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Published by: Alyson Muller on May 17, 2010
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Scorpions of The UNIVERSE

By Ethan Riley Cope

By Ethan


Many scorpions of the world are fascinating. Believe it or not, some scorpions are harmless! Some are as dangerous as drinking poison, and some are as harmless as a delicate flower. One of the most dangerous scorpions is the Yellow Pointed Stinger. Because they are so dangerous, you wouldn’t want that as a pet! One scorpion you would think is cool is the Brown Tail Swatter. Scorpions are members of the class Arachandina and are closely related to spiders, mites, and ticks. Scientists aren't sure why, but scorpions are fluorescent under ultraviolet light. These hardy, adaptable arthropods have been around for hundreds of millions of years, and they are nothing if not survivors. They are found in Brazilian forests, British Columbia, North Carolina, and even the Himalayas.. They Average, 2.5 inches(6 cm); the largest is 8.3 inches (21 cm) . The normal new born is the size relative to a tea cup. There are almost 2,000 scorpion species, but only 30 or 40 have strong enough poison to kill a person, like the Yellow Pointed Stinger. The scorpion’s diet is a carnivore.

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There are approximately 1,500 different species of scorpions roaming the world right now. Scorpions live in a variety of habitats including rain forests, woodlands, deserts, grasslands, and everywhere in between. Most scorpions prefer warmer tropical or subtropical climates. They prey upon a wide variety of animals and insects and all have the ability to sting. Even though a sting can hurt, very few scorpions are dangerous to humans. Keeping scorpions as pets is becoming increasingly more popular. They are relatively inexpensive to buy and require very little maintenance, much in the way of set up or care. Scorpions can be easily found at pet shops, reptile shows and online dealers and breeders. If you are looking for an interesting and unique pet, a scorpion makes an excellent choice. As part of the arachnid class, scorpions have two main body segments and four pairs of legs. The most distinctive characteristic of the scorpion are its long, clawlike pedipalps, which look like miniature lobster claws, and their stinging tail. The tail is mainly used for defense as opposed to capturing prey. One of the smallest scorpions, the buthid, which rarely reach more than 5 inches in length, is actually one of the most lethal scorpions. One shot of venom from its stinging tail can paralyze the heart and respiratory system of its victim.
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The bark scorpion’s (Centriroides exilicauda) body has two parts, a cephalothorax and abdomen. The tail is actually a part of the abdomen. It has five segments each longer than the last. They have 8 jointed legs and a pair of pedipalps that are use for grasping prey and sensing. Scorpions have "hairs" on their legs and other body parts that are sensitive to vibrations in the air. To avoid the extreme heat of the daytime, they will shelter in the shade and come out at night to hunt for food. In the winter months they will hibernate, often congregating in large groups. Scorpions can be found in many places due to its ability to climb. It can be found not only under rocks or in rock crevices, but also in trees or high on rock walls. They also can be found inside of peoples dwellings trapped in sinks or bathtubs, climbing walls, or in a dark closet. Scorpions are preyed upon by large centipedes, tarantulas, lizards, birds, bats, shrews, and grasshoppers, and mice. They prefer cool and moist areas and can be found in crevices, under pieces of bark,
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under rocks, under bricks and in houses. They prefer cool and moist areas and can be found in crevices, under pieces of bark, under rocks, under bricks and in houses. Bark scorpions will glow a green color (fluoresce) under ultraviolet light. This is the only species of scorpion in Arizona that is truly considered as life threatening. Scorpions give birth to live young during the summer months. The babies will crawl up their mother's pincers and legs to get on her back. They will ride around on her back until they molt in 7-21 days. Molting is when the babies’ colors start to change.

Another genus frequently found is the devil or stripetailed scorpion group (Vaejovis). There are several Vaejovid species found in Arizona. Arizona is a state in the Western Untied States. They are intermediate in size (1-2 inches in length) and are more robust than bark scorpions. The stripe-tailed scorpion is typically
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found under many surface objects (including sleeping bags, shoes, etc.) where it digs a short burrow or "scrape" for protection. This species is normally an obligate burrower, digging burrows about one meter deep in gravel soils. High numbers of scorpions can become a problem under some circumstances. If a reduced population is desirable several steps can be taken. Scorpions are difficult to control with insecticides alone. Therefore, the first control strategy is to modify the area surrounding a house or structure:

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Habitat appears to be variable as long as seasonal temperatures don't exceed 25 degrees Celsius for prolonged periods. Rainfall minimum and maximum are highly variable. Wetter, cooler environments, such as those found in coastal Eucalyptus type forests are ideal, although certainly not exclusive. Most common habitats are under tree bark high up, leaf litter on the forest floors ,(particularly around rocky areas) and beneath bark on fallen logs. As suburbia encroaches on this environment they may also be found in timber piles (especially if termite activity is evident), brick stacks, and stacked tin sheeting .They have also been found inside houses that back onto bushes or are on small farm lots. These are considered to be the one of the more "venomous scorpion species" in Australia. There has been one reported death of a infant girl from Pemberton in Western Australia in 1929, "assumed" to be from L. marmoreus, but not confirmed. One reported sting (person. conv.) revealed severe pain and a burning sensation for approx. 2 hours, with the pain diminishing to a dull ache/throb for about 12 hours.

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These scorpions are straw-colored or tan. Adults are usually 22 ¾ inches in length including tail. They are in the same family as spiders (Arachnida), so they have 8 legs. Scorpions also 8 eyes but have very poor vision and can only detect light and dark. They like to eat insects, spiders, and other tiny prey. Small prey is simply torn apart by the pinchers. Larger prey is stung. The poison, a neuro-toxin, is held in a gland at the tip of the tail and is injected through its stinger to kill prey by affecting the central nervous system. Then it holds its food with its pinchers and uses digestive juices to break the tissue down. With the help of another set of small pinchers in the mouth called chelicerae, it chews and sucks the liquefied food into the digestive tract with the pumping action of the pharynx. They live in Southern and Southwestern U.S. and Mexico

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Scorpions are from the spider family. They have four pairs of eyes but cannot see very well. They have eight legs and two claws. They grow from 2.5 cm to 20 cm in length. They live mainly in desert areas. The scorpion can live without water for several months. They mainly come out at night to hunt. They are usually brown in color so that they can blend into the desert. They eat mainly spiders and insects. They can go without food for up to a year. All scorpions can inject poison from the sting at the end of their tail. After mating the female sometimes kills and eats the male scorpion. Female scorpions give birth to live young and look after them by carrying them around on their back. . It takes a year for a baby scorpion to become an adult.

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A scorpion is a small animal with a potentially dangerous venomous sting in its tail. The scorpion's sting is a curved organ at the end of its tail. Two glands at the base give out a venom that flows from two pores. A scorpion wound is painful, but rarely causes death. A scorpion's body has two parts. Its short and thick forward part, called the cehpalothorax, consists of the head and thorax (chest), which are joined together. The hind part is the long abdomen. Its last six segments form a slender tail. Most scorpions are black or yellowish and from 1 to 20 centimeters long. The scorpion has six pairs of jointed appendages. The first pair consists of tiny pincers. The second pair, with large claws, is used to seize and crush prey. The last four pairs are legs. There are 6 to 12 eyes - different kinds of scorpions have different numbers. The breathing pores are on the abdomen.

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Despite having six to twelve eyes - an obvious pair at the centre of the carapace and two to five smaller eyes on each side - scorpions do not have good eyesight. However, they can readily distinguish light from dark and appear to have excellent low light sensitivity, which helps them to both avoid harsh sunlight and to navigate by starlight or moonlight. They sense their way around using sensory hairs and slit organs on the legs, pedipalps (see page 9), and body that pick up vibrations and scents (mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors). They also have special organs on the underside of the body called pectines, which pick up ground textures and scents. Males and females find each other by vibration, scent and touch. During mating, the sensory pectines under the body are used to find a suitable place for the male to deposit his sperm parcel - the spermatophore. The male and female then perform a mating dance above the spermatophore, with the female being wrestled into position over it in order to draw it up into her genital pore. The fertilized eggs develop inside her body, and she then gives birth to live young. She carries the pale young scorpions on her back for the first few days or weeks, until they are strong enough to become independent. The young then disperse to find food and shelter. Scorpions take a long time to reach maturity, changing frequently (up to five or six times over two to six years) in order to grow, and may live for two to ten years. Some have been recorded as living up to 25 years.
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Scorpions are venomous arthropods of the class Arachnida and they are considered relatives of the spider, mite, tick and harvestmen. There are approximately 1,300 species of scorpions worldwide, and each one of them has an elongated body and a segmented tail tipped with a venomous stinger. Scorpions are usually thought of as desert animals, but in fact they live in many other habitats as well including: grasslands, savannahs, forests, mountain pine forests, rain forest and caves. Scorpions have been found under snow-covered rocks at elevations of over 12,000 feet in the Andes Mountains of South America and the Himalayas of Asia. About 90 species of scorpions live in the United States, and all but four of them are naturally living West of the Mississippi River. Living scorpions reflect ultraviolet light and can glow with an eerie greenish color when exposed to UV light, no matter what color they appear under normal lighting conditions.
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Although it's only a medium-sized scorpion, the Death Stalker is one of the most deadly scorpions on Earth. Its very potent venom helps it compensate for its smaller size and narrow, weak pincers; this scorpion’s sting injects extremely toxic venom (a neurotoxin) that can cause extreme pain, fever, convulsions, paralysis, and often coma or death in humans (by heart or respiratory failure). The Death Stalker Scorpion is found in North Africa and the Middle East. It prefers a dry climate, and makes its home in natural burrows or under stones. The neurotoxins found in Death Stalker venom are being studied by scientists, who hope to find in them a treatment for some diseases, notably some forms of brain cancer, and diabetes.

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Oh no! It Bit Me!
If you remain calm, it is not difficult to treat a scorpion sting. Even if you are stung by the Arizona bark scorpion -- the most dangerous and venomous of the Arizona scorpions -- it is not likely to be fatal or even to have long-lasting effects. Local medical centers are familiar with the treatment. • If you want to be able to recognize scorpions when you come across them, study this book carefully. • Often people say they didn't know they were stung by a scorpion. It is important to recognize scorpion sting symptoms: immediate pain or burning, very little swelling, sensitivity to touch, and a numbness/tingling sensation. • If you are stung by any scorpion, including the venomous Arizona Bark Scorpion, turn the page to find some immediate actions

you should take:

What to do if you are bitten:
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1. Wash the area of the scorpion sting with soap and water. 2. Apply a cool compress on the area of the scorpion sting. Ice (wrapped in a washcloth or other suitable covering) may be applied to the sting location for 10 minutes. Remove compress for 10 minutes and repeat as necessary. 3. If stung on a limb (arm or leg) elevate the limb to heart level. 4. Call the Poison Control Center in your area . If you develop symptoms such as numbness or tingling of extremities or face, blurry vision, or muscle twitching, roving eye movements, go to the nearest hospital emergency room. Young children and older people who are stung by a scorpion should be taken to the emergency room immediately. 5. Keep your tetanus shots and boosters current.

Scorpion Sting Tips

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Be careful when camping or during other outdoor activities to make sure that a scorpion has not made a home in your clothes, shoes or sleeping bags. Scorpions glow brightly under UV light (black light). Scorpions are basically immune to most pesticides. If you suspect your house has scorpions, call a professional exterminator. Eliminating their food source (other insects) can help.

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Works Cited Kian Wee, Chua. "Scorpions & Spiders." TriPod.Com. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2010. <members.tripod.com/~c_kianwee/fact.htm://>. 3L, GRADE. "SCORPION." Schools on the Web. KNOX GARDENS PRIMARY SCHOOL, n.d. Web. 13 May 2010. <http://www.schools.ash.org.au/knoxgardens/scorpion.htm>. Associated Press. "Arizona study aims to take sting out of scorpions." East Valley Tribune [Pheonix] 9 May 2010, sec. Local: 1. Kold News 13. Web. 10 May 2010. Ben-Joseph, MD, Elana Pearl . "Hey! A Scorpion Stung Me! ." KidsHealth - the Web's most visited site about children's health. Nemours, 1 Nov. 2007. Web. 29 Apr. 2010. <http://kidshealth.org/kid/ill_injure/bugs/scorpion.html>. Best Fun Facts. "Scorpion Fun Facts." bestfunfacts. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2010. <http://bestfunfacts.com/scorpions.html>. "Fun Facts About Scorpions (page 1, ascending) | DXPnet.com Message Boards." DXPnet.com: message boards, horoscopes, classifieds, wwwriot, more.... N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2010. <http://www.dxpnet.com/opinion/scorpio/Fun-Facts-AboutScorpions-163198.asp>. Garner, James M.. "Scorpions (DesertUSA)." Desert Biomes by DesertUSA. Scorpions! Answers to Frequently Asked Questions, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2010. <http://www.desertusa.com/oct96/du_scorpion.html>. Getty News Services. "Fun Facts About Scorpions (page 1, ascending) | DXPnet.com Message Boards." DXPnet.com: message boards, horoscopes, classifieds, wwwriot, more.... N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2010. <http://www.dxpnet.com/opinion/scorpio/Fun-Facts-AboutScorpions-163198.asp>. Hedding, Judy. "Scorpion Stings - Scorpion Bite - What To Do If You Are Stung By a Scorpion." Phoenix - Phoenix AZ - City of Phoenix - Phoenix Arizona - Metro Phoenix. N.p., n.d. 1 Page

Web. 29 Apr. 2010. <http://phoenix.about.com/od/scorpions/qt/scorpionsting.htm>. Moore, John , and Chiang Mai. "Scorpion facts." Thailand's amazing insects photographed in the forests around Chiang Mai. 10th Planet, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2010. <http://www.thaibugs.com/Articles/scorpion_facts.htm>. Peter, Carsten. "Scorpion Facts." National Geographic. Version 672. National Geographic Magazine, n.d. Web. 1 May 2010. <animals.nationalgeographic.com/bugs/scorpion/http://>. "Scorpion : Facts, Pictures : Animal Planet." Animal Planet : Pets, Wild Animals, Dog Breeds, Cat Breeds. Discovery Channel, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2010. <http://animal.discovery.com/invertebrates/scorpion/>. "Wilderness: Scorpion Sting Treatment: First Aid Information for Wilderness: Scorpion Sting." First Aid, Safety and Emergency Treatment Procedures Guide from WebMD. E Medical Health, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2010. <http://firstaid.webmd.com/wilderness-scorpion-stingtreatment>.

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