6]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

eQITalbgÁÜy

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

ÉksarBieRKaH : [7]

1

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

chhe tiel nieng daeng, chhe tiel angkuey, nieng daeng
kraham [1], chheuteal bangkuoy[7], cheuteal [8]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae

lMdab; : Malvales
RKYsar : Dipterocarpaceae[4]
ePT : Dipterocarpus Gaertner f.[6]
RbePT : Dipterocarpus costatus
Gaertner f.

ÉksarBieRKaH: [4, 6]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]:vamankMBs;BI 25-40 m [1] edaymanedImRtg; nigkenSamsøwkragCaes<ór .eQITal
bgÁyÜ GacmanGgát;p©it 160 cm [6] .
[sMbk]:sMbkmanBN’etñatRsal nigrbkCabMENk² . [søk
w ]:søwkmanTMhM 8-14 x 4-8 cm [2]
nigCaTUeTAmanragdUcs‘ut . BYkvamancugRsYc nigKl;manragdUcebHdUg . søkw x©IRtUv)anRKbedayeram
Edl manTMrg;dUcCapáay . søwkcas;BRgayeramxø²I enAelIséssøkw nigEpñkxageRkamsøwk .
[páa]:páamanRbEvg 2 cm [2]nigBN’TwkRkUcRsal . vaduHlUtlas;CakBa©x
úM KøI µanEmk Edlmanpáa 3-6
[2] enARtg;cMBaménsøk
w x©I .
[Epø]:EpømansøabEvg BIr EdlmanRbEvg 8-12 cm [2] . RbEvgEpøKW 1.2-1.5 cm [2] .
Epøx©IKmW anBN’ RkhmRss; . ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 6]

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

kMritdg;suIeteQIKW 0.74-0.97g/cm³ [6] enAsMeNIm 15% . vaminFn;ngw GakasFatuxageRkA .

ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 6]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

eQITalbgáÜyCaRbePTeQIén\NÐcÚ ni
nig]bTIbV ma:eLsIu
EdlvaEtduHlUtlas;CamYyBBYk
D.turbinatus eTaHbICa kMrgmanenAry³kMBs;x<sk
; e_ day . vaduHlUtlas;enAkñgú éRBeRsagCMruHsøwkcMruH
RbePT b¤ Bak; kNþalCMruHsøwkénTMbn;TMnab nigéRBesImtMbn;PñM .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

RbePTeQIenH duHlUtlas;enAry³kMBs;BiI 0-1,200 m a.s.l. [5] . GakasFatumsU gu RtUBci Edlman
kMrit TwkePøógRbcaMqañ M 2,500-4,500 mm [5] nig rdUvR)aMgBI 0-4 months [10]KWsmRsbbMptu .
eTaHbI kMritTwkePøóRbcaMqñaxM <sb; Mput 2,800 nig 3,500 mm [5] . sItuNðPaBx<sb; Mput 21°C eTA 31°C
[5] . sItuNðPaBTabbMput 10°C [5] nigsItN
u ðPaBx<sb; Mput 38°C [5] .

ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 10]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

minTan;manTinñn½y .

3

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

eQITalbgáÜyduHlUtlas;l¥enAelIdIeRCobTwk)anl¥ nigmanCICati . RbePTeQIenHGaclUtlas;elIdI
man pH BI 5 eTA 6 [5] . cMeBaHdImanCatiGbM il <4 dS/m[5] RbePTenHmankarFn;pgEdr .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 5]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]:eQIh‘ubRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;sMNg; nigkarksagnava b:Eu nþvaminsUvFn;eT . vak_RtUv)aneRbI
R)as; sMrab;eFIVFüÚgpgEdr .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 5]
Gnupl]:C½r oleo d_mantMél (=eRbgeQI)RtUv)anRbmUlBIedImeQIEdleRbIR)as;srM ab;]sSahkmµ
fñalM ab biTTUk nigkareFIcV nøHú nigfñaBM üa)aldMe)A .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 5, 6]
epSg²]:minTan;manTinñn½y .

[

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

RbePTeQIcMNat;fñak;elx 2 .

ÉksarBieRKaH [8]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]:eQITalbgÁyÜ duHlUtlas;CamYyBBYk D. turbinatus eTaHbICa kMrmanenAry³kMBs;
x<sk; _ eday . vaduHlUtlas;enAkñúgéRBeRsagCMruHsøkw cMruHRbePT b¤ Bak;kNþalCMruHsøwkénTMbn;TMnab
nigéRBesIm tMbn;PñM .
[karduHeLIgvijedayFmµCati]: "kUneQI nigedImb:unefñal mankarFn;RTaMng
w møbx; øaMg . enABIrqñaMdMbgU
kar ebIk enSamsøkw TaMgmUlminKYreFIeV LIy b:Eu nþbnÞab;BIknU eQIrwgmaMl¥ (kMBs; 120 m) kenSamsøkw RtUv
)anebIk edIm,I begánI karlUtlas; . RbePTeQIPaKeRcInduHlUtlas;)anl¥enAkñúgéRBminTan;man
karrukran . [9]
[kardaMduH]:
"enAeBlkUneQIRtUv)andaMenATIval
edImeQIpþl;mbø ;RtUv)aneRbIR)as;dUcCa Acacia
auriculiformis nig Paraserianthes falcataria .
[karRKb;RKg]: minTan;manTinñny
½ .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 9]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

4

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

karduHlUtlas;eLIgvijedayFmµCatiKWmanlkçN³l¥ . kUneQIk_RtUveRbIsMrab;kardaMduHpgEdr . [9]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVl¥ti ]: minTan;manTinñn½y .
[CMgW]: minTan;manTinñn½y .
[epSg²]: minTan;manTinñn½y .
[

F> karGPirkS

:

RbePTeQIenHRtUv)ancat;fñak;CaRbePTeQIrgeRKaHfñak; ('EN' [4]) eyagtam IUCN (International
Union for the Conservation of Nature) World List of Threatened Trees (='IUCN Red
Databook')

.

ÉksarBieRKaH [4]

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
r)a:yelIBiPBelak]:
[RbPBkMeNIt]: RbeTsbg;køaeds RbeTsPUma RbeTs\NÐa (Andaman Islands) RbeTsLav
RbeTskm<Cú a RbeTs evotNam RbeTséf nigPaKxageCIgRbeTsma:eLsIu .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 6]
karnaMclU ]:Cak;EsþgNas;
eLIy eT.
[

RbePTenHminRtUv)andaMduHenAeRkAtMbn;EdlvaduHlUtlas;CaFmµCatienA

ÉksarBieRKaH [10]

p> epSg²

:

kUnkat;]: " kUnkat;edayFmµCatirvag D. costatus nig D. obtusifolius RtUv)ansegáttam danenA
RbeTséf nigPUma nigrvag D. costatus and D. gracilis enARbeTséf nig ]bTIbV ma:eLsI"u .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [6].

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Foxworthy, F.W., 1932. Dipterocarpaceae of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan Forest
Records No 10. Printers Limited, Singapore. 289 pp.
[6]

Burkill, I.H., 1966. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. 2nd
edition. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur. Vol. 1 (A-H) pp. 11240. Vol. 2 (I-Z) pp. 1241-2444.
[6]

P>ÉksarBieRKaH [1] Dy Phon, 2000, Dictionary of Plants used in Cambodia
:

[3] JICA, 2003: Use of indigenous tree species in reforestation in Vietnam.

[4]ARCBC BISS species database http://arcbc.org/cgibin/abiss.exe/spd?SID=76267485&spd=6286&tx=PL (Internet source)

[5] ECOCROP: http://ecocrop.fao.org (Internet source)

[6] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4,
5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[2] Gardner,S.; Sidisunthorn, P.; Anusarnsunthorn, V., 2000: A Field Guide to
Forest Trees of Northern Thailand.

6

[7] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species. 7pp.

[8] Department of Forestry and Wildlife, 1988: Cambodian Forestry Law No. 35,
25th June 1988. Phnom Penh.

[9] PROSEA, 2001: Plant Resources of South East Asia 18 - Plant producing
exudates.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[10] Bertram, A., 2006: Own observations.

7

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Dipterocarpus dyeri Pierre]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Dipterocarpus dyeri Pierre]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg

³

Dipterocarpus dyeri Pierre

x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

minTan;manTinñn½y.

K> sTisn½y

³

minTan;manTinñn½y.

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

keruing etoi, keruing daun besar (Malaysia) [1] - kanyin thi
(Myanmar) [1] - yang-klong, yang-man-mu, yang-sian, yang
yung, yung, yung dam (Thailand) [1, 2] - d[aaf]u song n[af]ng
(Vietnam) [1]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| Datasheet Report

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

1

³

eQITalQ¶
ÉksarBieRKaH : [5]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

chhë: ti:ël chngâ:(r), chhë: ti:ël pruhs, chngâ:(r). [1], royieng,
chhe tiel pruhs, chhe tiel th’ngor [3], cheuteal chngo [4],
chhoeuteal chhngar [9]

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae

fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Malvales
RKYsar : Dipterocarpaceae
ePT : Dipterocarpus Gaertner f.
RbePT : Dipterocarpus dyeri Pierre
ÉksarBieRKaH: [1]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]:CaedImeQIBak;kNþalCMruHsøwkmanTMhMmFüm nigFMkMBs;dl;eTA 40 m [1] (30-40 m [3, 6])
. vaCaRbePTedImeQIFbM MputenAevotNamxagt,Úg [6] . edImmanragCasILu aMg Rtg;nigKµanEmkTal;
Etman kMBs; 25 m [1] manRBwgtic nigGgát;pit© FMbMput enAkMBs; DBH KW 125 cm [1] (150 cmnigGacFM
CagenH [6]) . EmktUc²esÞrI EtKµaneram enAeBlEmkcas;vamanBN’RkhmetñatedaymanxñaysÞbCa
rgVg;RKb edayeram BN’RbepH rWRkhm-etñat . BnøkmanragdUcs‘ut b¤es<ór nigRKbedayeramBN’
etñatrag .
[sMbk]: épÞsMbkmanBN’RbepH b¤etñatcas; KeRKIm nigmanrbkCadMt
u Uc² . sMbkEpñkxagkñúgman
BN’elOgetñat eTACa Rkhmetñat nigmankMras; 6-10 mm [6] .
[søwk]: søwksamBaØ ragdUcs‘ut b¤eGlIb TMhM 16-40 x 7.5-14 cm [1] (13-45 x 8-20 cm [2] RbEvg 5-25 cm
b¤EvgCagenH [6]) edaymanbeNþay 5 mm [1] mancugRsYc nigTalenAEpñkKl;EdlmanragdUcebHdUg .
søwkenAx©IRtUv)anRKbdNþbe; dayeramRkas; CaBiessenAelIsésrEpñkxageRkamsøwk . søwkcas;Kaµ n
eram enAEpñkxagelIépÞskøw eT . sésTIBrI zitenACaKUr Edlman 24-30 KUr [1] (20-30 [2], 18-31 [6])
EdlduHeLIg nigemIleXIjc,as;enAEpñkxageRkam . TgsøwkmanRbEvg 4-6 cm [1] (3-8 cm [2], 4-8 cm
[6]) edayman xñaysøk
w manragCaes<ór TMhM 15-20 x 2-4 cm manBN’RkhmenAxagkñgú nig
eramenAEpñkxageRkA .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | Datasheet Report

[

2

páa]: kBa©Mpú aá maneram RbEvg 10-18 cm [6] (10-20 cm [2]) EdlmanpáacMnYn 6-8 [6] . RtbkpáamanTMrg;Ca
eGlIb nigbMBugeksKµaneram manRbEvg 1.7 cm [6] mancg¥tÚ Uc²cMnnY 5 [1] Edlrt;kat;BkI BM lU man
beNþay 2/3 énbMBug . RsTab;páamanBN’sCIu MBU nigKµaneram RbEvg 5 cm [6] . páamanekseQµal 30
[1, 6] . BnøkpáarIkEvgRbEvg 4-5 cm [2] . rdUvpáaKWeBjmYyqñaM BIExmkra dl;FñÚ [2] (mifuna-sIha [6]).
[Epø]:EpøTMeu nAkMLg
ú Ex mkra dl;FñÚ [2] (kkáda-FñÚ [6]) . EpømaneramRsYc ragRTEvg rWekaNedaymanTMhM
4 x 2.8 cm . vamansøabcMnn
Y 5 Edl 2 TMhMFMGacTMhM 20 x 5.5 cm [1] (18-25 x 3.5-4 cm [2], 20-23 cm
x 3-4 cm [6]) EdlmanséssMxan; 3 nig 3 eTotxøICagTMhM 1.5 x 0.6 cm [1] (1.5-2 x 0.5 cm [2]).
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 6]

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

lkçN³eQI]:eQIRsay nigeQIxwmø manPaBxusKña . eQIRsaymankMras;esþgI nigeQIxwmø man BN’
Rkhm etñat rwgnigF¶n;Edlmandg;seIu t 0.63-0.83 g/cm³ enAsMenIm 15% [1] (0.8 g/cm³ [6]) nwggay
RsYlykmk eRbIR)as; .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 6]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| Datasheet Report

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

3

:

eQITalQ¶KgW ayduHsayPay b:Eu nþkarpøas;TIrbs;RbePTeQIenHEtekItmaneLIgenAtMbn;TMnab RbeTs
PUma eTAdl;\NÐcÚ ni elIkElgEt RbeTsLav nigPaKxageCIgRbeTsevotNam nigBayBü]bTVbI
ma:eLsIu (Perlis nigxageCIg Kedah) . vaduHlUtlas;enAtMbn;éRB dipterocarp Bak;kNþaleRsag
nigéRBb¤sSI Schima eRcInenAéRBmat;swgÞ enAmat;ERBkEdlmanry³kMBs;Tab . vak_manduH lUtlas;
enAéRBébtgCanic©esIm EdléRBeQImanPaBsþúkx<s; CYnkalduHCaRkumeQIlb; . enARbeTskm<Cú a
vaduHenAkñgú éRBBak;kNþal el,aH CamYy Lagerstroemia, Peltophorum, Cratoxylon, Anogeissus nig
Irvingia EdlCaRbePTmanvtþman Cajwkjab; . enAkñg
ú éRBeRsagbiTCit vaduHCamYyRbePT Parinarium
annamense, Vatica sp., Shorea hypochra, Dipterocarpus intricatus, Diospyros helferi, Sindora
cochinchinensis, Peltophorum dasyrachis, Grewia paniculata, Spondias spp., Cratoxylon, Payena
elliptica, Memecylon laevigatum, Murraya exotica, Caryoa urens

nig Corypha lecomtei .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 6, 9]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

vaduHlUtlas;enAry³kMBs;eRkam 800 m a.s.l. [6] (eRkam 500 m [2]) . eQITalQ¶lUtlas;enA
kñúgGakas FatumsU gu RtUBci EdlmanrdUvR)aMxsu ²Kña . vaCaRbePTTamTarnUvBnøW b:Eu nþFn;nwg
møbe; nAeBltUc .

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 6]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

eQITalQ¶lUtlas;)anl¥enAelIdIRbepH nigdImanCatifµBN’etñat TMnab EdlmineRCobTwk)anl¥
enArdUvvsSa .

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]:eQIh‘ubRtUv)aneRbIR)as; nigeFIBV aNiCk¢ mµ dUcCa 'keruing' eTaHCamantMélefakCag Shorea
roxburghii nig Hopea odorata b:Eu nþvamanmaDx<sC
; ag . vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;sagsg;pHÞ TUk
nigeFICV aeRKOgsgðarwm .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3, 6]
[

Gnupl]:vaGacRtUvTajyknUveRbgeQI EdlRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;kareFIcV nøHú ¬cegáógburaN¦ .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | Datasheet Report

ÉksarBieRKaH [9]

4

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3, 6]
[

epSg²]: minTan;manTinñn½y .

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

RbePTeQIenHRtUv)ancat;CacMNat;fñak;eQIelx 2 .

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]:eQITalQ¶ duHlUtlas;enAkñgú tMbn;éRB dipterocarp Bak;kNþaleRsag nigéRBb¤sSI
Schima eRcInenAéRBmat;swg
Þ enAmat;ERBkEdlmanry³kMBs;Tab . vak_manduHlUtlas;enA éRBébtg
Ca nice© sIm EdléRBeQImanPaBsþúkx<s; CYnkalduHCaRkumeQIlb; . enARbeTskm<Cú a vaduHenAkñgú
éRBBak; kNþal el,aHCamYy Lagerstroemia, Peltophorum, Cratoxylon, Anogeissus nig Irvingia
EdlCa RbePTmanvtþmanCajwkjab; . enAkñgú éRBeRsagbiTCit vaduHCamYyRbePT Parinarium
[

annamense, Vatica sp., Shorea hypochra, Dipterocarpus intricatus, Diospyros helferi, Sindora
cochinchinensis, Peltophorum dasyrachis, Grewia paniculata, Spondias spp., Cratoxylon, Payena
elliptica, Memecylon laevigatum, Murraya exotica, Caryoa urens

nig Corypha lecomtei .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 6, 9]
karduHeLIgvijedayFmµCati]:kUneQI Dipterocarpus GacFn;enAkñgú éRB)an eRcInqñaMeRkam TIkEnøgman
møbx; øaMg. enA BIrqñaMdMbgU karebIBnøWTaMgRsugKWew FIeV GaykUneQImni GacFn;)aneT b:Eu nþbnÞab;BIkUneQIman
PaB rwgmaM (kMBs; 120 m )KMrbmøbG; acRtUv)anebIk edIm,IbegátI karduHlUtlas; . RbePTeQICa eRcInduH
lUtlas; eLIgvij)anl¥enAkñúgéRBcMbg ¬minTan;mankarrunran¦. karduHeLIgvijedayFmµCati
KwmanlkçN³l¥RbesIr CaBiesseRkamkenSamsøkW BI 0.3-0.4 [6] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| Datasheet Report

[

5

ÉksarBieRKaH [6, 8]
kardaMduH]:enAeBlkUneQIRtUv)andaMenATIval
auriculiformis nig Paraserianthes falcataria.
[

edImeQIpþl;mbø ;RtUv)aneRbIR)as;dUcCa

Acacia

ÉksarBieRKaH [8]
[

karRKb;RKg]: minTan;manTinnñ y½ .

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

mkdl;sBVéf¶ karduHlUtlas;eLIgvijRtUv)ankMNt; enAkñgú karduHeLIgvijkñúgFmµCati . kardaMduHeday
kUneQIKCW aviFsI aRsþEdlRtUv)anGnuvtþ .

ÉksarBieRKaH [6, 8]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVl¥ti ]: minTan;manTinñn½y .
[CMgW]:minTan;manTinñn½y .
[epSg²]: minTan;manTinñn½y .
[

F> karGPirkS

:

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 6]

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
r)a:yelIBiPBelak]:
[RbPBkMeNIt]: RbeTskm<C
ú a RbeTsLav [6] (minmanenARbeTsLav [2]) RbeTsma:eLsIu (Peninsular)
RbeTsPUma RbeTséf nigRbeTsevotNam .
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | Datasheet Report

vaduHsayPay b:Eu nþCabNþútM Uc² enAkñgú tMbn;rbs;edaymancMnYntictYc . cMnnY bc©úb,nñ nigkalBI
GtItkal Gac eRbobeFob)an . vaRtUv)ancat;CaRbePTrgeRKaHfñak; (CR A1cd+2cd, B1+2c [2]
"GacRtUv)anbBa©Úl kñúg A1" [2]) eyagtam IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature)
World List of Threatened Trees (='IUCN Red Databook') . sBVéf¶RbePTenH Cakmµvtßú
sar³sMxan;sMrab;karEsVgrk enAtMbn;éRBCa eRcInenARbeTsevotNamxagt,Úg .

6

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 6, 7]
karnaMclU ]: Cak;EsþgNas; RbePTenHminRtUv)andaMduHenAeRkAtMbn;EdlvaduHlUtlas;CaFmµCatienA
eLIyeT .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [10]

p> epSg²

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Burkill, I.H., 1966. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. 2nd edition. Ministry
of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur. Vol. 1 (A-H) pp. 1-1240. Vol. 2 (I-Z) pp. 1241-2444.
[1]

Choo, K.T. & Sim, H.C., 1981. Malaysian timbers - keruing. Malaysian Forest Service Trade Leaflet
No 48. Malaysian Timber Industry Board, Kuala Lumpur. 18 pp.
[1]

Daljeet-Singh, K., 1974. Seed pests of some dipterocarps. Malaysian Forester 37: 24-36.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| Datasheet Report

[1]

7

Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêtnam (various editors), 1960-. Muséum National d'Histoire
Naturelle, Paris.
[1]

Fundter, J.M., 1982. Names for dipterocarp timbers and trees from Asia. Pudoc, Wageningen. 251 pp.
[1]

Smitinand, T., Santisuk, T. & Phengklai, C., 1980. The manual of Dipterocarpaceae of mainland
South-East Asia. Thai Forestry Bulletin 12: 1-110.
[1]

Symington, C.F., 1941. Foresters' manual of dipterocarps. Malayan Forest Records No 16. Forest
Department, Kuala Lumpur. pp. xliii + 244.
[1]

van Steenis, C.G.G.J. & de Wilde, W.J.J.O. (Editors), 1950-. Flora Malesiana. Kluwer Academic
Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London.
[1]
Wong, W.C. & Ong, C.L., 1986. Particleboard from oily keruing. Malaysian Forester 49: 65-71.
[1]

P>ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).

[2] Dipterocarpaceae in Thailand - Taxonomic and Biogeographical Analysis:
http://www.forest.go.th/Botany/main/Research/RP_thesis/taxonomy/Dipterocarpus.htm (Internet
source)

[3] Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[5] CTSP/DANIDA, 2004: List of Tree Species. 7pp.

[6] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning Institute.

[7] ARCBC BISS Species Database: http://arcbc.org/cgi-bin/abiss.exe

[8] PROSEA, 2001: Plant Resources of South East Asia 18 - Plant producing exudates.

[9] Rollet, B., 1979: The Vegetation of Cambdia. (Draft Translation into English by K. Panzer).
[10] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | Datasheet Report

[4] Department of Forestry and Wildlife, 1988: Cambodian Forestry Law No. 35, 25th June 1988.
Phnom Penh.

8

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Dipterocarpus intricatus Dyer]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Dipterocarpus intricatus Dyer]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg

³

Dipterocarpus intricatus Dyer

x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

minTan;manTinñn½y .

K> sTisn½y

³

minTan;manTinñn½y.

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

may sa beng (Trade name) [4] - krat, hiang krat, chik, cha
baeng, tabaeng, hiang khon, sat, tat (Thailand) [1] - dau trai,
dau long (Vietnam) [4]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

Rtac

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

ÉksarBieRKaH : [3]

1

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati ³

krai, trai [1], trach, trach sa, trach snaeng, trach sra [2]

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Malvales

RKYsar : Dipterocarpaceae
ePT : Dipterocarpus Gaertner f.
RbePT : Dipterocarpus intricatus Dyer
ÉksarBieRKaH: [1]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]CaedImeQIFCM MruHsøkw kMBs;BI 20-30 m [4] (15-30 m [2]) Ggát;pit© 60-80 cm enA
kMBs; DBH . Emk nigedImRKbdNþbe; dayeramCaeRcInEdlmanragCapáay nigmanBN’elOgcas;
eTACaetñat . [sMbk]:épÞsMbkmanBN’etñatcas; b¤RbepHcas; nigeRbHtambeNþay . sMbkxagkñúg
manBN’TwkRkUc EdlmankMras; 8-10 mm [4] GacRkas;CagenH .
[søwk]: søwksamBaØ qøas; nigmanragdUcs‘ut zitenACaesñótsNþk
Ú tambeNþayKl;skøw nigmancugril
TMhM 10-30 x 8-14 cm [4] nigmaneramenAelIépÞTaMgBIr ¬xageRkam nigelIskøw ¦ CaBiessenAEpñk
xageRkamén søwk . sésTI2man 14 (-21) KU [4] (10-15) KU [1] . Tgsøkw manRbEvg 3-4.5 cm long [4]
sMrab;karBarBnøk . sÞbsøwkmanRbEvg 3 cm [4] . RtacCMruHsøkw rbs;vary³eBlBIr eTA bIéf¶enA
erogral;qañ M . søwkcas;Føak;enAExFñÚ ehIysøwkfµIcab;epþmI duHlUtlas;enAExmkra [4] .
[páa]: kenSampáamanRbEvg 16-18 cm [4] manEmkBI 2-4 EmknimYy²manpáa 6-8 flowers [4] tMerobCa
BIrCYr CamYypáaEdlKµanTg zitenARtg;kEnøgEdlEmkRtUv)anEbk rWdHu EbkExñg . RtbkpáaxageRkA RtUv
)anEckCa R)aMgftedayminmaneram EdlmanRbEvgEvgbMput 14 mm [4], nigtUcbMput 2-3 mm [4] .
RsTbpáamanBN’Rkhm RbEvg 3 cm [4] nigmanragdUckeNþóv . páamanekseQµal 30 [4] .
ecjpáaenAEx mkra [4] (mkra-FñÚ [1]) .
[Epø]: EpøenABIEx mina dl; emsa [4] (mkra-vick
äi ar [1]) EpømanragCas‘tu qøas;Kña BN’RkhmenAeBlx©I
nigetñatenAeBlcas; 2 x 1-1.5 cm [1] (1.5 cm [4]) . søabrbs;Epøbt;Carages<ó mansøabR)aM
nigsøabFMBIr 6-7 x 1.5 cm [1] (8-11 cm [4]) edaymansñamqñtÚ 3-5 . søabbI EdlxøImanRbEvgRbEhl
1 x 0.5 cm [1] nigmanlkçN³rYj .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 7]

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

lkçN³sac;eQI]: eQIxwmø nigeQIRsaymanlkçN³xusKña . eQIRsay (Sapwood) manBN’Rkhm
nigesþIg cMEnkeQIxwmø (Heartwood) manBN’RkhmetñateTACaRkhmexµA edaymanlkçN³relag
nigF¶n;Edlmandg;seIu t 0.66-0.93 g/cm³ . vaCab;)anyUr nigmanlkçN³Fn;ngw keNþó nigstVl¥ti .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4]

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

RtacCaRbePTEdlmanedImkMeNItenA]bTVbI \NÐcÚ in EdlEtgduHlUtlas;enAkñgú éRBCMruHsøkw dipterocarp
s¶Üt nigéRBcMruHEdllicTwktamrdUvEdlmanBBYk dipterocarps b¤RbePTepSg²eTot . vak_manduH
lUtlas;enAtMbn;éRBeRsags¶Üt nigéRBCMruHsøkw dipterocarp EdlmanRsl;swøkBIr (Pinus merkusii) duH .
[1] enARbeTskm<C
ú a vaduHlUtlas;enAtMbn;éRBminsUvmanKMrbmøb; edaymanBBYk dipterocarps enAéRB
eRsag b¤éRBricrilEdlmanRsl;swkø BIrduH nigeQIepSgeTotdUcCa Calophyllum spp., Payena elliptica,
Carallia lucida, Eugenia zeylanica, Dipterocarpus obtusifolius, Dipterocarpus tuberculatus, Anisoptera
spp., Shorea cochinchinensis, Shorea cf. hypochra, Parinarium annamense, Irvingia oliveri, Sindora

nig Melanorrhoea laccifera . vaKWCaRbePTlb;myY enAkñgú éRB
s¶ÜténRbeTskm<Cú a . manRbePTdUcCa Capparis, Randia tomentosa, Memecylon

cochinchinensis, Fragraea fragrans
dipterocarp

laevigatum, Memecylon edule, Buchanania, Intsia, Irvingia oliveri, Cratoxylon spp., Terminalia
mucronata, Pterocarpus pedatus, Dalbergia oliveri, Albizzia lebeck, Eugenia spp., Shorea

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

cochinchinensis, Ochrocarpus spp., Azadirachta indica, Parinarium annamense, and Gardenia spp

3

enAkñgú éRBeRsagricril vaduHlUtlas;CamYy

.

Xylia, Schleichera, Andina, Spondias, Ceiba, Vitex,

Hymenodyclion, Sterculia colorata, Milletia erythrocalyx, Strychnos, Schrebera, Holarrhena
antidysenteria

nigRbePTepSgeTotdUcCa

Cycas siamensis, Shorea obtusa, Careya, Arundinaria

falcata, Buchanania latifolia, Terminalia bialata, Terminalia tomentosa, Aporosa (Krung), Phoenix

nigsmasPaKéRBricrilmandUcCa Combretum quadrangulare, Cratoxylon, Zizyphus,
Cochlospermum, Streblus asper nig Oroxylum enAkñg
ú éRBeRsagesImvaduHlUtlas;CamYy Shorea
cochinchinensis nig Eugenia spp . vak_duHlUtlas;enAtMbn;éRBricril b¤valesµA savanna .
humilis

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 7]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

RtacKWEtgduHlUtlas;enAtMbn;TMnab nigmanenAtMbn;PñMEdlmankMBs;elIsBI 500 m tMbn;Edlman
Gakas FatumsU gu RtUBci EdlmanrdUvR)aMgBI 3-6Ex KWsmRsbsMrab;karduHlUtlas; .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 7, 8]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmanB½t’man b¤Tinñn½y .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

CaTUeTA vaduHenAelIdIxSac; rW ferrallitic enAtMbn;ERBk . enARbeTskm<úCa valUtlas;elIdI EdlmanxSac;
nigdIgaybMEbkCadM²u . dImanBN’seTACaRbepH ehIyRbePTdITaMgenHGacman BN’srag RbepHenA
épÞxagelI BN’elOgenACMerA 20 cm nigmanlkçN³rwgenACMerAeRCACagenH mansMeNImx<s; nigman
l,ay CatiEdkenAeRkamCMerA 50 cm nigmanlkçN³rwgxøaMg . silaemenAxageRkam CYnkalelc
eLIgenAépÞdI EdlmandUcCafµxSac; silicon nigkMrmandMbkU keNþo . [7].

ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 7]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

eQI]:eQImanlkçN³l¥RbesIrsMrab;snM g;reTH nig pÞH .

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4]
plitplminEmneQI]:C½rEdlmanBN’etñatcas;)anmkBIedIm nigRtUv)an eRbIR)as;dUc CaRbePTC½r eQI
TalTwkEdr . vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;eFICV acnøúHsMrab;bPM øW .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4]
[

epSg²]: minTan;manTinñn½y .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

:

4

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

cMNat;fñak;eQIRbePTelx 2 .

ÉksarBieRKaH [3]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]:RtacCaRbePTEdlduHlUtlas;enAtMbn;éRBCMruHsøkw dipterocarp EdlRslH ¬mancenøaH¦
ehIyelcTwktamrdUv edayduHlayCamYyRbePT dipterocarps epSg²eTot b¤duHsuT§EtÉk .
enARbeTskm<Cú a vaduHCamYyRbePT dipterocarps enAkñgú éRBeRsag b¤éRBEdlrukranrYc
EdlmanduHRsl;swkø BIr (Pinus merkusii) cMnYneRcIn b¤tic . vaCaRbePTlb;myY enAkñgú RbeTskm<Cú ati
enAéRB dipterocarp nig enAkñgú éRBBak;kNþaeRsagricril b:Eu nþkm_ anpgEdlenAtMbn;valesµApgEdr .
enAéRBeRsagesIm vaduHlay CamYy kekaH (Shorea cochinchinensis) nig Eugenia spp.
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 7]
karduHeLIgvijedayFmµCati]: " kUneeQItUc nigb:nu efñalRbePT Dipterocarpus GacFn;RTaMenAkñgú éRB
Edl mankMritmøbx; øaMgry³eBleRcInqñaM . enA 2qñaM karebIknUvkenSamsøwkeFIeV Gay RbePTeQI enHFn;
)aneLIy b:Eu nþenAeBlvalUtlas;l¥ (RbEhlkMBs; 120 m) kenSamsøkw GacRtUv)anebIk edIm,IbegánI
karlUtlas; . RbePTCaeRcInduHlUtlas;eLIgvij)anl¥enAkñúgéRBminTan;rukran rWéRBbzm .
[

[6] .

kardaMduH]: enAeBlkUneQIRtUv)andaMenATIval RbePTeQIpþl;mbø ;RtUv)aneRbIR)as;dUcCa GakasüasøwktUc
( Acacia auriculiformis) nig Paraserianthes falcataria"

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

[6].
[

karRKb;RKg]: minTan;manTinñn½y .

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

karbnþBUCedayFmµCati nigkarduHedayExñgmanlkçN³l¥ ehIykUneQIRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;kardaMduH .

ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 6]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVl¥ti ]: minTan;manTinñn½y .
[CMgW]: minTan;manTinñn½y .
[epSg²]: minTan;manTinñn½y .
[

F> karGPirkS

:

RbePTenHminTan;RtUv)ancat;fñak;edayeyagtamesovePARkhmrbs; IUCN (International Union for the
Conservation of Nature)
énbBa¢eI QµaHedImeQIEdlKMramkMEhgenAelIBiPBelak (='IUCN Red
Databook') enAeLIyeT . eTaHbICa sßanPaBrbs;vaRtUv)ancat;faGacCaRbePTEdlKYreGay ykcitþ
Tukdak; 'of least concern' (LR lc) eTaHmankarGHGagfa enAPaKxageCIgRbeTséf nig \NÐcÚ ni
manvtþmanrbs;RbePTenH k_eday .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

r)a:yelIBiPBelak]:
[RbPBkMeNIt]: evotNam km<úCa Lav éf nig ma:eLsIu .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 5]
karnaMclU ]: CakarBit RbePTminTan;RtUv)annaMykcUleTAdaMenAtMbn; epSgeRkABItMbn;EdlvaduHlUtlas;
CalkçkN³ FmµCatieLIy .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [8]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :

6

p> epSg²
[

kUnkat;]:

:

"Dipterocarpus intricatus x D. tuberculatus

Ratchasima (

RtUv)anRbmUl enAkñgú

Sakaerat, Nakhon

RbeTséf) vamanlkçN³EpømFüm .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

P>ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] Dipterocarpaceae in Thailand - Taxonomic and Biogeographical Analysis:
http://www.forest.go.th/Botany/main/Research/RP_thesis/taxonomy/Anisoptera.htm (Internet
source)

[2] Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[3] Department of Forestry and Wildlife, 1988: Cambodian Forestry Law No. 35, 25th June 1988.
Phnom Penh.

[4] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning Institute.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[5] ARCBC BISS Species Database: http://arcbc.org/cgi-bin/abiss.exe (Internet source)

7

[6] PROSEA, 2001: Plant Resources of South East Asia 18 - Plant producing exudates.

[7] Rollet, B., 1979: The Vegetation of Cambdia. (Draft Translation into English by K. Panzer).

[8] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Dipterocarpus obtusifolius Teijsm. ex Miq]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Dipterocarpus obtusifolius Teijsm. ex Miq]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg

³

Dipterocarpus obtusifolius Teijsm. ex Miq.]

x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

minTan;manTinñn½y .

K> sTisn½y

³

Dipterocarpus vestitus Wallich ex Dyer (1874)
Dipterocarpus punctulatus Pierre (1889) [1]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

keruing (Trade name) [1], keruing beludu, atoi (Malaysia) [1]
- in bo, in byu, in hmwe sok, kung (Myanmar) [1, 2] - (maiz)
s'a:d (Laos) [1] - yang-hiang, krat, ko satiang, hiang, sat, sa
baeng, ta baeng [1, 2] (Thailand) - d[aaf]u tr[af] beng
(Vietnam) [1]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

Et,g

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| snøwkTinñn½y

ÉksarBieRKaH : [4]

1

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

(daëm) thbaèng, thbaèng, ba:y sra:, thbaèng snaèng [1, 3]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae

lMdab; : Malvales
RKYsar : Dipterocarpaceae
ePT : Dipterocarpus Gaertner f.
RbePT : Dipterocarpus obtusifolius Teijsm.
ex Miq.

ÉksarBieRKaH: [1]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: edImeQICrM uHsøkw manTMhMmFümkMBs;dl; 30 m [1] (25-30 m [5], 10-15 m [3], -28 m [6])
. edImmanragCasILu aMg Rtg;[5] (EtmanTMrg;mni l¥ [1]) kMBs;dl;eTA 20 m [1] Ggát;p©it DBH KW 80 cm
[1] (50-80 cm [5]). kenSamsøk
w manBN’ébtg-R)ak; cMhr nig EbkEmksaxa . EmkeQIFrM agsMEb:t
bnþic nig RKbeTAedayeramEvg . BnøkmanragCaes<ó rMueTAedayeramBN’etñat nig CYnkalmin maneram
eT .
[sMbk]: sMbkxageRkAKeRKIm BN’RbepH RbepHetñat eTACaRbepHcas; mansñameRbHbeNþayeRCA .
sMbkxagkñúgmanBN’Rkhmetñat b¤Rkhm .
[søwk]: søk
w samBaØ qøas; ragdUceGlIb b¤st‘u mancugsgçagTal b¤mlU TMhM 15-30 x 10-18 cm [6] (14-22
cm x 10-16 cm [1] RbEvg 9-15 cm [5]) . EKmsøwkmaneram nigeFµjtUc² . épÞxagelIKaµ neram
erammanragdUc CapáayzitenAelIRTng;swkø enAeBlcas; épñxageRkammaneramEdlmanragCapáay .
épÞswøkmanséscMnYn BI 10-18 KU [6] (14-20 KU [1], 10-15 KU [5]) . TgsøwkmanRbEvg 2.5-4 cm [1, 6] (35 cm [5]) sMEb:t nigFM RbEvg 7-12 mm [6] xñaysøk
w maneram nigBN’sCIu m<Ú .
[páa]: kBa©úp
M áa RsYczitenAelIG½kS nigmanbNþúpM áaBI 5-6 [5] (3-7 [6]) EdlmanTgxøI . páamanRbEvg 3.5-5
cm [6] RbEvg 1.4 cm [6] RtbkpáaenApþúK
¿ añ CaragbMBg;maneram . páanimYy² manekseQµalcMnYn 30 [1]
. rdUvpáa KWeBjmYyqñaM BI Exmkra-FñÚ [2] ( mkra-]sPa [5]) .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Epø]: EpøTMeu nAkMLgú Exmkra-FñÚ [2] (emsa-sIha [5]) . EpømanragmUl nig relag manGgát;p©it 2.5-3 cm
[5] (2.5-3.5 cm [6]) manEpøFM RKbedayeram nig mansøab 2 FM nig 3 tUc . søabFMmanTMhM 15 cm x 3 cm
[1] (8-15 x 1.5-4 cm [2], 10-14 x 2.3 cm [6]) nigmanragekagcuHeRkamenAEKm . søab 3 tUcmanTMhM 15
mm x 10 mm [1] (1.5-2 x 1-1.5 cm [2] GactUcCag 1 cm [6]) .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 5, 6]

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

lkçN³eQI]:eQIRsay nigxømw manPaBxusKña edayeQIRsaymanBN’etñat nigeQIxwmø man BN’Rkhm
Rsal b¤Rkhmetñat edaymansésFMCag . eQImanlkçN³rwg nigF¶n; Edlmandg;seIu t 0.71-0.9
g/cm³ [1, 5] enAsMeNIm 15% . vagayduHxat; b:Eu nþB)
i akeRbIR)as; edayvagaykñgú karEbk nigminsUv
Cab;enAeBl dak;TIenAval. vaGacsMgYtenAeRkammøb; b¤dMblU RKb .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3, 5, 7]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| snøwkTinñn½y

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

3

:

Et,gmanlkçN³duHlUtlas;CaRkum enAtMbn; Indo-Burmese nig\NÐcÚ ni . CaTUeTA vaduHenAkñgú éRBCMruH
søwk dipterocarp s¶Üt éRBb¤sSI nigéRBricril EdlvaCaRbePTrukCç atilb; . bamboo forests and
degraded fores eTaHbICa vaduHCadM²
u enAtMbn;ricril . enARbeTséf vaeRcInduHenAtMbn; éRBCMruH
søwktamTMnabeqñrsmuRT man cMnYnCamFümTUTaMPaK|sanénéRBCMruHsøkw tMbn;eqñr nigtMbn;éRBRsl;
nigéRB dipterocarpenAPaKxageCIg . enARbeTsevotNam vaCaFatusxM an;énéRB diptercarp s¶Üt .
vaEtduHlayKñaCamYyBBYk Dipterocarpus intricatus, Dipterocarpus turbinatus nig Shorea obtusa .
enAry³kMBs;x<s; éntMbn; Lam Dong (Vietnam) vaduHlayKñaCamYy Pinus keysia nig Pinus merkusii
nigRbePTénGMbUr Fagaceae [5]. enARbeTskm<Cú a vaduHlUtlas;enATIval EdlmanBBYk dipterocarps
duHlUtlas; enAkñgú éRBRkas; b¤éRBrukran EdlduHeLIg vij ehIyman Pinus merkusii tic b¤eRcIn .
vaduHlayCamYyBBYk Calophyllum sp., Payena elliptica, Carallia lucida, Eugenia zeylanica,
Dipterocarpus intricatus, Anisoptera sp., Shorea cochinchinensis, Shorea cf. hypochra, Parinarium
annamense, Irvingia oliveri, Sindora cochinchinensis, Fragraea fragrans and Melanorrhoea laccifera

. vak_duHenAkñgú éRBRsl; elIxg< ;rabdIfµxSac;CamYy Pinus merkusii, Careya arborea, Melanorrhoea
laccifera, Dillenia, Randia tomentosa, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, Tristania birmanica, Symplocos,

. enAtMbn;éRBricril vaduHCa mYy
Fragraea, Calophyllum, Irvingia, Anneslea, Tristania birmanica nig Aporosa .
Engelhardtia serrata, Lithocarpus and Erythroxylon

Melanorrhea,

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7]

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

Et,gCaedImeQIéntMbn;TMnab submontane Edlmanry³kMBs;dl;eTA 1,200 m a.s.l. [3] (100-1,300 m
[5]). GakasFatums
U gu RtUBci EdlmanrdUvR)aMg 3-6 Ex [10] smRsbbMptu cMeBaHRbePTenH .
vaCarukCç atiRtUvkaBnøW enAeBlcas; Fn;nwgePøgI eqHéRB nigPaBraMgs¶tÜ .

ÉksarBieRKaH [3, 5, 6, 10]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

xSac; b¤dIGasIutmanBN’RbepHtic² EdlCYnkal licTwkenArdUvvsSaKWsmRsbbMptu cMeBaH RbePT
eQIenH .

ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 9]
:

eQI]: eQIh‘ubRtUv)aneRbI nigmaneQµaHBaNiCk¢ mµfa
Rsal karsags<an eRKOgsgðarwm nigkþabnÞH .
[

'keruing'

. vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab; sMng;Fn

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3, 5, 7]
Gnupl]: C½rrbs;edImRtUv)aneRbIR)as;eFICV acnøúH . eTaHbICa C½Edl)anBIsbM kmanplitPaBTab nig
gay kkrwg . edImtUcEdlkat;rYc Gacpþl;TwkRKb;RKansMrab;briePaKsMrab;GñkdMeNIrCabeNþaHGasnñ .
søwkRtUv )aneRbIsMrab;x©b;Gahar nigmUl)arI .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [3, 5, 7]
[

epSg²]: minTan;manTinñn½y .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

4

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

cMNat;fñak;eQIRbePTelx 2 .

ÉksarBieRKaH [4]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaFmµta D. obtusifolius duHlUtlas;enAtMbn;éRBCMruHsøkw dipterocarp s¶tÜ EdlmancenøaH
b¤lMhM éRBb¤sSI nigéRBricril EdlmanTMrg;CarukCç atilb; . eTaHbICa vaduHCadM²u enAtMbn;ricril .
enARbeTs éf vaeRcInduHenAtMbn; éRBCMruHsøkw tamTMnabeqñrsmuRT mancMnYnCamFüm TUTaMPaK|san
énéRBCMruHsøkw tMbn;eqñr nigtMbn;éRBRsl; nigéRB dipterocarp enAPaKxageCIg . enARbeTsevotNam
vaCaFatusxM an;én éRB diptercarp s¶tÜ . vaEtduHlayKñaCamYyBBYk Dipterocarpus intricatus,
Dipterocarpus turbinatus nig Shorea obtusa . enAry³kMBs;x<s; éntMbn; Lam Dong (Vietnam)
vaduHlayKñaCamYy Pinus keysia nig Pinus merkusii nigRbePTénGMbrU Fagaceae [5]. enARbeTskm<Cú a
vaduHlUtlas;enATIval EdlmanBBYk dipterocarpsduHlUtlas; enAkñgú éRBRkas; b¤éRBrukranEdl
duHeLIgvij ehIyman Pinus merkusii ticb¤eRcIn. vak_duHlUtlas;enAkñúgéRBRsl; elIx<g;rabéndI sila
xSac; Edlman Pinus merkusii . vak_manvtþmanenAkñgú tMbn;éRBricril (shrub savannas) pgEdr .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7]
karduHeLIgvijedayFmµCati]: kUneQI Dipterocarpus GacFn;enAkñgú éRB)an eRcInqñaMeRkam TIkEnøgman
møbx; øaMg. enA BIrqñaMdMbgU karebIBnøWTaMgRsugKWew FIeV GaykUneQImni GacFn;)aneT b:Eu nþbnÞab;BIkUneQIman
PaB rwgmaM (kMBs; 120 m )KMrbmøbG; acRtUv)anebIk edIm,IbegátI karduHlUtlas; . RbePTeQICa eRcInduH
lUtlas; eLIgvij)anl¥enAkñgú éRBcMbg ¬minTan;mankarrunran¦.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

[8].

kardaMduH]: kUneQIRtUv)andaMenATIval enaHedImeQIpþl;mbø ;RtUv)aneRbIR)as; dUcCaRbePT
auriculiformis and Paraserianthes falcataria" [8] .
[karRKb;RKg]: minTan;manTinñn½y .
[

Acacia

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

karduHedayFmµCati nig karkat;KWmanlkçN³l¥ . kUneQIk_RtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;kardaMduHpgEdr .

ÉksarBieRKaH [5, 8]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVl¥ti ]: minTan;manTinñn½y .
[CMgW]: minTan;manTinñny
½ .
[epSg²]: minTan;manTinñn½y .
[

F> karGPirkS

:

RbePTenHminTan;RtUv)ancat;fñak; eyagtam IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature)
World List of Threatened Trees (='IUCN Red Databook'). eTaHbI sßanPaBrbs;vaRtUv)anbgðajfaCa
RbePT EdlRtUvepþatCasMxan; (LR lc) .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
r)a:yelIBiPBelak]:
[RbPBkMeNIt]: evotNam km<C
ú a Lav éf ma:eLsIu \NÐa PUma
Yin, Tenasserim).
[

(Pegu, Hantawaddy, Tavoy, Thaung

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 5, 7]
[

karnaMclU ]: RbeTs PUma \NÐeÚ nsIu ma:eLsIu ¬bUeNGU¦ .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

ÉksarBieRKaH [2]

6

ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

p> epSg²

:

kUnkat; nigBUC ]: "kUnkat;FmµCatirvag D. obtusifolius nig D. costatus RtUv)ansegátenARbeTséf
nigPUma. enA\NÐcÚ ni TMrg;Kaµ neramRtUv)anEckdac;BIKañ nigRtUv)anehAfa var. subnudus Ryan & Kerr."
[1].
[

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Burkill, I.H., 1966. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. 2nd edition. Ministry
of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur. Vol. 1 (A-H) pp. 1-1240. Vol. 2 (I-Z) pp. 1241-2444.
[1]

Choo, K.T. & Sim, H.C., 1981. Malaysian timbers - keruing. Malaysian Forest Service Trade Leaflet
No 48. Malaysian Timber Industry Board, Kuala Lumpur. 18 pp.
[1]

Daljeet-Singh, K., 1974. Seed pests of some dipterocarps. Malaysian Forester 37: 24-36.
[1]

Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêtnam (various editors), 1960-. Muséum National d'Histoire

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| snøwkTinñn½y

Naturelle, Paris.

7

[1]

Fundter, J.M., 1982. Names for dipterocarp timbers and trees from Asia. Pudoc, Wageningen. 251 pp.
[1]

Smitinand, T., Santisuk, T. & Phengklai, C., 1980. The manual of Dipterocarpaceae of mainland
South-East Asia. Thai Forestry Bulletin 12: 1-110.
[1]

Symington, C.F., 1941. Foresters' manual of dipterocarps. Malayan Forest Records No 16. Forest
Department, Kuala Lumpur. pp. xliii + 244.
[1]

van Steenis, C.G.G.J. & de Wilde, W.J.J.O. (Editors), 1950-. Flora Malesiana. Kluwer Academic
Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London.
[1]

Wong, W.C. & Ong, C.L., 1986. Particleboard from oily keruing. Malaysian Forester 49: 65-71.
[1]

P>ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8. (CD-ROM).

[2] Dipterocarpaceae in Thailand - Taxonomic and Biogeographical Analysis:
http://www.forest.go.th/Botany/main/Research/RP_thesis/taxonomy/Dipterocarpus.htm (Internet
source)

[3] Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[5] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning Institute.

[6] Gardner,S.; Sidisunthorn, P.; Anusarnsunthorn, V., 2000: A Field Guide to Forest Trees of
Northern Thailand.

[7] ARCBC BISS Species Database: http://arcbc.org/cgi-bin/abiss.exe
(Internet source)

[8] PROSEA, 2001: Plant Resources of South East Asia 18 - Plant producing exudates.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[4] Department of Forestry and Wildlife, 1988: Cambodian Forestry Law No. 35, 25th June 1988.
Phnom Penh.

[9] Rollet, B., 1979: The Vegetation of Cambdia. (Draft Translation into English by K. Panzer).

8

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| snøwkTinñn½y
[10] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

9

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb.]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb.]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb.

³

minTan;manTinñn½y .

³

Dipterocarpus grandifolius Teym.

Dipterocarpus cordatus [1]
Dipterocarpus cordata Wall [4]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

phluang, tueng, kung, khuang, mai-tueng (Thailand) [1] mai-tueng (Myanmar) [1] - dau dong (Vietnam) [4]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

xøgú

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

ÉksarBieRKaH : [3]

1

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati ³

khlong [1], khlong kraham, khlong sa [2]

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae

lMdab; : Malvales
RKYsar : Dipterocarpaceae
ePT : Dipterocarpus Gaertner f.
RbePT : Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb.
ÉksarBieRKaH: [1]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]:CaRbePTeQIEdlCMruHsøwkmanTMhMmFüm b¤FM EdlmankMBs;eTAdl; 15-25 m [2, 5, 8] (-30
m duHelIdl
I ¥manCICati [4]) . edImRtg; CYnkalmanEPñk rWBk ragsIuLaMg nigmanGgát;p©itenAkMBs; DBH
KW 40-60 cm [4] . enAelIdImanCICatil¥TMrg;edImmanlkçN³l¥ . kenSamsøkw FM nigesþIgedaymanEmk
rmYl nigmaM BN’Rkhm nigmaneramenAelIEmkEdlmanBnøkBN’etñatRsedogTwkmasEdlmaneram .
[sMbk]:sMbkxageRkAmanBN’RbepHcas; mansñameRbHeRCAtambeNþay nigrbkecj .
[søwk]: søk
w samBaØ ragCaes<ór nigFM CaBiessenAelIBnøkeTIblUtlas; nigkUneQI 20-50 x 18-34 cm [4]
(12-70 x 10-50 cm [1], 30-45 x 12-35 cm [5]) ragdUcs‘ut b¤eGlIb edaymancugsøwkTal . Kl;søk
w
manragdUcebHdUg enACaysøkw manragCaeFµjrNatUc²cMeBaHsøkw cas; nigmanséscMnYn 9-16 KUr [4]
EdllyecjenAépÞswøkEpñkxageRkam edaytMerobenACit²Kña . TgsøwkFM ragsMEb:t nigmanRbEvg 57.5 cm [4] (3.5-12 cm [1])edaymanxñaysøk
w BN’paá QUkRsal RbEvg 7-10 cm [4] .
[páa]:kBa©úp
M aá manpáa 6-8 [4, 5] EdlKµanTg . páamanRbEvg 2.5-3 cm [4, 5] BN’sCIu MBU Edlmaneks
eQµal cMnYn 28-30 [5] . RsTab;páamanBN’sVay b¤RkhmsVay . rdUvpáaKW ExFñÚ [4] (kum³Ö -kkáda [1]).
[Epø]:EpøTMB
u EI x kBaØa dl; ]sPa [4] (mina-FñÚ [1]) . EpørwgmanragmUl dUcs‘tu RbEvg 2-3 cm [4] (Ggát;p©it 22.5 cm [1]) KµaneramnigCYnkalmaneramragdUcpáayedaymansésQr 5 enAEpñkxagelI . søabTaMg BIr
manTMhM9-15 x 2.5-4 cm [1] (RbEvg 9-16 cm [4], dl; 20 cm [5])mansés 3-5 [5](sés 3 [4])manRbEvg
3/4énsøab. søabbIeTotxøI ragsMEb:t TMhM 1.5-2 x 1.5 cm [1] nigmanragekaN cuHeRkam eTAEKm søwk .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 5, 8]

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

lkçN³eQI]: eQIRsay nigxømw manlkçN³xusKña edaymanBN’RbepH nigRkhmetñat . eQIxwmø man
lkçN³exµAenATIkEnøgval F¶n;Cagedaymandg;seIu t 0.9 g/cm³ . vaCab;)anyUr RbsinebIkarBarBIBnøéW f¶
nigePøóg [4] (eQIFn;nwgGakasFatumni l¥ [2] nig Fn;RTaMmFüm [6]) . vagayRsYleRbIR)as; b:Eu nþB)i akkñúg
karduHxat;eGayl¥ .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 6]

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

xøgú CaRbePTeQIenA Indo-Burmese nig\NÐcÚ ni EdlduHlUtlas;enAkñgú éRBCMruHsøwk dipterocarp s¶Üt
niglUt las;suT§ b¤layCamYy Dipterocarpus obtusifolius nig Dipterocarpus intricatus (vaBitNas;fa
xøgú GacduH enATIkEnøgepSg²eTot CagéRBcMruH savanna [9]. ) "enARbeTséfesÞIrEtTUrTaMgRbeTs
elIkElg ]bTIbV nigxagt,ÚgeCogxaglic EdlCaéRBCMruHsøkw dipterocarp én dipterocarp pine-oak" [1]
. vaCaRbePT Edl maneRcInbMptu enAextþ eQogém: edayduHlUtlas;enAkñúgtMbn;éRBricrilxøaMg
edaysar ePøgI eqH Edlman Rsl;swkø BIrduHlUtlas; . enARbeTskm<Cú a vaduHlUtlas;enAkñúgéRBcMruH
EdlCaRbePTlb;myY kñúgcMeNam RbePT Shorea obtusa nig Terminalia tomentosa .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

3

:

RbePTeQIenHduHlUtlas;BtI Mbn;TMnab eTA tMbn;PñM edaymanry³kMBs; 200-800 m a.s.l. [4] (800-1,000
m [2, 8]) . GakasFatums
U gu RtUBci EdlmanrdUvR)aMg 3-6 Ex [11] smRsbbMptu . vaCaRbePTEdl
RtUvkarBnøWenAeBlcas; nigFn;ngw ePøgI eqHéRB RBmTaMgPaBraMgs¶tÜ .

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 8]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
minTan;manTinñn½y.

:

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

xøgú duHlUtlas;enAelIRbePTdIxsu ²Kña b:Eu nþvaeRcInduHenAelIdIxSac; . enAelIdI EdlmanCICativaduH lUt
las; )anl¥ . vak_manduHenAelIdIRbePTGasIut ( acidic lateritic soils) .

ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 9]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;
[

:

eQI]:eQIRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;karsagsg; eFIFV mñw kþa TUk nigeRKOgsgðarwm .

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 6, 8]
Gnupl]:C½rRtUv)anTajykBIedImeQItamry³kardutePøgI niglabfñaM . C½rRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab; fñaM
buraN enAeBllayCamYy Feaula assafoetida Linn.nigeRbgdUgsMrab;Büa)aldMe)A . søwkcas;rbs;
edImeQItUc² RtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;eFIVCadMblU pÞH . søwkrbs;vaKWmingayeqH nigmingayrg karbMpaø j
rbs;stVl¥ti ehIyGaceRbIR)as;)andl;ry³eBl bI qñaM .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 6, 8]
epSg²]: minTan;manTinñn½y .

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

eQIelx 2 .

ÉksarBieRKaH [3]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]:xøgú duHlUtlas;enAkñgú éRBCMruHsøkw dipterocarp suT§ rwcrM uHRbePTCamYy Dipterocarpus
obtusifolius and Dipterocarpus intricatus ("vaBitNas;faxøúgGacduHenATIkEnøgepSg²eTot CagéRBcMruH
savanna [9] ) "enARbeTséfesÞrI EtTUrTaMgRbeTs elIkElg ]bTIb
V nigxagt,ÚgeCogxaglic EdlCaéRB
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

4

CMruHsøkw dipterocarp én dipterocarp pine-oak" [1] . vaCaRbePTEdlmaneRcInbMptu enAextþ eQogém:
eday duHlUtlas;enAkñúgtMbn;éRBricrilxøaMg edaysarePøgI eqHEdlmanRsl;swkø BIrduHlUtlas; .
enARbeTs km<Cú a vaduHlUtlas;enAkñgú éRBcMruH EdlCaRbePTlb;myY kñúgcMeNamRbePT Shorea
obtusa nig Terminalia tomentosa .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9]
karduHeLIgvijedayFmµCati]: "kUneQI nigedImb:unefñal mankarFn;RTaMngw møbx; øaMg . enABIrqñaMdMbgU kar
ebIk enSamsøkw TaMgmUlminKYreFIeV LIy b:Eu nþbnÞab;BIknU eQIrwgmaMl¥ (kMBs; 120 m) kenSamsøwkRtUv)an
ebIkedIm,I begánI karlUtlas; . RbePTeQIPaKeRcInduHlUtlas;)anl¥enAkñúgéRBminTan;mankarrukran .
[

[7].

kardaMduH]: "enAeBlkUneQIRtUv)andaMenATIval edImeQIpþl;mbø ;RtUv)aneRbIR)as; dUcCa
auriculiformis nig Paraserianthes falcataria" [7] .
[karRKb;RKg]:minTan;manTinn
ñ y½ .
[

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

Acacia

:

karduHlUtlas;eLIgvijedayFmµCatiKWmanlkçN³l¥ . kUneQIk_RtUveRbIsMrab;kardaMduHpgEdr .

ÉksarBieRKaH [7]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar
Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

:

stVl¥ti ]:søwkrbs;RbePTenHmingayrgkarbMpøajBIstVl¥iteLIy .

ÉksarBieRKaH [8]
CMgW]: minTan;manTinñn½y .
[epSg²]: minTan;manTinñn½y .
[

F> karGPirkS

:

RbePTenHminTan;RtUv)ancat;fñak;enAkñúg IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature)
World List of Threatened Trees (='IUCN Red Databook') enAeLIyeT . eTaHbICa sßanPaB rbs;RbePT
enHesÞrI EtrgkarKMramkMEhg 'near threatened' (LR nt [1]) . vamanduHmYy² mindUcRbePT dipterocarps
epSgeTot eT dUcenHvamanvtþmanEtenAkñgú tMbn;rbs;vab:ueNÑaH . karvaytMélcMnYn énkarKMramkMEhg
enAkñgú RbeTs km<Cú a (dUc)anbgðajenAkñúg National Workshop on Tree Species Priorities organized by
DFW and CTSP in 2000) manedImeQIcMnYneRcInCag 10,000 edImRtUv)anKMram edaykarkab; nig 500
edImedaysarePøgI eqH.

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 10]

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
r)a:yelIBiPBelak]
[RbPBkMeNIt]: RbeTsevotNam RbeTskm<C
ú a RbeTsLav RbeTséf nigRbeTsPUma .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 6]
[

karnaMclU ]: RbeTs\NÐa (Manipur) RbeTsbg;køaeds (Chittagong)

p> epSg²

:

kUnkat;]: "eyagtam Pooma (2002) manTMrg;BIr énkarbegátI kUnkat; : Pooma et al. 3387 (BKF) søkw man
lkçN³Rsedog b:Eu nþEpømanTMhMmFüm nig Wongprasert 22 (BKF) søkw dUcKña b:uEnþmaneramenAelIRtbk
nig Tgsøwk dUc D. obtusifolius" [1] .
[

B> GMnanepSg²eTot
minTan;manTinñn½y .

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

6

P>ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] Dipterocarpaceae in Thailand - Taxonomic and Biogeographical Analysis:
http://www.forest.go.th/Botany/main/Research/RP_thesis/taxonomy/Dipterocarpus.htm (Internet
source)

[2] Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[3] Department of Forestry and Wildlife, 1988: Cambodian Forestry Law No. 35, 25th June 1988.
Phnom Penh.

[4] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning Institute.

[5] Gardner,S.; Sidisunthorn, P.; Anusarnsunthorn, V., 2000: A Field Guide to Forest Trees of
Northern Thailand.

[6] ARCBC BISS Species Database: http://arcbc.org/cgi-bin/abiss.exe (Internet source)

[7] PROSEA, 2001: Plant Resources of South East Asia 18 - Plant producing exudates.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[8] Kham, L., 2004: Medicinal Plants of Cambodia - Habitat, Chemical Constituents and
Ethnobotanical Uses.

7

[9] Rollet, B., 1979: The Vegetation of Cambdia. (Draft Translation into English by K. Panzer).

[10] FAO:
http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/005/AC648E/ac648e04.htm
(Internet source)

[11] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Dipterocarpus turbinatus C.F. Gaertn.]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Dipterocarpus turbinatus C.F. Gaertn.]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Dipterocarpus turbinatus C.F. Gaertn. ]

³

common gurjun tree, wood oil tree of Assam [8]

³

Dipterocarpus laevis Buch.-Ham.

Dipterocarpus jourdainii Pierre [1, 2]
Dipterocarpus andamanicus (King) P. K. Tewary & A. K.
Sarkar [8]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

garjan, gurjan (Trade name) [8] - yang daeng, yang bai
lueam, yang nu, yang khaeng (Thailand) [1] - dau conquay,
dau la bong (Vietnam) [4] - kali garjan, telia garjan
(Bangladesh) [8] - gurjun kuroil sal, kherjong, kuroil sal,
shweta garjan, teli-gurjun (India) [8] - kan yin (Myanmar) [8]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

1

³

eQITaleRbg
ÉksarBieRKaH : [3]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati ³

chhe tiel dang [2], cheuteal preng [3]

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae

fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Malvales
RKYsar : Dipterocarpaceae
ePT : Dipterocarpus Gaertner f.
RbePT : Dipterocarpus turbinatus C.F.
Gaertn.

Gnu-RbePT :

Dipterocarpus turbinatus var.
andamanica King,
Dipterocarpus turbinatus
var. turbinatus

ÉksarBieRKaH: [1,8]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: eQITaleRbgCaRbePTeQIFM nigCMruHsøkw EdlGacmankMBs;dl;eTA 35-50 m [4, 6] (3045 m [2]) . edImEvg Rtg;RsLÚn ragsIuLaMg nigéRkEmkedayxøÜnÉg nigmankaréRkEmkeRcInCag 70%
énkMBs; srub . RbePTenHGacmanGgát;p©it DBH dl;eTA 170 cm [8] nigCYnkalrhUtdl; 460 cm [8]
(200 cm [4]). vagayRclMCamYy D. costatus b:uEnþvamankenSamsøwkRkas;Cag EmktUcmanxñay
nigsMbkesþgI . BnøkduHCakBa©úM edaymaneramBN’etñat .
[sMbk]:sMbkxageRkAmanBN’RbepH rwg KRKat mansés eRbHtambeNþay nigrbkCadM²
u . sMbkxag
kñúgmanBN’elOgetñat esþIglµm maneramenAeBlx©I nigeRkammkminmanerameT .
[søwk]: D. turbinatus manlkçN³xusBIRbePT
dipterocarps epSgeTot edaymansøwkrelag
EdlnwgmanBN’etñatrelagdUcsMN enAeBls¶Üt . søwksamBaØ qøas; (17-36) x 5.5 x 20 cm [8] (13-20 x
6-10 cm [4], 17-24 x 9-12 cm [5]) ragCaes<ó mUlrWeGlIb . séssøk
w GacemIleXIj edaymancMnnY 1424 KU [8] (12-17 KU [1], 14-18 KU [5]) nigKµaneramenAelIépÞTaMgsgçag . TgsøwkmanRbEvg 2.5-4.0 cm [8]
(3 cm [4], 2.5-3.5 cm [5]), gayRCuH (caducous = easily falling) xñaysøk
w manRbEvg 1.5-9 cm [8]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Gacdl;eTA 12 cm [8]) BN’RbepH nigmanlkçN³Rkas; . søwkEdlcas;RtYv)anRCuHenArdUvR)aMg
¬ExmIna¦ nigsøkw x©Icab;duHlUtlas;enArdUv rMehIy .
(

ÉksarBieRKaH [4]
páa]: kBa©úpM aá manpáa 3-5 [4] niglUtlas;BIekøóksøkw . páaTaMgmUlmanRbEvg 2.5-3.5 cm [5] (3.0-3.5 cm
[8]) enAExñgeRkamsøwk . Rtbkpáaxagkñúg 5 zitenACaragsIL
u aMgKµankMBUl EdlmanRbEvg 1 cm [4] .
RsTab;páaxageRkA 5 zitenACabnÞat; manBN’s sIuCm<Ú rWRkhm . páanimyY ²manekseQµal 30 nig
eksjIzitenACasnÞHRKbdUceramenAelIkMBUl . ecjpáaBI Ex mIna-emsa [8] (RbeTséf: kum³Ö -FñÚ [1]) .
[Epø]: "Epøcab;TeMu nAEx emsa dl;]saPaenARbeTsbg;køaeds nig ]sPa-mifunaenARbeTsPUma .
enAEx]sPa-mifuna Epøcab;epþmI RCuH enAeBlmanePøógFøak; . karecjEpøKWmanlkçN³ mineTogTat;
eyag tamtMbn; nigRKab;BCU Edll¥ EtekIteLIgenAkñgú qñaMEdlqøas;Kañ . (karecjEpøenARbeTséf :
kumÖ³-FñÚ [1] enAevotNam : karecjEpøenAEx emsa enAedImrdUvR)aMg [4]) . EpøCaRbePTEpøsܶt
manragCasñlÚ nigrelag TMhM 3 cm x 1.5 cm [4] (2.5-3 x 2 cm [1] Ggát;p©it 2-3 cm [8]).
RbePTeQIenHmanPaBxusEbøkBIRbePT Dipterocarpus spp. edayvaminmankMBUl nigKµaneramenAelIEpø
. søabFMTaMg 2 rbs;EpømanTMhM 10-15 x 2-3.5 cm [1] (9 x 2 cm [4], 11-18 x 2.5-4.0 cm [8])
mansésEvn 3 nigKµaneram EdlsésBIkgñú cMenamenaH manlkçN³xøCI agsésepSgeTot .
søabbIxIømanTMhM 0.6-0.8 x 0.5 cm [1] nigmanragCaExSekag cuHmkEKm søkw .
Epønmi Yy²manRKab;cnM nY mYy nigmansMbk EdlCab;nwgsMbk RKab;ya:grwgmaM .
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]

3

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

lkçN³eQI]: sac;eQImanBN’etñatRbepH rWetñatlaysVay rwgedaymandg;seIu t 0.75-0.85 g/cm³ [4].
vamanlkçN³emkarnicrwgl¥ b:Eu nþminFn;xøaMgeT cMeBaHlkçx½NÐxageRkA . dUcenH
sarFatukarBarRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;karBarenAeBleRbIR)as;eQIenAlkçxN
½ ÐxageRkA nigRbsineQIRtUv)an
eRbIR)as;edaymankarb:HedaypÞal;ngw dI . karsMgYtrbs;vamanlkçN³yWt nigrwglµm b:Eu nþgaysMgYt
edayeRbIL . eQIxwmø manlkçN³FnlµmnwgpSit b:Eu nþgayrgkarbMpøajBIkeNþó nigstVlt¥i RbePTecaH
eQIepSgeTot eRkABIenHRbePTeQIQrKWmankarFnmFümpgEdr . edIm,IkarBarkarbMpaø j eQIRtUv)an
[

eFIRV bRBwtþikmµedayviFsI aRsþeRbInUvsMBaF dUcCa dMeNIrkaeFIeV GayGs;ekasika (Lowry's empty cell
process) nig karbMeBjekasika (Bethel's full cell process)" [8] . tMélénkMedAKW 5,300 Kcal/kg
(eQIRsay) [8] nig 5,050 Kcal/kg (eQIxwm
ø ) [8].

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 6, 8]

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

kMritRbEhl : 27°N eTA 5°S [8] (10°N to 25°N [7]) . Dipterocarpus turbinatus duHlUtlas;ray)a:y
b:Eu nþ vaCaRbePTEdlBRgay enARbeTs\NÐa (West Bengal, Assam, Andaman Islands) bg;køaeds nig
BIPUma dl;\NÐcÚ ni . enARbeTséf vaduHray)a:yenAPaKxaglic nig kMrmanduHenAtMbn;ekaH . CaTUeTA
vaduHenA tMbn;RClgPñM EdlmaéRBeRsagesIm ¬dIRbepH¦ nigéRBBak;kNþaleRsag éRB dipterocarpesIm nig éRBel,aH enAtMbn;éRBbzm nigéRBrgkarrukran . enAéRBel,aH dipterocarp
vaduHlUtlas;CabNþMCú aRbePT suT§ nigCYnkallayCamYy Irvingia malayana, Scaphium lychnophora
nig Parinari annamense. vaEtgEtduHlayKñaCamYy
D.
costatus,
ebIeTaHCavakMrmanenAtMbn;Edlmanry³kMBs;Tabk_eday .

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10]
:

edImeQIRbePTenHKWduHenAkñgú RbePTéRBEdlmanry³kMBs;BI TabeTAmFüm eRkam 700 m a.s.l [4]
b:Eu nþvaeRcInmanenAry³kMBs; 200-400 m [4] m a.s.l. (100-1,100 m [1], 10-300 m [8]) .
vaduHlUtlas;enA tMbn;RtUBci esIm (RtUBci esIm nigs¶Üt (Aw) [7]) edaymankMBs;TwkePøógCamFüm 2,0004,000 mm/qñaM [8] (kMBs;TwkePøógx<sb
; Mput: 2,500-3,500 mm/qñaM [7],TabbMput: 1,500-5,100 mm/qñaM [7]) .
kMritsMenImRbEhl 100% [8]. vaTamTanUvkMriGakasFatu EdlmanePøógeRcInCag 130 éf¶ [8] nig
rbbePøógenArdUvekþA 0-4éf¶ [8] . eTaHCa rdUvR)aMgmanEt 0-4 Ex [8] k_vaGacFn)anEdr . D. turbinatus
GacsMrbry³eBlrsµsI eM yaK Edlmanry³eBlticCag 12 em:ag [7] (eBléf¶xIø) . sItuNðPaBTabbMput
24-32°C [7] (sItuNðPaBmFüm RbcaMqañ M 20-24°C [8]) sItuNðPaBx<sb
; Mput 40°C [7] . vasmRsbnwgtMbn;
EdlmansItuNðPaBTabbMput enAExEdlRtCak;bMput 6-18°C [8] nig sItuNðPaBmFümx<s;bpM tu 28-45°C

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

4

enAExEdlekþAbMput . Tinñn½yGakaFatubgðajfa D. turbinatus minsmRsbkñgú karduH lUtlas;
enAtMbn; EdlmankMrit sItuNðPaB eRkam 10°C" [8] . vagaybMpaø jedaysarePøgI eqHéRB nigeQIbu:n
efal EdlRtUv)anbMpøajedayePøgI KWmni GacduHlUtlas;eLIgvij)aneT . RbePTenHmankarFn;ngw
xül; enAtMbn;skIu Únø RtUBic dUcCaenARbeTs bg;køaeds Andamans (\NÐa) nigPUma [8] . D. turbinatus
Fnnwgmøb; enAeBleBjv½y nigRtUvkarBnøWenA eBlcas; .
[8]

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 6, 7, 8]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinyñ½ . .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

GacduHlUtlas;enAtMbn;dImanlkçN³xus²Kña eTaHbIdImanl,aytick_eday (cambisols)
dIxSac;lay\dæ EdlmaneRcaHTwk)anl¥ KWCaRbePTdIsmRsb . vakMrduHlUtlas;enAelIdIxSac; Edlman
BN’Rkhm rWelOg (alfisols nig ultisols) nig dIRbepH EdlmankMritGasIutTab edayman pH of 4.8-5.8
[8] b:Eu nþdIEdlNWt (pH=7) KWmanlkçN³smRsbpgEdr . D. turbinatus duHlUtlas;)anelIenA tMbn;
RClgPñrM abesµI enAtMbn; EdlmanTwkelc nigkUnPñM EdlenAPaKxageCIg nigt,Úg . vaduHlUtlas;enA elI
dI laterized b:Eu nþminFnnwgRbePTdI calcareous eT . lkçN³dIepSgeTot CMerAdI (>150 cm) CMerAdIsuT§Ca
mFüm (50-150 cm) kMritCICatimFüm rWTab kMritGMbilTab (<4 dS/m) dIeRcaHTwk)anl¥ kMriteRCobTwk
Tab (saturated >50% of year) [7] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

D. turbinatus

5

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 7, 8]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: eyageTAtamr)a:yd_eRcIn nigPaBsMbUrrbs;va RbePTeQIenH)ankøayCa eQIh‘ubya:gsMxan;enA
kñúg]bTIbV \NÐa . vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;sMrab;eKalbMNgCaeRcIn nigRtUv)annaMecjpgEdr . RbeTsCa
eRcIIn enAtMbn;GasIu naMecjRbePTeQIenHenAkMriteRcInKYrsm dUcCaRbeTsPUma nigvaRtUv)annaMenAkan;
RbeTs \NÐeÚ nsIu nigéf . eQIRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;sMng;FnF¶n; dUcCa ka)a:l; TUk nigs<an . vaRtUv
)an eRbIR)as; sMrab;sagsg;pÚvø rfePøgI nigbegáalsMrab;bBa©ÚnsarpgEdr . D. turbinatus GacRtUv)an
[

eRbIR)as;srM ab;CnM sY European oak nigeFICV akMral . vaRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;karplitRkdas eTaHbIB)i akkñgú
karCaedaysaEtman C½reRcInk_eday . vaCaeQIfamBld_l¥ (eQIRsay 5,300 Kcal/kg nig eQIxwøm
5,050 Kcal/kg)" [8] . kareRbIR)as;epSg²eTotmandUcCa eQIml
U begÁalRbGb;sbM uRt ssr eQImlU
eQIGar sMNg;FunF¶n; Fñmw sMNg;FnRsal CBa¢aMg rbg TVa sMNg;visVkmµ kargarkñgú Twk RbGb; Fug
]bkrN_]sSah_kmµ nigeRbIR)as; kñúgpÞH dgsMrab;kan; Rcas; eRKOgsgðarwm vIna tYyanynþ
sMPar³plitBIeQI kþa nigFüÚg .

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 6, 8]
Gnupl]: D. turbinatus KWCaRbPBén eRbgBaNiCk¢ mµ (commercial oleoresin) EdlRtUv)ansÁal;fa
'kangin oil' enARbeTsPUma nig 'garjan oil' enARbeTsbg;køaeds . eRbgeQIKRW sedognwgeQITalTwk
(Dipterocarpus alatus) b:Eu nþKuNPaBx<sC
; ageQITal . C½rmanlkçN³rwg bnÞab;BIkarRbmUl nigRtUv)an
eRbIsMrab;eFICV acnøúH . eRbgd_sMxan;enHmanpÞkú nUvsarFatu 2 sMxan;KW alpha- nig beta-gurjunene . C½rKW
enA bnSl;Tuk bnÞab;BIkarxYgykeRbgEdlmanpÞúkGasIut gurjunic . C½r oleo KWmaneRKOgpSM Edlman
sar³ sMxan;énTwkfñaM EdlsresrelIfµ (lithographic ink) nigkarBarkarBukpuuyrbs;Edk . vak_RtUv)an
eRbIR)as; sMrab;karBarb¤sSI nigGaceRbICafña)M aneRcInRbePT dUcCa Büal)aldMe)ArlYy ERsg
nigCMgWEs,kepSg² eTot . vaGacCYyeGayFøak;esøs nigCMrujeGay beBa©jTwkenam .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 6, 8]
epSg²]: enAkñgú EdnFmµCati D. turbinatus RtUv)andaMduHCaRbePT naMcUl (exotic species) edIm,IbegánI kar
GPirkSéneGkULsÚ uIFmµCati . enAbg;køaeds vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;kardaMduHéRBeQIeLIgvij .
enARbeTsPUma nigbg;køaeds vaRtUv)andaMduHya:geCaKC½y enAkñgú RbB½nk§ sirukmµ dUcCa taungya .

ÉksarBieRKaH [8]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa
cMNat;fñak;eQIelx 2.

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| snøwkTinñn½y

[

6

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaTUeTAvaduHenAtMbn;RClgPñM EdlmaéRBeRsagesIm ¬dIRbepH¦ nigéRBBak;kNþal
eRsag éRB dipterocarp- esIm nigéRBel,aH enAtMbn;éRBbzm nigéRBrgkarrukran . enAéRBel,aH
dipterocarp vaduHlUtlas;CabNþMC
ú aRbePTsuT§ nigCYnkallayCamYy Irvingia malayana, Scaphium
lychnophora nig Parinari annamense. vaEtgEtduHlayKñaCamYy
D. costatus,ebIeTaHCavakMr
manenAtMbn;Edlmanry³kMBs;Tabk_eday . D. turbinatus CaRbePTFnnwgmøb; enAeBlenAtUc b:Eu nþRtUv
karmøb;enAeBlmanGayukan;EteRcIn . vaGaceFIV karéRkEmkedayxøÜnÉg b:Eu nþminduHExñgeLIgvijeT .
eQITaleRbg RtUv)andaMCacMkar enAkñgú RbeTsbg;køa eds PUma nig Karnataka (\NÐa) [8] .
[karduHeLIgvijedayFmµCati]: kUneeQItUc nigb:n
u efñalRbePT Dipterocarpus GacFn;RTaMenAkñgú éRBEdl
mankMritmøbx; øaMgry³eBleRcInqñaM . enA 2qñaM karebIknUvkenSamsøwkeFIeV GayRbePTeQIenHFn;)aneLIy
b:Eu nþenAeBlvalUtlas;l¥ (RbEhlkMBs; 120 m) kenSamsøwkGacRtUv)anebIk edIm,IbegánI karlUtlas;
. RbePTCaeRcInduHlUtlas;eLIgvij)anl¥enAkñúgéRBminTan;rukran rWéRBbzm . D. turbinatus
GacduHeLIgvijedayFmµCati dMNuHRKab;BUC enAkñgú dIesIm rI manCIkbM usþ× . enAkñgú éRB dMNuHRtUv)an cab;
epþIm BI 3-4 éf¶ [8] bnÞab;BIEpøRCuH nigbBa©b;enAkñúgry³eBl 3 s)þah_ . enAkñgú RbB½n§ shelterwood
edImeQIpþl;BUCxøHRtUv)anTukeGayBRgayRKab; . karsMGatépÞdIGacCYydl;RbePTkUneQItUc² dIRtUv
)anRkal edayrukçCatiEdl )ankat;rYc . enAbg;køaeds kenSamsøwkEpñkkNþalRtUv)anrkSa rhUtdl;
kUneQIRtUv)anduHlUtlas; eRkay mkkarkab;ebIkkenSamsøwk EdledIm,IbegánI karlUtlas;RtUv )aneFIV
eLIg .
[kardaMduH]:eRkABIkarduHeLIgvijedayFmµCati
kardaMduHRtUv)aneFIVeLIgtamry³kardaMedaypÞal; nig
daMkúgñ fñal . kardMaedaypÞal;CaviFIsaRsþFmµtakñúgkardaMeQITaleRbg nigRtUv)aneRbIenAtMbn; Edl
maneQI RbePTenHduH . kardaMRtUv)aneFIeV LIgenATIval EdlmanedImeQIpþl;mbø ;myY cMnnY dUcCa Acacia
auriculiformis nig Paraserianthes falcataria . enARbeTsbg;køaeds bnÞab;BIkarkab;sMGatTaMgelIdI nig
kñúgdI edImeQIpþl;RKab;RtUv)anTuk . tMbn;RtUv)andut . RKab;RtUv)andaMenAkñgú reNþA 2.5 cm Edlman
cenøaH 1 x 1 m RKbedaydI nigsøabEdlRtUv)ansgát;ya:gENn . enAeBlePøógesµAduHya:grh½s
nigkarsMGat esµARtUv)aneFIV kardkedayédRtUv)aneFIeV LIg . karsMGatesµA (ya:gehacNas; 3 dgkñúg
ry³eBl 3 qñaM) karkarBaePøgI nigkarkat;BBYkvlø×RtUveFICV aRbcaMkgñú ry³eBl 3-4 qñaM rhUtdl; edImeQI
rwgmaM nigRbePTeQI pþl;møbR; tUv)andkhUt . enARbeTsPUma nigbg;køaeds eQITaleRbgdaMduH)an

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

7

:

ya:geCaKC½enAkñúgRbB½n§ ksirukçkmµ edayeRbIvIFIsaRsþdaMedaypÞal; vaRtUv)andaMduHCaRbePT eQIpþl;
eQIh‘ub nigdaMenAcenøaHRbePT dMNaMksikmµ . RKab;RtUv)andaMCaCYrragral; 30 cm nigCYrnimyY ²man
RbEvgRbEhl 2 m BIKañ nigvaman cenøaHsMrab;daMdMNaMdUcCa Tephrosia candida rW Cajanas cajan . kUn
eQIGacmankMBs;dl; 1.8 m bnÞab;BI ry³eBl 4 qñaM enAeBlBYkvaduH)anl¥ .
[karRKb;RKg]: bnÞab;BIry³eBl 5 qñaM edImeQIRtUv)ankab;rMlHeGayenAsl;cenøaH 1.2 x 1.2 m nigkar
kab; edayeRCIserIsRtUv)aneFIbV nÞab;BIry³eBl 10 qñaM . cMkarEdlmanGayu 10 qñaM Gacplit)an nUv
edImeQI mankMBs;CamFüm 11.9 m nig Ggát;pit© DBH 10.4 cm enAGayu 45-60 qñaMénxYbrgVilCMu kar
ekIneLIgmFüm RtUv)ankt;RtaenARbeTsbg;køaeds KW 10-12 m³/ha . Haque nig Osman (1993)
)anraykarN_facMkar daMRbePTeQITaleRbgsuT§GacTTYl)ankMritlUtlas;x<s; ebIeRbobeFobnwg
cMkarcMruH edayeRbIR)as; ém:sak;CaRbePTlay .

ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10]

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

karRbmUl nigsþúkTukRKab;BCU ]: edImeQIEdleBjv½y mankenSamsøwkl¥ Gacpþl;RKab;)ancMnnY 5-7 kg
. EpøEdlTMu RtUv)anRbmUlBIedImeQIem ehIyEpønmi Yy² manRKab;EtmYyKt; nigEpøRtUv)anyk eTAbNþHú
dUcCa RKab;Edr enAeBleFIRV bRBwtþikmµRKab; . RKab;CaRbePT recalcitrant manry³eBlduHxøI
dUcenHBYkvaKYrEtRtUv )anTukenAkñgú møb; nigbNþHú enAkñúgry³eBlmYys)aþh_ . GRtadMnuHKW 82% [8]
edaymankMrit rs;bnÞab; BIkardaM 50% [8] . EpømYyKILÚRkam (RbEhl 130-154 Epø [8]) Gacpþlþ ;knU eQI
RbEhl 77 edIm [8]..

ÉksarBieRKaH [8, 9]
karbnþBUCedayRKab;]: kUneQIGacRtUv)anbNþHú enAkñgú fñal edayeRbIR)as;fñalEdlmanmøbR; Kb eday
fg; pøas;sÞci . RKab;RtUv)ansabkñúgry³eBl 2-3 éf¶eRkayBIkarRbmUlRKab; nigRKbedaydI nigTuk
søabeGay lyecjmk . kareRsacTwk nigsMGatesµAmansar³sMxan;Nas; nigkarkat;bnßymøb; edIm,I
eGayedImduH )anl¥ RtUv)aneFIeV LIg . kUneQIGacmankMBs; 50 cm enAExmifuna (RbEhl 12-13 Ex).
RKab;ngw beBa©j nUvrWs EdlrwgmaMenAeRkamlkçxN
½ ÐfñalFmµCati . eyagtamkar duHlUtlas; ya:g
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| snøwkTinñn½y

[

8

elOgrbs;rWs (RbEhl 20 cm ry³eBl 2 Ex) kUneQIRtUv)anbNþHú enAkñgú fg;p; aø s;sÞic bnÞab;mkRtUv)an
ykeTAdaM .
[karbnþBUCedaysrIragÁlUtlas;]: D. turbinatus GacbnþBUCedaysrIragÁlUtlas;edaykarpSaM EdlRtUv
)an eFIeV LIgenAkMLgú rdUvmUsug ¬mifuna-kkáda¦ . Emkrbs;edImeQIeBjv½y (Ggát;pit© 0.7-1.0 cm )
RtUv)anpSaM edIm,IbegánI karlUtlas;rbs;rWs EdlmanlaylamkeKa eRbg (oil-cake) nigdI (smamaRt
2:1:1 ) . vacMNayeBlRbEhl BIr ExsMrab;karduHrWs nigBnøk edayeRbIviFIsaRsþ 'Forkert' Edlman
kMrieCaKC½y RbEhl 25%" [8] .

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVl¥ti ]: minmanRbePTstVlt¥i NamYyRtUv)ankt;RtaeTsMrab;RbePTeQITaleRbg . RbePTsu‘trbs;
Lepidoptera GacecaHcUleTAkñúgRKab; nigEpø . cMeBaHedImeQIKm
W ankar FnnwgRbePTEdlecaH cUlsac;
eQInigkeNþó .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [8]
[

CMgW]: minmanRbePTCMgWRtUv)ankt;RtaenAeLIyeT .

ÉksarBieRKaH [8]
epSg²]: "kareFIkV Únø GacbNþaleGaybMpøajnUvRKab;mnu eBlvaTMu . eQITaleRbggaybMpøajedaysar
ePøgI edayEtvamanpÞúknUveRbgeRcIn nigRtUv)anbMpøajya:gF¶n;Fr¶ BIksikmµBencr edaysarkardut .
kalBIGtItvalERsRtUv)andutragral; 7-10 qñaM bc©úb,nñcMnnY énkardut)anekIneLIgragral; 2-3 qñaM" [8] .
Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

9

F> karGPirkS

:

RtUv)ancat;fñak;CaRbePTrgeRKaHfñak; (CR A1cd+2cd [1]) niggay)at;bg; (VU A1acd,
B2cd [1]) eyagtam IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) World List of
Threatened Trees . eTaHbI enARbeTséf vamanduHlUtlas;CadM²
u enAkñgú FmµCatik_eday .
enARbeTskm<Cú a kar)a:n;sµan;eTAelIkarKMramkMEhgeTAelIedImeQI (as defined on the National
D. turbinatus

KWmancMnYneRcInCag
10,000 edImRtUv)anKMramkEhgedaykarkab; nig eRcInCa 1,000 edImRtUv)anKMramkMEhgedayePøg
I .
Workshop on Tree Species Priorities organized by DFW and CTSP in 2000)

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 6, 11]

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
r)a:yelIBiPBelak]:
[RbPBkMeNIt]: bg;køaeds km<C
ú a Lav \NÐa (Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Assam, Meghalaya, West
Bengal, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura) PUma éf nigevotNam .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 6, 8]
[

karnMacUl]: \NÐeÚ nsIu .

ÉksarBieRKaH [4]

p> epSg²

:

karbgáat;BCU ]: "fµ²I enH kmµviFIEklMGreQI enAviTüasßanRsavRCavéRBeQIbg;køaeds (Bangladesh Forest
Research Institute) enA Chittagong )aneRCIserIsedImeQIRbEhl 150 edIm BITICrM kFmµCatienAkñúg
RbeTsbg;køaeds nigcMkarRbEhl 8 hictaénRKab;l¥Edl)ankøÚnrYc . eTaHCaya:gNak_eday kUneQI
Edl )anBIRKab;l¥¬viCm¢ an¦enaHminRtUv)anlk;eTAeGayGñkRKb;RKgéRBeQI nigdaMduHCaRTug RTayFM
enAeLIyeT.

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Anon, 1983. Bangladesh Standard Specification for General Purposes. Dhaka, Bangladesh:
Bangladesh Standard and Testing Institution.
[8]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| snøwkTinñn½y

[

10

Anon, 1985. Dipterocarps of South Asia: FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, bangkok,
Thailand.
[8]

Anon, 1988. Bangladesh Standard Code of Practice for Preservation of Timber. Dhaka, Bangladesh:
Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution.
[8]

Banik RL, 1980. Studies on sowing position of garjan seeds on their germination and seedling
behaviour. Bano Biggyan Patrika, 9(1/2):43-52; 6 ref.
[8]

Das DK, 1970. Anatomy of Dipterocarpus Species Timbers of East Pakistan. Bull. 2, Wood Anatomy
Series. Chittagong, Bangladesh: Forest Research Institute.
[8]

Das S, 1980. Dipterocarp forests of Bangladesh and their management. Bano Biggyan Patrika,
9(1/2):71-86; 7 ref.
[8]

Dochnal EF, 1987. Review of Provisional Yield Tables Set-up. Assistance to the Forestry Sector of
Bangladesh - Phase II. FAO Project BGD/85/085. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organizations of

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

United Nations.

11

[8]

Finnemore H, 1926. The Essential Oils. London, UK: Benn Limited.
[8]

Haque MA, Rahman AHMM, Choudhury JH, 1985. Effect of harvesting time and sowing interval of
garjan seeds on germination. Bano Biggyan Patrika, 14(1/2):30-35; 10 ref.
[8]

Haque SMS, Osman KT, 1993. Performance of gurjan (Dipterocarpus turbinatus) and teak (Tectona
grandis) in pure and mixed plantations at Kaptai, Bangladesh. Indian Forester, 119(9):738-743; 9 ref.
[8]

Khan MS, 1984. Dipterocarpaceae. Flora of Bangladesh, No. 25. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Bangladesh
National Herbarium.
[8]

Kirtikar KR, Basu BD, 1935. Indian Medicinal Plants. 2nd edition, Vol 1. Dehra Dun, India: Bishen
Singh Mohendra Pal Singh.
[8]

Latif MA, Dey BC, Das Gupta SR, 1978. Treatability of nineteen timber species of Bangladesh. Bano
Biggyan Patrika, 7(1/2):1-8; 5 ref.
[8]

Limye VD, 1939. Properties of woods grown in India. Dehra Dun, India: Forest Research Institute.
[8]

Luna RK, 1996. Plantation trees. Plantation trees., xii + 975 pp.; [refs at ends of sections].

Martindale, 1958. The Extra Pharmacopocia, Vol 2. London, UK: Pharmacuetical Press.
[8]

Rai SN, 1978. Pre-treatment of seeds of Albizia falcata, A. chinensis and A. richardiana.. Myforest,
14(4):241-245; 1 ref.
[8]

Rai SN, 1983. Notes on nursery and regeneration techniques of some species occurring in southern
tropical wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests of Karnataka (India). Indian Forester, 109(3):127136.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| snøwkTinñn½y

[8]

12

[8]

Rashid MH, Serajuddoula M, Banik RL, Matin A, 1986. Vegetative propagation of forest trees in
Bangladesh. Bulletin 1. Chittagong, Bangladesh: Silviculture Genetics Division, Bangladesh Forest
Research Institute.
[8]

Rashid MH, Serajuddoula M, 1984. Vegetative propagation of dhakijam and garjan by air-layering.
Bano Biggyan Patrika, 13(1/2):64-66; 5 ref.
[8]

Sattar MA, 1980. Kiln drying schedules for indigenous timbers of Bangladesh. Bulletin, Forest
Research Institute, Chittagong, Wood Seasoning, No. 4:ii + 11 pp.; 9 ref.
[8]

Sattar MA, 1981. Some physical properties of 116 Bangladeshi timbers. Bulletin, Forest Research
Institute, Bangladesh, Wood Seasoning, No. 7:15 pp.; 1 ref.
[8]

Sen Gupta JN, 1937. Seed weights, plant percents, etc. for forest plants in India. Indian Forest
Records, Silviculture, 2(5):175-221.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[8]

13

Tewary PK, Sarkar AK, 1987. Lectotypification of Dipterocarpus andamanicus (King) Tewary & Sarkar
comb. nov. & stat. nov. (Dipterocarpaceae). Indian Journal of Forestry, 10(1):63-64.
[8]

Thangam ES, 1982. Regeneration methods of Dipterocarpus species in India. Indian Forester,
108(10):637-647; 18 ref.
[8]

Joshi HB, 1980. Troup's The silviculture of Indian trees. Volume II. Dipterocarpaceae. Troup's The
silviculture of Indian trees. Volume II. Dipterocarpaceae., xxxv + 471 pp.; [148 pl. (4 col.)]; 43 pp. ref.
[8]

Yakub M, Bhattacharjee DK, Ali MO, 1972. Strength Properties of some Bangladesh Timber Species.
Bulletin 2. Chittagong, Bangladesh: Bangladesh Forest Research Institute.
[8]

P>ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] Dipterocarpaceae in Thailand - Taxonomic and Biogeographical Analysis:
http://www.forest.go.th/Botany/main/Research/RP_thesis/taxonomy/Anisoptera.htm (Internet
source)

[2] Dy Phon, 2000, Dictionary of Plants used in Cambodia

[3] Department of Forestry and Wildlife, 1988: Cambodian Forestry Law No. 35, 25th June 1988.
Phnom Penh.

[4] Nguyen et al., 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning Institute.

[5] Gardner,S.; Sidisunthorn, P.; Anusarnsunthorn, V., 2000: A Field Guide to Forest Trees of
Northern Thailand.

[7] ECOCROP: http://ecocrop.fao.org (Internet source)

[8] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[9] PROSEA, 2001: Plant Resources of South East Asia 18 - Plant producing exudates.

[10] Rollet, B., 1979: The Vegetation of Cambdia. (Draft Translation into English by K. Panzer).

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa| snøwkTinñn½y

[6] ARCBC BISS Species Database: http://arcbc.org/cgi-bin/abiss.exe (Internet source)

14

[11] FAO:
http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/005/AC648E/ac648e04.htm(Inter
net source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[12] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

15

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Durio zibethinus Murray.]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Durio zibethinus Murray.]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y
X> eQµaHepSg²

³

Durio zibethinus Murray.

³

durian [2], civet fruit, civet-cat tree, thurian [7]

³

Durio acuminatissima Merr. (1926)

³

durian (trade name) [7] - du-yin (Myanmar) [7] - dulian

ÉksarBieRKaH [5]

(Philipines) [7] - Durianbaum, Zibetbaum (Germany) [7] ambetan, duren, kadu, durian (Indonesia) [7] - thouri่n (Laos)
[7] - durian kampong, durian puteh (Malaysia) [7] - mduriani
(E-Africa) [7] - rian, thurian (Thailand) [7] - s[aaf]u ri[ee]ng,
sâù riêng (Vietnam) [7]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

Fuern
ÉksarBieRKaH : [1]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

1

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

thou reann [1], thu-réén [7]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Malavales
RKYsar : Bombacaceae

ePT : Durio
RbePT : Durio zibethinus
ÉksarBieRKaH: [4]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaedImeQIébtgCanic© EdlmanTMhMBmI Füm eTAFM nigmankMBs; 25-40 m [2] (-40 m
[5], -45 m [7])enAkñg
ú éRBRkas;tMbn;TMnab nigkMBs; 10-15 m [7] (10-20 m [3])enAkñgú cMkar
nigsYnc,arCMuvijpÞH . edImmanRBwg edaymanGgát;pit© DBH BI 50-120 cm .
[sMbk]: sMbkmanBN’etñatcas; nigrbkecjmineTogTat; .
[søwk] søwkmanragCaeGlIb rW es<ór RbEvg 10-15 cm [7] (10-17 cm [5]) TTwg 3-4 cm [7] (3-4.5(12.5) cm [5])
RsedogRkdas mancugRsYc . épÞxagelIrbs;skøw Kµaneram relag
épÞxageRkamRkas;RKbdNþb; edaysMbkBN’R)ak; rW mas . sréssøkw TIBIrmancMnnY RbEhl 15 KU
EdlzitenACargVg;CitCaysøkw rn§xül; zitenAxageRkam . TgsøwkmanRbEvg 1-1.5 cm .
[páa]: páaduHCakBa©m
úM Ul nigkenSampáasMEb:t . TgpáamanRbEvg 5-7 cm . RtbkpáamanragdUcfg;
sMEb:tenA Kl; edaymanbMBg;RbEvg 2 cm nigGgát;p©it 1.5 cm . RsTab;páamanBN’Bg;man; rW s
manRbEvg 5 cm nigTTwg 2 cm EdlCaEpñkd_FM . ekseQµalBN’s manRbEvg 4 cm srés
filament mancMnYn 12 nig anthers ragdUcCgÁg; . eksjImanragdUcsu‘t ragsþÜc RbEvg 4 cm nig
stigma BN’elOg . enARbeTséf FuernecjpáanenAExmina enAcugrdUvrga . enAkñg
ú GakasFatumUsug
karecjpáaGacmanenA rdUvR)aMgpgEdr . enAtMbn;EdlmansMenIm énRbeTsma:eLsIu nig\NÐeÚ nsIu
edImeQIGacecjpáadl;eTABIrdg kñúgmYyqñaM eday manry³eBlxus²KñaenAqñabM nþbnÞab; .
karsegátTaMgenH )anpþl;eyabl;fa karvivtþrbs;paá GacmanTMnak; TMngCamYynwgkar BnüaeBlnUvkar
lUtlas; .
[Epø]: EpømanTMhMxus²Kña CaTUeTAmanGgát;p©itBI 15-25 cm BN’ébtgeTAetñatcas; edaymanbnøa
Edlman RbEvg nigrUbragxus²Kña . RKab;manBN’etñat EdlRKbdNþbe; daysac; BN’s rW elOg Tn;
Rkas; nigman rsCatiEp¥m .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 5, 7]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

eQImanlkçN³eRKIm nigRsal b:uEnþFn; edaymaneQIxwmø BN’Rkhmcas; EdlmantMélfamBl 520
kJ/100 g .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 5]

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

RbEhl : 18°N eTA 18°S [4] . vaduHlUtlas;)anl¥ enAtMbn;Cti eGkVaT½r . edImduHEttMbn;RtUBki nig
Qb; lUtlas;enAkMLgú ExRtCak; . CaFmµCati vaduHlUtlas;enAkñúgéRBRkas;tMbnTMnab
b:Eu nþRtUv)andaMduHya:g eRcInenAkñgú cMkar nigsYnCitpÞH éntMbn;GasIueKñy_ .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3, 4, 7, 8]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

3

:

FuernduHlUtlas;enAry³kMBs;BI 0-900 m a.s.l [4] (300-800 m [7]) EtmanlkçN³xus²KñatamRbeTs
Edl)andaMduH dUcCa dl;eTA 300 m enARbeTséf 600 m enARbeTsRsIlgáa 700 m
enARbeTshVlI IBnI nig 800 m enARbeTsma:eLsIu . rbbTwkePøógsmRsb edaymanr)a:yl¥
b:Eu nþGacÉksNæan edayman kMrit TwkePøógmFümRbcaMqañ M 1,500-2,000 mm [7] (1,200-3,500 mm
[8], 2,000 - 4,000 mm [4]) nigrdUvR)aMgBI 2-3 Ex [8] (0 - 5 Ex [4]) . sItuNðPaBmFümRbcaMqañ K
M W 2527ºC [4] (22ºC [7]) kMrit sItuNðPaBmFümRbcaMqañ x
M <sb; Mput enAExekþAbMputKW 26-34ºC [4]
sItuNðPaBmFümTabbMputenAExRtCak; 21-30ºC [4] . kMritsItuNðPaBFmµta : 22-36 °C [2] .
sItuNðPaBdac;xat: > 15ºC [4] . FuernKWCarukCç atiRtUvkarmøne; nAeBlenAtUc (30-50% énkMritmøb;
rhUtdl;knU eQImankMBs; 1 m [7]) eRkaymkvaGacduHlUtlas;enAkñgú BnøéW f¶eBj)an .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 7, 8]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

tMbn;eqñrPMMñRkvaj (A) dIRkhm (c) TMnabelcTwkTenøemKgÁeRkam (E)
ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

dIKrY EtmanCICati eRCA nigesIm EtmindkTwk . vaynPaBdImanxSac;tictYc eTAl,aymFüm .
dImanvayn PaBF¶n;KrY eCosevog edIm,Ikat;bnßykar)at;bg; EdlbNþalmkBIkarrlYyrWs . dIman pH
BI 4.3-7.5 eday mankMritx<s;bpM tu 5.0-6.5 . vaminGacduHenAelIdI EdlmanCatiéRb)aneT .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 7, 8]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: eQIFeu rnmanlkçN³Fn; nigRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;CaeQIGar rW kþaCBa©agM sMNg;Fn;Rsal nigF¶n;
kþabitxageRkA Fug sMPar³eFIBV eI QI ]sSah_kmµ nigsMPar³eRbIR)as;kúgñ pÞH eRKOgsgðarwmmantMélefak
veneers
TUk tYyanþCMniH eQIemSARkdas; kþakMTiceQI nigeQIfamBl . eTaHbI
eQIRbePTmanlkçN³minsUvl¥sMrab;kareRbIR)as;CaeQIh‘ubk_eday .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 4, 7]
[Gnupl]: FuernRtUv)andaM sMrab;plitEpø EdlCaRbPBén carbohydrates nigsarFatu protein nig
vitamins B nig C . vasMbrU eTAedaysac; EdlGacbriePaK)an cMGn
i CabEnø eFIeV Gaykk rW
haleGays¶tÜ sMrab;kareRbIR)as;enAeBleRkay . vaRtUv)andak;bEnßmeTAelI nMu kaer:m
nigGaharepSgeTot . CnCati \NÐeÚ nsIpu a¥ b;sac;rbs;va edaylayCamYyGgár nigsár
edIm,IplitnUvmðbÚ EdlRtUv)anehAfa 'lamping' .
RKab;RtUv)anes¶ar rW lIg
nigRtUv)aneRbIR)as;CadMNab;pgEdr . sMbkrbs;EpøRtUv)ansMgYt nigeRbIR)as; sMrab;dutCaeQIfamBl
CaBiesssMrab;eq¥IRtI . Twkdm niglMGgmanCaRbPBd_sMxan;srM ab;XúMµ . lkçN³ rbs;TwkXµMú
minRtUv)ansÁal;eLIy . EpñkxøHrbs;edImeQIRtUv)aneRbIR)as;CafñaMbru aN : EpøGacCMnyY kMlaMgmnusS

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

4

nigstV . eyagtamCMenOd_manRbCaRbiyPaB karbriePaKFuernCamYy RsaRBmKña GacbNþaleGayQW
rWkG_ acsøab;pgEdr .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 5, 6, 7]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak;.
ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

lkçN³TUeTA]: FuernduHlUtlas;CaFmµCatienAkñúgéRBtMbn;TMnab b:Eu nþbc©úb,nñ vaRtUv)andaMduHenAkñgú cMkar
nig enAeRkaypÞHenAtMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_ . vaCaRbePT Edlmansar³sMxan;srM ab;RbB½n§ksirukkç mµenAGasIu
nigRtUv )aneRbIR)as;CaRbePTedImeQIlMGrpgEdr .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4]
[karRKb;RKg]: edImeQItUcRtUvkarmøb; 30-50% rhUtdl;Bk
Y vamankMBs; 1 m EdlCaeBlRtUvpþl;BnøW
eGay )aneBjlIg . edImeQIRtUv)andak;ClI amkstV nigeRsacTwkenAkMLgú rdUvlUtlas; nigeRsactic
tYcenArdUv rMehIy edIm,IeGayecjpáa enArdUvecjpáa nigrdUvekþA . enAkMLgú mYyqñaMdMbgU bnÞab;BIkardaM
edImeQIRtUv)an kat;tMrwm edaykat;ecjnUvBBYkvlø× nigBnøkmYycMnYn RBmTaMgkat;ecj nUvedImEdl
duHminRtg;l¥ . edImeQI ecjEpø)anl¥enAelIEmk EdlminduHtamTisedk cMEnkEmkEdl duHeLIgeTA
elIGaceFIVeGayedImeQImanTMhM FM nigkMBs;x<s; . karéRkEmkEdlduHeLIg edIm,IrkSanUvEmk
sMxan;EtmYyEdlenAkNþaledIm KWmansar³ sMxan;Nas; . kMritplitPaBTabrbs;cMkarFuern
KWbNþalmkBIkrM itdg;sueI tdaMduHTab nigkarTamTarry³ eBlyUredIm,IeBjv½y . kardaMenAcenøaH kakav
(cocoa) GacCYybegán
I nUvplitPaB tamry³lkçN³énRb B½nd§ aMduHdUcCakarpþl;møbC; aedIm .
vak_GacdaMCamYyRbePTdMNaMepSgeTotpgEdr dUcCamañs; langsat (Lansium domesticum) mgÄút
(Garcinia magnostana) nigsavma:v (Nephelium lappaceum) [2] . RbsinmanrdUvR)aMgyUr dUcenA
Chantaburi
EdlCaTIkEnøgsMrab;plitkmµFuernenARbeTséf enaHRbB½n§Fara saRsþman
sar³sMxan;Nas; [5] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

:

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 5, 7]
[karRbmUlpl]: edImeQIduHlUtlas;ya:gx<s; nigmankarBi)akkñg
ú karkMNt;nvU PaBcas; rWTrMu bs;Epø
ehIyCa FmµtaeKGaccaMrhUtdl;EpøRCuHmkelIdEI tmþg . enARbeTséf edImEdlmanEpøeRcIn
eBkGackat;bnßynUv kMlaMglUtlas;rbs;edIm nigkarebHEpøRtUv)aneFIeV LIg . karRbmUlpleday
eRCIserIsmansar³sMxan; nig GñkCMnajxagebHEpøGaceRbIR)as;lkçN³vinicyä½ CaeRcInkñúgkarkMNt;
EpøEdlcas; . edayKitBIcMnnY éf¶cab;BI eBlecjpáa BYkvak_GackMNt;edaylkçN³dUcCa BN’ PaByWt
nigrIklUtlas;rbs;bnøa kMritkøinrbs;Epø sMelgenAeBlykRmamédeTAGUsqøgkat;cenøaHrbs;bnøa
karERbRbYlrbs;TgEpø nigkarGENþtrbs;EpøenA kñgú Twk .
ÉksarBieRKaH [5]
[Tinñpl]: enAtMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_ Tin
ñ plKWmankMritTab nigmineTogTat; edaysarEtpáatic nigkarecj
Epømin RKb;RKan; . enARbeTséf bBaðaenHKWminsUvFn;F¶reT EtTinpñ lCamFümRtUv)anKNna BIsißti
enAtamtMbn; nigplitkmµenAqñaMbnþbnÞab; EteTaHya:gNak_edayvaenAEtmankMritTab EdlmanBI 3.1
eTA 8.3 t/ha kñúg mYyqñaM . cMkarEdll¥enAkñúgRbeTséf nig Perak EdlzitenAma:eLsIu
Gacplit)andl; 10-18 t/ha kñúgmYyqñaM EdlmanEpøRbEhl 50 kñúgmYyedIm nigTMgn; 1.5-4 kg
cMeBaHEpønimyY ² [5].

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

dMeNIrlMGg]: minP½stþú agNamYy Edlbgðajfa edImeQIRtUv)andMeNIrlMGg edaysarxül;eT nigva
RtUv )aneCOfastVRbecov ( Eoncyteris spelea) CaGñkeFIeV GaymandMeNIrlMGg enAeBlEdlvacUleTA
rkTwk dmpáa . XµMúRtUv)anrkeXIj enAelIpáa enAeBléf¶ EdledIrtYCaGñkeFIeV GaymandMeNIrlMGgpgEdr
. dMeNIrlMGgedayFmµCatiGacRtUv)aneFVeI LIgenAeBlyb;Etb:ueNÑaH páamankøinxøaMg nigrIkenAeBléf¶
nig RkBMeu nAema:g 5 l¶ac dl; 6 RBwk b:Eu nþdMeNIrlMGgcab;epþmI enAema:g 7 RBwk nigEpñkrbs;paá nwgRCuH
Cabnþ bnÞab; ehIymanEtsñlÚ páaeT EdlenAsl;enAema:g 11 RBwk [8] .
[karbnþBUC]: FuernRtUv)anbnþBC
U eday kardaMedayRKab;pÞal; (rW eRbIR)as;;edImsMrab;daM [4]) .
RKab;CaRbePT recalcitrant BYkva)at;bg;dMNuHenAkñgú ry³eBl 2 s)aþh_ . BYkvamankarFn;ngw PaB
raMgs¶tÜ EdlmancMnHu sMeNIm 41.5% RbsinebIst¶Ü mþgbnþci ² eTA sMeNIm 38.5% RbsinebIst¶Ü ya:g

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

6

rh½s . GMRb‘yÍ g:u man lkçN³Fn;ngw PaBs¶ÜtenAkMritsMeNIm 53.9% nigminGacrs;)anenAsMeNIm
40.1% . manRKab;cn
M nY BI 60-70 RKab;/kg . enA\NÐeÚ nsIu FuernRtUv)andaMedayRKab; eTaHbICamankar
GnuvtþviFIsaRsþ køÚnk_eday . karbnþBUC edaysrIragÁ RtUv)anGPivDÄn_enAkMLgú TsvtS 1920s .
viFsI aRsþ modified forked edaybgáat; Bnøk RtUv)aneFVeI LIg EdlBnøk)anBIEmk EdltUcRtUv)anbgáat;
CamYy edImEdlmanGayu 2 Ex . Exñgbgáat; ecjpáa nigEpømanGayuRbEhl 4 qñaM .
enAkñgú cMkarBaNiCk¢ mµ kareRCIserIsedaykarbgáat;enAkUneQI rW RbePTeQIéRB . Fuernecj
EpøenAeBlmanGayu 7-8 qñaM eRkaylkçxN
½ ÐcMkar . enAma:eLsIu nigsigðbrU I karbnþBUCedaysrIragÁ
eday etiolation KWTTYl)aneCaC½yKYreGaykt;sMKal; [7].

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

stVl¥ti ]: FuernRtUv)anvaRbhar edaystV dgávÚ sIuskøw nigxµtÚ EdlecaHEmk nigedIm .
RbePTstVlit¥ BIrKW Helicotylenchus spp. nig Radopholus spp.RtUv)anraykarN_pgEdr .
enAelIdIEdldk;Twk eFIeV GayrWs rlYy EdlbNþalmkBI Phytophthora palmivora nig Pythium
complectens EdlGacsMlab;edImeQI kñg
ú ry³eBlya:gxøIbpM tu bnÞab;BIecjeraKsBaØaelIkTI 1 .
[CMgW]: manCab;Tak;Tgnwg Pythium EdlRbePTpSit dUcCa Diplodia spp. nig Fusarium spp.
Corticium salminicolor eFIeV GaymanCMgW suICm<Ú (pink disease) , Phyllosticta durionis,
(Phytophthora
palmivora
[4])
nig
Homostegia
durionis
EdlbNþaleGaymansñamGuCelIskøw BN’exµA nigetñat . søwkk_rgkar bMpøajBI Colletotrichum
zibethinus nig C. durionis . kargab;Bnøk KWCab;Bak;Bn
½ n§ gw Diplodia spp. nig Phomopsis spp .
karGnuvtþkardaMduH RbePTEdlFn KWGacTb;Tl;nwgbBaðaCMgW . edImeQIenAtUc EdlFn;
RtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;karbgáat;pgEdr [7] .
[karkarBar]: edImRtUv)anTl; edIm,IkarBarkar)ak;Emk nigkarRCuHEpø edaysarxül;xaø g
M [8].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

7

:

F> karGPirkS

:

minTan;manTinñn½y.

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

FuernRtUv)andaMduHenAextþkMBt RkugRBHsIhnu nigextþkMBg;cam (Rsukemmut) .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
[

RbPBkMeNIt]: \NÐeÚ nsIu ma:eLsIu .
ÉksarBieRKaH [7]

karnaMclU ]: RbeTsGURsþalI km<Cú a dUmInIka \NÐa PUma )a:BUjÚKeI N hVlI IBnI sgðabUrI RsIlgáa éf
evotNam esSnsI)u a .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [7]

p> epSg²

:

sarFatu EdlmankñúgEpø]: sac;mancMnYn 20-35% énTMgn;Epø RKab;man 5-15% . sac;
nigRKab;sbM UreTA edaysarFatuciBa©wm carbohydrates, proteins xøaj; nigsarFatuEr: . sac; 100 g
pÞúknUv : Twk 67 g RbUetGIun 2.5 g xøaj; 2.5 g carbohydrates 28.3 g sarFatusrés 1.4 g epH 0.8 g
kal;süÚm 20 mg pUsrV 63 mg b:tU asüÚm 601 mg, thiamine 0.27 mg, riboflavine 0.29 mg, nig
vitamin C 57 mg . tMélfamBlKW 520 kJ/100 g .
ÉksarBieRKaH [5].
[Bakü]: eQµaHePT (genus name) KW)anmkBIBaküma:eL fa 'duri' (bnøa) sMedAeTAelIEpømanbnøa [7] .
[RbvtþénkardaMduH]:
FuernRtUv)annaMcUleTAkñúg Ceylon (bc©úb,nñRbeTs Sri Lanka)
edayCnCatibT:u uyháal; enAstvtSTI 16 nignaMcUleLIgvijCaeRcIndgEfmeTotpg .
vaRtUv)andaMenAshrdæGaemrik b:Eu nþdaMenAEtkñúg sYnrukçCatibe:u NÑaH . kUneQIdMbgU bMputRtUv)anepJIBIsYn
Kew Botanic Gardens RbeTsGg;eKøs eTAkan; St Aromen dUmn
I kI aenAkñgú qñaM 1884 [7] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

8

stVéRB]: enAkñgú éRB dMrI xøa rmas nigstVéRBdéTeTotRtUv)anTak;TajedaysarEtkøin rbs;FuernTMu nig
RbkYtRbECg deNþmI ykEpøEdlRCuH .
[

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Kostermans AJGH, 1958. The genus Durio Adans. (Bombacaceae). Reinwardtia 4: 47-150.
[4]

Burate Bamrungkarn, L., 1971. Durian plantation. Prae Pittaya Publishers, Bangkok (in
Thai). [5]

Corner, E.J.H., 1949. The durian theory of the origin of the modern tree. Annals of Botany
13(52): 367-414.
[5]

Hasan, B.M. & Yaacob, O., 1986. The growth and productivity of selected durian clones
under the plantation system at Serdang, Malaysia. Acta Horticulturae 175:55-58.
[5]

Kostermans, A.J.G.H., 1958. The genus Durio Adans.(Bombac.). Reinwardtia 4(3): 357-460.
[5]

Punsri, P., 1970. Observations on durian plantation. Puech Suan 6(4): 49-59 (in Thai).

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[5]

9

Punsri, P., 1972. Wild durian. Puech Suan 8(2): 17-22 (in Thai).
[5]

Soegeng-Reksodihardjo, W., 1962. The species of Durio with edible fruits. Economic Botany
16: 270-282.
[5]

Soepadmo, E. & Eow, B.K., 1976. The reproductive biology of Durio zibethinus Murr. The
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 29: 25-33.
[5]

Valmayor, R.V., Coronel, R.E. & Ramirez, D.A., 1965. Studies of floral biology, fruit set and
development in durian. The Philippine Agriculturists 48: 355-359.
[5]

Morton J. (1987) Fruits of warm climates; Durian.
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=511892
[8]

Verheij E.W.M. Coronel R.E. (1991) PROSEA - Plant Resources of South-East Asia; 2 Edible fruits and nuts. http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=369920
[8]

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] Sok, Sokunthet (RUA), 2006: Own observations
[2] Species Fact Sheets (Module 9), 1994: Forestry / Fuelwood Research and Development
Project. Growing Mulltipurpose Trees on Small Farms (2nd ed.). Bangkok, Thailand:
Winrock Interational. 320pp.
[3] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.
[4] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[6] Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2005 © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. (CDROM)
[7] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicSearch.asp
(Internet source)
[8] ECOPORT: http://ecoport.org/ep (Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[5] PROSEA, 1997: Handbook of Plant Resources of South-East Asia, Nos. 1-4, 5(1), 6-8.
(CD-ROM).

10

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. [1]

³

river red gum, red gum [1], Murray red gum, river gum [3],
red river gum [6], long beak eucalyptus [12]

K> sTisn½y

³

Eucalyptus longirostris F. Muell. ex Miq.,
Eucalyptus rostrata Schltdl., nom. illeg. [4] ,
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. var. brevirostris (F. Muell.)
Blakely [12].

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

bach dan trang [2], b[aj]ch d[af]n [us]c, bajch dafn usc, pré;ng
khchâl slök sâ [12] (Vietnam) - eucalyptus rouge (France) [3]
- eucalipto rojo (Spain) [4] - eucalipto (Portugal) [4] Rotgummibaum [4], Roter Eukalyptus [12] (Germany) pyilon-chantha (Myanmar) [12] - ekaliptus (Indonesia) [12] yukhalip (Thailand) [12]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

eRbgxül;skøw s

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

1

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

preng khchal slek sa [9]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Myrtales

RKYsar : Myrtaceae
ÉksarBieRKaH: [-]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaedImeQImanBN’ébtgCanic© EdlmanTMhMBtI UceTAmFüm kMBs; 20-45 m (-50m [3,
4, 12]) (-60 m [2]) edaymanGgát;p©it DBH BI 1-2 m CYnkalGacdl; 3 m . vaGacmanGayuBI 500
eTAdl; 1,000 qñaM . enAtMbn;éRB EdlRslH vaduHCaedImFMmaMu EdlGacRTg; kenSamsøwkd_FM .
enAkñgú cMkar vaman ragRsLÚn enAeBledImb:unefñal nigmankenSamsøwkesþIg . EmkenAx©I
manBN’Rkhm RsLÚn nigzitenA reyag . vamanlT§PaB éRkEmkedayxøÜnÉg CaBiessenArdUvekþA .
karduHrbs;BnøkekItmanenAeBl lkçxN
½ ÐGeM Naypl . rWsduHcak;ya:geRCA eTArkRbPBTwk .
kUneQItUc² GacmanRbePTrWs aerenchymatous EdlGaccab;ykGuksIuEsn)an .
[sMbk]: sMbkrelagBN’s RbepH ébtgcas; elOg rW sIuCm<Ú eTARkhm ehIyeRbHRCuHCadMeu rogral;qañ M
. sMbkeRKIm CYnkalmankMras;dl;eTA 1-2 m éntYedIm RbePT E. camaldulensis var.
camaldulensis . søk
w x©IzitenAqøas;Kña ragdUcs‘ut rWes<ó edayP¢ab;Tw AnwgTgd_tUcmYy .
[søwk]: søwkcas;manlkçN³samBaØ qøas; ragdUces<ó manBN’Rsal TMhM 8-30 cm x 0.7-2 (-3.5) cm
edaymankMBlU søwkBN’ ébtgcas; nigTgsøwkRbEvg 12-15 mm nigragsþÜc . enAEpñkkNþalman
srés BN’elOg . srésbeNþayzitenAzitenAlat edaybegátI CamMu 30-60° CamYysréskNþal .
Venules enAeKmsøk
w ragsþÜc nigelceLIgya:gc,as; .
[páa]: kBa©úp
M aá zitenACaG½kS edaymanpáaBI 4-8 (7-11) . BnøkpáamanragdUcs‘ut rWekan . páamanBN’s
nig TMhMmFüm edaymanTgsøwktUc . ry³eBlénkarecjpáaGaRs½yeTAtamtMbn; dUcCaenARbeTséf
karecj páa kBaØa-vickäi ar .
[Epø]: EpøragmUlRTEvg rW dUcs‘ut EdlmanTMhM 5-8 x 5-8 mm (7-8 x 5-6 mm) Edlman 3-5
duHecjmk . RKab;tUc ragCaqL½gÁ (15 kñgú EpømYy) edaymansMbkRKab;cnM nY BIr . sMbkxageRkA
manBN’elOgeTA elOg etñat enAsMbkxageRkammanBN’etñatcas; (EpøTaMgGs;mansMbk
RKab;BN’etñatcas; rW exµA) .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

lkçN³eQI]: eQImanBN’Rkhm nigrelag . manlkçN³rWg b:Eu nþgayRsYlGar nigRkas;bnÞab;BIkar
sMgYt ehIyRtUv)ancat;TukfaCaRbePTeQI EdlFn;enAkñúgBiPBelak . dg;seIu teQI 0.9-0.98 g/cm³
enAkMrit sMenIm 12% . TMnajEpndI r15 éneQIQr 0.79 g/cm³ . rgVg;lUtlas; minxusKña
nigmineTogTat; rag ekag CYnkal dUc E. camaldulensis EdlmanCBa¢aMgekasikaeQIRkas; . srés
Vessels elceLIg (4-) 7-9 (-11)/mm² duHeTalEtmañkÉ
; g . vaBi)akeRbIR)as; b:Eu nþgayduHxat;
bnÞab;BIkarcMhuy smRsbsMrab;kar bt;Ebn . Fn;ngw karbMpaø jrbs;keNþó nigeqHedaymin bnSl;
TuknUvepH .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 6, 9]
[

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

duHlUtlas;ya:geRcInenAtMbn;RtUBki enAkMrit 15-18 (-38)°S . vaduHeRcInenAtammat;Twk RClgPñM
Edllic Twk Cajwkjab; tamtMbn;PñMTab² rWTY .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 9]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

3

:

kMritry³kMBs; 0 (30) eTA 600 m a.s.l. [1, 2, 3, 9] (0-1,500 m a.s.l [12]) . kMriteGkULsÚ uIxs< ;
Fn;ngw kar raMgs¶tÜ nigkarelcTwk enAry³eBlxøI . smRsbeTAnwgGakasFatumsU gu nigFn;karCaMTwk
b:Eu nþsmRsb cMeBaHtMbn;raMgs¶Üt nigraMgs¶tÜ mFüm . manRbPBkMeNItBItbM n; EdlmanrdUvrMehIy
nigmanePøógenArdUvekþA edaymankMritePøógCamFümRbcaMqañ M 250-625 mm [3] (400-2,500 mm [4]) .
Gacrs;enAtMbn;EdlmankarraMgs¶tÜ xøaMg Edlmanry³eBl 4-8 rWyrU CagenH b:Eu nþvaRtUvkarRbPBTwk
eRkamdI edIm,Iecjpáa . kMritsItuNðPaBmFümRbcaMqañ MenAExekþAbMput 29-35°C [3] (21-40°C [12])
enAExRtCak; bMptu 11-20°C [3] (3-22°C [12]) . Fn;nwgCatiéRbmFüm .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 12]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

GacduHlUtlas;enAelIRbePTdIeRcInya:g dUcCa dIGasIuts‘lu pat . cUlcitþduHenAelIdIxSac; nigl,b;
Edl sMbUredaykal;süÚm PaKeRcInenAtammat;Tenø rWsgÞw énRbPBTwkéRbpgEdr . duHlUtlas;enA
elIdImanxSac; mFüm l,aymFüm nig\dæeRcIn TamTarnUvdImni CaMTwk nigGacduHlUtlas; enAelIdIEdl
mansarFatuciBa©wm tictYc . Fn;ngw dI EdlmanlkçN³raMgs¶tÜ CaBiessmansarFatuEr:Tab . cUlcitþdI
GasIut NWt nig)as niglUtlas;elIdI EdlmanCaéRbpgEdr . vaRtUvkarBnøW nigminduH
lUtlas;enAeRkammøbe; T . vaTamTarnUv sMenIms¶Üt rW dIEdlmansMeNIm nigGacFn;ngw PaBraMgs¶tÜ .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4, 6, 7]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: eQIeRbIR)as;srM ab;eKalbMNgTUeTA . eRbIR)as;CasMxan; eTAelIplitkmµGus nigeFIRV kdas .
Gus rbs;RbePTeQIenHeqHya:gelOn edaysarvamanCatieRbg nigpþl;RbePTFüÚgya:gl¥ .
smRsbsMrab; karplit vIna kþakMeTceQI kþa sMNg;Fn;Rsal nigF¶n; TVa s‘umbg¥cÜ TU TUrfePøgI begáal
rbg sMNg;ka)a:l; nigTUk sMNg;eRkamTwk tYyanþCMniH RbGb; cMlak; dgsMPar³epSg² sMPar³kILa
nigsMPar³ksikmµ .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 6, 7]
[Gnupl]: søk
w nigEmktUc²manpÞkú eRbgrbs;eRbgxül; Edlmansar³sMxan;sMrab;plitpl»sf
TwkGb; sab‘U fañlM agsMGat nigfñasM lM ab;emeraK nwgBüa)alCMgWk¥k pþasay QWbBM g;kr
nigCMgWepSg²eTot
.
vaCa
sarFatusxM an;kgñú karBüa)alCMgWk¥k
.
eRbgRtUv)aneRbIR)as;CafñaMsMlab;emeraK nigfñaMsMlab;stVl¥it . GacplitCaekAs‘U (kino)
EdlhUrecjBIedImya:geRcIn nigRtUv)aneRbIR)as;sMrab;plit»sf nigsMlab; Es,k .
sMbkk_manpÞkú nUvCatitanInpgEdr . páaGacplitnUvlMGg nigTwkdm EdlmanKuNPaBl¥ pgEdr .
TwkXµMmú anBN’dUcmas nigmanrs;Catil¥ .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

4

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 4, 6, 12]
[epSg²]:RtUv)andaMduHCarukC
ç atilMGr pþl;møb; nigCMrk . eRbIR)as;srM ab;rkSaesßrPaBdI nigRtUv)andaMduHenA
tMbn;valPk; EdlCYyRsUbykTwk kñgú karbMpaø jkEnøgbgáat;BCU rbs;BBYkmUs .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 6]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak;.
ÉksarBieRKaH [8]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

5

:

enARbeTskm<Cú a RbePTeQIenHRtUv)andaMduHenAkñgú cMkar nigCaedImeQIlMGrtamrukçvifI .
ÉksarBieRKaH [9]
[cMkar]: CYnkalRtUv)andaMduH sMrab;karsþaéRBeQIeLIgvij . cMkarRtUv)anbegát
I enAcenøaH 3 x 3-4 x 4 m
CYnkal 3 x 2 m . RbB½n§ EdleRbIR)as;eRcInCageKKW Murray Darling System BIkMrit 25-37°S eTA
140-150°E . vaCakUnkat; rvag E. alba nigRbePTepSgeTotén eucalypts . karRKb;RKgesµA
mansar³sMxan; Nas;KkW arsMGatesµARtUv)aneFIV 4-5 dgerogral; 2 qñaM . cMkarRtUv)an
daMduHsMrab;pÁt;pÁg;eQIGar EdlTam TarnUvkarkab;rMelaH BIeRBaHedImeQIeRcInmanEmkeRcIn nigTMrg;mni l¥
. cMkareRbgxül;RtUv)ankab; eGay rhal enAeBldl;xYbrgVli CMu nigRtUv)andaMduHeLIgvijTaMgRsug .
enA)a:BUjÚKeI no edImeQImanTMrg;mni l¥ nigedImBIr RtUv)ankab;ecjenAGayu 5 qñaM nigkab;rMelaHdl;cnM nY
250 edIm/ha enAGayu 10 qñaM nig 100 edIm/ha enAGayu 15 qñaM nigRbmUlplcugeRkayenAGayu 25 qñaM
ehIyRbePTrukçCati enHduHExñg)anl¥eTot pg . enARbeTshVlI IBIn vaduH)anl¥CamFüm
edaymankardak;nvU CIGasUt (30g/edIm) nigpUsrV (30g/edIm) eRkayry³eBl 3 bnÞab;BIkardaM .
kMritlUtlas;manlkçN³xus²Kña rvagkardaMBiesaFn_ nigkardaMenA TIval . enAkMLgú 10 qñaM
dMbgU karlUtlas;kBM s;RbcaMqañ M 2 m nigGgát;p©it 2 cm . enAdMNak;kaldMbgU kMritlUtlas;kBM s;
Gacdl; 3 m kñgú mYyqñaM sMrab;tbM n;EdlmanCICatil¥ . edImeQI EdlenAtUcGacduH ExñgeLIgvij BI 2-3
xYb . eTaHya:gNakarduHExñgeLIgvij KWmanlkçN³xus²Kña . RbsinvaRtUv)andaMduH

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

dMeNIrlMGg;]: dMeNIrlMGg;PaKeRcInRtUv)aneFIeV LIg edaysarstVlt¥i b:Eu nþminRtUv)an eFIeV LIgedaysar
stVsøab nigfnikstVtcU ²enaHeT . karvivdþrbs;Epø nigkarcas; Gacmanry³eBl 4 Ex . plitkmµén
RKab;BCU dMbgU GacekItmaneLIg enAkñgú ry³eBl 3 qñaM eRkayeBldaMduH .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4]
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

sMrab;eFIVeQIemSARkdas; edImeQIGacRtUv)ankab;RbmUlplenAGayu 6-10 qñaM . kMritTinpñ leQIRbcaMqñaM
KW RbEhl 20 - 25 m³/ha enAGasSg;TIn 30 m³/ha enAGIRu saEGl 17 - 20 qñaMenATYKI enAxYbdMbgU nig
25 - 30 qñaMCabnþbnÞab; . enAtMbn;raMgs¶Üt TinñplTTYl)an 2 - 11 m³ xYbBI 14 rW 15 qñaM .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3, 4, 6]
[karduHCaFmµCati
(GURsþalI)]:
CasmasFatulb;enAtMbn;éRBlicTwk . enAelITMnablicTwk
vaCaRbePTedIm eQIEtmYyKt; Edlmanvtþman . enAtMbn;xs< ; vaduHlayCamYy black box
(Eucalyptus largiflorens) rW coolibah (E. microtheca) . vak_manray)a:ytampøÚvTwk nigéRBkpgEdr
. kUneQIbu:nefñal begátI CaTMrg; éRB EdlmanedImRtg; . enAtMbn;raMgs¶Üt EdleQIQrCabnÞH ( ribbon
stands) ekItmanenAtamERBk edIm eQImanEPñkeRcIn nigmankenSamsøwkFM . TMrg;enHekItmaneLIg
enATUTaMgtMbn; EdledImeQIduHenAdac; Rsyal enAelIdI EdlmanCICatieRCA nigsMeNIm .
kMritlUtlas;elOn enAeBlmanRbPBTwk EdledImeQI GacmankMBs; 12-15 m kñúgry³eBlbI eTA
bYnqñaM . karRbKYtRbECgsMrab;sMeNImkñgú dI CamYyedImeQIenA RsTab;eRkamepSg²eTot
Gacman\T§Bi ldl;GRtars;rbs;knU eQI EdlBwgEp¥tya:gsMxan; eTAelIlkçx½NÐ rdUv nigkarlicTwk .
sMeNIm EdlmanGackat;bnßynUv\T§Bi lrbs;edImeQI (EdlGaclUtlas;dl; 40 m enAeBlcas; ) .
enAeBlminmankarRbKYtRbECg kMritrs;rbs;kUneQImancMnYn
20-30
dgeRcInCagmun .
kUneQIgayrgeRKaHfñak; enAeBldaMduHdMbgU edaysarkMedA nigktþarMxan;epSg²eTot .
kUneQIGacTb;nwg kMedA edaybegánI karlUtlas;rWs eTArkkEnøgEdlmansMeNIm .
kUneQIGacduHeLIgvij edayCMruHsøkw TaMg Gs; nigcab;duHBnøkfµIeLIgvij .
ÉksarBieRKaH [7]

6

plitkmµRKab;]: karlUtlas;)anl¥ rbs;eRbgxül; Gacpþl;nUvRKab;rab;lanRKab; kñúgmYyqñaM
nigGacrs;ran nigplitRKab;)anry³eBleRcInstvtS . cMnYnRKab; kñúgmYy kg = 666,000 .
ÉksarBieRKaH [5]
[karbnþBUC ]: RKab;manTMgn;Rsa eday 1.3-1.4 g/1,000 RKab; nigGacRtUv)anrkSaTukry³eBleRcInqñaM
enA kEnøgRtCak; s¶Üt nigminmanxül;ecjcUl . 1 kg RKab;pþl;nUvkUneQI)anBI 15,000-20,000 .
karbnþBUC BIRKab; nigkarkat; . sabRKab;BCU cMnnY
50g dak;RKab;kg
ñú mYy m² .
karduHlUtlas;rbs;RKab; manry³ eBl BI 4-14 (-20) éf¶ . kUneQIduHlUtlas;)anl¥ enAkñgú fas
EdlsMlab;emeraK edaydak;beM Bj nUv dIxSac; layCamYyl,ay . fasKYrRtUv)anrkSaenAkñgú møb;
ry³eBlBIr eTAbIéf¶ bnÞab;BIkarsab b:Eu nþkrM it BnøWkR_ tUv)anbegánI eGaydl; 50% énBnøWéf¶TaMgmUl .
eRkaymkkarduHlUtlas; RtUvTamTarnUvBnøeW Bj elj. BYkvaRtUv)andkykeTAsab bnÞab;BIry³eBl
1 Ex enAeBlBYkvamankMBs;BI 3-5 cm nigsøwkBI 2-3 KU eTAdak;kúg
ñ fg;enAkñúgfñal enAkMritcenøaH 10 x
10 cm . RbEhlry³eBl
2 s)aþh_ muneBl daMduHenA TIval kUneQITaMgGs;RtUvEtBRgwg
edaykat;bnßykareRsacTwk nigkat;bnßykMritmøb; . karbnþBUC eday srIragÁ
RtUv)aneFIeV LIgtamry³karkat;Emk b:Eu nþ BYkvaRtUv)ankat;ecjBIedIm minelIsBIry³eBl 2 qñaM .
Cakarl¥ RtUvkat;ykUneQIBIfñaMgEmk CakEnøgEdlEcksøwk . G½mnU dUcCa indole-acetic acid, indolebutyric acid, rW naphthalene-acetic acid GacbegáInnUvkMriteCaKC½y . kUneQIsmRsb
sMrab;ykeTAdaM enAkñgú TIval enAeBlvamankMBs; (20-) 25-30 cm nigbnÞab;BIry³eBl 3-4 (5) Ex .
BYkvaPaKeRcInRtUv )andaMenAkMritcenøaH 2 x 2 m eTA 3 x 3 m enAelIdI EdlerobcMrYc . karP¢rÜ eGay
manCMerAeRCAKYrRtUv)an eFIeV LIg . RKab;BUC EdlRtUvkarsMrab;eRbg xül;kgñú kardaMduHenA kñúgRbeTs
km<Cú akñgú mYyhicta: cMnnY RKab; kñúgmYy kg: 1,000,000 cenøaHdaMduH: 2 x 2 m
kUneQIsuT§EdlRtUvkarkñgú mYy ha: 2,500 GRtagab; : 3,000 = 20% enAkEnøgdaM , 3,334 = 10%
enAeBldwkCBa¢nÚ , 4,168 = 20% enAkñgú fñal . kMritdMunuH 40% cMnYn RKab;srub 0.01 kg [10] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3, 10]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

7

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVl¥ti ]: RbePTecaHedImdUcCa Agrilus opulentus EdleFIkV arbMpaø jenAtamtMbn;xHø . vavayRbhar
edImeQI nigeFVeI GayedImeQIgab; edayecaHedImCMuvij . karkab;sMGat edImEdlmanCMgWGacCYy
dl;ckM ar TaMgmUlpg Edr . kareRbIR)as; dieldrin eTAelIknU eQImnu eBldaMGacCYy kat;bnßykarbMpøaj
edaykeNþó eTA elIRbB½nr§ Wsrbs;rukçCati EdlenAtUc .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1]
[CMgW]: kUneQIgayrgeRKaHedaysarkarCaM rW dk;TwkenAkñg
ú fñal . edIm,IkarBar fñasM lM ab;pSitRtUv)an
eRbIR)as; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1]
[epSg²]: kUneQIKg
W ayrgeRKaHNas;enAkñúgdMNak;kaldaMduHdMbgU edaysarEtkMedA nigCaMTwk .
BYkvaGac Fn;ngw kMedA)an edaybegátI nUvRbB½nr§ Ws EdlGaccak;eTAdl;dIEdlmansMeNIm .
BYkvaGacduHdal eLIg vijya:gelOn edayCMruHsøwkrbs;BkY va enAeBlmansMeNIm nig
duHBnøkeLIgvijmþgeTot . gayrgeRKaH fñak;edaysarePøgI eqH eTaHmankareqHtictYck_eday
k_GacbNþaleGaymanrbYspgEdr. ePøgI GacsMlab; kUnEdlduHeLIgvij nigedImeQIFpM gEdr
RbsinkMritePøgI xøaMg . ePøgI k_GacbMpaø j nUvRBwgrbs;vapgEdr .
ÉksarBieRKaH [7]

F> karGPirkS

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

8

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
r)a:yelIBiPBelak]:
[RbPBkMeNIt]: RbeTsGURsþalI
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [4]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

9

karnaMclU ]:

GWru :ub (sayRb‘sÍ Rkic GIutalI ma:l;ta b:uTuyháal; eGs,aj);
GasuI (bg;køaeds km<Cú a cin \NÐa \NÐeÚ nsIu GIru :g; GIurak; GIRu saEGl CUdg; KUevt Lav eL)ann; ma:eLsIu
PUma en)a:l; )a:KsI aß n hVlI IBnI Gara:b; sgðbUrI RsIlgáa éf TYKI evotNam ya:Emn);
GaeRhVc (Gal;esrI Gg;eháaLa bUsVaNa b‘UKINahVIsU bU‘ran;DI kaemrU Eqk kUmUr: Us kugeháa kUDIv½r eGsIbu
eGsIub G‘Íru IeTol eGsüÚBI háaNa eknya: eLsUtU lIebrIya: ma:hÁadasáa ma:LavI ma:lI mU:rukU mUsg;bu‘cí
NamIbÍ‘ nIesrIya: ra:van;da esenháal; esra:elGUn sUma:lI GaeRhVxagt,Úg s‘dU g; tg;sanI esnsIu)a
sIum)aev );
kara:ebon (Kuy)a RTInIedt nigta)aehÁa);
GaemrikNþal (kUsþarIkar eGkVaD½r háaetma:La hugdYrus nIháara:hÁ½r );
GaemrixageCIg (misu uickU shrdæGaemrik);
Gaemrikxagt,Úg ( Gasüg;TIn eRbsIul qIlI kULMbú Í‘ eGkVaD½r hÁyÚ a:Na )a:ra:hÁay eb:rU G‘yu ra:hÁay );
mhasmuRT (hVCI I)
ÉksarBieRKaH [4]

p> epSg²

:

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Banks JCG, 1990. Flowering patterns in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Proceedings
international Eucalyptus symposium, Zhanjiang, China.
[4]

Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnston RD, Kleinig DA,
Turner JD, 1984. Forest trees of Australia. Forest trees of Australia., Ed. 4:xvi + 687 pp.; 77
ref.
[4]

Booth TH, Pryor LD, 1991. Climatic requirements of some commercially important eucalypt
species. Forest Ecology and Management, 43(1-2):47-60; 31 ref.
[4]

Davidson J, 1993. Domestication and breeding programme for Eucalyptus in the Asia-Pacific
region. UNDP/FAO Regional Project on Improving Productivity of Man-Made Forests
Through Application of Technological Advances in Tree Breeding and Propagation
(RAS/91/004-FORTIP). Los Baños, Philippines: FAO of the United Nations.
[4]

Doran JC, Williams ER, 1994. Fast-growing Eucalyptus camaldulensis clones for foliar-oil
production in the tropics. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 73(4):261-266, 273-274; 18 ref.

Doran JC, Wongkaew W, 1997. Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. In: Faridah Hanum I, van
der Maesen LJG, eds. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 11. Auxiliary Plants. Leiden,
the Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 132-137.
[4]

Eldridge K, 1995. Breeding plan for Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Thailand 1995 revision.
Canberra, Australia: CSIRO Division of Forestry.
[4]

Evans J, 1992. Plantation forestry in the tropics: tree planting for industrial, social,
environmental, and agroforestry purposes. Plantation forestry in the tropics: tree planting for
industrial, social, environmental, and agroforestry purposes., Ed. 2:xv + 403 pp.; 32 pp. of
ref.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[4]

10

[4]

Holmgren M, Pettersson P, 1995. Evaluation of long-term growth trials of Eucalyptus
camaldulensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis in Laos, South-East Asia: a minor field study.
Working Paper - International Rural Development Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural
Sciences, No. 282:24 pp.; [ISRN SLU-IRDC-WP-282-SE]; 15 ref.
[4]

Midgley SJ, Eldridge KG, Doran JC, 1989. Genetic resources of Eucalyptus camaldulensis..
Commonwealth Forestry Review, 68(4):295-308; 35 ref.
[4]

Pinyopusarerk K, Doran JC, Williams ER, Wasuwanich P, 1996. Variation in growth of
Eucalyptus camaldulensis provenances in Thailand. Forest Ecology and Management,
87(1/3):63-73; 26 ref.
[4]

Pinyopusarerk K, Luangviriyasaeng V, Rattanasavanh D, 1996. Two-year performance of
Acacia and Eucalyptus species in a provenance trial in Lao P.D.R. Journal of Tropical Forest
Science, 8(3):412-423; 21 ref.
[4]

Pukittayacamee P, Saelim S, Bhodthipuks J, 1993. Seed collection period for selected tree
species in Thailand. Seed collection period for selected tree species in Thailand., 2 pp.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[4]

11

Soerianegara I, Lemmens RHMJ, 1993. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1) Timber
trees: major commercial timbers. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1) Timber trees:
major commercial timbers., 610 pp.; [Also published by Prosea Foundation, Bogor,
Indonesia. PROSEA NUGI 835.]; 817 ref.
[4]

Wasuwanich P, 1989. Phenological investigation of Australian tree species in field trials in
Thailand. Unpublished report. Bangkok, Thailand: Royal Forest Department.
[4]]

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] PROSEA, 1992: Plant Resources of South East Asia 5 - (1) Timber trees: Major
commercial timbers.
[2] Nguyen et al, 1996: Vietnam Forest Trees. JICA/Vietnam Inventory and Planning
Institute.

[3] Lamprecht, H., 1989: Silviculture in the Tropics. GTZ

[4] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[5] Schmidt, L., 2000: Guide to Handling of Tropical and Subtropical Forest Seed. CTSPDANIDA.

[6] Plants for a Future:
http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Eucalyptus+camaldulensis&CAN=COMIND
(Internet source)

[7] CSIRO: http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/WfHC/Eucalyptus-camaldulensis/ (Internet source)

[8] FA, 2002 (draft): List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names
of Commercial Woods, unpublished.

[10] FA/CTSP-DANIDA, 2005: Farmers Tree Planting Manual - Guidelines for Site Selection
and Tree Planting. (CD-ROM).

[11] Petri, Mathias (DED) 2006: Own observations.

[12] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database –
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=
760 (Internet source).

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[9] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

12

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Eucalyptus tereticornis J.E. Smith]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Eucalyptus tereticornis J.E. Smith]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

Eucalyptus tereticornis J.E. Smith [1]

³

forest red gum [1], blue gum, red irongum [2], flooded
gum, grey gum, siver ironbark, slaty gum, stinking gum [10],
forest river gum, horn-cap eucalyptus, mysore hybrid,
mysore-gum, Queensland blue gum [11].

K> sTisn½y

³

Eucalyptus subulata Cunn. ex Schauer (1843),
Eucalyptus insignis Naudin (1891),
Eucalyptus umbellata (Gaertner) Domin (1928) non Desf.

ÉksarBieRKaH [1],
Eucalyptus tereticornis var. pruiniflora (Blakely) Cameron,
Eucalyptus umbellata auct. non (Gaertn.) Domin,
Eucalyptus umbellata var. media Blakely,
Eucalyptus umbellata var. pruiniflora Blakely

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

ÉksarBieRKaH [2]

forest red gum [1], mungurra [3], mysore gum [11] (Trade

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

name)

1

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

eRbgxül;skøw tUc
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati
rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta

³

preng khchal slek toch [2]

Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Myrtales
RKYsar : Myrtaceae
ÉksarBieRKaH: [-]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]:edImeQIéRBmanTMhMmFüm nigx<s; EdlmankMBs;BI 18–46 m [4] (20-50 m [2], -45 m
[3, 11]) Ggát;p©it dbh 1.5 m [3] (-2 m [1, 2], -1.8 m [4, 11]) . kenSamsøk
w FM nigebIkcMhr rW
Rkas;mFüm edaycab;epþmI enAeKoknwgdI . edImRtg; nigCYnkalmanRbEvgEvgCagBak;kNþal
énedImeQITaMgmUl edayEmkFM² manlkçN³eTcuHeRkam . b¤sEkvrwgmaM nigrWsryagEvg .
vaminduHlUtlas;eTACaBnøkeT ehIyduHenAl½kçNÐ EdlsmRsbb:ueNÑaH .
[sMbk]: sMbkrelag BN’s rbkCadM²
u manBN’cMruH s RbepH rW exov . edImmanlkçN³eRKIm BN’etñat
cas; rW exµAcas; .
[søwk]: søwkcas;zitenAQmKña nigqøas; manragdUcs‘ut KµanBN’ mansrésrmineTogTat; . søwkeBjv½y
manlkçN³qøas; rages<ó manTMhM 10-20 cm x 1-2.5 cm [1] (12-21 cm x 1.2-2.5 cm wide [3])
kMBlU RsYc TgsøwkmanRbEvg 13-24 mm nigKµaneram .
[páa]: páaduHCacegáam Edlman 5–12 [3, 4] (7-11 [1]) duHray)a:yesµK
I ñaenAelITg EdlmanRbEvg 5–7
mm . cegáamduHecjeRkA G½kSrbs;swøk .
[Epø]: Epøsܶt (=capsules) ragCaBak;kNþaEsV rW mUl rWragdUcs‘ut EdlmanTMhM 6–9 mm x 8–10 mm
[4] (5-7 mm x 4-8 mm [1], 6 x 6 m [3]) edaymansnÞHcMnYn 4 eTA 5 . RKab;eRcIntUc²
EdlmanRbEvg 1 mm BN’exµAcas; rWetñat .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 4]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

lkçN³eQI]: sac;eQImanlkçN³Rkhmcas; rwgmaM sVit F¶n; nigFn;bE:u nþB)i akeRbIR)as; .
Fn;ngw karbMpaø j rbs;keNþó . TMnajCak;lak; KW 0.95 g/cm³ [3] (0.75–1.05 g/cm³ [4]) .
vamankarBi)akkñgú kar sMgYt b:Eu nþgayRsYleRbIR)as;CamYy]bkrN_epSg²eTot . vaRsedognwg
Cedrela wood .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3, 4]
[

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

duHlUtlas;enAkMrit 9-38°S [2] (6-38°S [3, 4]) EdlCakEnøgénRbePT EdlzitenAkñúgePT (Genus)
enH manduH . duHlUtlas;CaFmµCatienAtameqñr nigEk,rTY rW TMnabPaKxaglicGURsþalI .
cMnnY BYkvaPaKeRcIn zitenAkñgú cMgay 100 km BIsmuRT nigbnþray)a:yq¶ayBIsmuRT . eRbgxül;skøw tUc
duHlUtlas;CaFmµCatienA)a:BjU hÚ eÁI no .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3, 4]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

3

:

kMritry³kMBs;BI 0-800 m enAnUKeI no nig 30-1000 m enAGURsþalI [3] (0-1,000 m [1,11], 0-1,800 m
[4, 7]) . EdlmanEdncab;BI tMbn;RtUBk
i s¶tÜ eTAdl;esIm nigéRBesIm . manRbPBBItMbn;
EdlmanrdUvekþA nigrdUvrga manePøóg edaymankMritTwkePøógRbcaMqañ M 500-1,500 mm [3] (500-3,000
mm [2], 500-3,500 mm [11]) edaymanExekþAdl;eTA 7 Ex [3, 4] (-8 Ex [2]) nigGacFn;
nwgkMritTwkePøógRbcaMqañ M 50-200 mm . kMritsItuNðPaBmFümRbcaMqañ M 14-24°C [3] (16-25°C [4]) .
kMritsItuNðPaBRbcaMqañ Mxs< b; Mput enAExekþA 27°C [4] (22-32°C [3]) kMritsItuNðPaBmFüm
enAExRtCak;bpM tu 7°C [4] (8-12°C [3]) . Fn;nwgCatiéRb nigTwksenSIm edaymansenSImBI 0–15
kñúgmYyqñaM [4] (GacrgeRKaHedaysarsenSImpg Edr [2]) . vak_Fn;nwgePøgI eqHeTotpg .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 4, 7]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

cUlcitþdImansMeNIm b:Eu nþminCaMTwk (GacduHenAtMbn;éRB EdlelcTwktamrdUvpgEdr [2, 11]) l,ayxSac;
l,aydIl,b; nigRKUs edaysMbrU sarFatuciBa©wm . kMritGMbillµm RbePTeQIenHGacduHlUtlas;)an nig
dINWt rWGasIuttictYck_GacFn;)anpgEdr . eTaHbIya:g dIGasIut pH TabeBkKWmni smRsbsMrab;karlUt
las;rbs;vaeT .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3, 4, 11]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

eQI]: smRsbsMrab;sMng;Fn;Fn¶ ; pøÚvrfePøgI begáal begáalrbg eQIsMrab;eRbIR)as;kúgñ karykEr:
(GacmanGayudl; 50 qñaM ) RbGb; kMBg;Ep eQIfamBl FüÚg eQIemSARkdas kþa nigkþakMeTceQI .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 4, 11]
[Gnupl]: tanInRtUv)ancMraj;ykBI eQI nigsMbk . eRbgeRbgxül; cineole (45%) Edl)anBIswøk
Edl RtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;eFIVCa»sf . eRbgRtUv)anRbmUltamry³PaKryénTMgn;Rss;KW 0.9-1.4%
[11] . eQImanpÞk
ú nUv 0.5% éneRbg [11]. edImeQICaRbPBd_sMxan;énlMGg; nigTwkdm
edayplitnUvTwkXµMmú an rsCatiEp¥m .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3, 11]
[epSg²]: manRbsiT§PaBkñg
ú karkarBarRcaMgTenø BIkarhUreRcaH . eRbIR)as;CaedImeQIlMGrenAkñgú RbeTs
km<Cú a . k_RtUv)aneRbIR)as;Ca ExSRkvat;ébtg møb; nigkarciBa©wmXµúM .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 7]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

4

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak;.
ÉksarBieRKaH [6]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

lkçN³TUeTA]: eRbgxül;skøw tUc duHray)a:yenAkñúgFmµCati enAkñgú tMbn;vaesµA savanna
nigtMbn;TMnabén éRBtMbn;RtUBki . vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;enAkardaMduHéRBeQI ksirukçkmµ nigkarsþar
éRBeQIeLIgvij . enAkñgú RbeTskm<Cú a vaRtUv)andaMduHenAtamdgpøÚvpgEdr . vaduHlUtlas;elOn
nigduHExñgpgEdr . enAkñgú rukç vb,kmµ eRbgxül;skøw tUc minRtUvEckdac;ecjBIRbePT E.
camaldulensis .
[karRKb;RKg]: kardaMsakl,gmansar³sMxan;Nas; muneBlkarcab;epIm
þ nUvcMkarRTg;RTayFM . dUckrNI
E. camaldulensis enAPaKxageCIg vaduHlUtlas;)anl¥ . cenøaHénkardaM nigkarduHExñgmanlkçN³
xus² Kña BIkardaMduHCashKmn_ enAkñgú PUmi tamdgpøÚv nigkardaMduHCacMkar nigvaGaRs½yeTAelI
plEdleKcg;)an. xYbGacmanlkçN³xusKñaGaRs½yeTAtamKuNPaB tMbn; nigeKalbMNgénkar
RKb;RKg . eRbgxül;skøw tUc RtUv)andaMduHenAkñúgxYb Edlmanry³eBlxøI nigkab;eFIVGaCIvkmµ
enAeBlEdlTMhMGaceFIVGaCIvkmµ)an . Ca BiessenAkMritGgát;p©ittUc EdlsmRsbsMrab;
eFICV aeQIemSARkdas eQIsMNg;sMrab;karykEr: eQIfamBl nigFüÚg . enAeBlkardaMduH
sMrab;ykeQIemSARkdas nigeQIfamBl xYbGacmanry³eBlBI 5-6 qñaM nig kMritcenøaHdaM 1.5 m x 1.5
m RtUv)anGnuvtþenARbeTs\NÐa . enA\NÐad_Edr kMritcenøaHFMCagenH dUcCa
4 m x 2 m rW 6 m x 1.5
m RtUv)anpþl;Gnusasn_ enAeBldMNaMepSg²eTot RtUv)andaMduHenAcenøaHenaHenA qñaMdMbg
U eTaHya:gNa
kardaMduHCitCagenHRtUv)anGnuvtþpgEdr dUcCa 2 m x 2 m, 2.6 m x 2.6 m nig
3 m x 1.8 m [2] . enAkñg
ú cMkar EdleTIbnwgcab;epþmI edImGacduHCaragdUcsm nigEmkTab²
EdlGacRtUv )ankat;pgEdr . cMkarGacduHlUtlas;eLIgvij BIExñg ya:gehacNas;bdI g .
rdUvkab;rMlMGacb:HBal;dl; karduHExñgeLIgvijpgEdr . karkab;enArdUvR)aMg GacBnüanUveBlduHBnøk
nigbegánI nUveRKaHfañkd; l;Kl; . karkab;edayrNa pþl;nvU Kl;Edll¥ nigmankarbMpøajtictYcdl;sMbk
[2] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

:

Tinñpl]: TinñplGaRs½yeTAelIsMeNIm . Tinñplx<s;bpM tu RtUv)anraykarN_ enAeRkamlkçxN
½ Ðénkar
eRsacTwk tamry³RbB½nF§ arasaRsþ . enAkñgú cMkar EdlmanRbB½nF§ arasaRsþ enAGaeRhVc
eRkamlkçxN
½ Ðl¥ edImeQIGacpþl;pl 20 eTA 25 m³/ha/qñaM enA 15 qñaM dMbgU ehIyTinñplnwgFøak;cHu 10
eTA 15 m³ kñúgmYy ha kñúgmYyqñaM rhUtdl;edImeQIRtUv)ankat;Bnøkecj [5] .
enAtMbn;EdlmanlkçxN
½ Ðl¥ enAGasSg;TIn MAI pþl; 18–30 m³/ha/qñaM b:Eu nþenAtMbn;
EdlminsUvl¥én\NÐa MAI Gacdl; 3 . edImeQI EdlmanGayu 5 qñaM EdlmancenøaH kñúgcMnnY 1,670
edIm/ha enAkMrit basal area mFüm 18 m²/ha . enAeRbsIulkMrit TinñplmFümKW 18 m³/ha/qñaM .
enAkMritxYbrgVli CuM 5-7 qñaM enAtMbn;Edll¥ enAkugeháa vaGacpþl;nvU Tinñpl RbcaMqañ M 18-25 m³/ha .
enAtMbn;mni l¥ énGu‘yra:háay TTYl )an 6m³/ha enAxYbmanry³eBl 16 qñaM [3] .
[ksirukçkmµ]: enAkñg
ú RbB½nk§ sirukçkmµ vaRtUv)aneRbIR)as;CamYyRbePTdMNaMepSg²eTot dUcCa eBatenAkñgú
RbeTs)a:KsI aß n enAry³eBl 6 eTA 12 Ex CamYy dMLgÚ mI enARbeTs\NÐaenAkMLgú 2 qñaMdMbgU [5] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 5, 7]
[

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

:

karbnþBUC]: edImeQImyY edIm GacplitRKab;)an 150-350g kñgú mYyqñaeM nAGayu 3 qñaM [2] (3-6 qñaM
enAkñgú cMkar [3]) . eRbgxül;skøw tUceFVIkarbnþBCU tamry³RKab; . manRKab;RbEhl 642,000 /kg
(540,000 RKab;/kg [3], 285,000-800,000 RKab;/kg [5]) . minTamTarnUvkareFVRI bRBwtþkmµCamuneT .
dMNuHduHya:g elOnenAeRkamsMeNIm nigekþAlµm (25°, 30° rW 35°C enAkñgú mnÞIBiesaFn_)
kñúgkrNImanBnøW . CaRbePT dMNuHeGPIClI (epigeal) lT§PaBdMNuHRKab;RtUv)anrkSalkçxN
½ Ðst¶Ü (58% énsMeNIm [2], 60% sMeNIm [5]) enAsMPar³pÞk
ú bitCit enAkñgú TUTwkkk (3-5°C [2], 4°C [5])
GacrkSadMNuHdl;eTACag 10 qñaM . tMrUvkarRKab;sMrab;kardaMduHkñúgmYy hicta sMrab;cMkarenA
kñúgRbeTskm<Cú a : cMnnY RKab;kgñú mYyKILÚRkam : 1,000,000 RKab; cenøaHdaMduH : 2 x 2 m.
cMnnY kUneQIsuT§kgñú mYy ha: 2,500. kMritsøab; : 3,000 = 20% enAkñgú cMkar kMritsøab;enAeBldwkCBa¢Ún
3,334 = 10% kMritsøab;enAkñúgfñal 4,168 = 20% PaKrydMNuH RKab; 40% . cMnYnRKab;srub
EdlRtUvkar 0.01 kg [8] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

6

karbnþBUCedaysrIragÁ]: vak_mankargayRsYlkñgú karbnþBUC edaysrIragÁ . karpSaMuKmW an
eCaKC½ypgEdr tamry³kareRbIR)as;viFpI SaMBu nøk (apical rind grafting) enAkñgú fñal . Micropropagation énCalikarBnøk nigbNþRÚ tUv)aneFIeV LIgenAkñg
ú RbeTscin nig\NÐa . enAkñgú RbeTscin
vamanlT§PaBduHdleTA 54%enAkñgú ry³eBl 10 Ex enAeRkamlkçxN
½ ÐkarkønÚ vitro rW non-in vitro .
karduHeLIgvijeday Kl;rbs;rukçCati KW pþl;nUvlT§pll¥pgEdr enAkñgú RbeTs\NÐa. enAkñgú karkønÚ
vitro énkUnkat;rvag E. tereticornis nig E. camaldulensis
KWTTYl)aneCaKC½y .
karduHeLIgvijeday Kl;RtUv)aneRbIR)as; nig eFVeI LIg BIr eTA bIdg kñgú ry³eBl 10 qñaM edayman
lkçN³vilCMu [5] .
[bec©keTsfñalbNþHú ]: RKab;BC
U GacRtUv)ansab edaypÞal;enAeRkammøb; rW enAkñgú fg; nigGacsab
enAkñgú fñal bnÞab;mkykeTAdaMenAkñgú fg; enAeBlmanduHsøwkBIr eTA bI nigbnÞab;BIry³eBl 6 s)þah_ .
eRkamkarRtYtBinti ü karduHrbs;RKab;)anl¥ enAkñgú kMritsItuNðPaB 20 eTA 30°C edaymanBnørW y³eBl
8 ema:g [5] . karpþl;seM NImeRcIneBkGacRtUv)aneCosevog edIm,IkarBarkarbMpaø j rbs;pSit nig
)ak;etrIenA eBlduHlUtlas; . BYkvaRtUv)andak;kgñú fg; Edlbitya:gCit rW enAkñgú Fug rWekskBa©k; .
kUneQIGacRtUv )andaMduH enAkñgú fg; EdlmanlaynUv xSac;¼kMeTcrukçCati nigfñasM lM ab;stVl¥it rW
xSac;Tenø Edl)ansMlab; emeraKrYc . kardak;CItictYckñgú kMrit 1.75-4.3 kg/m³ [2] rW CIrav
EdlGaceGaykUn eQIduHlUtlas;)an l¥enAkñgú fñal . kUneQIGacRtUv)andaMduHenATIval enAeBl
EdlmankMBs; 25 cm ry³eBlBI 3 eTA 5 Ex bnÞab;BIkarsab . enAeBl EdlrdUvvsSacab;epþmI
enAkñgú tMbn;RtUBki .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3, 5, 8].
Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

7

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

eRbgxül;søkw tUvminRtUv)anKMramkMEhgxøaMgkøaedayCMgW nigstVl¥ti eT .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3]
[stVl¥t
i ]: RbePTstVlt¥i ecaHedIm dUcCa Agrilus opulentus EdleFVkI arbMpaø jenAtamtMbn;myY cMnnY .
vabMpøajkUneQItUc² nigGacsMlab;edImeQITaMgmUlpgEdr edaykarecaHCMuvijedIm . karkab;sMGat
edIm eQImanCMgWrWRtUv)anbMpøajedaystVl¥ti mansar³sMxan;Nas;kñúgkarRKb;RKg edImeQIenAkñúgcMkar

. kareRbI R)as; dieldrin eTAelIknU eQIenAkñgú fg; GacCYykat;bnßykarbMpøaj edaykeNþóeTAelIRbB½n§
rWsénkUneQI tUc² .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2]
[CMgW]:gayrgeRKaH edaysarkarCaMTwk nigpSitenAeBlkMBg
u lUtlas;kgñú fñal. kareRbIR)as;fñasM lM ab;
pSit rW eFVGI nam½y kat;bnßykareRsacTwk nigmøb; eFIeV Gaymanxül;ecjcUlRKb;RKan;GacCYy
Tb;Tl;ngw bBaðaenH.
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2]
[epSg²]: minTan;manTinñn½y .

F> karGPirkS

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

vamanduHlUtlas;enAkñúgRkugPñeM Bj nigtampøvÚ kñúgextþkMBg;s<W .
ÉksarBieRKaH [7]
[

RbPBkMeNIt]: )a:BUjÚhÁIeno GURsþalI
ÉksarBieRKaH [1]

karnaMclU ]:
GurW u:b (Rkic GIutalI b:Tu uyhÁal; eGs,aj )
GasIu (bg;køaeds b‘tU an km<Cú a cin \NÐa \NÐeÚ nsIu Cb:un Lav ma:eLsIu PUma en)a:l; )a:KsI aß n hVlI IBnI
RsIlgáa éf TYKI evotNam eyEmn )
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :

8

GaeRhVc (Gg;eháaLa bUsVaNa bU‘ran;DI kaemrUn kUmUr: Us kugeháa kUDIv½r eGsIub eGsüÚBI háaebo háaNa
hÁeI no eknya: lIebrIya: ma:daháasáa ma:LavI ma:lI ma:rITus mUr: YkU mUsSg;bíc‘ NamIbÍ‘ nIesrIya: ra:van;da
esra:eLGUn GaeRhVcxagt,Úg sUd‘ g; tg;saeno esnsIu)a tueháa Guyehánda sSamebo sIum)aev )
karIebon ()a)adUs Kuy)a dUmnI Ika háaEdLÚb éhTI camIka eb:rU RTInIedt nigta)aeháa )
GaemrikkNþal (kUsþarIka háaetma:La hugdYrUs nIkara:há½r )a:Nama:)
GaemrikxageCIg (misu uickU shrdæGaemrik )
Gaemrikxagt,Úg (GasSg;TIn bULaevo eRbsIul qIlI kULeúM bo EGkVad½r háyÚ a:Na )a:ra:háay eb:rU
Guy‘ ra:háay evens‘yu eGLa)
mhasmuRT (GURsþalI hVICI nUsuIeLn ekaH)a:suIPic )a:BUjÚKIen sama:v ekaHsULmÚ gu: tugháa TUvalU evnUTU )
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 4]

p> epSg²

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Boer E, 1997. Eucalyptus tereticornis J.E. Smith. In: Faridah Hanum I, Maesen LJG van der,
eds. Auxiliary plants. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 11, 137-140.

9

[2]

Booth TH, Pryor LD, 1991. Climatic requirements of some commercially important eucalypt
species. Forest Ecology and Management, 43(1-2):47-60; 31 ref.
[2]

Davidson J, 1988. Breeding eucalypts in tropical countries. In: Newman RL, ed, Proceedings
International Australian Bicentennial Forestry Conference, Albury-Wodonga, Australia, 25
April-1 May 1988. Canberra, Australia; Institute of Foresters of Australia. Vol. 5: 1-21.
[2]

Davidson J, 1993. Domestication and breeding programme for Eucalyptus in the Asia-Pacific
region. UNDP/FAO Regional Project on Improving Productivity of Man-Made Forests
Through Application of Technological Advances in Tree Breeding and Propagation
(RAS/91/004-FORTIP). Los Baños, Philippines: FAO of the United Nations.
[2]

Hartley A, 1977. The establishment of Eucalyptus tereticornis on tailings from the
Bougainville copper mine, Papua New Guinea. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 56(3):239245; 13 ref.
[2]

Holmgren M, Pettersson P, 1995. Evaluation of long-term growth trials of Eucalyptus
camaldulensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis in Laos, South-East Asia: a minor field study.
Working Paper - International Rural Development Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural
Sciences, No. 282:24 pp.; [ISRN SLU-IRDC-WP-282-SE]; 15 ref.
[2]

Khan JA, Akhtar P, 1973. Mechanical properties of Eucalyptus tereticornis. Pakistan Journal
of Forestry, 23(4):325-343; 8 ref.
[2]

Nguyen Hoang Nghia, 1997. Variation in growth and disease resistance of Eucalyptus
species and provenances tested in Vietnam. IUFRO Conference on Silviculture and
Improvement of Eucalypts, 1997, Salvador. Proceedings. Vol. 1. Tree improvement
strategies. Colombo: EMBRAPA, 416-422.

Pukittayacamee P, Saelim S, Bhodthipuks J, 1993. Seed collection period for selected tree
species in Thailand. Seed collection period for selected tree species in Thailand., 2 pp.
[2]

Tewari DN, 1992. Monograph on Eucalyptus.. Monograph on Eucalyptus., xv + 361 pp.; [17
colour pl. (unpaginated)]; 87 pp. of ref.
[2]

Verma RK, Gurumurthi K, 1997. Improvement of important parameters of yield in Eucalyptus
Tereticornis by selection and clonal propagation. IUFRO Conference on Silviculture and
Improvement of Eucalypt, 1997, Salvador. Proceedings. Vol. 1. Tree improvement
strategies. Colombo: EMBRAPA, 240-244.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[2]

10

[2]

Wang H, Zang D, 1997. Provenance tests of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. in China. IUFRO
Conference on Silviculture and Improvement of Eucalypts, 1997, Salvador. Proceedings.
Vol. 1. Tree improvement strategies. Colombo: EMBRAPA, 305-309.
[2]

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] PROSEA, 1992: Plant Resources of South East Asia 5 - (1) Timber trees: Major
commercial timbers.

[2] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[3] Lamprecht, H., 1989: Silviculture in the Tropics. GTZ.

[4] Purdue University:
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Eucalyptus_tereticornis.html (Internet
source)

[5] RNGR: http://www.rngr.net/Publications/ttsm/Folder.2003-07-11.4726/PDF.2004-0303.1218/file/. (Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[6] FA, 2002 (draft): List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names
of Commercial Woods, unpublished.

11

[7] Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[8] FA/CTSP-DANIDA, 2005: Farmers Tree Planting Manual - Guidelines for Site Selection
and Tree Planting. (CD-ROM)

[9] Petri, M. (DED): Own observations.

[10] ECOPORT:
http://ecoport.org/ep?Plant=1026&entityType=PL****&entityDisplayCategory=full (Internet
source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[11]
World
Agroforestry
Center:
AgroForestryTree
Database

http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=81
7 (Internet source)

12

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Fagraea fragrans Roxb. [1], Fagraea fragrans Pit [3]]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Fagraea fragrans Roxb. [1], Fagraea fragrans Pit [3]]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Fagraea fragrans Roxb. [1], Fagraea fragrans Pit [3]

³

ironwood [1]

³

Fagraea cochinchinensis A. Chev.,
Fagraea gigantea Ridley,
Fagraea sororia J. J. Smith,
Fagraea wallichiana Benth. [1],
Fagraea peregrine Blume [7]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

pangsoma (Bangladesh) [1] - tembesu (Brazil) [1] ambinaton, kayu tammusu, ki badak (Indonesia) [1] - manpa
(Laos) [1] - ahnyim, anan (Myanmar) [1] - tembusu hutan,
tembusu padang, tembusu tembaga (Malaysia) [1] - dolo,
susulin, urung (Philippines) [1] - tembusu, tembusu hutan,
tembusu padang (Singapore) [1] - kankrao, man pla,
thamsao (Thailand) [1] - tembesu, tembusu, trai , trai nam bo
(Vietnam) [1, 7]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

1

³

taRtav
ÉksarBieRKaH : [-]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³
q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

tatraou [1], ta trao [3], ta trav [5]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae

fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Gentianales
RKYsar : Loganiaceae
ePT : Fagraea Thunb.
RbePT : Fagraea fragans Roxb.
ÉksarBieRKaH: [1]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaedImeQImanTMhMBmI FümeTA FM nigmankMBs;dl;eTA 20 m [3] (-25 m [1], -30 m [3],
8-30 m [7], -55 m [2]) . CYnkalCaedImeQIFM (kMBs;dl;eTA 55 m) RtUv)anBiBN’nafaCaRbePT
dac;eday ELk (F. gigantea Ridley) . manGgát;p©it DBH 135(-250) cm [2] (-150 cm [3, 7]) .
edImeBlxøHmanRBwgtUc nigFMCab;CamYy EdlmankMBs;dl;eTA 2.5 m .
[sMbk]: sMbkmanlkçN³eRbHya:geRCA nigmineTogTat; manBN’eRbHelOg eTACaetñatcas;
sMbkxagkñúgmanBN’etñat rW elOg nigmankMras;dl;eTA 1 cm . EmkragRsLÚn dUcsIuLaMg Kµaneram
manfñaMg nig BN’ etñatlayelOgenAeBls¶tÜ .
[søk
w ]: søkw eTal ragCaes<óRTEvg rW dUcs‘ut TMhM 4-15 x 1.5-6 cm [2] (7-12 x 1.5-5 cm [3,
4])Kµaneram nigmanlkçN³dUcEs,k edaymanRTng;swøkya:gc,as;enAxageRkam . kMBl
U søwkGacEvg
nigxøI nigman lkçN³RsYc . srésTIBIrmancMnnY 5-16 KU kMremIleXIjBIxagelI b:Eu nþGacemIleXIj
BIxageRkam .
[páa}: páaCakBa©úM EdlmancMnn
Y 20-30 páa . páamanBN’s nigmankøni RkGUb RsTab;paá cMnYn 5 manragCa
kNwgá RbEvg 0.7-2.3 cm long [3] (1.5-2.5 cm [4]) . RtbkpáacMnnY 5 nigTMhMminesµIKañ . ekseQµal
mancMnYn 5 manRbEvgEvgCagRtbkpáa . eksjIzitenAxageRkA nigEvgCaekseQµal . ecjpáaBIEx
emsa eTA kkáda nigecjEpøBEI x kkáda dl;vickäi a . eyagtam FIPI (1996) ecjEpøenAExemsa
dl;mifunaenA RbeTskm<Cú a nigecjEpøenAExkkáda dl; vicikä a . eTaHbICa TsSnavdþéI RBeQI (FA, 1997)
)anbgðajfa karecjpáaekItmanenAExkumÖ³-mIna nigEpøEx]sPa-mifuna .
[Epø]: Epø (=drupe) manragCaeGlIbFM mUl manTMhM 0.7-1 x 0.4-1 cm ERbBIBN’ébtgeTATwkRkUc
rWRkhm kMBlU ragmUl rW RsYc . manRKab;EtmYy enAkñgú EpømYy RbEvgBI 0.1-0.2 cm .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 4, 7]

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

lkçN³eQI]: eQIxwmø manTMgn;mFüm nigFn; nigRtUv)ancat;TukCaRbePTeQIelxmYy .
eQIxwømmanBN’ elOgRsal rW elOg CYnkalexµA rW etñat TwkRkUc minGacEckdac;ecjBIeQIRsay .
vamansrésRss;sa¥ t maMu Fn;ngw Twk nigkarBukpuy . rgVg;lUtlas; elcecjmkya:g
eRcInenAelIsrésCalika . dg;seIu teQI 0.51-0.93 g/cm³ [2, 8] (0.85-1 g/cm³ [3]) enAkMritsMeNIm
15% . EpñkEdlmanKuNPaB sMrab;eQIGar x<sK
; W maneRcInsMrab;RbePTenH eyageTAelI TMrg;edImd_l¥
. eTaHbI sac;eQItaRtavEtman fñaMgEdlekIt edaysarEmk EdleFIeV GayxUcsac;
eQIk_eday.sac;eQImanlkçN³gayRsYlkñgú kardMEdkeKal nigGar. vaGacRtUv)aneRCokCavIna
EdlmankMras; 1.5 mm enAkMritmMu 90° edaymincaM)ac;eFIRV bRBwtþikmµCamun . eQIxwmø mankarBi)akep¢ak rW
eFIeV GayesIm eTaHbIeRbIR)as;sBM aFk_eday . eQIRsayGacep¢akeday sarFatukarBarsac;eQI)an .
eQImanpÞkú nUv 63% holocellulose 46-47% alpha-cellulose 24-29% lignin 11-13% pentosan
0.1-0.7% epH nig 0.3% silica . PaBrlay)anénsac;eQI KW 1.8-2.5% enAkñg
ú alcohol benzene
2.4% enAkñg
ú TwkRtCak; 4.9-6.9% TwkekþA nig 13.1-13.5% enA 1% NaOH . enA\NÐeÚ nsIu
karsMgYtRtUvkarry³eBl 3 Ex edIm,I sMgYtkþa EdlmankMras; 20 mm sMeNImBI 40% eTA 14%
enAeBlEdlkþakMras; 13 mm RtUv)anraykarN_faRtUvkarry³eBl 4-6 Ex edIm,IsMgYtenAma:eLsIu .
karsakl,enAma:eLsIu enAsMeNIm 17% )anbgðajnUvlkçN³emkanicdUcxageRkam :
kMritsMeLgqøgkat;KW 95-107 N/mm cubic kMritPaByWt 14,000-14,100 N/mm cubic
kMritsMBaFRsb 52-62.5 N/mm cubic kMritsMBaFEkg 8-9 N/mm cubic sMBaFkat; 10.5-12.5 N/mm
cubic karkat;bMEbkedayEkg 37 N/mm karkat;edaybBaÄit 40 N/mm nig PaBrwg 6,540-6,970 N .
enAeBleQIenAx©I kMritsMeLgqøgkat; 88.5 N/mm cubic kMritPaByWt 14,715 N/mm cubic,
sMBaFRsb 51.5 N/mm cubic sMBaFkat; 5-5.5 N/mm cubic katkat;edayEkg 58.5 N/mm
karkat;edaybBaÄit 58.5 N/mm PaBrwgenARCug 5,050 N nigPaB rwgenAcug 6,180 N .
enAkMritsMeNIm 15% kMritsMeLg 73.5 N/mm cubic kMritPaByWt 12,360 N/mm cubic sMBaFRsb
52.5 N/mm cubic, sMBaFkat; 6-6.5 N/mm2 karkat;edayEkg 49.5 N/mm karkat; edaybBaÄit 54

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

3

:

kMritrWgénRCug 3,985 N nigkMritrwgenAcug 5,445 N . kMritPaBrYjBIRss;eTAs¶tÜ 3.4% RCugEkg
nig 6.6% RCugbBaÄit .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 8]
N/mm

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

RbEhl : 23°N eTA 5°S [1] . manduHlUtlas;enAéRBbzm nigmankarrukran GacCaéRBeRsag rW
éRBel,aH cMruHenAtMbn;esIm niglicTwk b:Eu nþk_manduHenAtambeNþaypøÚv sÞwg Tenø nigvalERs .
enAtMbn;éRBlicTwk sab vaduHlUtlas;layCamYy Melaleuca spp . enAkm<Cú a
vamanduHenAéRBBak;kNþalCMruHsøwk nigkMrenA kñgú éRBeRsag .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 7]
:

duHlUtlas;enAry³kMBs; 20-1,500 m a.s.l [1] (eRkam 800 m a.s.l. [3, 7])
edaymankMritePøógFøak;RbcaMqañ CM amFüm 800-3,000 mm tMbn;EdlmanrdUvBIr R)aMg nigvsSa .
Fn;ngw rdUvR)aMg Edlmanry³eBl 3-4 Ex [1] . sItuNðPaBmFüm : 20-30ºC [1] .
sItuNðPaBmFümenAExekþA : 30-36ºC [1] . sItuNðPaB mFüm TabbMputenAExRtCak; : 15-25ºC [1] .
sItuNðPaBTabbMput : >5ºC [1] . vaCaRbePT eQI EdlRtUv karBnøW nigmankarFn;nwgePøgI mansMbk
karBar . vamanlT§PaBkat;bnßykarlUtlas;rbs; esµA lalang grass (Imperata cylindrica) .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3, 7, 8]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

tMbn;eqñrPñRM kvaj (A) PaKxageCIgPñRM kvaj (B) TMnabkNþal (d) TMnablicTwkTenøemKgÁeRkam (E)
tMbn;GaNamxagt,Úg (g) .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3]
[tMbn;RbPBRKab;BC
U (Projection: UTM; Horizontal Datum: Indian coordinates)]:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

4

kMBg;FM (X:539779 Y:1444098) kMBg;FM (X:535833 Y:1429922) kMBg;FM (X:550649 Y:1421984)
kMBg;FM (X:534774 Y:1406109) RkecH (X:587956 Y:1388382) kMBg;FM (X:524985 Y:1401082)
kMBg;FM (X:529218 Y:1445532) RkecH (X:594835 Y:1425953) ekaHkug (X:336601 Y:1292074)
kMBg;FM (X:544576 Y:1432832) kMBg;FM (X:532794 Y:1398585) eBaF×sat; (X:290036 Y:1323858)
ekaHkug (X:380635 Y:1241779) RkecH (X:575828 Y:1457121) RBHviha (X:505989 Y:1532493)
kMBg;FM (X:548465 Y:1434598) ekaHkug (X:329784 Y:1266328) ekaHkug (X:285400 Y:1307780)
sÞwgERtg (X:589200 Y:1518300) eBaF×sat; (X:354350 Y:1348650) RBHviha (X:511900
Y:1534350) mNÐlKIrI (X:715845 Y:1352093) .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3]

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

lUtlas;l¥ enAelIdImni sUvmanCICati nigdk;Twk dI\dæ nigdIsbM UrxSac; rW manfµrak;² enAtambeNþaysÞgw rW
Tenø . vayNPaBdI Rsal mFüm nigFn; . vaRtUv)andaMenAelIdImni sUvmanCICati rW éRBricril b:Eu nþmin
dk;Twk nigtMbn;valesµA . Fn;ngw dIEdlrak; nigminmanCICati .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

eQI]: eRbIR)as;srM ab;eFIV nava begáalTUrs½BÞ Epñkxagkñúgrbs;pHÞ eQIfamBl eQImlU
begáalsMrab;bBa¢Ún sar srsrpÞH eQIGar sMng; Rsal nigF¶n; s<an Fñmw pøÚvrfePøgI sMPar³eFIBV eI QI
cMlak;eQI kþarmQUs eRKOgsgðarwm FüÚg . enAkñgú vb,Fm’Exµr taRtavRtUv)aneRbIR)as;srM ab;eFIVCaTVa nig
s‘umrbs;TVa CaBiessenA tamR)asaTburaNExµmyY cMnnY .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 8]
[Gnupl]:
sMbkRtUv)aneRbIR)as;CafñaMRKun Emk nigsøwksMrab;CafñaBM üa)aleraKmYl .
eRbIR)as;srM ab;daMéRBeQIeLIgvij nig begánI KuNPaBdI nigkat;bnßykarduHlUtlas;rbs;esµArYmman
Imperata cylindrica nig Gleichenia linearis . RbePTenHRtUv)aneRbIR)as;CaeQIpþl;mb
ø ; nigCMrk
enAkñgú sYn nigtampøvÚ .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

:

ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 7, 8]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

eQIRbNit .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3, 6]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: manduHlUtlas;enAéRBbzm nigmankarrukran GacCaéRBeRsag rW éRBel,aH
cMruHenAtMbn; esIm niglicTwk b:Eu nþkm_ anduHenAtambeNþaypøÚv sÞwg Tenø nigvalERs .
enAtMbn;éRBlicTwk sab vaduH lUtlas; layCamYy Melaleuca spp . enAkm<Cú a
vamanduHenAéRBBak;kNþalCMruHsøwk nigkMrenA kñúgéRB eRsag . vaduHlUtlas;CaRbePT Edle)aHTItaMgfµI
bnÞab;BIéRBRtUv)anePøgI eqH nigtMbn;valesµA "lalang" (Imperata cylindrica) . enARbeTskm<Cú a
vaEtduHenAkñgú éRBBak;kNþalCMruHsøwk nigkMrenAkñgú éRBeRsag .
[kardaMduH]: cMkareQIenA Java RtUv)anbegát
I eLIg edaykMnt;cenøaHdaM 2.5-3 x 1 m .
[karRKb;RKg]: taRtavCaRbePT EdlrwgmaM niglUtlas;)anl¥TaMgkñúgFmµCati nigedaykardaMduH . vaman
RbeyaCn_sMrab;kardaMduHéRBeQIeLIgvij nigkardaMCacMkar edayehtufa vamankarsmrbxønÜ x<s;
duHExñg)an elOn nigFn;ngw esµA . sMrab;karRKb;RKgesµA EdlmanRbsiT§PaB vaKYrRtUv)andaMlayCamYy
RbePTeQI EdlFn;nwgmøb; . kardaMlayCamYy Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth. subsp. bancana
(Miq.) Bloembergen KWTTYl)aneCaKC½y KYreGaykt;sK
M al; . edImePøaH rW BIr KYrEtkat;myY ecj
karkab;rMelaH
RtUveFIeV LIgenAerogral; 5 qñaM nig 10 qñaM enAeBlcMkarmanGayu 30 qñaM . karéRkEmkRtUv)aneFIeV LIg
edIm,I
begánI karlUtlas;kMBs; . edImeQI EdlFMEtgmanRbehag . xYbrbs;cMkarKW 15 qñaM
sMrab;plitkmµsrsr nig 100 qñaMsMrab;plitkmµeQIGar .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

6

Tinñpl]: kMenInGgát;p©itmFümRbcaMqañ M 0.8 cm (37 qñaMénkardaMsakl,enA W-Java), 0.6 cm (cMkar
Gayu 20 qñaMenA Sabah elIdI podsolic), 0.7 cm / 0.8 cm (cMkarGayu 38 / 29 qñaMenA ]bTVbI ma:eLsIu)
. kMenIn maDmFümRbcaMqañ éM ncMkareQIh‘ub enA Java KW 6.1 m³/ha . maDmFümenAkñgú éRBFmµCati
enA\NÐeÚ nsIu 1.3 m³/ha .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 8]
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

7

:

RKab;TMeu nAeBlEdlEpøERbCaBN’etñatcas; . RKab;BCU GacRtUv)anrkSaTukry³eBl 6 Ex b:Eu nþBkY va
)at;bg;lT§PaBdMNuHya:gelOn enAeBlEdlRKab;RtUv)anrkSaTukkñúgEpø . RKab;Rss;manGRtadMnuH 6580% GacrkSaTuk)anry³eBldl;eTA 6 Ex nigduHenAkñg
ú ry³eBlBI 15 éf¶rhUtdl; 2 Ex [8] (-3 Ex [2])
. kñúgRKab;BCU mYyKILÚRkamman RKab; mio. 5 [2, 8] (4 mio. [5]) . karsab
RKab;eGay)anqab;rh½spþl;lT§pl)anya:gl¥ . RKab;KrY RtUv)anlayCamYyxüac; nigsabenAkñgú møb;
. vaRtUvkarkarkarBarBIRsemac . kareRsacTwkRtUveFVeI LIgedaykar)aj; . kUneQIRtUv)andaMenAkñgú
fñalbNþHú bnÞab;BIry³eBl 2 ExenAeBlmankMBs; 5-7 cm . kUneQIRtUv)andaMenAcMkarenAeBlvaman
kMBs; 30-45 cm . kardaMedayKl; eFIeV GaymancMnYnedImeRcIn . karbnþBUCedaysrIragÁ RtUv)aneFIV
eLIgedaykarkat; nig kardaMCalikar . eTaHbI karkat;nUvfñaMgCaeRcInBIEmk Edlcas;ke_ day
edImeQIenAEtminGacduHecjrWs)an . b:Eu nþenAeBlExñgduHBnøk BYkvaduHecjb¤s)anya:gl¥ . kabnþBCU
In-vitro pþl;nvU kUnEdlGacduHrWs b:uEnþminGaceRbIR)as;daMenAeRkABIedImeQI EdlmanGayu 10 qñaM .
RKab;BCU EdlRtUvkarkñgú mYyhicta sMrab;cMkarenARbeTskm<Cú a : cMnnY RKab; kñúgmYyKILÚRkam :
4,000,000 . cenøaHdaM = 2.5 x 2.5 m . cMnYnekIneQIsuT§ EdlRtUvkarkñg
ú mYyhicta : 1,600 .
kMritsøab; : 1,920 = 20% enAkEnøgdaM , 2,134 = 10% enAeBldwkCBa¢nÚ , 2,668 = 20% enAfñalbNþúH
. GRtadMNuH 40% . kMritsuT§ = 95%, srubRKab;BCU EdlRtUvkar 0.003 kg" [5] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 3, 5, 8]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVl¥ti ]: mandUcCa Bunaea alcinoe, Reticulitermes flavipes . CaTUeTAvaminRtUv)anbMpøajeday
ambrosia beetles b:Eu nþvaeFIk
V arbMpaø jsMbkeQImlU .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2]
[CMgW]: minTan;manTinn
ñ y½ .
[epSg²]: eQIRsaygayRblak; rW xUc . dUcenH vaRtUv)andak;fñaMKm
I IRbqaMgnwgkarxUc rWRblak; bnÞab;
BIkarGar .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2]
[

:

CaTUeTA RbePTenHminEmnCaRbePTrgeRKaHfñak;eT BIeRBaHvaRtUv)anduHlUtlas;ya:geRcInesÞRI Kb;tMbn;
. BIeRBaHeQIRbePTenHmantMrUvkarx<s; nigmantMél eFIeV GayRbePTenHRtUv)ankab;rMlMhYsehtu
nigzitenA kñgú sßanPaBCitputBUC RbsinminmankarkarBareT . vaduHray)a:y
nigCMrkrbs;vaRtUv)anbMpøajedaykar ranykdI karkab;edayeRCIserIs nigkarkab;eQIxsu c,ab; .
cMnnY edImeQIEdlcas;RtUv)ankat;bnßy nig bc©úb,nñvamankarBi)akñúgkarEsVgrkRbPBsMPar³tMnrBUC (
germplasm) . enAqñaM 2002 karRbCMeu lIkTIBIr rbs; CTSP eTAelIyT
u §saRsþkúgñ karGPirkSesnéRBeQI
eTAelIRbePTtaRtav EdlCaRbePTGaT×PaB Edl RtUvkarkarBar nigGPirkS . RbePTenHRtUv)ankarBar
edayc,ab;éRBeQIénRbeTskm<Cú a elx 35 .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3]

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

ekaHkug eBaF×sat; sÞwgERtg RkecH kMBg;FM mNÐlKIrI nigRBHvihar .
ÉksarBieRKaH [3]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

F> karGPirkS

8

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
RbPBkMeNIt]: Rb‘yu eN km<Cú a \NÐa \NÐeÚ nsIu Lav ma:eLsIu PUma hVlI IBnI éf evotNam .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1]
[karnaMcl
U ]:
GasIu (sgðabUrI RsIlgáa )
[

GaeRhVc (nIesrIya:)
karIebon (camIka),
Gaemrikxagt,Úg (eRbsIul)
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 3]

p> epSg²

:

sarFatuBl]: C½rrbs;edImeQIGacbNþaleGayrlakdl;Es,k .
[cMNat;fñak;]:
Gñkrukvç iTüaCaeRcIn)anbMEbk F. fragans CaBIrRbePT : F. gigantea
CaedImeQImankenSamsøwkFM edaymankareRbHelIsMbk nigmansrésEvn 5-6 KU minEmn 8 KUeT . F.
wallichiana CaedImeQI tUc edaymansøwkFM nigpáaFM CamYynwgEpøragdUceGlIb .
[Rbvtþi]: enAedImstSvtSTI 20 F. fragrans nig Eusideroxylon zwageri Teijsm. & Binnend.
RtUv)anruk rk CaRbePTeQI 'ironwood' EdlmanlkçN³RsedogKñaenAPaKxagt,ÚgsUma:Rta nigRbPB
rbs;RbePTeQIenHkMBgu RtUv)anbMpøaj .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

9

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Hildebrand, J.W., et al. 1995. Fagraea Thunb. In Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. &
Wong, W.C. (Eds.): Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 5(2). Timber trees: Minor
commercial timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. pp 234-242.
[8]

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[2] PROSEA, 1995: Plant Resources of South East Asia 5 - (2) Timber trees: Minor
commercial timbers.

[3] CTSP, 2003: Forest Gene Conservation Strategy - Gene Conservation Strategy, Species
Monographs, Gene Ecological Zonation, Species Site Matching Model. (CD-ROM).

[4] Gardner,S.; Sidisunthorn, P.; Anusarnsunthorn, V., 2000: A Field Guide to Forest Trees
of Northern Thailand.

[5] FA/CTSP-DANIDA, 2005: Farmers Tree Planting Manual - Guidelines for Site Selection
and Tree Planting. (CD-ROM).

[6] FA, 2002 (draft): List of Trade Names of Commercial Wood in Cambodia, Trade Names
of Commercial Woods, unpublished.

[7] Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng: Kessler, P.J.A., 2004: Trees of Laos and
Vietnam: a field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. BLUMEA.

[9] Petri, M. (DED), 2006: Own observations.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[8] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database –
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=
18199 (Internet source)

10

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Garcinia mangostana L]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Garcinia mangostana L]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y
X> eQµaHepSg²

³

Garcinia mangostana L. [4]

³

mangosteen [6]

³

Mangostana garcinia Gaertn. [26]

³

mangostan, mangis, mangostán, palo de cruz (Spanish);
mangoustan, mangoustanier, mangouste, mangoustier
(French); manggis,
(Cambodia); (Indonesia, Malaysia);
mankhud (Laos); mingut (Burma); mangkhut (Cambodia);
manggustan, manggis (Philippines); mangkhut (Thailand);
cay mang cut, mang cut (Vietnam) [1,4,6].

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

mgÇút
ÉksarBieRKaH : [4]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

1

mangkhut [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Theales
RKYsar : Guttiferae [11]
ePT : Garcinia
RbePT : Garcinia mangostana L. [4]

ÉksarBieRKaH: [1 ; 4 ; 11 ; 27 ]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: mgÇút CaedImeQIEdlRss;s¥at mankMBs;rhUtdl; 20 m EteTaHCaya:gNak¾eday
cMeBaHedImEdldaM mankMBs;minelIsBI 10 m nigmanGgát;p©itBI 0.25-0.35 m. kenSamsøwkmanragCa
saCII edImrbs;vaRtg;RsLÚnl¥ manEmkEbksaxaeRcIn b:uEnþRbBn§½b¤smankarduHlUtlas;minsUvl¥.[1]
edImmgÇút mankMBs;BI 10-20 m.[4] edImvamankMBs;BI 6-2m ehIymanedImRtg;RsLÚnl¥
EdlmanEmksmamaRteTAnwgtYedIm nigmankenSamsøwkmanragCasaCI.[6] edImmgÇútmankMBs;BI 10m
eTA 20 m ehIymanEmkTab² nigmankenSamsøwkRkas;.[13] vaCaRbePTrukçCatiEdlmanedImtUc
duHlUtlas;yWt ehIymanBN’ébtgCanic© mankMBs; 6-25 m nigmankenSamsøwkragCasaCI. [26]
[sMbk]: edImmgÇút mansMbkBN’etñat layexµA eRKImehIyRkas; ehIyenAeBlkat;manehorCr½ BN’
elOgx©I.[1] sMbkrbs;vamanBN’etñatcas; b¤esÞIrEtexµA ragrbk² nigsMbkxagkñúgman
pÞúknUvCatiCr½s¥it lVIg BN’elOg.[26]
[søwk]:
mgÇút mansøwkCaRbePTsøwkqøas; ragdUcs‘ut BgRkeBI b¤RTEvg Edlcugsøwkman
ragTalehIyRsYc Evg Kl;søwkmanragRsUc EKmsøwkrageBjehIyTal nig mansNæandUc
Es,kehIyRkas; vamanBN’ ébtgcas; b¤BN’elOgRsallayébtgehIyPøWcMeBaHépÞsøwkxagelI
nigEpÞsøwkxageRkammanBN’elOg Rsal layBN’ébtg ehIyépÞsøwkTaMgsgxagBMumanerameT
EdlsøwknImYy²manRbEvg 12-23 cm nig manTTwgTMhM 4-10 cm. TgsøwkmanRbEvg 1.5-2.0 cm
EdlKl;søwkmanrage)a:g RkBMupáatMerobenAelI GkS½ragesÞIrbBa¢it. [1]
søwkmgÇút CaRbePTsøwkQm tMerobenAelITgxøI manragRTEvg b¤manragCaBgRkeBI EdlmanRbEvgBI
15-25 cm nigmanTTWgTMhM 7-13 cm ehIymansNæandUcEs,k Rkas; EKmsøwkrageBj
cugsøwkmanragRsYc EdlépÞsøkw xagelIrelag manBN’ébtgPøW épÞsøwkxageRkamman BN’elOg
layébtg nigRTnugkNþalman BN’ébtgRsal nigmanRTnugxag²Ca eRcInEdlsßit
enAXøat²BIKña.[6] søwk CaRbePTsøwkQm EdlmansNæandUcEs,k Rkas; ragBgRkeBIRTEvg
manRbEvg 15-25 cm nigmanBN’ébtgcas;.[13] søwkCaRbePTsøwkQm TgsøwkxøI
manragdUcs‘utRTEvg b¤manragBgRkeBI mansNæandUcEs,k ehIyRkas; manBN’ébtgcas;

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

3

EdlépÞsøwkxagelImanPaBPøWrelag manBN’elOgx©Ilayébtg nigragsµwkenAEpñk xageRkam
manRbEvgBI 9-25 cm nigTTWgBI 4.5-10.0 cm EdlgayRsYlcMNaM nigRTnugkNþalmanBN’ Rsal.
søwkx©ImanBN’páaQUk.[26]
[páa]:
páamgÇút CaRbePTpáaeTVePT b¤páaÉkePT GaRsy½eTAnwgvtþmanrbs;eksreQµal
enAEpñkxagcugEmk faeTalb¤KUr. vamanRtbk nigRsTab;páacMnYn 4 eksreQµaltUc²mancMnYn 16-17
EdlmanTgeksr eQµalEvg nige)aøklMGgmancMnYn 2ft søwkrbs;vaesÞIrGgÁúyehIyKµanTg
GUEvmanekasikacMnYnBI 4-8 ekasika nigeksrjIKµanTg.[1] páarbs;vaxøI manTgpáaRkas;
EdlduHeTalenAcugEmk b¤ duHCaKUr Edlman Ggát;p©itRbEhl 5.5 cm ehIymanRtbkpáacMnYn 4
nigRsTab;páacMnYn 4 BN’elOglayébtg nigEKm² BN’Rkhm.[6] páamanTTwgTMhM 4-6 cm
manBN’páaQUk nigkNþalmanCatiCr½xab;²BN’s ehIyman Rtbk nigRsTab;páamancMnYn 4
ehIymankBa©úMpáaenAcMBamEmk. páarbs;varIkenAeBléf¶ ehIyRtbkpáarbs; vagayRCuH enA
eBlEdlpáarIk. CaFmµtapáajIduHenAEtÉg b¤páarbs;vamane)øaklMGgs¶Üt ehtuenHehIyBMu
manplkñúgkarvivtþn¾rbs;EpøeT.[13] páamanTMhM 4-5 cm CaRbePTpáaeTVrePTenAelIedImEtmYy
nigvaman rage)a:g. páamanTMrg;CacegáamcMnYn 3-9 páa sßitenAcugEmk manRtbkpáacMnnY 4 ragRTEvg
Rkas; Rtbkpáarage)a:g manBN’ébtgehIymancMnucRkhm²enAEpñkxageRkA nigEpñkxagkñúg
manBN’elOg Rsal layBN’Rkhm. eksreQµalmaneRcIn manCICati ehIyKaneram.
páarbs;vaCaRbePTpáaeTVePT
EdlduHenAeTalEtÉg
b¤CaKUrenAEpñkxagcugEmkEdlx©I
RsTab;páarbs;vamanBN’elOgx©Ilayébtg enA EKm² mancMnucBN’Rkhm² b¤BN’Rkhmcas;
nigqab;RCuH. [26]
[Epø]: mgÇút CaTUeTAEpørbs;vaeTal b¤CYnkalmanKUr. Epørbs;vamUl CaRbePTEpøsac;manRKab;eRcIn
EdlmanGgátp; ©itBI 5-7 cm nigvamanRsTab;páamingayRCuHehIysßitenACMuvji sÞikma:.
sMbkrbs;vamanBN’ RBIgTMulaysVay ehIyRkas; (0.8-1.0 cm) nigmansNæandUcEs,k.
vaCasMbkBT§½CMvu ijEkøbsac;
EdlmanbrimaNxus²Kña
(5-7)
EdlsMbkxøHCMuvijRKab;
nigsMbkxøHminenACMuvijRKab;eT. sMbkvamin GacbriePaK)aneT eRBaHvamanCatilVIgxøaMg
nigmanCatiCr½BN’elOgRsal. eRkABIsMbk sac;Ekøb²KWCaEpñk énEpøEdlGacbriePaK)an.
sac;EdlmanBN’sdUcRBil
manrsCatiq¶aj;BisarKYreGaykt;sMKal;
nigman
rsCatiRbhak;RbEhlnwgEpøTMBaMg)ayCUr nigmankøinRkGUbl¥.[1]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

EpømgÇút CaRbePTEpßsac; manragmUl rlag EdlmanGgát;p©it 4-7 cm manBN’sVayRkem:AenAeBlTMu
ehIyenAelIEpømanRtbk. sMbkEpømankMras;RbEhl 0.9 cm manBN’sVay ehIymanRKab;FM²cMnYnBI
0-3RKab;
Edlbgáb;enAkñgú sac;BN’srelag.[6] Epørbs;vamanGgátlp©itTMhM 9 cm
manBN’sVaycas; layetñat nigmanRsTab;CatieQIFM²enAKl;TgénEpø EdlmancMnYn 5 eTA 8
EdltMerobenArabEt ekagbnþic. Epørbs;va CaRbePTEpøsac;manRKab;eRcIn EdlsMbkman
CatisésdUcsac;eQI ehIymanBN’ dUcRsaRkhm mankMras;Rkas;Cit 1 cm manpÞúknUvsac;cMnYn 5-8
EdlCaKMrbénRKab; b:uEnþPaKeRcInsac; rbs;vaBMumanRKab;eT. sac;rbs;vamanrsCatiq¶aj;Nas;. [13]
Epørbs;varlag CaRbePTEpsac;man RKab;eRcIn Edlk,alEpøRKb;eTAedayRtbkBkenAxagcugénTgEpø
EdlmanragRtIekaN
ehIymancMnYnBI
4-8
nigxagcugEpømanRtbkrabdUcpáakUlab
Epørbs;vamanBN’sVayRkem:A b¤BN’sVaylayRkhm ehIy elag manGgát;p©itTMhM 3.4-7.5 cm .
sMbkmgÇút mankMras;BI 6-10 mm manBN’Rkhm enAeBlEdlkat;TTwgEpø nig
manRblak;Tkw BN’sVay EpñkxagkñúgmanBN’sVayRkem:Alays nigmanpÞúk nUvCatiCr½lVIgBN’elOg.
manEkøb²ragRtIekaN BN’ssÁúsdUcRBilcMnYnBI 4-8 Ekøb ehIysac;rbs;vaTn; ¬EdlkarBit
vaCasMbkénRKab;¦. EpømgÇút GacKµanRKab; b¤manRKab;cMnYnBI 1-5 ehIyvivtþn¾eTACaRKab;.
RKab;rbs;va manragmUldUcs‘utEtRTEvg EtmanRKab;xøHragsMEb:t manRbEvg 2.5 cm nigmanTTwgTMhM
1.6 cm EdletagCab;ng
w sac;. sac;rbs;va manCatiGasIuttic b¤manCatiGasIutexSay EtmanrsCati
q¶aj;Bisar EdlKYreGaycg;TTYlTan.[26]
mgÇút ecjpáaEtmþgeTkñúgmYyqñaM elIkElgEtPUmPi aKxagt,ÚgsirIlgáab:ueNÑaH EdlCakrNIBiess.
RtUvEt eFVIkarRbmUlplEpøenAeBlEdlsMbkrbs;vaenATn;. edIm,IeCosvag enAeBlEdlRbmUl
Epørbs;vaFøak;mk mankar)ak;Ebk RtUveRbICeNþIreLIgebHvaedayéd ehIydak;vaeTAkñúgkeBa©Ir
b¤kRnþk.[1] enARbeTssirIlgáa enAtMbn;Edlmanry³kMBs;Tab EpømgÇútcab;epþImTMucab;BI Ex]sPa
dl;Exkkáda EtcMeBaHtMbn;Edlmanry³ kMBs;x<s; cab;epþImTMuBIExkkáda dl;ExsIha b¤BIExsIha
dl;ExkBaØa. enARbeTs\NÐa rdUvEdlEpømgÇútTMu manBIrdUvepSgKña rdUvTImYyKWenAkMLúgxül;rdUvmUsüúg
¬BIExkkáda dl;Extula¦ nigrdUvTIBIrKWcab;BIExemsa rhUtdl;Exmifuna. enA Puerto Rican
edImEdlTTYl)anBnøWRKb;RKan; ecjEpøBIExkkáda dl;ExsIha cMeBaHedImEdlduHenAkñugmøb;
manEpøBIExvicäki a dl;ExFñÚ.[26]

4

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

edImmgÇút mansac;eQIF¶n; rwgmaM nigmanBN’exµA CaTUeTA vamanTMgn;esÞIrEtesµIr 1 b¤eRcInCag 900
kg/m³
. vaeRbIsMrab;sMng; nig kargarCageQI b:uEnþkareRbIR)as;rbs;vamanEdlkMNt;
eRbI)ancMeBaHEtkarsagsg; EdlmanTMhMtUc²b:ueNÑaH.[1] sac;eQIrbs;vamanBN’RkhmRkem:A F¶n;
ehIymanPaBrWgmaM nigeRbIenAkñúg kargarCageQI.[6] enARbeTséf cMeBaHedIm mgÇútEdl
BMumanEpøehIydYlrlM sac;eQIrbs;vaGacykmk eRbIR)as;)an b:uEnþeRbIR)as;kñúgTMhMtUcb:ueNÑaH.
sac;eQIrbs;vamanBN’etñatcas; manTMgn;F¶n; EdlesÞIrEt liceTAkñúgTwk nigmanlkçN³Fn;lµm.[26]

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

mgÇút manRbPBkMeNItenAekaH Sunda nigenA Malay Pensinsula nigCaFmµtaBMumanduHenAxageRkA
RbeTsenAPUmiPaKxagekItenaHeT. edImrbs;vamanRbPBkMeNItmkBIéRBTwkePøógtMbn;RtUBicéntMbn;eqñr
xag ekIt RbeTsma:eLsIu.[13] vaRtUv)andaMduHenATMhKM Yrsm enAtMbn;sMxan;²mYycMnYnenA\NÐÚcin cava
s‘Uma:Rta Malay Pensinsula hVIlIBIn the Moluccas nigsirIlgáa.[12]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

5

:

edImmgÇút RtUvkarGakasFatuekþA EdlmanlkçxNÐstI uNðPaBBiess RtUvkarsMenIm nigRtUvkardIRbeTs
mYycMnYnEdlsßitenAtMbn;RtUBic. eRkABItMbn;Edlerobra:b;xagelI vakMrmankarduHlUtlas;Nas;
b¤mankar duHlUtlas;BMul¥. ktþaEdlcaM)ac;sMrab;karduHlUtlas;KW sItuNðPaBtMbn;RtUBic
nigtMbn;EdlmanePøógFøak;
eRcIneBjmYyqñaM.
nigtMbn;TMnab;énRbeTssirIlgáa
EdlTTYl\T§IBlxül;mUsüúgnirtI nigmankarGnueRKaH edaymanPøógFøak;. mgÇút RtUvkarxül;
nigBn¶Wéf¶.[1]
enAry³eBld¾ekþAénrdUvR)aMgvacab;epþImecjpáa.
[6]
mgÇút
manduHeRcInbMputenAtMbn;RtUBic. vaBMuGacFn;RTaMnwgsItuNðPaBeRkam 4 °C nigelIsBI 38 °C eT.
enARbeTsma:eLsIu karduHlUtlas;rbs;vamanEdnkMNt; KWduHenAry³kMBs; 450 m. enA Madras
vaduHenAry³kMBs;cab;BI 75-1500 m eFobnwgnIv:UsmuRT. CaFmµta edImmgÇútRtUvkarsMenImenAkñgú
briyakasx<s; nigkMBs;Tkw ePøógRbcaMqañMya:gtic 1270mm/ m² nigminmankarraMgs¶Ütry³eBlyUr.
mgÇút RtUvkardIEdleRsaHTWkl¥ nigGacrkSaTwkenAxageRkam)an enAkMritkMBs;RbEhlCa 1.8 m.

mgÇút
RtUveCosvagdaMenAtMbn;Edlmanxül;xøaMg
nigxül;GMbil
k¾dUcCadIéRb
b¤dIsMbUreTAedayCatiTwk.[26]
lkçxNÐsItN
u ðPaB EdlmanlkçN³smRsbsMrab;mgÇútduHlUtlas;KWRtUvman ry³kMBs;cab;BI 01000 m eFobnwgnIv:UsmuRT kMBs;TwkePøógCamFümRbcaMqñaMenAcenøaHBI 1300-2500 mm/m²
nigmanr)ayeTogTat; enArdUvnImYy² EdlrdUvekþAmanefrevlacenøaHBI 0 eTA 2 Ex. sItuNðPaBGb,rma
CamFümcMeBaHExRtCak;
bMput
KWRbEhlCaRtCak;cab;BI
5
20ºC
EdlsItuNðPaBGb,rmaCak;lak;KUrEtx<s;Cag 5ºC.[12]

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

BMuTan;manTinñny½Cak;lak;.

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

mgÇút duHlUtlas;l¥enAelIdI\dæ ehIydIRtUvEtmansMenIm b:uEnþminebomTwkeT.[1]

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

:

sac;eQI]: edImmgÇúteRbIR)as;sMrab;karsagsg;epSg² nig kargarCageQIeQIdUcCa eFVItu TU
CaedImb:uEnþ manEdnkMNt;kñúgkareRbIR)as; KWeRbIR)as;)ancMeBaHEtkarsagsg;EdlmanxañttUc
b:ueNÑaH.[1]
[Gnupl]: EpømgÇútRss;GacbriePaK)an nigGaccMGineFVICadMNab; b:Eu nþeBleFVICadMNab; vanwgkat;bnßy
køin RkGUb. RbsinebI ebHEpøminTan;TMu GaceFVIkardwkCBa¢nÚ edayBMu)at;bg;KuNPaB.[1] Epøl¥
bMputKIduHCacegáam ehIyEpøTaMgenaHmanbrimaNénRsTab;BkelIEpøeRcInbMput enAKl;Tgrbs;Epø
cMeBaHEpøRbePTenH manEkøb sac;eRcIn nigRKab;tic. cMnYnenHEtgEtmankarTak;TgKña. [6] mgÇút
CaFmµtaeKEtgEtbriePaKEpøRss; sMrab;eFVICabEg¥m. CYnkal sac;rbs;vaCaGaceFVICabEg¥mkMb:ug
b:uEnþeKniyayfavanwg)at;bg;køind¾RbNit
rbs;vaenAeBlEdl
evcx©b;vaenAkñúgkMbug:
CaBiessRbsinebIkMedAkMcat;emeraKeRcInCag 10 naTI. vaman rsCatiq¶aj;bMput

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

6

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

enAeBlEdleRbITwksar:U 40% nigeFVIkarsMlab;emeraKry³eBlRtwmEt 5 naTIb:ueNÑaH.
EpøEdlmanCatiGasIuteRcIn l¥bMputsMrab;karrkSaTukry³eBlyUr. enARbeTsma:eLsIu edIm,IeFVIdMNab;
eKykRKab;rbs;va es¶arCamYysárEdlmanbrimaNesµIrKña ry³eBl 15-20 naTI
bnÞab;mkdak;eTAkñúgRkLEkv. enARbeTshVIlIBIn kareFVIdMNab; KWRtUveFVIkares¶arEkøbénsac;mgÇút
CamYy
sáretñat
ehIyRKab;rbs;vaRbEhlCamanrsCatiq¶aj;.
CYnkalRKab;rbs;
RtUv)anbriePaKTeTbnÞab;BIes¶ar
b¤dut.
sMbkrbs;va
sMbUreTAedayCatisés.
bnÞab;BIeFVIRbRBwtþkmµCamYy
sUdüÚmkør:Y
6%
sMbkrbs;vagay
nwgsVit
ehIysMbkrbs;vaERbCaBN’etñatRkem:A ehIyragGn§ildUcecAhYy.[26]

7

cMeBaHkareRbICa»sf
briePaKEpørbs;vaTb;Tl;nwgCMgWRKunekþA
CafñaMbB©úaH
nig
RbqaMgnwgeraKraKmYl.[1,4 ,6] . cab;taMgBIsMbkmanpÞúknUvCati phytosterine nigCati tannin
(manpÞúkcMnYn 15%) GaceFVIkardkhUt eRbgecjBIRKab; (EdlmanpÞúknUvCati tannin 45%)
KWyUr²dkhUtmþg. [13] sMbkrbs;EpømanpÞúknUvCati tannin 7-14% nigCatiCr½s¥it
ehIyenARbeTscin
eKeRbICati
tannin
enHsMrab;karsMlab;Es,k.
vak¾man
RbeyaCn¾cMeBaHkarRClk;BN’exµA. sMbkrbs;EpømgÇút eRbIsMrab;RbqaMgnwgCMgWpSit nig
RbqaMgnwgskmµPaB rbs;BYkRbUtug.[26] citsMbkmgÇút CacMerokesþIg² ehIysMgYt
bnÞab;mkkinvaeGaym:t;dcU emSA
briePaK
sMrab;raraMg
nigTb;Tl;eraKraKmYl.
nigGaceFVICaeRbgsMrab;labEs,k
EdlvaGacGaclabenAelIEs,k
EdlekItRtGk
nigenAelIEs,kEdlmanbBaðaepSg²eTot.
esarsMbkrbs;vabriePaK
edIm,IkMcat;CMgWraK
nigeraKrlake)aøkenam RbemH nig eFVICaeRbgritenAEpñkxageRkA. citsMbkCacMNit ehIyqugCamYyTwk
mYyyb; bnÞab;mkykTwkEdlqugrYcenaHbriePaK CafñaMEkeraKraKraMuér: EdlekItmancMeBaHmnusSeBjvy½
nig kUnekµg. CnCatihVIlIPIn eKes¶arsøwk nig sMbkedImmgÇút sMrab;eFVICafñaRM Kun
nigCafñaMBüa)aleraKs¥úyRkck eCIgesH eraKraK eraKraKmYl nigeraKenamTas;. enARbeTsma:eLsIu
eKeFVIkarqugsøwkmgÇút layCamYyEpøeckx©I nigdak;Cr½kMBanbnþic sMrab;labelIrbYs
b¤dMe)AEdldac;Es,k. es¶arb¤s briePaKedIm,I eGaymanedUveTogTat;. karcMraj;sMbk eKehAfa
"amibiasine" Føab;manTIpSarbMputkMcat;GamIbéneraK raKmYl. [26]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

mgÇút CaRbePTeQIEdlBMumancMNat;fañ k;.

:

mgÇút CaRbePTeQIEdlmankarduHlUtlas;yWt manEpøtic ehIyvacab;epþImEpøeBlEdlvamanGayu 10
b¤ 15 ehIyecjEpøeRcInenAeBlEdlvamanGayu 20 qñaM. RtUvykcitþTukdak;EfTaMvabMput
enAeBlEdlykva eTAdaMenAtMbn;epSg b:uEnþcMeBaHviFIsaRsþénkardaMduH BMucaM)ac;ykcitþTukdak;eBkeT.
dMbUgRtUvEjkRKab;ecjBI Epø BIr eTAbIéf¶bnÞab;mkerIsRKab;Edl)at;bg;lT§PaBdMNuHecj nigBIr
eTAbIs)aþh¾bnÞab;mkRtYtBinitü
EpømþgeTot
RbsinebImansl;kaksMNl;.[1]
bnÞab;BIykvaecjBIsßanIybNþúHkUneQI RtUvykkUneQI eTAdaMenAkñúgreNþA EdlmandIesIm
ehIymanCI. cenøaHBIkUneQImYy eTAkUneQImYyKYrEt 10m x 10 m.
ehIydIRtUvmanpÞúknUvsarFatuciBa©wmx<s; nigRtUvdak;CIeGay)anjwkjab;taMgBIeBldaM eRBaHrukçCatiRsUb
yk brimaNénsarFatuciBa©mw tic.[1]
KYrEtdaMdkXøa BIedImmYyeTAedImmYy 10.7-12.0 m. eKcUlcitþeFVIkardaMedImmgÇútenAedImrdUvvsSa.
reNþARtUvmanTMhM 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.3 m ehIyRtUUveFVIkarerobcMvaya:gtic 30éf¶ muneBldaM
nigRtUvCIkreNþA enAelIdIEdlsMbUreTAedaysarFatuciBa©wm nigdak;RsTab;dIxagelIhalxül;.
RtUvrkSakUneQIEdltUc²
RbugRbytñ½bMput
edIm,IeCosvagvamineGayrbYsb¤s
nigeRsacTwkeGay)aneRcIn. RtUveGayvaenAkñúgmøb; xøHeday eRbIFagetñat b¤GVIepSg
manny½faKYrEteFVIkarEfTaMva ry³eBl 3-5 qñaM. cMeBaHkardaMlUtlas; enARbeTs\NÐa
ral;edImeQInmI Yy
RtUveFVIkardaMduHEfTaM
edaydak;CIlamkstVCaeTogTat;edIm,IeGayb¤s
rbs;vamankarduHlUtlas;l¥ (brimaN 45-90 kg) nig emSAsENþk (brimaN 4.5-6.8 kg) Casrubkñúg
1qñaM.
PaKeRcInedImmgÇút duHenAtammat;GUr RtBaMg bwg b¤tamExSrTwk
eRBaHvaCakEnøgEdlb¤sGacpÞúkenA
sMenIm.
eTaHCaya:gNak¾eday
rdUvekþAmanmuneBlEdledImecjcab;ecjpáa nigCakMLúgEdlpáaGacvivtþn¾ eTACaEpø)anya:gl¥.
kEnøgEdlpþl;sMenImdl;kUneQI
KWmingaynwgrk)an
dUecñHKYrEteFVIkarCIkRbLay
edIm,IeGaymanPaBgayRsYlkñúgkarEfTaM nig)aneRsacTwkCaRbcaM CaBiessenAkñúgkMLúgrdUvR)aMg. enA

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

8

RbeTsma:eLsIu nig sirlI gáa vaCakarGnuvtþn¾kardaMduHd¾samBaØ cMeBaHkardaMduHenAelIdIs¶ÜthYtEhg
eRBaHeK
eFVIkardaMduHBBYkdUg
RsUv
b¤etñat
edIm,IbgçaMgsMenIm.
KUrEtrFVIkaréRkEmkEdlcas;²enAxagkñgú ecj EdleFVI eGayedImeQIBMuGacecjEpøpáa)anl¥. mgÇút
pþl;EpømineTogTat; dUecñHkarRbmUlplRtUveFVIeLIgCaeRcInsar xus²Kña edayeFVIkarRbmUlBIedImmYy
eTAedImmYy nigBIrdUvmYy eTArdUvmYy cab;taMgBIvamanGayu 6 qñaM cMeBaHenA GaemrickNþal
nigRbeTséf cab;BIGayu 12-20 qñaM. karRbmUlplEpømgÇútdMbUg RbEhlCa )anBI 200-300 Epø.
plCamFümrbs;edImmgÇútRbEhl 500 Epø. ehIyTinñplmankarekIneLIgCalMdab; rhUtdl;qñaMTI 30
EdlenAeBlenaHTinñplmanRbEhlBI 1000-2000 Epø. enA Madras edImmgÇútnImYy²
EdlsßitenAcenøaHGayu 20-45 qñaM Gacpþl;EpøBI 2000-3000 Epø. taMgBIeBlenaHmk edImmgÇút
pþl;plCalMdab; rhUtdl;vamanGayu 100 qñaM edImrbs;vak¾enAEtpþl;pl.[19,26]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

9

:

RKab;mgÇút
rwg
nigKYrEtrkSaEpørbs;vaTukenAkñúgbnÞb;EdlRKb;RKgsItuNðPaB)an
b¤k¾enAkñúgsMenImEdlGac eGayrukçCatiBukpuy)an eTaHbICaRKab;rbs;vanwg)at;bg;lT§PaBdMNuH
bnÞab;BIykvaecjBIEpøkñúgry³eBl 5 éf¶ dUecñHeBlEdlrkSavaTukenAkñúgRKab;vaGacrs;)anrhUtdl;eTA
3-5
s)aþh¾. lT§PaBdMNuHrbs;vaGac rkSa)anry³eBlBI 1-2 Ex ebIrkSavaTukenAkñgú
bnÞb;EdlmansMrnIm nwgmansItuNðPaB 20 °C ebIrkSaTuk kñúgsItuNðPaB 10 °C vanwgxUc.
RtUveFVIkarevcx©b;RKab;edayepSImvaticCamYynwgEsø
b¤RskIdUg
edayx©b;va
ya:gNaeGayxül;ecjcUl)an ehIykarevcx©b;rebobenHGacrkSaTuk)anry³eBl 3 Ex.
ebIrkSavaTukCa mYydIlaynigFüÚg GaRtadMNuHrbs;va)at;bg;Et 22% b:ueNÑaH kñúgry³eBl 15 éf¶.
RtUvrYsran;rkSavaenA
kñúgTwkry³eBl
24
ema:g
edIm,IbegáInGaRtadMNuH.
CaTUeTAvaduHBnøkenAkñúgry³eBl 20 eTA 22 éf¶ bnÞab; BIbNþúH nigduHBnøkGs;enAéf¶TI 43 . [26]
cMeBaHRKab;EdldaMenAelIdIval b¤sÞÚgenAkñgfg;pøasÞicFM² krNIenHRtUvsÞÚgkUneQImun eBlEdlvaman
kMBs; 60 cm b¤enAeBlEdlvamansøwkcMnYn 6 KUr. cMeBaHkarbgáat; RtUvbgáat;EmkEdlcas;l¥.
b¤srbs;vagay duHlUtlas;enAelIdIxSac;Edldak;enAkñúgLaMgbiTCit EdlenA)atLaMgRtUvmankMedAl¥
nigeRbIemSAGr½m:Un edIm,ICyY BenøÓnkarduHlUtlas;. mgÇútk¾GaceFVIkarbMe)Ab¤pSaMCamYy RbePTdUcKña
b¤k¾RbePTRsedogKña EdlsßitenAkñúgePTEtmYy dUcCa Garcinia xanthochymus Rock. f.

EdlCaRbePTEdlmanPaBFn; nigrwgmaM. karbgáat;Exñg b¤Bnøk k¾TTYl)anpll¥Edr
RbsinebIBnøkmanBN’ébtg Tn; Gn;manTg ehIymanRbEvgBI 2.5-4.0 cm.
enAeBlEdlykkUneQIEdltUcecjBIfañ lbNþúHkUneQI RtUvykvaeTAdaM enAkñúgreNþAEdlerobcMrYc
CaeRsc EdldIeBareBjeTAedayCICati nigsMenIm. CadMbUgkardaMduH RtUvdaMenAkñúg møb; ]TahrN¾³
RtUvRKb;nwgsøwketñat. RtUveFVIkarEfTaMvaeGay)anl¥ kMueGaysøwkx©I 2 b¤RtYyrbs;vasVit
ebIvasVitRtUvEfTaMrhUtdl;vaduHmkvij eTaHbICavasøab;k¾eday. cenøaHBIedImmYy eTAedImmYyRtUvmanTMhM
10 m x 10 m. ehIyGacbegáInkareRbIR)as;dI edaydaMdMNaMenAcenøaHrg b¤k¾daMrk
u çCatiepSg²eTot
enAkñúgry³eBl 10 qñaMdMbUg. daMrukçCatiEdlmanb¤sRtg; b¤daMxJI. kaGnuvtþn¾EbbenHmgÇút TTYl)anpl
cMenjeRcInBIkareRbIR)as;ClI amkstV énkardMNaMbnÞab;bnSM. tamPaBCak;Esþg RbePTenHTTYl)anpl
eRcInBI
karRbmUlpþMúx<sé; nsarFatuciBa©mw
nigdIl¥EdleBareBjeTAedaysarFatuxniC.
vaRtUvkardIEdlman
pÞúknUvsarFatuxniCx<s;
nigmanRsTab;elIRkas;
Edl)anmkBIkars¥úyrlYyénkMeTckMTIsMram
søwkeQI
cMebIg
b¤EmkeQI
EdlCaCIeFVIeGayedImeQImankarduHlUtlas;l¥.
karéRkEmkKImanEdnkMNt;
edayeFVIkar
kab;EtEmkEdlgab;
b¤sarFatuEdlgab;b:ueNÑaH
nigRtUvsgát;BnøkeQIEdlEvg
b¤EmkEdlmanragerovsþÜc cUleTAkñúgkenSamsøwk.[1]
:

enARbeTs\NÐa søwkmgÇútRtUv)ansIuedayBBYkdgáÚvemGMe)A ehIyRbEhlCamanlkçN³dUcKñaenHEdr
EdlenAkñúgRbeTshVIlIPIn EdlBnøkEmkfµIRtUvTTYlrgnUvkarvayRbharBIBBYk Orgyra sp. énRKUsar
Lymantridae. enA Puerto Rico RsemactUc² Myrnelachista ramulorum rs;enAelIedImgÇút
edayecaHsIurUgedIm nigEmk nigbMpøajeTAelIRtYyEdleTIbnwgduHlUtlas;fµI. CYnkalBBYkstVl¥ittUc²
bMpøajedayeFVIeGayEpøxUcRTg;RTay edayxaMb¤ xVacEpø. cMeBaHEpøEdlTMul¥ TTYlnUvkarbMpøajBIBBYksVa
RbeCov nigmanGaRtaénkarbMpøajmanenAtMbn;GasIu. enA Puerto Rico mgÇútTTYlrgnUvCMgmW üagenA
elIsMbkEdlbgáreLIgedayBBYkpSit nig Pellicularia koleroga EdlCajwkjab;manenAelIkUnEmktic
søwk nigépø énedImmgÇútEdlduHenAkñgú møb; nigtMbn;EdlmansMenIm. Epørbs;va mansMbkrwg nigeFVIeGay
xUcxatedaysarEtsMbukBIgBagrMuBT§v½ a. enARbeTsma:eLsIu BBYk Zignoella garcineae
eFVIeGaymankar
rIkdalCMgWs¥úyrlUy
EdlbgárenAelIEmkEdlkMBugduHlUtlas;

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

10

EdlkrNIenHeFVIeGayvinassøwk eFVIeGaysøwk Emkgab; nigsUm,IEtedImTaMgmUl. cMeBaHBBYkpSit
Diplodia gossypina, Pestalotia sp., Phomopsis sp., Gloeosporium sp., and Rhizopus

eFVIeGaymankarxUcxat;dl;edIm. bBaða cMbgénsrIrsaRsþehAfa "gamboge"
KWCabBaðaEdleFVIeGayCatiCr½hUrecjmkeRkAEpø nig enAelIEmk kñúg kMLúgeBlmYyd¾F¶n;F¶r
nigbnþrhUtdl;rdUvePøóg. vaminCH\T§iBlGaRkk;dl;EpñkEdlbriePaKenaHeT. [26]
nigricans

F> karGPirkS

:

edImmgÇút BMuEmnCaRbePTEdlrgnUvkarKMramkMEhgenaHeT.

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

BMuTan;manTinñn½y.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :

11

mgÇút manduHenAtMbn;EdlekþA nig tMbn;esIm EdlsßitenAEk,rGakasFatueGkVaTr½
énGasIuxagt,Úgeqogxag ekIt ehIyvamanRbPBkMeNItenARbeTsma:eLsIu ekaH Molucca
énRbeTs\NÐÚeNsIu nignaMykeTAdaMenA RbeTsGURsþalI \NÐa b‘Uma: éf evotNam hVIlIPIn
ekaHkarIebon nigRbeTsmYycMnYneTotenA GaemrickNþal enAPUmIPaKxaglic nig
xagekIténTVIbGaRhVic. [12,26]

p> epSg²

:

EpñkEdlGacbriePaK)anmanRbEhlCa
ehIyvamanpÞkú nUvsmasPaBmYy cMnYndUcxageRkam:
sarFatuTwk 84.9%

30%

énTMgn;rbs;EpøTaMgmUl.

RbUetGIun 0.5%
Catixøaj;
0.1%
sarFatuxniC 0.2%
sarFatukabUn 14.3%
nigRKab;manpÞkú nUvCatixøaj; 45%. [1]
karplitepSg²eTot: enA Ghana eKykEmktUc²rbs;edImmgÇút eFVICaeQIRct;. sMbkEpømgÇútEdlTMu
manpÞúknUv polyhydroxy-xanthone EdleKehAfa mangostin nigmanpÞúknUv ß-mangostin pgEdr.
cMeBaHEpEdlTMuxøaMg manpÞkú nUv xanthones, gartanin, 8-disoxygartanin nig normangostin.
mangostin, mangostin-e nig 6-di-O-glucoside KIedaysarexSayRbBn½§sésRbsaTkNþal
nigkrNI sMma< FQamekIneLIg.[26]

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Almeyda N, Martin FW, 1976: Cultivation of neglected tropical fruits with promise 1. In:
The Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). US Agricultural Research Service South
Region.
Asai F, Tosa H, Tanaka T, Iinuma M, 1995: A xanthone from pericarps of Garcinia
mangostana. Phytochemistry, 39(4):943-944; 8 ref.

Singapore: Periplus Editions.
Normah MN, Nor-Azza AB, Aliudin R, 1995: Factors affecting in vitro shoot proliferation
and ex vitro establishment of mangosteen. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture,
43(3):291-294; 11 ref.
Nakasone HY, Paull RE. 1998: Tropical fruits. Crop Production Science in Horticulture No.
7 CAB INTERNATIONAL, Wallingford, UK.
National Academy of Sciences, 1975: Underexploited tropical plants with promising
economic value. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.; USA

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Hutton W, Cassio A, 1996: Tropical Fruits of Malaysia and Singapore. Republic of

12

Richards AJ. 1990: Studies in Garcinia, dioecious tropical fruit trees: the origin of the
mangosteen (G. mangostana L.). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 103(4): 301308.
Othman Y, Suranant S, 1995: The Production of Economic Fruits in South-East Asia.
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Oxford University Press.
Tirtawinata MR, Othman Y, Veevers-Carter W, Sidharta A, 1995:mm/ m²mm/ m² Fruit of
Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia: Mekar Unggul Sari.

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

1)
FAO-SIDA 1988: Fruit-bearing forest trees. FAO Forestry Paper 34, Rome,
Italy, 177 pp.

4)
Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing House;
Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

6)
Jensen, M., 2001: Trees and Fruits of Southeast Asia. An illustrated field
guide. Orchid Press, Bangkok, 234 pp.

9)
Barwick, M., 2004: Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide
Encyclopaedic Guide. Thames & Hudson Ltd., London, 484 pp.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

11)
Heywood, V.D. (Ed.) 1993: Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford
University Press, New York; 336 pp.

13

12) Forestry Compendium Edition 2003 (on CD ROM)

13)
Baertels, A., 1993: Farbatlas Tropenpflanzen-Zier- und Nutzpflanzen
(Color Atlas Tropical Plants- ornamental and fruit plants) Eugen Ulmer Publ.
Stuttgart, illustrated, 384 pp.

19)
Rehm, S. and G. Espig 1991: The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and
Subtropics. Josef Margraf, Publ. Scientific Books; Weikersheim, Germany, 552
pp.

20)
Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002:
Agroforestree Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD ).

26)
World Agroforestry Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp
?
(Internet source)

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/species name (Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

27)

14

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y
[Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.) Ridsdale ]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.) Ridsdale ]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg

³

Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.) Ridsdale .[4],
Adina cordifolia (Roxb.) Hook. f.[2]

x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs
K> sTisn½y

³

Haldu (English, Indian)[17]

³

Adina cordifolia (Roxb.) Hook. f. ex Brandis [2];
Nauclea cordifolia Roxb. [17]
Caesalpinia dasyrhachis Miquel

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

hnaw nhan -ben, nhing pen, (Burma); khvao, (Cambodia);
khao, thom (Laos); kwao, tong lueang, tum kwao (ThailandNorth); gáo lá tim , giáo vàng, (Vietnam) [2,4,17]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

xVav
ÉksarBieRKaH : [3]

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

1

khvao [16], khwaw [4]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Rubiales
RKYsar : Rubiaceae
ePT : Haldina Ridsd. [17)

RbePT : Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.) Ridsd.
ÉksarBieRKaH: [2 ; 11]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: CaedImeQICMruHsøwk manTMhMmFümeTAFM EdlmankMBs;BI 18-30 m
nigGacmanGgát;p©it 70-100 cm . edImRtg; ragsIuLaMg manEmkduHtamTisedk manRBwgenAkMBs;
1.5 m [2] . edImeQI mankMBs; 7-20 m [4] CaedImeQICMruHsøwk Rtg; mantYedImRCYjbnþic
nigmankenSamsøwkmUl [5] . edImeQI CMrusøwk manTMhMtUceTAmFüm CYnkalmankMBs;dl;eTA 30 (40) m manedImmUl nigKµanEmk enAkMBs; 20(-25) m manGgát;p©itdl;eTA 110 (-150) cm manRBwg
nigmanlkçN³RCYjelIedIm [17] .
[sMbk]: manBN’RbepHRsal eRbHtambeNþay kMras; 1-2 cm . EmktUc² manragBhuekan
manBN’RbepH maneram nigminmaneramenAeBlcas; [2,4] . sMbkmanBN’etñatRsal relag rW
eRbH sMbkxagkñúgmanBN’sIuCm<Ú eTAetñatcas; . épÞsMbk manBN’etñatcas; eTARkhmetñat .
manBnøkragsMEb:t niggayeFIVkarsMKal; [2, 4, 17] .
[søwk]: søwksamBaØ QmKña bnÞHsøwk rageGlIb nigKl;ragdUcebHdUg manRbEvgbeNþay 10-30 cm
nigTTwg 8-20 cm manBN’ébtgcas; Kµaneram enAxagelI BN’ébtgRsal nigmaneramenAxageRkam
. søwksamBaØ QmKña ragmUlminmaneFµj rageGlIb rW dUcebHdUg manxñaysøwk nig
manRbEvgbeNþay 10-30 cm nigTTwg 8-20 cm manBN’ébtgcas; Kµaneram enAxagelI
BN’ébtgRsal nigmaneramenAxageRkam . mansréscMnYn 5-8 KU enAtamG½kSedk
ehIyesÞIrEtRsbKña . Tgsøwk manragRsLÚn EdlmanRbEvg 4-9 cm EdlmanragCacg¥ÚrenAxagelI .
xñaysøwkmanragRTEvgekag manRbEvg 10-15 mm nigmaneram [2] . søwkmanTMhM 8-20x6-16
cm kMrmanTMhM 30x20 cm zitenA QmKñCaBIrCYr (decussate) ragmUl rW FMmUl edaymanTgxøI
nigragdUcebHdUgenAKl; . søwkx©ImanBN’ébtg rW manTgBN’sIuCm<Ú søwkcas; manlkçN³Rkas;
edaymanlkçN³eRKIm nigmaneram Rkas;Tn; enAxageRkam . mansrésEv:n 5-7 KU enAelIépÞsøwk
nigman 5-8 KUenAmmçag²søwk . Tgsøwkman ragRsLÚn RbEvg 3-8 cm . EmktUc manlkçN³sMEb:t
manBnøkmUl EdlRtUv)ankarBaredayxñaysøwk mYyKUr EdlmanBN’ébtgRsal manRbEvg 1.2-1.8
cm [5] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

søwksamBaØ QmKña bnÞHsøwk rageGlIb nigKl;ragdUcebHdUg manxñaysøwk [17] .
[páa]: kBa©úMpáamanlkçN³Cak,al manGgát;p©it BI 1.8-2.5 cm enAeBlrIk manTgpáaRbEvg 3-8 cm .
páa manTMhMtUc² BN’elOg RtbkpáamanragCabMBg; sIuLaMg man 5 ft ragRTEvg CaRbePTpáa valvate
rIkFM nigmankMBUlragmUl mankMBUlCalkçN³ imbricate . kenSampáamanrTMrg;Ca
hypocrateriform, manRtbkpáaCab;Kña (gamopetalous) edaymanRtbkcMnYn 5 manragRTEvg
manRbEvg 1 mm . maneks eQµal cMnYn 5 EdlduHenAkñúgkenSampáa TgeksxøI mane)øaklMGg
duHeLIgya:gRsYcenAkMBUl . GUva:rI manfaBI duHenAeRkam manTgRsLÚn RbEvg 1 cm man stigma tUc
ragmUl edaymanGUvulCaeRcIn . páazitenAelIG½kS manTg BN’elOg mank,alEckCa R)aMEpñk (5merous ) k,al (2-4-10) duHBIG½kS manRTng;páaenAcenøaH [2,17] .
[Epø]: CaEpø capsule eRbHEbkCaBIr enAKul manragdUck,al EbkCabYnEpñk enAmanG½kSenAcMkNþal
nigmanRtbkenACab;enaH [2,17] .
manRKab;RbEvg 6-8, 2.5-3.0mm mansøab 2 enAcugTaMgsgçag [2] . RKab;ragmUl tUc
nigmansøabtUc . kUneQImandMNuHCaRbePT epigeal EdlmankUTIeLdUnCasøwk [17] .
ecjpáa enAExmina - mifun EpøenA ExsIha-vicäikar [2] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

3

:

eQIxVav manlkçN³F¶n;mFüm nigrwg edaymankMritTMnajEpndI 550-650 kg/m³ [2] eTA 570-895
kg/m³ [26] enAkMritsMeNIm 15% m.c . eQIxøwm manBN’elOg eTAelOgRsal rW etñatRkhm
enAeBldak;halval [17] . eQIRsay manBN’elOgRsal GacEckdac;BIeQIxøwm b:uEnþqab;ERb
CaBN’etñatenAeBldak;halxül; [2] . sac;eQIRtg; relag CYnkalmanlkçN³cak;eRsH rW
ragdUces<ó . vaynPaBeQI relag nigesµI maneQIPWø . rgVg;lUtlas; minGacEckdac;BIKña
sréseQItUc² enAdac;²BIKña CYnkalmaneRcIn 2-3 CakBa©MútUc² GacemIleQI edayeRbIEkvBRgIkMrit
(10x) . Parenchyma enAdac;² paratracheal vasicentric, apotracheal duHeLIgCadMuCab;²Kña
minGacemIleXIj eTaHbImanEkvBRgIkk_eday . Rays manlkçN³relagmFüm minmansñamTwkrlk
. PaBrYcmankMritx<s; eQITMngCamansñam nigGaceRbHenAeBlsMgYtedayxül; . dUcenH
ehIykarsMgYtedayL KYrEtRtUv)aneFIVeLIg . eQIminmanesßrPaBl¥eT kñúgkareRbIR)as; . eTaHbIva

gayeFIVkaredayéd nigma:sIunk_eday . vaKYrRtUv)aneRbI edayRbugRby½tñ edIm,IeCosevog
kare)a:gsac;eQI . vagaynwgdus xat; nigmanPaBPøWrelagl¥ [2,17] .
kareFIVetsþbec©kviTüaeQI énlkçN³emkanic enAma:eLsIu)anbgðajfa : kMritEdlminGacRTRTg;)an
84-86N/mm², kMritPaBGacbt;Ebn)an 8,900-9215 N/mm² sMBaFRsbsac;eQI 41.5-44.0
N/mm², karkat; 8.5-9.5 N/mm², kMritPaBrwgrbs;eQI 5070 N kMritPaKrwgenAcug 6275 N
[17,26)
. eQImanlkçN³Fn;mFüm kareFIVRbRBwtþkmµ sMrab;karBareQIRsay
nigxwømmanlkçN³gayRsYl . eQIxwøm manlkçN³Fn;nwgpSit nigeQIRsaygayrgkarvayRbhalBI
xñÚt Lyctus . tMélfamBlrbs;eQIKW
18 500 kJ/kg [17,26] .

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

xVavmanduHenA\NÐa dl;RsIlgáa PaKxagt,Úgcin PUma \NÐÚcin éf dl; evotNam
b:uEnþkMrmanenA]bTIVbma:eLsIu . xVav CaRbePTeQI ÉkePT (monotypic genus) . RbePTenH
manduHenAkñúgéRBeRsag éRBel,aH tMbn;TMnab nigx<g;rab b:uEnþkMrmanenA]bTVIbma:eLsIu [17] .
enAevotNam vamanduHenAéRBbnÞab;bnSM éntMbn;éRBeRsagRtUBik rW Bak;kNþalCMruHsøwk [2] .
:

duHlUtlas;eRcIn b:uEnþray)a:y enAkñúgtMbn;éRBel,aHTMnab Edlmanry³kMBs; 700-800 m a.s.l.
EdlmankMritkMBs;TwkePøógmFüm 1500 -2500 mm EtduHlUtlas;enAtamdgTenø rW tMbn;dIesIm
nigtMbn;dIl,ays¶Üt EdllicTwkry³eBlxøI . vaduHlUtlas;layCamYy Terminalia nigrovenulosa,
Stereospermum sp, Sterculia lychnosphora, Buchanania arborescens, Choerospondias

nig Hopea odorata [2] . enAPUma nigéf vamanduHlayCamYyém:sak; (Tectona grandis
L.f.) [2,17] . kMritktþaPUmisaRsþman: ry³kMBs; 0-1000 m a.s.l., kMritePøógRbcaMqñaM 750-2500
mm/ m² enArdUvekþA nigsItuNðPaBx<s; nigTabbMputmanBI - 2ºC nig 43ºC . r)a:yrbs;vamanBI 30º
N-5º S [12].
axillaris

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

4

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minRtUv)ankMNt; .

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

:

xVavduHenAtMbn;TnM ab rW tameCIgPñM enAtMbn;esIm EdllicTwkry³eBlxøI nigdIl,ays¶Üt [2] .
vaduHlUtlas; )anl¥ enAtMbn; Edlmindk;Tkw dUcCa TMnabCMralPñM dIl,b; Edlmindk;Twk .
vamanRbB½n§rWs rwgmaMu EdleFIVeGayvaFn;nwgkarraMgs¶Üt . eTaHya:gNa vagayrgeRKaHedaysarkarsIu
nigCan;BIsMNak;stVRsuk nigstVéRB nigminFn;nwgePøIgeqHeT [12].

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

eQI]: eQImanlkçN³rwg manTMgn;TMnajEpndI 550-650 eTA 590-895 kg/m³ mansac;relag
niggay eRbIR)as; sMrab;CasMNg; nigeKOgsgðarwm enA\NÐaeQIRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;sMNg; .
k_GaceRbIR)as; sMrab;eFIVvnI apgEdr [2] nigeFIVkarGarCakþa [4] . eQIRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eFIVpÞH TVa
s‘umbg¥Üc CeNþIr nigkMral b:uEnþk_eRbIsMrab;karsagsg;nava eKOgsgðarwm sMPar³eRbIR)as; nigvIna .
vak_smRsbsMrab;kargarRkLwg sMrab;eFIVbnÞat; exµAéd xñarGMe)aH RbGb; nigxÞgb; üa:NU (piano keys) .
eQIRtUv)anraykarN_mankar
Fn;nwgGasIut
EdleFIVeGayvasaksmykmeFIVCa
ekAGIenAkñúgmnÞIBiesaFn_ nigkareRbIR)as;RsedogKñaenH [17,26] .
karyksMbkecjPøam eRkayeBlkab;rMlM RtUv)aneFIVeLIgedIm,IkarBarkarbMpøajrbs;pSit . enA\NÐa
karqáÚtelIedIm muneBlRbmUlplRtUv)aneFIV edIm,IbegáInKuNPaBeQI enAedImeQIGacRtUv)ansMgYt
edayxül; muneBlRtUv)ankab;rMlM nigGar . eQIxVa RtUv)aneFIVBaNiC¢kmµEtenAkñúgtMbn; nigkMrmankarnaM
ecj edaysEtmaDrbs;eQImanTMhMtcU . enAbNþalRbeTsPaKeRcIn plitkmµrbs;vaKWmanlkçN³Ca
RTg;RTaytUcenAeLIy [17] .
[Gnupl]: kardaMykTwkBIrWs GaceRbICafñaM sMrab;Büa)al CMgWraK nigeraKmYl (4) .
enAPUma søwkrbs;vaRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;RKbdI enAkñúgcMkarém:sak; b:uEnþvak_GaceRbIR)as;CacMNIstVpgEdr
[12].

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

:

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak; .

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

edImeQI EdlenAtUcgayrgeRKaH kardaMduHedayKµanrWs minRtUv)anpþl;CaGnusasn_eT . edImeQI
Edlman GayuBIrqñaM KWsmRsbsMrab;kardaMduH . edImeQImanGayumYyqñaM GacRtUv)andaMenAcenøaH 2x2
m . karduH edayFmµCatienAkñúgéRBKWTTYleCaKC½ypgEdr. eTaHbItMrUvkarBnøW minsUveRcInenAdMNak;
kaldMbUgk_eday . kareRsacTwk nigsMGatesµAbnÞab;BIkardaM mansar³sMxan;Nas; sMrab;karlUt
las;rbs;rukçCati . karkarBar BIkaresµA mansar³sMxan;Nas;sMrab;karlUtlas;enAkñúgFmµCati .
xVavgaynwgduHExñgeLIgvijNas; [26] .cMkarsakl,gRtUv)anbegáIt enAnIesrIya: nigGaeRhVcxagt,Úg
b:uEnþlT§plminTan;dwgenAeLIyeT [17,26] . enAkñúgRbB½n§ksirukçkmµ søwkrbs;vaKWmansarFatu
allelopathic
EdlGacCH\T§iBldl;dN
M aM . xVav gayduHExñg nigGacdaMduHenA tMbn;Edl
manGakasGaFatutamrdUv . cMkardaMdHu sakl,g EdleRbIR)as; Bt’manBIRbeTs\NÐa KWTamTaeGay
mankarepÞógpÞat;eLIgvij [17].
:

xVaGacdaMedayRKab; b:Eu nþkardaMedayRKab;pÞal; KWTTYlbraC½y edayRKab;manlkçN³tUc²eBk
(RbEhl 11 lanRKab;/kg) . RKab; EdlTMuKYRtUv)anRbmUl muneBlRKab;RCuH ehIykar s¶Ütyk RKab;
ecj manlkçN³gayRsYlCag . RKab;GacrkSaTuk ry³eBlmYyqñaM enAkñúgbnÞb;bitCit . enAkMLúg
qñaMdMbUg lT§PaBdMNuH ekIndl; 13% bnÞab;BITMu . kareFIVRbRBwtþkmµCamun edayRtaMTwk ry³eBl 12
ema:g nigRtUv)ansMgYt edIm,IykeTAsabenAkñgú fñal . RKab;RtUv)ansab enAelIxSac;suT§ edayRKb
edayxSac;ya:gesþIg nigeRsacTwktic² . BYkvaRtUv)ankarBarBIkarRtUvBnøWéf¶ eday pÞal; nigePøóg .
karRKb fñalbNþúHRKab;bgðajfa manlkçN³l¥CagkareRbIfg; RKabfñalTaMgmUl . karCaM
TwkRtUv)anGegátenA kñúgfñal . enAeBlkUneQImanGayu 2-3 Ex BYkvaRtUv)anykeTAdaMkñúgfg; .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

6

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

manBBYkPñak;garbgáreraKCaeRcIn EdlbMpøajedImxVav . eTaHbI minmanRbePTNamYyeFVIkarKMramdl;
karlUtlas;rbs;cMkar . RbePTstVl¥itxageRkam RtUv)aneFIVGtþsBaØaN ebIeTaHbI minBN’manBIkar
bMpøaj eTAelIedImeQI rW EpñkNamYyrbs;vak_eday : Acalolepta cervina, Antitrygodes
cuneilinea, Aristobia approximator, Cephonodes hylas, Cephonodes picus, Dirades
adjutaria, Epiplema quadricaudata, Episparis liturata, Gonodontis clelia, Gonodontis
clelia, Lyctus, Pantoporia silenophora kanara, Parotis marinata, Rhodoneura nitens [12]

.
CMgWpSitrYmman : Cercocladospora adinae, Cercospora adiniana [12].

F> karGPirkS

:

minRtUv)ancat;bBa©ÚlCaRbePTrgeRKaHfañk;eT .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :

7

PaKxagt,ÚgGasIu nigenAGasIuGaeKñy_ \NÐa RsIlgáa PaKxagt,Úgcin PUma \NÐÚcin EdlesÞIEtCaTIkEnøg
kMeNIt enAnIesrIya: GaeRhVcxagt,Úg EdlCakEnøgRtUv)annaMcUl [26].

p> epSg²

:

xVavmanTMnak;TMngCamYy Adina nig 4 RkumepSgeTot EdlrYmman Adinauclea, Metadina,
Pertusadina
nig Naucleeae . vagaysMKal; edaysarBnøkrbs;vamanlkçN³sMEb:t
nigpáamanlkçN³Cak,al nigmanxñay .

xVav gayduHExñg nigGacdaMduHenAtMbn;EdlmanGakasGaFatutamrdUv . cMkardaMduHsakl,g
EdleRbIR)as; Bt’manBIRbeTs\NÐa KWTamTaeGaymankarepÞógpÞat;eLIgvij [17].

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Cheksum Tawan, 1998. Haldina Ridsd. In Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T. & Prawirohatmodjo,
S. (Eds.): Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 5(3). Timber trees: Lesser-known
timbers. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. pp 278-280.

P> ÉksarBieRKaH
2)

:

Nguyen, N.C. et al.: Vietnam Forest Trees, Hanoi 1997 788 pp.

4)
Dy Phon, Pauline, 2000: Plants used in Cambodia. Olympic Printing
House; Phnom Penh, 915 pp.

17)
Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., and S. Prawirohatmodjo (Eds.) 1998: Plant
Resources of Southeast Asia 5(3) Timber trees: Lesser known timbers. Prosea
Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, 859 pp.

20)
Salim AS, Simons AJ, Orwa C, Chege J, Ovuor,B, and Mutua A, 2002:
Agroforestree Database. World Agroforestry Centre (on CD ).

26)
World
Agroforestry
Centre
http.www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/Speciesinfo.asp
? (Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

5)
Gardner, S., Sidisunthorn, P. and Vilaiwan Anursarnsunthorn, 2000: A
Field Guide to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand. CMU Herbarium Biology Dept.
University of Chiang Mai, Thailand; 546 pp.

8

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
:: Digital Species ::
______________________________________________

snøwkTinñn½y

[Hevea brasiliensis (Willd, ex A. Juss.)]

Supported by: German embassy, DED
Powered by: Natural Technology Systems

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa
[Hevea brasiliensis (Willd, ex A. Juss.)]

k> eQµaHCaPasaLataMg
x> eQµaHCaPasaGg;eKøs

³

Hevea brasiliensis (Willd, ex A. Juss.)

³

rubber [12], Brazilian rubber tree, hevea, Para rubber tree
[9], rubber wood, caoutchouc tree [7]

K> sTisn½y

³

Siphornia brasiliensis Willd. ex A. Juss [1],
Siphonia brasiliensis H. B. & K.[7]

X> eQµaHepSg²

³

yegoma zaf (Ethiopia) [7] - kyetpaung (Myanmar) [7] caoutchouc, caoutchouc de para, h้v้a (France) [7] Parakautschukbaum (Germany) [7] - kayu getah, kayu karet,
pokok getah para (Indonesia) [7] - jaang (Laos) [7] - kayu
getah, pokok getah para (Malaysia) [7] - caucho (Spain) [7] mpira (E-Africa) [7] - katoh, yang phara (Thailand) [7] - cao
sau (Vietnam) [7]

g> eQµaHPasaExµr

³

ekAs‘U
ÉksarBieRKaH : [11]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

c> eQµaHPasaExµr(LataMg) ³

1

q> cMNat;fñak;rukçCati

Kaov Sou [11]

³

rC¢³ : Viridiplantae
saxa : Spermatophyta
Gnu-saxa : Angiospermae
fñak; : Dicotyledonae
lMdab; : Geraniales

RKYsar : Euphorbiaceae
ePT : Hevea
RbePT : Hevea brasiliensis
ÉksarBieRKaH: [1]

C> lkçN³CIvsaRsþ

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: ekAs‘CU aedImeQIBak;kNþalCMruHsøwk EdlGacmankMBs; 25 m [7, 12] (10-20 m
[3], -40 m [2, 13], -20 m [9])enAkñg
ú cMkar b:Eu nþenAkñgú éRB edImeQIGacmankMBs;dl; 40 m [7] .
edImman ragRsYc b:Eu nþRtg; nigGaRs½yeTAelIBCU rbs;va nigGacmanGgát;p©it DBH dl;eTA 35 cm
[13] (50 cm [7] brimaRt 2.6–3.3 m [2]) . vaminmanRBwgeT nigminmanEmkenAkMBs; 10 m [7]
CYnkal vaduHEmk eRcIn nigkenSamsøwkRkas; . rWsEkvduHlUtlas;)anl¥ .
[sMbk]: épÞsb
M krelag rage)a:g BN’etñat rW RbepHRsal sMbkxagkñúgBN’etñatRsal
nigmanC½rBN’s.
[søwk]: søwkCaRbePTsøwkqøas; mansøk
w cMnnY bI EdlmanragCas‘utbRBa©as; rW eGlIb eTAes<ò
edaymankMBlU søwkRsYc . CaTUeTA BYkvamanTMhM 10–15(-50) cm x 3–6(-15) cm [2] .
søwkmanxñaysøkw nigTgsøkw EdlmanRbEvg 7.5–10(-70) cm [2] .
[páa]: køinRkGUb nigCapàa EdlmanpàajI nigeQµalenACamYyKña CakBa©úM nigmaneram . BYkvamanBN’
elOg ébtg elOg rW ébtgRbELt páaeQµal duHenAelIkBM lU rbs;kBa©púM aá nigmanRbEvg 10-12 mm
[13] páa eQµalmancMnn
Y eRcInCagenAKl;kBa©púM áa EdlmanRbEvg 8-10 mm [13] . Rtbkpáaminman
nigRsTab; páamancMnYn 5 ft [9] nigRKbedayeramBN’s .
[Epø]: Epø (=3 ft nig 3 RKab;) EdlmanGgát;pSit 3 eTA 6 cm [13] nigbþÚrBN’ BIébtg eTAetñat .
RKab;manrageGlIb sMEb:t manmYyrW BIRCug PørW elag BN’etñat nigmancMnucGuC² BN’kaehV ragmUl .
RKab;manTMhMxus²Kña RbEvg 2.5–3 cm [9] nigGgát;pSit 2-3.5 cm [13] TMgn;RKab;nmi Yy²KW 2–4 g
[13] . BYkvamansMbkrwg esþIg nigsac;enAxagkñúg . RKab;GacxÞatcMgay dl;eTA 15 m
edaysarkarpÞHú rW Ebk rbs;Epø b:Eu nþmanEtviFsI aRsþ BIr eTAbIbue: NÑaH EdkRKab;GacRtUvBRgay .
karRbmUlRKab;RtUv)aneFVeI LIg enAExkkáda eTAdl;kBaØa enARbeTs\NÐa [2] . CamFümmanRKab;cnM nY
180 kñg
ú mYy kg [13] .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

2

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 13, 14]

Q> lkçN³sac;eQI

:

lkçN³eQI]: eQIxwmø manBN’Bgman; nigsICu m<ÚenAeBlRss; rW BN’RsedogcMebIgu rW etñatRsal
minGac Eckdac;BIeQIRsal . srésreQIRtg; nigrak; . vaynPaBeQI eRKImEtesµI .
eQIGarrYcmanBN’exµAqñtÚ ² EdlbNþalminBIkarkat;ykC½rmin)anl¥ rW cambium RtUv)ankat;ecj
cMeBaHeQIGar enARss; KWman køinC½r . eQIekAs‘U GacRtUv)aneFIRV bRBwtþikmµedayeRbIsMBaF 5 kg/cm²
enAkñgú ry³eBl 1 ema:g [8] . vaGacRtUv)anRClk;enAkñúgsMeNIm EdlmankMritGaceCob
cUlkñgú srésreQI . eQImanlkçN³Fn;lµm enAeBleRbIenAxageRkA .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 7, 8]
[

j> r)a:y nigRbePTdMNuH

:

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

RbEhl : 12°N eTA 35°S [1] (kardaMduH EdlTTYl)aneCaKC½y 15°N eTA 10°S [7]) .
ekAs‘dU uHlUt las;CaFmµCatienAkñúgéRBrgTwkePøògRtUBki éntMbn;Gama:sUn EdlEtlicTwktamrdUv
b:Eu nþmanedIm eQIF²M duH lUtlas; enAx<g;rab Edlmindk;Twk . enAkñgú CMrkFmµCati
vaduHenARsTab;kNþal énéRBRtUBki . enAtMbn; RtUBki cMkarCaRTg;RTayFMRtUv)anbegátI CaBiess
enAGasIuxagt,Úg nigGasIuGaeKñy_ . enARbeTskm<Cú a extþ kMBg;cam nigkMBg;FM KW CaextþmaneQµaHl,I
edaysarmancMkarekAsUe‘ RcIn .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 7, 11]

3

d> GakasFatu nigbrisßan

:

edImeQIduHenAelI TIcMenat EdlmankMritBI 0-70% [13] enAkMritry³kMBs;BnI vI T:U wksmuRT dl; 1,200
m [13] . eTaHbI kardaMduHenAx<sC
; ag 400-500 m a.s.l.vaminRtUv)anpþl;Gnusasn_eT
edaysaredImeQI enAkMritry³kMBs;kan;Etx<s; edImeQIkan; EtmanTMhMtUc nigduHlUtlas;ytW
RBmTaMgkat;bnßynUvkarplit C½r nigeQI . kMritry³kMBs;x<sb; Mput EdlsmRsbKW 0 eTA 450 m
a.s.l. [1] (300-500 m [5]) . GakasFatu EdlsmRsbKW manenAGnutMbn;RtUBei sIm eTARtUBk
i s¶tÜ
nigéRBRtUBki esIm . ekAs‘RU tUv)an raykarN_faFn;nwgkMritTwkePøògRbcaMqañ BM I 1,020 eTA 4,290 mm

kMritmFüm 24 krNI = 2,450 mm [2], 1,500-3,000 (x<s;bpM tu 4,000) mm [7, 13],
1,500-3,600 mm [1]) . kMritTwkePøóg man r)a:yesµI nigmanCamFüm BI 1,900 eTA 2,600
elIkBIenH [2] . ekAsUG‘ acFn;nwgGakasFatuRtCak; ry³eBl 3-4 Ex [13] (2-3 Ex [7], 0-3 Ex
[1]) rW CYnkal karraMgs¶ÜttictYc b:Eu nþvaminecjpáaeT eday rdUvR)aMg nigkarpøas;brþÚ rbs;sItuNðPaB
EdleFIeV Gaysøkw RCuH . sMeNImKYr EtkMueGayelIsBI 70-80% [13] . kMritsItuNðPaBmFümKW BI
23.1 eTA 27.5°C [2, 5] KWsmRsbbMpt
u (23-33°C [12], 22-30°C [13]) . enAtMbn;
EdlmanBBkeRcIn nigsenSIm KW minsmRsbsMrab;karlUtlas;eT nigRbePT RtUvkar
kMritBnøWéf¶CamFümRbcaMqañ M 1,500 eTA 1,800 ema:g . kMritxül;xs< C; ag 8 m kñúgmYyvinaTI GacbMpaø j
edImeQI rW eFIeV GayedImeQIrlM [13] . eTaHya:gNa vaminFn;nwgxül;xaø gM eT [7] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 5, 7, 9, 12, 13]
[2] (

z> tMbn;eGkULÚsIuén EhSn enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .
:

ekAs‘dU uHlUtlas;)anl¥ enAelIdImni dk;Twk nigCal,aydI manrn§xül; EdlmanCMerA ya:gehacNas; 1
m
[13]
edaymanKMrbrukçCati legume enARsTab;eRkam edIm,IkarBarkarhUreRcaH .
vacUlcitþdImanCatiGasIut b:uEnþFn;nwgkMrit pH BI 4–8 [2] (4.0-6.5 [13], 4.3-8.0 [5]) . eTaHbI
RbePTdIeRcIn manlkçN³sm Rsb cab;BIRbePTl,ay\dæ rhUtdl;d\I dæ . vak_Fn;nwgkarCaMTwk b:Eu nþ
enAeBlmankMritePøógxøaMg dIRtUvman karhUrTwk)anl¥ . dIkMe)ar KWmni smRsb nigmanlkçN³rak;
nighUrTwkmin)anl¥ rW dImemak nigkMeTc rukçCatiRtUv)aneCosevog . dI Lateritic KWmanlkçN³smRsb
sMrab;karlUtlas; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 5, 7, 13]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

D> lkçx½NÐdI nigtMbn;

4

Z> kareRbIR)as; nigsar³sMxan;

eQI]: eQIekAs‘U RtUv)ancat;TukCavtßúFatuedIm sMrab;karplitFüÚg eQIfamBl sMrab;dutplit\dæ
sMgYt fñaCM k; nigsMgYtekAs‘U . sar³sMxan;rbs;eQIekAs‘U RtUv)anTTYlsÁal;enAtMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_
nigk_RtUv)andaM sMrab;ykeQIpgEdr . eQIPaKeRcInRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;pliteRKOgsgðarwm .
kareRbIR)as;epSg²eTotdUcCa CBa©agM s‘umrUbft édfttu FugeQI nigdgkan; kþamQUs vIna
nigeQIEdlbitkav
.
eQIrbs;vaFn;mFüm
enAeBleRbIR)as;enAxageRkA
dUcenHehIyeTIbvaPaKeRcIneRbIsMrab;Et EpñkxagkñúgEtb:ueNÑaH . kMeTceQI RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;plit
kþakMeTceQI enARbeTsma:eLsIu [7] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 7, 12]
[Gnupl]:
C½r EdlmanRbPBBIedImekAs‘U RtUv)anecaHykecjBIedImekAs‘U . C½r
GacRtUv)aneFIeV Gaykk edayeRbIGasIut acetic acid, formic acid nig alum . ekAs‘U
EdleFIeV GaykkGaceRbIsMrab;plit plitplCaeRcIn . eTaHbI mansarFatuBlu enAkñgú RKab;ekAs‘U
k_vaGacRtUv)anbriePaK enAeBlman eRKaHGt; køan bnÞab;BIkarEkécñ edayRtaMenAkñúgTwkekþA nigkat;yk
cyanic EdlmanCatiBulecj . cMkarekAs‘U Edl manlkçN³Rkas; enAkñg
ú éRBGama:sUn RtUv)anKitfa
mankarCMrujeGaymankarduHdal BIsN
M ak;CnCatiPaK tic edIm,IbegánI nUvkarpÁt;pÁg;Gahar .
RKab;manpÞkú nUv eRbg 40-50% Edlgays¶tÜ nigsmRsbsMrab;kar eRbIR)as;CaGahar
nigeKalbMNgbec©keTs . RKab;CaRbPBéneRbgRKab;ekAs‘U . RtUv)anes¶ar edIm,Iyk CaBulecj
nigcMraj;ykeRbg EdleRbIsMrab;dut . sac;RKab; (50-60% énRKab;) manCatieRbg Edlman
BN’elOgRsal eRbIsMrab;eFIsV ab‘U fñaKM UrKMnUr nig varnishes . eRbgsac;RKab; manRbsiT§PaBRbqaMg
nwg ruykñúgpÞH nigéc [7] . eRbgGaccMraj;yk edaykarRc)ac; rW cMraj; . sMNl; 8-15%
Edl)anmkBIkar cMraj;ykeRbg GaceRbICaGaharBI 2-4% [14] . RKab;CYnkal RtUv)ansIuedayeKa
. sMNl;BkI arcMraj; ykeRbgRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;CacMNIstV nigCaCI . TwkdmCaeRcInRtUv
)anRbmUlykedayXµMú . sMNl;eQI ekAsU‘ RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;daMpSit CaBiess oyster mushrooms
(Pleurotus spp.) . sac;RKab;rbs;ekAs‘U RtUv)aneRbICanuy ensaTRtI enATenøGama:sUn [7] .
[epSg²]: dMNaMdUcCa mañs; sENþk kaehV rW kakav RtUv)andaMduHenAcenøaH . CaBiesssMrab;kaehV
nigkakav ekAs‘GU acRtUv)aneRbICaeQIpþl;mbø ; pgEdr . dMNaMcN
M IstV dUcCa Cajanus GacRtUv)andaM

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

5

:

CMnYsRbePT dMnaMKMrb (dUcCa Calopogonium, Centrosema, Flemingia, Psophocarpus,
Pueraria) . eKaGaccUl eTAsIeu sµAenAcenøaH edImekAs‘U EdleBjv½y .
ÉksarBieRKaH [7, 12]

N> cMNat;fñak;eQIenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa

:

minmancMNat;fñak; .
ÉksarBieRKaH [4]

t> rukçvb,kmµ nigkarRKb;RKg

:

lkçN³TUeTA]: ekAs‘dU uHlUtlas;CaFmµCatienAkñúgéRBrgTwkePøògRtUBki éntMbn;Gama:sUn EdlEtg
licTwk tamrdUv b:Eu nþmanedImeQIF²M duHlUtlas; enAx<g;rab Edlmindk;Twk . enAkñgú CMrkFmµCati vaduH
enARsTab; kNþal énéRBRtUBki .
[kardaMduH]: edImeQIGacRtUv)andaM edaykarsabRKab;paÞ l; rW daMedaykUn . kEnøg EdlRtUv)andaM RtUv
sMGat eFICV aCYr nigeFIRV bB½np§ Úvø Twk nigpøvÚ eGay)anl¥ . TMhMreNþAdaM 75 x 75 x 75 cm [7] rW 90 x 90
x 90 cm [7] nigRtUv)anbMeBj edayépÞdIxagelI nigCIlamkstV . vaTamTareGaymankardaMrukC
ç ati
legume CaKMrbbnÞab;BIkardaMduH .
[karRKb;RKg]:xYbCIvitrbs;ekAs‘UenAkñúgcMkarmanBI 30-35 qñaM [7] bnÞab;mkkardaMeLIgvij RtUv
)aneFVIeLIg. karRKb;RKgesµAmansar³sMxan;Nas;enAkñúgcMkarekAs‘U . karéRkEmk edImrkSa
TMrg;edImeGay)anl¥ nig kat;nUvBBYkvløe× cj mansar³sMxan;Nas; . karRKbRtUv)aneFIeV LIg
muneBlenAcugrdUvePøóg . CIkR_ tUv)an dak;pgEdr enAkMritmYykMNt; edIm,IbegánI karlUtlas; [7] .
[karRbmUlpl]: karcak;ykC½rcab;epþm
I enAeBledImmanGayu 5–8 qñaM GaRs½yeTAtamtMbn;
nigmankar ekIneLIgCaerogral;qañ rM hUtdl;vamanGayuRbEhl 20 qñaM TinñplGacpþl;kgñú ry³eBlBI
40–50 qñaM rW eRcInCagenH . karcak;ykC½rrYmmankarkat;ecjnUvsMbk EdlesþIgmankMras; 1 mm
CacenøaHeTogTat; edIm,IebIkrun§ vessels enAkñúgsMbk EdltMerobCaragsILu aMg nigcuHmk
eRkamCarages<ótamTisrbs; Rtnic naLicka CMvu ijedIm . CaTUeTA karkat;RtUv)aneFIeV nABak;kNþaledIm
b:Eu nþ enACMuvijedIm . karkat;CaeRcIn rebobRtUv)aneRbI . manEtépÞ (1.3 m) énedImRtUv)anecaHykC½r

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

6

. kaMbti BiessRtUv)aneRbIsMrab;kat; . C½rRtUv)anRbmUl BIsbM k nigdak;kgñú can rWFug
Edl)andak;enAcug énkEnøkkat; . edImeQIRtUv)anecaHenA eBlRBwk EdlCaeBlC½rGachUreRcIn
nigkarhUrfycuH eTAtamsItuNðPaB nigEtQb;enAkñúgry³eBl 3 ema:g . kMrimFüm EdlGñkecaHC½r
GacecaH)anKW 200–300 edImkñgú ry³eBl 3 ema:g . bnÞab;mkGñk RbmUl C½r
Rtlb;mkRbmUlC½rBIcan CYnkaldak;slU uysüúg ammonium bnþicedIm,IkarBarkMeu Gaykk . Tinpñ l
C½rekAs‘U GacRtUv)anbegànI edaydak;Gm½ Un eTAelIsMbk nigfñasM lM ab;esµA dUcCa Stimalax, Eureka,
2,4-D, 2,4,5-T enAkñg
ú dUceRbg . sMNrs‘ulpat k_GacCYy eGayC½rhUrpgEdr [2] .
[Tinñpl]: RbEhl 1,500-1,800 kg/ha/qñaM [12] énC½ekAs‘U RtUv)anRbmUlenAkñg
ú cMkar .
[ksirukçkmµ]: dMNaMdUcCa mañs; sENþk kaehV rW kakav RtUv)andaMduHenAcenøaH . CaBiesssMrab;kaehV
nig kakav ekAs‘GU acRtUv)aneRbICaeQIpþl;mbø ; pgEdr . dMNaMcMNIstV dUcCa Cajanus GacRtUv)andaM
CMnYs RbePT dMnaMKrM b (dUcCa Calopogonium, Centrosema, Flemingia, Psophocarpus,
Pueraria) . eKaGaccUl eTAsIeu sµAenAcenøaH edImekAs‘U EdleBjv½y . BIreTAbIqañ eM Rkay edayeRbI
legumes CImn
i caM )ac;RtUv)andak;eT b:uEnþ pUsrV nigb:UtasüÚmGacRtUv)ankMNt;enAkñúgtMbn;xøH .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 2, 7, 11, 12]

f> karbnþBUC nigkarbgáat;BUC

karRbmUl nigrkSaTukRKab;]: edImekAs‘Ucab;ecjEpø enAGayubnY qñaM . EpøRtUv)anRbmUl enAeBlBYkva
bþrÚ BN’BI ébtg eTA etñat CaeBlEdlRKab;mankMlaMgkñúgkarduHlUtlas; . EpønImyY ² manRKab;cMnnY bI
eTA bYn EdlRCuHmkelIdI enAeBlTMu nigeRbHEbk . edImmYy²Gacpþl;RKab;RbEhl 800 RKab; (1.3
kg)BIr dgkñúgmYyqñaM [14] . RKab;CamFümancMnn
Y 180 kñúgmYy kg [13] . karrkSaTukRKab;CaRbePT
recalcitrant
dMNuHGacRtUv)anrkSa)anRtwm 3 ExenAkEnøg EdlmansMeNIm edayeRbIFüÚg
nigGacm’rNa nigfg;pøasÞic EdlmankMritsItuNðPaB 7-10°C . RKab;TaMgmUlmansMeNIm kMrit 36%
sMeNImTabbMputKW 20% EdlRKab;Gacrs;)an nigRKab;minGacduHenAkMritkMedA 15% mc .
RKab;Gacgab;enAsItuNðPaB -5°C sMrab;ry³eBl 3-4 ema:g . sMrab;kareFIkV Únø RKab;CalkçN³BNiCk¢ mµ
RKab;RtUv)anrkSaenAkMrit 4°C EdlGacnUvmankMritdMNuH [7] . RbsinBYkvamins¶tÜ
RKab;Gacrs;)anEtry³eBlBIr eTAbIs)aþh_ rW Ex b:eu NÑaH . kMrithalxül;RtUv)ankMNt;
BIeRBaHRKab;mankarrMhYtelOn [13] . karbNþHú CamunRtUv)aneFVI enAelIGacm’rNa .

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

7

:

dMNuHRKab;manry³eBlxøI bnÞab;BIebHBIedImem nig 8 éf¶bnÞab;BIkardaM ( 7-10 éf¶ [7]) . 15
éf¶bnÞab;BIkarRbmUl kMritdMNuHRKab;RtUv)anfycuH . PaKry³dMNuHRKab;CamFümman 60%. kEnøg
bNþHú RtUvmanTTwg 1 m nigkMBs; 10 cm nigbeNþayGacepSg²Kña . kEnøgbNþHú RtUv)anerobcM edaydI
l,b; EdlmanlayCamYyGacm’rNa . RKab;RtUv)antMerob eGaymanrun§xül; manRbEvg 1 cm BIKña .
RKab;cnM nY mYyBan;RKab;GacbNþHú kñúgTMhM 1 m² . fñalTMhM 1.7 m² Gacdak;)anRKab;cMnnY 1,700 Edl
pþl;nvU kUneQIcMnYn 500 GacdaMduHkñgú 1 ha . dMNuHekItmaneLIgenAkñgú ry³eBlBI 8 eTA 10 éf¶ bnÞab;
BIkardaM (1-3 s)aþh_ GaRs½yelIGakasFatu nigPaBRss;rbs;va [7]) nigkUneQI RtUv)andkykeTA
daMenA eBl EdlvaduHlUtlas;dl;krM itsmRsb . fñalRtUv)aneRsacTwk edIm,IrkSasMeNIm
nigCYyCMrujdMNuH [13] .
[karbnþBUC]: ekAs‘G
U acRtUv)anbnþBCU edayRKab; rW karkat; (b:HBnøk nigkat; [7]) rW daMCalika .
CaTUeTA manRKab;BI 2 rW eRcInRtUv)andak;kúgñ reNþA nigkUneQIRtUv)aneRCIserIs BIfñalsMrab;kardaMduH .
kUneQIGac mankMBs; 1-1.5 m enAkñgú ry³eBl 6 Ex . kUneQIgaykat;
b:Eu nþkarduHCaedImKWmankMritTab rWminduH[7] .
ÉksarBieRKaH [1, 7, 13, 14]

T> karbMpøaj nigkarkarBar

:

stVl¥ti ]: stVl¥ti )a:ra:sitrYmman Loranthus spp. BYkdgávÚ Helicotylenchus cavenessi, H.
dihystera, H. erythrinae nig Meloidogyne incognita acrita . stVBYkmanRskadUcCa
(Aspidiotus
cyanophylli
and
Parasaissetia
nigra)
nigRsemacs . xüg
CaRbePTEdlbMpaø jeQItUc² ya:gF¶n;Fr¶ nigRbePTstVepSg²eTot EdlbMpaø jedIm [7] .
[CMgW]:
manCMgW elIrWscMnnY bIRbePT RtUv)ancat;fñak;dUcCa s Rkhm nigetñat
GacRtUv)anRKb;RKgedaykat; nUvCalika EdlrgnUvCMgWecj nigeRbI prophylactic coatings .
CMgWecjCaRkum mandUcCa sñamqñtÚ exµA (black stripe) pSitelIrWs (mouldy rot) nig panel necrosis
RtUv)ankMcat;eday)aj;fñaMsMlab;pSit . CMgWedIm dUcCa pink disease dMe)AedIm nigRCuHsøwk
RtUv)ankat;bnßyedayeRbIfñaMsMlab;pSit . CMgWswkø man dUcCaRCuHsøwk Gloeosporium leaf disease,

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

8

powdery

mildew

nig

bird’s-eye spot

nig sulphur dust
[epSg²]: minTan;manTinñn½y .
oxychloride

F> karGPirkS

[7]

RtUv)anRKb;RKg edayeRbIRbePTfñaMdUcCa

copper

.

:

minTan;manTinñn½y .

n> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl)

:

b> tMbn;rbs;RbePTenAkñúgBiPBelak (RbPBkMeNIt nigkarnaMcUl) :
r)a:yelIBiPBelak]
[RbPBkMeNIt]:
b‘lU Ievo eRbsIlu kULMbú Í‘ eGkVaD½r eBrU evensUeGLa .
[

ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 7]
karnaMclU ]:
Rb‘yu en km<Cú a cin eGsüÚBI \NÐa \NÐeÚ nsIu Lav lIebrI ma:eLsIu PUma hVlI IBnI sigðbrU I RsIlgáa éf
G‘yu ehànda evotNam .
ÉksarBieRKaH [2, 7]
Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[

9

p> epSg²

:

BUC]: manBUCCaeRcInRtUv)anEklMGr nigkUneQI EdlRbePT Para Rubber RtUv)andaMsrM ab;
eFIBV aNiCk¢ mµ . BYkvamanTMhM plitPaBC½r nigkarFn;nwgCMgW xus²Kña . (2n=36, 34,72) [2] .
[lkçN³KIm]I : kñúg 100 g RKab;manCatiBl
u manpÞkú 8.5 g Twk 17.6 g RbUetGIun 48.5 g xøaj; 22.9
g kabUnGIRu datsrub 2.5 g epH , 120 mg Ca, and 430 mg P . søk
w manpÞúk - nig -tocopherol,
nig plastochromanol-S. Ubiquinone 9 nig 10 heveaflavone, vitexin, nig isovitexin .
[

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

C½rmanpÞúknUvTwk 60% nig 37% caoutchouc, 0.34% protein, 1.45% quebrachitol, 0.25%
sár , 0.53% epH, nig 0.34% sarFatu EdlminGackMNt;)an Arachidylacohol, r, -, -, -,
nig -tocotrienol, hevein, L-inosit-2-methylether, -indolylaceticacid, trigonelline,
ergothioneine, nig hercynine. sMbkmanpÞúk D-apiose (C5H10O5) . RKab;manpÞk
ú toxin
linamarin (C10H17NO6) . eRbgRKab; (ca 40%) man 7% palmitic-, 9% stearic-, 0.3%
arachidic-, 30% oleic-, 30–50% linoleic-, nig 2–23% linolenic-acids [2] . sMNl;Rss;
Edlsl;BIRKab; manpÞkú 0.09% prussic acid RtUv)anbeBa©j dUcenAkñgú linseed BI glucoside eday
enzyme [14] .
[RbvtþiénkardaMduH]: enAkMLg
ú TsSvtScugeRkayenH ekAs‘UKCW aplitpléRBeQI EdlTTYl)anedImekAs‘U
BIéRB enAtMbn;TenøGama:sUn . RbEhlqñaM 1895 vaRtUv)andaMduHCacMkar enAPaKxaglicRtUBki nig
GaeRhVc kNþal . \LÚv karpÁt;pÁg;RtUv)anykecjBIcMkar CMnYseGayedImekAs‘UFmµCati EdlRtUv
)ansÁal;fa para rubber manEtekAs‘mU YyEpñktUcb:ueNaÑH EdlRtUv)anykecjBIFmµCati enAeRbsIlu
. ekAs‘FU mµCatirYm cMEnk 30% éntMrUvkarBiPBelak enAqñaM 1991 tulüPaBRtUv)an
pþl;eGaytamry³ekAs‘sU eM yaK Edl)an mkBIplitpl én]sSah_kmµ eRbg nigEr: .
sþúkcMkarekAs‘PU aKeRcIn enAtMbn;GasIuGaeKñy_ )anmkBIepJIr nUvkUneQIrYmKñacMnYn 22
eTAeGaysYnrukCç atienA sigðbrU I ( Singapore Botanic Gardens) enAqñaM 1877 BI Kew Royal Botanic
Gardens, UK . Rkumh‘n
u
Goodyear eFIk
V ardaMduHekAs‘eU nAhVIlIBnI enAqñaM 1928 .
RKab;ekAs‘RU tUv)anepJIreTA\NÐa BIeRbsIul enAqñaM 1873 b:Eu nþBYkvamin)anrs;eT . karBüayamelIkTIBIr
RtUv )aneFIeV LIgenAqñaM 1875 b:Eu nþdMNuHRKab;manry³eBlyUreLIy enAeBlBYkvaeTAdl;RbeTs\NÐa .
cMkarekAs‘U (Para rubber) RtUv)annaMeTAtMbn;RtUBki énRbeTsGaeRhVk enAedImstSvtSTI 20 . dUcenH
G‘uyehànda TTYl)ankUnBI Kew enAqñaM 1901 nigBIRsIlgáa (bnÞab;mk Ceylon) enAqñaM 1903 . enAqñaM
1912 cMkarcMnn
Y 15 000 acres RtUv)andaMduHenAG‘uyehànda . Rkumh‘nu Firestone
)ancab;epþmI daMduHenA lIebrI enAqñaM 1924 [7].

10

B> GMnanepSg²eTot

:

Anon. 1986. The useful plants of India. Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR,
New Delhi, India.
[7]

Bekele-Tesemma A, Birnie A, Tengnas B. 1993. Useful trees and shrubs for Ethiopia.
Regional Soil Conservation Unit (RSCU), Swedish International Development Authority
(SIDA).
[7]

Cobley L.S & Steele W.M. 1976. An Introduction to the Botany of Tropical Crops.
Longman Group Limited.
[7]

Crane E, Walker P. 1984. Pollination directory for world crops. International Bee
Research Association, London, UK.
[7]

Gonçalves P. de S. Cardoso M. Ortolani A. A. (1990) Origin, variability and domestication
of Hevea - a review.

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[11]

11

Hong TD, Linington S, Ellis RH. 1996. Seed storage behaviour: a compendium.
Handbooks for Genebanks: No. 4. IPGRI.
[7]

Lanzara P and Pizetti M. 1978. Simon & Schuster’s guide to trees. Simon & Schuster,
Inc., New York.
[7]

Lemmens RHMJ, Soerianegara I, Wong WC (eds.). 1995. Plant Resources of South-east
Asia. No 5(2). Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
[7]

MacMillan HF et al. 1991. Tropical planting and gardening. Malayan Nature Society.
[7]

Nigel JHS, Williams JT, Donald LP, Jennifer PT. 1992. Tropical forests and their crops.
Cornell University Press.
[7]

Opeke LK. 1982. Tropical tree crops. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
[7]

Priyadarshan P.M. Goncalves P. de S. (2002) Allied Species of Rubber and their
Distribution.
[11]

Purseglove JW. 1968. Tropical crops. Dicotyledons. Longman Group Ltd, UK.

Taylor DH, Macdicken KG. 1990. Research on multipurpose tree species in Asia.
Proceedings of an International Workshop held November19-23, 1990 in Los Ba๑os,
Philippines. Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development.
[7]

Webster C.C. Baulkwill W.J. (1989) Rubber.
[11]

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[7]

12

Williams R.O & OBE. 1949. The useful and ornamental plants in Zanzibar and Pemba.
Zanzibar Protectorate.
[7]

P> ÉksarBieRKaH

:

[1] CABI: Forestry Compendium (2003 edition). (CD-ROM).

[2] Center for New Crops and Plants Products, Purdue University:
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/SearchEngine.html (Internet source)

[3] Dy Phon, P., 2000: Plants used in Cambodia.

[4] Department of Forestry and Wildlife, 1988: Cambodian Forestry Law No. 35,
25th June 1988. Phnom Penh.

[5] ECOPORT:
http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=506541
(Internet source)

Tinñn½yDICIflRbePTrukçCatiRbeTskm<úCa | snøwkTinñn½y

[6] Various Authors, 1973: Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Viêt-nam
(Fascicule 18th), Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

13

[7] World Agroforestry Center: AgroForestryTree Database –
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/BotanicSe
arch.asp

[8] Khurshid Akhter, 2005: Preservative Treatment of Rubber Wood (Hevea