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Activity 10: Analyzing Stylistic Choices

Consider all of the following aspects of the authors technique, answering the questions below.
Each aspect includes several questions to consider.
1. Relationship Between the Writer and the Reader
Does the writer ask or expect the reader to do anything?
I think that the word choice, and way of writing the author used seemed highly persuasive. All
writing is persuasive to a certain extent. But this writing in particular seemed too much in my
face. It seemed as though the writer expected the reader to believe in this theory of his.
Does the writer address the reader as an expert speaking to other experts, or as an
expert speaking to the general reader?
The writer addresses the reader as an expert speaking to the general reader. The writer uses
other experts to portray the theory but the word choice he uses is focused towards the general
reader. Also, an expert may already know about this subject.
Does the writer make sure that the reader follows the discussion?
Yes I think that the writer makes sure that the reader follows the discussion by adding new
information and different points of view from other experts.
Does the writer engage the reader through humor, drama, or unusual examples?
No I did not think the writer engaged the reader in humor, drama, or any other unusual
Is the writer hesitant or assertive?
I think that all points, and theories came across as persuasive and not standoffish. None of the
points made were hesitant at all.
How much knowledge does the writer assume the reader has?
I think that the writer assumed the reader was knowledgeable but not an expert. I thought this
article was aimed towards an average reader.
2. Content Choices

What parts of the subject does the author discuss in great detail? What parts are
I thought the parts of the subject that was discussed in great detail were the statistics. The
statistics taken by other experts were discussed greatly with more than other parts. The parts
that were summarized were the conclusion, and the author's perspective on the survey about
vocabulary questions.
What statements does the writer assume as given (and therefore does not back up with
extensive support)?
The statements that were not completely supported were very minimal. The only thing I did not
think was completely supported was what exactly stereotyping really is.
What relevant topics are ignored?
The relevant topics that were ignored were that all races were not included in this article.
What topics could have been discussed but were not?
The topic that could have been discussed was instead of stereotypes affecting performance it
could be how to fix this issue.
3. Expansion of Topics
In what ways are individual topics developed? Are arguments given? Are anecdotes told?
The author led on his article by continuing to bring up different topics. He would then develop
his topics or create arguments by using other professionals to back up his topics with statistics.
Is the reader asked to believe certain ideas or to take certain actions? Is the reader asked
to imagine consequences?
The reader is not asked to believe in certain ideas however they are asked to consider them
and develop their own opinions and ideas. There are also asked to consider stereotype threats
in their own society and to imagine the consequences of them.
Does the expansion of statements prove the statements or help the reader understand?
Does it keep the reader interested or amused or obscure the issues? Does it develop

Yes, the expansion of statements prove the statement and help the reader further understand
the topics. The author gave real life studies and statistics and related it back to his own topics.
This makes his information more reliable and believable.
4. Choice of Evidence
What types of information are used to support main statements: statistics, anecdotes,
quotations, original observations, scientific theories, legal or philosophical principles,
definitions, appeals to emotion, appeals to the imagination, or appeals to common sense?
Many different types of information were used to support the main statements such as
definitions, original observations, quotations, and scientific theories. This article was highly
engaging and interesting because there was different information being used to help the reader
understand the author's point in this article. With the amount of examples used, it helped me
specifically to engage more in the article.
5. Use of Reference
How extensively does the writer rely on other sources? (Are there frequent mentions of
other books or articles?) Do you notice any indirect reference to the work of others?
When reviewing this article, I noticed that much of the content was from other sources and not
the writer's own. Most of the content was just direct quotation from other writers. But there was
no indirect reference to the work of other to my knowledge.
What methods are used to refer to other works? Do they include reference by title only,
paraphrase, summary, or direct quotation?
The method that the author used to refer to other works was interviewing the sources and
getting direct quotes from them. I think that the direct quotation made the article more personal
and easier to believe in a reader's perspective.
How complete is the documentation and the bibliography?
I think the documentation is somewhat complete. I feel that the writer just included main points
that instantly catch the reader's eye rather than adding other details that were important to the
writer but not so much to the reader.

What kinds of material does the writer cite: contemporary newspaper accounts, private
diaries, government documents, specialized scholarly studies, theoretical works, bestselling nonfiction books, statistical reports, or literary works?
The writer cites many studies but specifically specialized scholarly studies. With these sources,
the reader can believe the information given because of the very knowledgeable source.
What purpose does the reference serve in the writing? Does the reference provide specific
evidence? Quote directly a person being discussed? Provide an assertion by an authority?
Present an example for analysis? Explain a point? Supply the background of a new idea?
Distinguish between conflicting ideas? Place current work in the context of previous work?
The reference provides a very important purpose in the writing. It supports the theories that the
writer has about stereotypes and helps the reader understand what the author is trying to
portray. All the references provide great information and prove the topic.

6. Level of Precision
Is the subject simplified or presented in all its complexity?
I think that the word choice, and the way the writing is being portrayed is simplified so any type
of audience could understand the text. But in a way, all the sources and research was presented
in all its complexity.
Are all important distinctions brought out?
I think that the author's most important distinctions were brought out but there may be some
other topics that were not discussed due to their importance.
Are many supporting details given or are only broad principles stated?
I thought that only broad principles were stated due to the audience's attention to the subject
and to get the point across. This was obvious to me because of the length of the article.
Are potential difficulties in the argument discussed?
To some degree the difficulty of the topic is somewhat discussed. The topic in general is a
difficulty to society but what was not brought up was the future effect of this topic.
7. Sentence Structure

Are the sentences short or long? Simple or complex?

The sentences are short and attainable and contain simple information that is easy for the
audience to understand.
Are the sentences declarative statements? Do they set up a complex condition (if then .
. .)?
No, the sentences are not declarative statements because the author does not state an opinion
without expanding his thoughts. He always continues his opinion with facts and statistics rather
than just stopping the sentence.
Do the sentences have qualifiers (even though . . .)?
Yes, the sentences uses qualifiers to help continue the authors train of thought. I know this
because he includes more than his own opinion on his sentences.
Do the sentences describe actions?
Yes some of his sentences do describe such as Walton acknowledged the challenges but said
there is one implication of the research that is no controversial This is describing the action of
a scientist.
Do they describe physical qualities?
Some of his sentences do describe physical qualities. Although, his article focuses on the broad
topics, the author includes many details including some descriptions of physical characteristics
Do they relate actual events to abstract ideas?
This is a research article so for the most part the author really only writes about actual events
rather than abstract ideas. I know this because most of his article is composed of real life facts
and statistics. The author does have some abstract ideas such as the college admissions
officer ought to pick the man, since his score predicts he will do better in college than a woman
with the same score. This is an idea not necessarily a fact.
Do they discuss only abstractions?
No, the author does not only discuss abstract ideas. Most of the article contains of the actual
events and real statistics and studies.
8. Word Choice
What are the denotative and connotative meanings of the key words?
The denotative meanings for the keywords are very obvious and clear. The article is a research
article with studies and statistics so the author keeps his words clear and simple. The words
stereotype seems straightforward however it can mean different things in different situations
which could make this word connotative.

How do the specific words the author has chosen affect your response?
The words the author has chosen affected my response by making his message and opinion
more clear and persuading me into believing what he thinks.
Which words or synonyms are repeated? Why?
The word stereotype was repeated many times throughout the text to further explain his
message and deliver it clearly. Other words that were repeated include statistics, experiment,
stereotype threat, performance, impact, and study. These words were all repeated for the
same reason, to help deliver the message the author is trying to get through.
What figurative language does the author use? What does it imply?
Th figurative language the author uses included similes and symbolism. This is a research
article so it does not use assonance or connotation nor does it use metaphors. The figurative
language the author does use helps the audience further understand the authors opinion and it
implies his true opinion on the subject.