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CHAPTER 1 :

CHANGE CAPACITY
(MARKET ANALYSIS)

Based on CEH Marketing Research Report for formaldehyde ,


the company and plant location production formalin is

CHEMSTATION ASIA SDN.BHD in Kuantan Port , Kuantan ,


Pahang.The annual capacity for this company as of Mid-2007 is
69300 metric tonne per year.CHEMSTATION ASIA Kuantan
Port facility in Malaysia will boost capacity by 2010 bringing its
total 69470 metric tonne per year.So , there is a few expansion
over

the

next

few

years(Chemical

Economic

Handbook,2009).Based on the data , the production rate of


formalin on 2015 is 69576.23 tonne per year.

Written by Nur Izati binti Majid & Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

CHAPTER 2 :
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction
Formalin is a solution in water of the gas formaldehyde (CH 2O). A saturated solution
contains about 40% by volume or 37% by weight of the gas, plus a small amount of
a stabilizer, usually 10-12% methanol; this prevents polymerization. The liquid is
used as an embalmin g fluid and for the preservation of animal specimens and tissue
samples. It is also used, generally in a much more dilute form, as a disinfectant, and
anti-bacterial wash and in aquariums for treating parasite infections in fish. The
disinfectant properties of the solution are due to the presence of formaldehyde,
which also gives it a pungent, irritating smell. In addition ,solution of formaldehyde in
methanol , propanol and butanol are also available commercially
Formaldehyde , CH2O is the first of the series of aliphatic aldehydes.It is also known
as exomethane and methanol according to IUPAC system.Formaldehyde has
become an industrial chemical of outstanding importance.Because of its relative low
cost , high purity and variety of chemical reasons,formaldehyde has become one of
the worlds most important industrial and research chemical.It is not only an
important low cost chemical intermediate ,it is also a synthetic tool like
hydrogenation, oxidation and others.In formaldehyde ,the carbonyl carbon in
functional group of aldehyde is directly linked with one hydrogen atom.
Commercial

forms

of

aldehyde

also

include

the

polymeric

hydrate

paraformaldehyde.This is known as paraform or some times as trioxymethylene.This


polymer behave chemically as a solid form of fomaldehyde.The cyclic timer ,strioxane (a-trioxymetyhlene)is also commercially available as a special form of
formaldehyde.

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

1.2 History
Formaldehyde is the simplest aldehyde with the chemical formula HCHO. Since
its accidental production by Alexander Mikhailovich Butlerov in 1859 and
subsequent discovery by A. W. Hofmann in 1868, formaldehyde has become a
major industrial product. He was working with derivatives of methyl iodide
,allowed the iodide to react with silver acetate and then hydrolysed the resulting
solution.A vapor with an irritating and pungent odour was evolved but because of
a mistake in determining the vapor density,Butlerov failed to identify it as
formaldehyde .Although Butlerov failed to realize that he was dealing with
formaldehyde ,his description of its physical and chemical properties including the
isolation of para formaldehyde which he called dioxymethylene and synthesis of
hexamethylene tetramine are unquestionable.Historically , fomaldehyde has been
and continuously to be manufactured from methanol.A.W.Hofmann synthesized
formaldehyde by the reaction of methanol and air in the presence of platinum
catalyst and definitely established its chemical identity.Practical methods of
manufacturing developed with Loews use of a copper catalyst around 1886 and
blanks silver catalyst process patented in 1910.Commercial production was
intiatiated in Germany in 1888 and the manufacturing in USA commenced about
1901.However production was on a limited scale before the commerciall
development of phenolic resins in 1910 .In 1966 ,process formaldehyde by the
oxidation of dimethyl ether was commercialized in Japan , but operation was
discontinued later.Today , on the worlds formaldehyde is manufactured fro
methanol and air by an older process using a metal catalyst and a newer one
using a metal oxide catalyst.

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

1.3 Uses of Formaldehyde


We shall review various uses of fomaldehyde.Major uses of formaldehyde are :
Formaldehyde and its polymers are used in synthetic-resin industry ,where
it is employed principally in the production of thermosetting resins , oil

soluble resins and adhesives.


In the presence of alkali , it can be employed to precipitate the metal from
solutions of gold ,silver ,copper and to reduce other carbonyl compounds

to alcohols.
Urea formaldehyde concentrate finds use in adhesive and coating
compositions.Most

particleboard

products

are

based

on

urea-

formaldehyde resins.
Phenol-formaldehyde is used as an adhesive in weather resistant

plywood.
In paper industry , formaldehyde and its derivatives impart wet strength
shrink resistance and grease resistance.Formaldehyde is used as a
pigment binder and an agent for imparting water resistance in coated

paper.
Leather and fur can be tanned by the action of formaldehyde in the
presence

of

buffer-salts

which

maintain

approximate

neutrality.Formaldehyde can be employeed on sheep pelts to give Mouton

type furs which will not.Curl on dyeing.


The action of formaldehyde on proteins also finds use in the photographic
industry because of its.Hardening insolubilizing action on the gelatin

surfaces of sensitized films and papers.


The utility of formaldehyde medicinal products is due to its ability to
modifify and reduce the toxicity of viruses , venoms , irritating pollens as
well as to palliate undesirable toxic effects in certain vitamins
,antibiotics.Formaldehyde also plays an important role in the synthesis of

many drugs.
Direct use of foffilaldehyde as a bactericide ,disinfectant , fungicide
,preservative and deodorant.It is also used for sterilizing agent in
mushroom culture.
Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

1.4 Properties of Formaldehyde


At ordinary temperature ,pure formaldehyde is a colourless gas with pungent
suffocating odour.Formaldehyde is produced and sold as water solution
containing variable amounts of methanol.These solutions are complex equilibrium
mixtures of metyhlene glycol,polyoxymethylene glycols.Ultraviolet spectroscopic
studies indicate that even in highly concentrated solutions the content of
unhydrated HCHO is less than 0.04wt %.
1.4.1 Physical Properties
It is colourless , pungent smelling gas readily soluble in water ,alcohol
and ether.It is powerful disinfectant and antiseptic.When condensed it
yields a colourless liquid.
1.4.2 Chemical Properties
Formaldehyde is noted for its relatively and its versatility as a chemical
intermediate.It

is

used

as

forms

of

anhydrous

monomer,solutions,polymers and derivatives.The chemical properties


of formaldehyde are the general properties of characteristics aldehyde
group (--CH=O).The pure,dry fromaldehyde gas is relatively stable at
80

to

100

C.But

slowly

polymerizes

at

lower

temperature.Formaldehyde is readily reduced to methanol by hydrogen


over many metal and metal oxide catalysts.It is oxidized to formic acid
or CO2 and H2O.

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

1.5 Health and Safety Aspects of Formaldehyde


Danger to health : Liquid or gaseous formaldehyde is
extremely toxic.Because of its sharp smell and its tear-

inducing ,effects ,formaldehyde can easily be discovered


before the concentration become dangerous.All rooms in
which work with formaldehyde is done must have good
ventilation to avoid collection of gases.Liquid formaldehyde
can be absorbed by skin and has a dangerous effect.Each
spatter on the skin should therefore be washed away at
oncewith care.An appropriate skin cream should be applied.If
there is any risk of splashing ,protective glasses should be
worn.If nevertheless formaldehyde gets into the eyes ,they
must carefully be washed by means of clean water.Afterwards
a doctor should be consulted.Formaldehyde may cause
eczema.Most people working with formaldehyde at firsl feel
only slight reaction ,which normally means a slight reddening
of the skin and dryness of the hand.Its sensitivity varies in
each case and it usually disappears after 2 to 3 weeks.By
frequent washing with super fat soap and application of
protective cream ,as well as by wearing rubber or PVC
gloves ,eczema can be avoided.Formaldehyde gas irritates the
mucous membranes of the eyes ,nose and throat .Its solution
has a hardening or tanning action on the skin.For optimum
safety , formaldehyde solution should be handled in closed
equipement where ever possible.
Danger of Fire : Formaldehyde is inflammable under certain
conditions , e.g as vapors from strong formaldehyde solution
or

par

smoking

formaldehyde.Thought
and

open

fires

are

the

formaldehyde

therefore

factory

prohibited.The

management of the factory must consent to any welding work


to be carried out in the factory premises.

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

1.6 Process Comparison and Selection Criteria

Commercial formaldehyde is manufactured from methanol and air by using metal or


metal oxide catalyst but a portion is produced by the partial oxidation of lower
petroleum hydrocarbon.The former procedure gives essentially pure formaldehyde
containing methanol and traces of formic acid as a primary product,where as the
later gives a mixture of lower aliphatic aldehydes ,alcohols and acids which on
refining yield an excessive group of petrochemicals.
There are two types of process in production of formalin :
Natural Gas Process
Normally three methods are used for the manufacturing of formaldehyde from
natural gas :
- Oxidation in gaseous phase by passing mixture of gas and air over
-

catalyst.
Oxidation of natural gas by ozone.
Iodination of subsequent hydrolysis.
Formaldehyde is also synthesized by cracking of methane in electric

discharge.Many

types

of

catalyst

example

(copper

,nickel,cobalt,chromium

manganese ,gold and silver) are used for production of formaldehyde.Maximum


conversion of 60% to 70% of methane to fomaldehyde occurs in this process.

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

Methanol Process

Formaldehyde is produced by vapor phase oxidation of methanol in excess of


air followed by absorption of water liquid methanol is vaporized in vaporizer
then it is mixed with compressed air.These mixed streams are then introduce
into tubular reactor ,filled with silver catalyst.Heat is generated by oxidation of
methanol.In this process, 87.4 % conversion of methanol to formaldehyde
takes place.In natural gas process ,the conversion of low molecular weight
hydrocarbons in the oxidation step together with a complex separation
system ,results in energy-intensive plant ,that ,with increasing fuel ,costs ,
suffers

economically

when

competing

with

newer

more

selective

manufacturing methods.Hence ,the methanol process is preferred.In natural


gas process , maximum conversion of methane to fomaldehyde is 60% to
70% while in methanol process ,conversion of methanol to formaldehyde is
85% , that is why methanol process is preferred over natural gas
process.Natural gas has a large quantity which is a good raw material for the
manufacturing process of formalin but we prefer methanol to natural gas as it
is fractioned from petroleum and is cheaper one though imported from Middle
East up to some extent.Natural gas also are decreasing day by day,that is
why nowadays instead of using natural gas process we prefer to import
methanol and methanol process is used in our country .

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

1.7 Catalyst Methanol Process

Formaldehyde is manufactured commercially from methanol and air by an older


process using a metal catalyst and newer one using a metal oxide catalyst.Reactor
feed to former is on the methanol-rich side of a flammable mixture and virtually
complete reaction of oxygen is obtained ,conversely,feed to metal oxide catalyst is
lean in methanol and almost complete conversion of methanol is achieved.Methanol
process gives essentially pure formaldehyde containing traces of formic acid as a
primary product.
Silver Catalyst
The Silver Catalyst process is the most safe process of formaldehyde
production. Formaldehyde concentration and residue methanol produced with
the Silver Catalyst Process is as good as from best metal oxide process.
Less formic acid and no caustic soda and antifoam agent makes the product
more versatile for all formulations and customers.There is also no hot oil used
in this process, just water/steam and this reduces the fire risk. There is no
oxygen in the absorber, this not only reduces the fire risk but improves the
product quality as well. The catalyst can be removed without dust and waste
in a few hours. Re-catalization can take less than 24 hours so only small
holding tanks are necessary to serve customers during re-catalization.
The investment costs for the Silver Catalyst Process are similar compared to
the Metal Oxide Process but there are other advantages to this system:
The catalyst in inexpensive because it is fully regenerated.
There is less electricity consumption.
Higher steam generation and less cooling demand

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

Metal Oxide Process


The Metal Oxide Process yields better quantities of formaldehyde therefore
there is slightly less consumption of methanol. It also has similar investment
costs to the Silver Catalyst Process..Factors that influence this decision

include costs of raw materials, utility costs, catalyst costs and safety and
operation aspects.

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

1.8 Process Description


Fresh methanol, Stream 2 is combined with recycled methanol, stream 18 and
formed stream 3. Methanol is pumped via P-801 A/B, up to pressure of 300 kPa and
enters methanol preheater exchanger, E-801 where the temperature raised to
150C. The stream leaving E-801 as Stream 6 and combined with air stream, Stream
7 that being compressed in compressor C-801 and heated in heat exchanger, E-802
to 200C. This two-phase mixture is then fed through the formaldehyde reactor, R801 at 171.9C and 255 kPa. The reactor consists of thin layers of silver wire gauze
suspended above the heat exchanger tube bank. The methanol and air react
catalytically to produce formaldehyde and water according to the following
exothermic reaction :
CH3OH + 1/2O2
methanol

HCHO + H2O
formaldehyde

The reactor effluent, Stream 9 consists of formaldehyde and water produced from
the reaction, together with the unreacted methanol and air, is cooled in reactor
effluent cooler, E-803, where the temperature is reduced to 100C by using cooling
water. The stream, Stream 10 and deionized water in Stream 11 then being fed to
the absorber, T-801 which contains 2-in ceramic Berl saddles and 20 theoretical
stages also operates at 140 kPa. The overhead vapor, Stream 12 exit as fuel gas
product from the process. The bottom stream, Stream 13 is fed to formaldehyde
tower, T-802 which contains only unreacted methanol, formaldehyde and water. The
tower contains 31 sieve trays and fed on 18th tray. The bottom liquid, Stream 15 is
fed to the pump, P-803 and leaves as Stream 16 to be cooled in the E-806 from
106.7C to 35C before being sent to storage as formalin product, Stream 17.The
overhead vapor of T-802 is condensed using cooling water in E-805 and the
condensate is collected in the reflux drum, V-801. The condensed overhead vapor
stream enter from V-801 to P-802. The liquid stream is split into two where one
portion is returned to the tower to provide reflux while another portion that contain
almost all of the methanol fed to the column and recycled back to mixed with the
fresh methanol at Stream 2 to be reused for the process.

Written by Nur Izati binti Majid

1.9 Stream Tables

1.10 Equipment Description


All of the equipments used in the plant are chosen to be constructed of stainless steel. This is due to corrosive water in the streams
and high pressure.

Written by Saufi bin Safingi

REACTOR
For cost estimations, Plug Flow Reactor is used as a Formaldehyde reactor . The
capacity needed for the cost estimations is the volume of the reactor. In this section,
designing a plug flow reactor for multi reaction and non-isothermal condition is used.
This reactor is supported with a heat exchange to remove the heat generated from
the exothermic reaction.

COMPRESSOR
The compressor used in the plant is assumed to be a centrifugal compressor made
of stainless steel. It is assumed that the energy required to compress a gas is the
energy found in the workbook. In reality, there is an efficiency factor involved. This
factor has not been counted in when estimating the electric power needed for the
plant.

HEAT EXCHANGERS
All of the heat exchangers in the plant are assumed to be shell and tube, floating
head and stainless steel. The reason for this choice is the same as for the direct
plant. The estimation of the cost for the heat exchanger is done the same way as for
the exchangers in the direct plant.

PUMP
The pump used in the plant is assumed to be centrifugal, electric drive and made of
stainless steel. Pump selection is based on flow rate and head required. In addition
special care should be made when considering corrosion (in this process some
water is present, and the pressure is high).

TOWER
There is only one tower in this plant . The towers in the plant are distillation columns
with sieve trays. The ideal numbers of trays were found by scaling up the number of
trays. The distillation column known as Formaldehyde tower.

Written by Saufi bin Safingi

CHAPTER 3 :
EFFICIENCY OF
RAW MATERIAL
USAGE

Reactant fed
Reactant consumedthe reaction
Single pass conversionthe reactor =
the reactor

Stream8Stream9
Stream 8

213.70771.3915
213.707
0.665967

Reactant fed
Reactant consumed the process
Overall conversionthe processs=
the process

Stream2Stream 12Stream17
Stream 2

174.60830.30452.043
174.608
0.814781.47

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz & Nur Izati binti Majid

Moles of reactant

Yield= produce desired product


Moles of limiting reactant reacted

Stream 12+ Stream17


Stream2Stream 12Stream17

( 0.0908+ 212.654 ) +(142.17 +250.449)


174.60830.30452.043

212.7448+392.619
174.60830.30452.043
4.2550.0425

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz & Nur Izati binti Majid

CHAPTER 4 :
MATERIAL
BALANCE

Stream
Number
Temperatur
e (C)
Pressure
(kPa)
Vapor
fraction
Total kg/h
Total kmol/h

25.0

30.0

40.7

40.8

183.0

150.0

101.3

120.0

101.3

300.0

300.0

265.0

9557.92
6
331.284

5595.09
6
174.608

7083.08
1
226.818

7083.08
1
226.818
4

9557.83
5
331.283
8

7083.08
1
226.818

213.63

213.652

69.5982
0

0
0

Component flowrates (kmol/h)


Methanol
0
174.608
Oxygen
Formaldehy
de
Water
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Mole fraction
Methanol
Oxygen
Formaldehy
de
Water
Hydrogen
Nitrogen

69.5982
0

0
0

0
0

213.629
7
0
0

0
0
261.686

0
0
0

13.1887
0
0

13.1887
0
0

0
0
261.685
6

13.1887
0
0

0
0.21009
0

1
0
0

0.94185
0
0

0.94185
0
0

0
0.21086
0

0.94195
0
0

0
0
0.78991

0
0
0

0.05815
0
0

0.05815
0
0

0
0
0.78914

0.05815
0
0

Written by Nur Izati binti Majid

Stream
Number
Temperatur
e (C)
Pressure
(kPa)
Vapor
fraction
Total kg/h
Total kmol/h

10

11

12

200.0

171.9

200.0

100.0

30.0

84.6

265.0

255.0

285.0

150.0

150.0

140.0

9557.84
331.284

16640.9
558.102

16640.9
631.128
1

16640.9
631.128
1

5847.97
324.61

12154.0
508.843

71.3915
0.3405
142.260
9
151.681
4
3.7682
261.685
6

71.3915
0.3405
142.261

0
0
0

30.3045
0.3405
0.0908

151.681

324.61

212.654

3.7682
261.686

0
0

3.7682
261.686

Component flowrates (kmol/h)


Methanol
0
213.707
Oxygen
69.5982 69.5982
Formaldehy 0
0
de
Water
0
13.1887
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Mole fraction
Methanol
Oxygen
Formaldehy
de
Water
Hydrogen
Nitrogen

0
261.686

0
261.686

0
0.21009
0

0.38292
0.12471
0

0.11312
0.00054
0.22541

0.11312
0.00054
0.22541

0
0
0

0.05956
0.00067
0.00018

0
0
0.78991

0.02363
0
0.46888

0.24033
0.00597
0.41463

0.24033
0.00597
0.41463

1
0
0

0.41792
0.00741
0.51428

Written by Nur Izati binti Majid

Stream
13
14
Number
Temperatur 89.9
75.5
e (C)
Pressure
150.0
130.0
(kPa)
Vapor
0
0
fraction
Total kg/h
10334.9 1488.21
Total kmol/h 446.895 52.21
Component flowrates (kmol/h)
Methanol
41.087
39.0213
Oxygen
0
0
Formaldehy 142.17
0
de
Water
263.638 13.1887
Hydrogen
0
0
Nitrogen
0
0
Mole fraction
Methanol
0.09194 0.74739
Oxygen
0
0
Formaldehy 0.31813 0
de
Water
0.58993 0.25261
Hydrogen
0
0
Nitrogen
0
0

15

16

17

18

106.6

106.7

35.0

73.4

150.0

350.0

315.0

120.0

8846.42
394.662

8846.42
394.662

8846.42
394.662

1488.21
52.21

2.043
0
142.17

2.043
0
142.17

2.043
0
142.17

39.0213
0
0

250.449
0
0

250.449
0
0

250.449
0
0

13.1887
0
0

0.00518
0
0.36023

0.00518
0
0.36023

0.00518
0
0.36023

0.74739
0
0

0.63459
0
0

0.63459
0
0

0.63459
0
0

0.25261
0
0

Written by Nur Izati binti Majid

Basis being used: 330 days/ year of operation


in which, it is required to produce 69576.23 metric tonne/year.
69576.23 tonne 1000 kg 1 day 1 year

=8784.88 kg/ h
year
1 tonne 24 h 330 day

From table B.7.1 Stream table for unit 800, the total production of formaldehyde is
62.63 kmol/h and water is 110.33 kmol/h
Formaldehyde:
Water:

62.63 kmol 30.031 g

=1880.842kg /h
h
mol

110.33 kmol 18.015 g

=1987.595 kg /h
h
mol

Thus, the total production of formalin = total production of formaldehyde + total


production of water
= 3868.437 kg/h
Ratio =

8784.88 kg/h
=2.27
3868.437 kg/h

Written by Nur Izati binti Majid

Equipment 1 : Feed Air Compressor( C-801)

Compressor
F1 =9557.926kg/h
F5 = 9557.835kg/hr
XCH3OH = 0

XCH3OH = 0

XO2

XO2

=0.21009

XHCHO =0
XHCHO =0
XH20

=0

XH20

=0

XH2

XH2
=0

XN2

XN2 = 0.78991
= 0.78914

=0

=0.21086

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

At Feed Air Compressor :


Overall Balance :

Input = Output
F1 = F5

9557.926 kg/hr = 9557.835kg/hr

Strea
m

Methanol
(CH3OH)

Oxygen
(O2)

69.5982 kmol/h
331.284 kmol/h

Formaldehyd
e
(HCHO)
0

Water
(H2O)

Hydrogen
(H2)

Nitrogen
(N2)

261.686 kmol/h
331.284 kmol/h

=0.21008
5

69.5982kmol /h
331.2838 kmol /h

=0.21008

=0.789914
0

261.686 kmol /h
331.2838 kmol /h

=0.789914

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

Equipment 2: Formaldehyde Reactor (R-801)

Reactor
F8 =16640.9kg/h
F9 = 16640.9kg/hr
XCH3OH = 0.38292

XCH3OH = 0.11312

XO2

XO2

= 0.12471

XHCHO

XHCHO = 0
= 0.22541

XH20

XH20 =
= 0.24033

XH2

XH2
=0
= 0.00597

= 0.00054

0.02363

X N2
XN2

0.46888

= 0.41463
Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

At Formaldehyde Reactor :
Overall Balance :

Input = Output
F8 = F9

558.102kg/hr = 331.2838kg/hr

Stre
am

Methanol
(CH3OH)

Oxygen
(O2)

213.707 kmol/h
558.102kmol /h

69.5982 kmol /h
558.102 kmol /h

=0.38292

=0.12471

Formaldehyd
e
(HCHO)
0

Water
(H2O)

Hydrogen
(H2)

Nitrogen
(N2)

13.1887 kmol/h
558.102kmol /h

261.686 kmol/h
558.102kmol /h

=0.023631

=0.46889

71.3915 kmol /h
631.1281 kmol /h

=0.11312

0.3405 kmol /h
631.1281 kmol /h

=5.39523 x

142.2609 kmol /h
631.1281kmol /h

=0.22541

151.6814 kmol/h
631.1281 kmol/h

=0.240334

10-5

3.7682 kmol /h
631.1281 kmol /h

=5.97057 x

261.6856 kmol/h
631.1281kmol /h

=0.41463

10-3

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

Equipment 3: Methanol Feed Pump (P-801)

F3 =7083.081kg/h
F4 =7083.081kg/h

Pump

XCH3OH = 0.94185

XCH3OH =

XO2

XO2

0.94185
=0

=0

XHCHO

XN2

XHCHO =0
=0
XH20

=0.05815

XH20

=0.5815

XH2

=0

XH2

=0

XN2
=0

=0

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

At Methanol Feed Pump :


Overall Balance :
Input = Output
F3 = F 4
7083.081kg/h=7083.081 kg/h

Strea
m
3

Methanol
(CH3OH)
213.63 kmol /h
226.818 kmol /h

Oxygen
(O2)
0

Formaldehyde
(HCHO)
0

Water
(H2O)
13.1887 kmol/h
226.818 kmol /h

Hydrogen
(H2)
0

Nitrogen
(N2)
0

=0.94186

=0.05815

213.63 kmol /h
226.818 kmol /h

13.1887 kmol/h
226.818 kmol /h

=0.941856

=0.05815

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

Absorber

Equipment 4 : Formaldehyde Absorber ( T-801)

F11 =5847.97kg/h
XCH3OH = 0
XO2
XO2

F12 =12154.0kg/h
XCH3OH = 0.05956

=0

= 0.00067
XHCHO = 0

XHCHO = 0.00018

XHCHO =0

XH20
XH20

=1

= 0.41792
XH2

XH2

= 0

= 0.00741
XN2

XN2

=0

= 0.51428

F10 =16640.9 kg/h


XCH3OH = 0.11312
XCH3OH = 0.09194
XO2
XO2

= 0.00054

=0
XHCHO = 0.22541

XHCHO = 0.31813
XH20

XH20 =
= 0.58993

0.24033

XH2

0.00597

0.41463

XH2

XN2

XN2
0

At Formaldehyde Absorber :
Overall Balance :

F13 =10334.9kg/h

Input = Output
F11 + F10 = F12 + F13
5847.97kg/h kg/hr + 16640.9 kg/h =12154.0kg/h +10334.9 kg/h
22488.9 kg/h = 22488.9 kg/h

Strea

Methanol

Oxygen

Formaldehyde

m
11

(CH3OH)
0

(O2)

(HCHO)
0

Water

Hydrogen

Nitrogen

(H2O)

(H2)
0

(N2)
0

324.61 kmol /h
324.61 kmol /h

=1
10

71.3915 kmol /h
631.1281 kmol /h

0.3405 kmol /h
631.1281 kmol /h

142.2609 kmol /h
631.1281kmol /h

151.6814 kmol/h
631.1281 kmol/h

3.7682 kmol /h
631.1281 kmol /h

261.6856 kmol/h
631.1281kmol /h

=0.11312

=5.39510 x

=0.22541

=0.240334

=5.9706 x

=0.41463

10-4

10-3

Strea

Methanol

Oxygen

Formaldehyde

Water

Hydrogen

Nitrogen

m
12

(CH3OH)

(O2)

(HCHO)

(H2O)

(H2)

(N2)

30.3045 kmol /h
508.843 kmol /h

0.3405 kmol /h
508.843 kmol /h

0.0908 kmol /h
508.843 kmol /h

212.654 kmol /h
508.843 kmol/h

3.7682 kmol /h
508.843 kmol /h

261.686 kmol/h
508.843 kmol /h

=0.059556

=6.69165 x

=1.78444 x

=0.41792

=7.40542 x

=0.514277

13

41.087 kmol /h
446.895 kmol /h

=0.091939

10-4
0

10

-4

142.17 kmol/h
446.895 kmol /h

263.638 kmolh
446.895 kmol /h

=0.318128

=0.589933

10-3
0

Tower

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

Equipment 5 : Formaldehyde Tower( T-802)


F13 = 10334.9kg/h
XCH3OH = 0.09194

F14 =1488.21 kg/h


XCH3OH = 0.74739

XO2
XO2

=0

= 0
XHCHO = 0.31813

XHCHO =0

XHCHO = 0
XH20
XH20

= 0.58993

= 0.25261
XH2

XH2

=0

XN2

XN2
=0

= 0
=0

F15 = 8846.42kg/h
XCH3OH = 0.00518
XO2

=0

XHCHO = 0.36023
XH20

= 0.63459

XH2

XN2

At Formaldehyde Tower :
Overall Balance :
Input = Output
F13 = F14 + F15
10334.9kg/h =1488.21 kg/h +8846.42kg/h
10334.9kg/h =10334.6kg/h

Strea

Methanol

Oxygen

Formaldehyde

Water

Hydrogen

Nitrogen

m
13

(CH3OH)
41.087 kmol /h
446.895 kmol /h

(O2)
0

(HCHO)
142.17 kmol/h
446.895 kmol /h

(H2O)
263.638 kmol/h
446.895 kmol /h

(H2)
0

(N2)
0

=0.31813
0

=0.589932
13.1887 kmol/h
52.21kmol /h

142.17 kmol /h
394.662 kmol /h

=0.2526
250.449 kmol /h
394.662kmol /h

=0.36023

=0.63459

14

15

=0.091939
0

2.043 kmol /h
394.662 kmol /h
=5.17658 x 10

39.0213 kmol /h
52.21 kmol /h
=0.74739
0

-3

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

CHAPTER 5 :
ENERGY
BALANCE

EQUIPMENT 1: COOLER (E-803)

Assume reference temperature of 255C


All temperatures in degree celcius
Table : Coefficient for determining specific heat
Component
a103
b105
Formaldehyde
34.28
4.268
Methanol
42.93
8.301
Water
33.46
0.6880
Hydrogen
28.84
0.00765
Oxygen
28.10
1.158
Nitrogen
29.00
0.2199

c108
0.00
-1.87
0.7604
0.3288
-0.6076
0.5723

d1012
-8.694
-8.03
-3.593
-0.8698
1.311
-2.871

Written by Nur Ain binti Sumari

T9

: 2005C

T9

: 1005C

F9

: 16640.9

F9

kg/h

16640.9 kg/h

mform : 3751.025 kg/h

mform : 3751.025 kg/h

mmethanol : 1882.419

mmethanol : 1882.419

kg/h

kg/h

moxygen : 8.986 kg/h

moxygen : 8.986 kg/h

mwater : 3999.307 kg/h

Tref : 1005C
200

Cpform :

100

0.03428(4.26810-5)T(8.69410-12)T3

(4.268 10^-5)T^2 (8.694 10^-12)T^4

0.03428T

2
4

=
= 7.706 - 3.641
= 4.065 kJ/kg.C

200

100

Written by Nur Ain binti Sumari

200

Cpwater :

100

0.03346(0.688010-5)T(0.760410-8)T2(3.59310-12)T3

(0.6880 10^-5)T^2 (0.7604 10^-8)T^3 (3.593 10^-12)T^4

0.03346T

2
3
4

=
= 6.8483.383
= 3.465 kJ/kg.C

200

100

200

Cpmethanol :

100

0.04293(8.30110-5)T(-1.8710-8)T2(8.0310-12)T3

(8.301 10^-5)T^2 (-1.87 10^-8)T^3 (8.03 10^-12)T^4

0.04293T

2
3
4

=
= 10.193 - 4.702
= 5.491 kJ/kg.C

200

100

200

Cpoxygen :

100

0.0291(1.15810-5)T(-0.607610-8)T2(1.31110-12)T3

0.0291T

(1.158 10^-5)T^2 (-0.6076 10^-8)T^3 (1.311 10^-12)T^4

2
3
4

=
= 3.07 kJ/kg.C

200

100

= 6.036 - 2.966

Written by Nur Ain binti Sumari


200

Cphydrogen :

100

0.02884(0.0076510-5)T(0.328810-8)T2(-0.869810-12)T3

0.02884T

(0.00765 10^-5)T^2 (0.3288 10^-8)T^3 (-0.869810^-12)T^4

2
3
4

= 5.778 - 2.885
= 2.893 kJ/kg.C

200

Cpnitrogen :

100

0.029(0.219910-5)T(0.572310-8)T2(-2.87110-12)T3

(0.2199 10^-5)T^2 (0.5723 10^-8)T^3 (-2.871 10^-12)T^4

0.029T

2
3
4

=
= 5.858 - 2.913
= 2.945 kJ/kg.C

200

100

200

100

Written by Nur Ain binti Sumari

m (kg/h)
Cp (kJ/kgC)
5
T (5C)

Q=

Formaldehyde
3751.025
4.065
100

Methanol
882.419
5.491
100

Oxygen
8.986
3.07
100

Water
3999.307
3.465
100

Hydrogen Nitrogen
99.346
6899.816
2.893
2.945
100
100

miCpiT

=(3751.025kg/h4.065kJ/kg.5C(200-100)5C)form+ (1882.419 kg/h5.491 kJ/kg.5C(200-100)C)


5 methanol +
(8.986 kg/h3.07 kJ/kg.5C(200- 100)5C)oxygen+ (3999.307kg/h3.465kJ/kg.5C
(200-100)5C)water+(99.346kg/h2.893kJ/kg.5C (200-100)5C)hydrogen+(6899.816 kg/h2.945 kJ/kg.5C(200-100)5C)nitrogen
= 6007683 kJ/h
= 1668.8kW

Written by Nur Ain binti Sumari

EQUIPMENT 2 : COMPRESSOR (C-801)

T1

: 40.75C

T5

: 40.85C

F1

: 226.818 kg/h

F5

: 226.8184 kg/h

P5

: 300kPa

P1

: 101.3kPa

mform : 0 kg/h

mform : 0 kg/h

mmethanol : 0.94185 kg/h

mmethanol :0.94185 kg/h

moxygen : 0 kg/h

moxygen : 0 kg/h

mwater : 0.05815 kg/h

mwater : 0.05815kg/h
mhydrogen : 0 kg/h

Written by Nur Ain binti Sumari

40.8

Cpmethanol :

40.7

0.04293T

0.04293(8.30110-5)T(-1.8710-8)T2(8.0310-12)T3

(8.301 10^-5)T^2 (-1.87 10^-8)T^3 (8.03 10^-12)T^4

2
3
4

40.8

40.7

= 1.82016-1.81562
= 0.00454 kJ/kg.C

40.8

Cpwater :

40.7

0.03346(0.688010-5)T(0.760410-8)T2(3.59310-12)T3

(0.6880 10^-5)T^2 (0.7604 10^-8)T^3 (3.593 10^-12)T^4

0.03346T

2
3
4

= 1.3711-1.3677
= 0.0034 kJ/kg.C

40.8

40.7

Q=

miCpiT

= (0.94185 kg/h0.00454 kJ/kg.5C(40.8-40.7)5C)+(0.05815 kg/h 0.0034 kJ/kg.5C(40.8-40.7)5C)


= 4.47370910-4kJ/h=0.001243kW
Written by Nur Ain binti Sumari

CHAPTER 6 :
PINCH
TECHNOLOGY

Introduction of Pinch
Pinch technology involves heat or mass intergration .
Whenever the design of a system is considered, limits exist that
constrain the design . There limits often manifest themselves as
mechanical constraint. A combination of towers in series and
parallel might be considered but would be very expensive .
These mechanical limitation are often a result of a constraint in
the process design . When designing heat exchanger and other
unit operation , limitation imposed by the first and second laws
of thermodynamics constrain what can be done with such
equipment . In distillation column , as the reflux ratio
approaches the minimum value for a given separation , the
number of equilibrium stages become very large. Whenever the
driving force for heat or mass exchange are small, the
equipment needed to transfer becomes large and it is said that
the design has a pinch.

EQUIPEMENT 1 : E-803
Cp inlet
Tref : 255C
Cpform= 0.03428 + (4.26810-5)T(8.69410-12)T2
= 0.0074
Cpwater=0.03346(0.688010-5)T(0.760410-8)T2(3.59310-12)T3
=0.006
Cpmethanol : 0.04293(8.30110-5)T(-1.8710-8)T2(8.0310-12)T3
=0.0143
Cpoxygen : 0.0291(1.15810-5)T(-0.607610-8)T2(1.31110-12)T3
=0.00172
Cphydrogen : 0.02884(0.0076510-5)T(0.328810-8)T2(-0.869810-12)T3
=0.0002
Cpnitrogen : 0.029(0.219910-5)T(0.572310-8)T2(-2.87110-12)T3
=0.0006

Written by Saufi bin Safingi

Cp outlet
Tref : 255C
Cpform= 0.03428(4.26810-5)T(8.69410-12)T2
=0.0032
Cpwater=0.03346(0.688010-5)T(0.760410-8)T2(3.59310-12)T3
=0.00146
Cpmethanol : 0.04293(8.30110-5)T(-1.8710-8)T2(8.0310-12)T3
=0.0062

Cpoxygen : 0.0291(1.15810-5)T(-0.607610-8)T2(1.31110-12)T3
=0.0011

Cphydrogen : 0.02884(0.0076510-5)T(0.328810-8)T2(-0.869810-12)T3
=0.00004
Cpnitrogen : 0.029(0.219910-5)T(0.572310-8)T2(-2.87110-12)T3
=0.0003

Written by Saufi bin Safingi

Calculation Cp for E-803


(Cp inlet Cp outlet) X

Cpform =(0.0032-0.0074)x=-0.139
Cpwater =(0.00146-0.0060)x=-0.250
Cpmethanol=(0.0062-0.0143)x=-0.250
Cpoxygen=(0.0011-0.00172)x=-0.019
Cphydrogen=(0.00004-0.0002)x=-0.08
Cpnitrogen=(0.0003-0.0006)x=-0.01
Cp total = 0.7487
Therefore , m.Cp for E-803 = Cp total X mass flowrate total
=- 0.7487 X 16640.9
= -12 459 kJ/hr.oC

Written by Saufi bin


Safingi

EQUIPEMENT 2 : E-801(METHANOL PREHEATER)

STREAM 4

STREAM 6

: 40.88C

: 150.08C

MASS F/R :

MASS F/R :

7083.081kg/h

7083.081kg/h

mform : 0

mform : 0

mmethanol

: 0.94185

moxygen

:0

mmethanol

: 0.94195

moxygen

:0

c108

d1012

Table : coefficient for determining specific heat


a103

componen
t

formaldehy 34.28
de

b105
4.268

0.00

-8.694

methanol

42.93

8.301

-1.87

-8.03

water

33.46

0.6880

0.7604

-3.593

hydrogen

28.84

0.00765

0.3288

-0.8698

oxygen

29.10

1.158

-0.6076

1.311

nitrogen

29.00

0.2199

0.5723

-2.871

Written by Nur Ain binti Sumari


Calculation specific heat (Cp) for compound methanol and water which
involved in stream 4 and stream 6 :
Stream 4 at 40.88C :

Cpmethanol : 0.04293(8.30110-5)T(-1.8710-8)T2(8.0310-12)T3

= 0.04293(8.30110-5)(40.8)(-1.8710-8)(40.82)(8.031012
)(40.8)3

= 0.0463 kJ/mol.C

Cpwater

: 0.03346(0.688010-5)T(0.760410-8)T2(3.59310-12)T3

= 0.03346(0.688010-5)(40.8)(0.760410-8)(40.8)2
(3.59310-12)(40.8)3

= 0.0338 kJ/mol.C

Stream 6 at 150.05C :

Cpmethanol : 0.04293(8.30110-5)T(-1.8710-8)T2(8.0310-12)T3

= 0.04293(8.30110-5)(183.0)(-1.8710-8)(183.02)
(8.0310-12)(183.0)3

= 0.0574 kJ/mol.C

Written by Nur Ain binti Sumari

Cpwater

: 0.03346(0.688010-5)T(0.760410-8)T2(3.59310-12)T3

= 0.03346(0.688010-5)(183.0)(0.760410-8)(183.0)2
(3.59310-12)(183.0)3

= 0.0350 kJ/mol.C

M.W
(g/mo
l)

Cpin ,
kJ/mol..
C

Cpout ,
kJ/mol..
C

Cp =
(CpoutCpin)
kJ/mol..C

Cp
1000 Y
M .W

(kJ/g.C)

Y
mole
fractio
n

(Ymeth +
Ywater)
mass
fraction

methan
ol

32.04

0.046
3

0.057
4

0.011

0.3433

0.323
3

0.3272

water

18.0

0.033
8

0.035
0

0.0012

0.0667

0.003
9

7083.08
1=
2317.58
kJ/h.C
5

Written by Nur Ain binti Sumari

Equipment 3 : Product Cooler (E-806)

E-806

Stream 16

Stream 17

T : 106.7 C

T : 35 C

Step 1 : By using formula to find Cp from table ,


For stream 16 :

Compone
nt
Methanol
Oxygen
Formaldehy
de
Water
Hydrogen
Nitrogen

Cp
75.86 X 10-3 + 16.83 X 10-5 T
29.10 X 10-3 + 1.158 X 10-5 T + (-0.6076 X
10-8 ) T2 + (1.311 X 10-12 )T3
34.28 X 10-3 + (4.268 X 10-5 ) T + 0
+ (-8.694 X 10-12 )T3
75.4 X 10-3
28.84 X 10-3 + 0.00765 X 10-5 T +
(0.3288 X 10-8 ) T2 + (-0.8698 X 10-12 )T3
29.0 X 10-3 + 0.02199 X 10-5 T +
(0.5723 X 10-8 ) T2 + (-2.871 X 10-12 )T3

For stream 17 :

Compone
nt
Methanol
Oxygen
Formaldehyd
e
Water
Hydrogen
Nitrogen

Cp
75.86 X 10-3 + 16.83 X 10-5 T
29.10 X 10-3 + 1.158 X 10-5 T + (-0.6076 X
10-8 ) T2 + (1.311 X 10-12 )T3
34.28 X 10-3 + (4.268 X 10-5 ) T + 0
+ (-8.694 X 10-12 )T3
75.4 X 10-3
28.84 X 10-3 + 0.00765 X 10-5 T +
(0.3288 X 10-8 ) T2 + (-0.8698 X 10-12 )T3
29.0 X 10-3 + 0.02199 X 10-5 T +
(0.5723 X 10-8 ) T2 + (-2.871 X 10-12 )T3
Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

Step 2 : By substitute the temperature given on each stream to


Cp :
For stream 16 : (T : 106.7 C)

Component
Methanol
Oxygen

Formaldehyde

Water
Hydrogen

Nitrogen

Cp
75.86 X 10 + 16.83 X 10-5 (106.7 C)
= 0.093817 kJ/mol. C
29.10 X 10-3 + 1.158 X 10-5 (106.7 C) +
(-0.6076 X 10-8 )( 106.7 C )2 + (1.311 X 10-12 )
( 106.7 C) 3
=0.03026 kJ/mol. C
34.28 X 10-3 + (4.268 X 10-5 ) (106.7 C) + 0
+ (-8.694 X 10-12 )( 106.7 C )3
=0.038823 kJ/mol. C
75.4 X 10-3
=0.0754 kJ/mol. C
28.84 X 10-3 + 0.00765 X 10-5 (106.7 C) +
(0.3288 X 10-8 ) (106.7 C )2 + (-0.8698 X 10-12 )
( 106.7 C )3
=0.028884 kJ/mol. C
29.0 X 10-3 + 0.02199 X 10-5 (106.7 C) +
(0.5723 X 10-8 ) (106.7 C )2 + (-2.871 X 10-12 )
( 106.7 C )3
=0.029085 kJ/mol. C
-3

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

For stream 17 : (T : 35 C)

Component
Methanol
Oxygen

Formaldehyde

Water
Hydrogen

Nitrogen

Cp
75.86 X 10 + 16.83 X 10-5 (35 C)
=0.08175 kJ/mol. C
29.10 X 10-3 + 1.158 X 10-5 (35 C) +
(-0.6076 X 10-8 ) (35 C) 2 + (1.311 X 10-12 )( 35 C) 3
=0.02949 kJ/mol. C
34.28 X 10-3 + (4.268 X 10-5 ) (35 C) + 0
+ (-8.694 X 10-12 ) (35 C )3
=0.03576 kJ/mol. C
75.4 X 10-3
=0.0754 kJ/mol. C
28.84 X 10-3 + 0.00765 X 10-5 (35 C) +
(0.3288 X 10-8 ) (35 C )2 + (-0.8698 X 10-12 )( 35 C)3
=0.0288466 kJ/mol. C
29.0 X 10-3 + 0.02199 X 10-5 (35 C) +
(0.5723 X 10-8 ) (35 C) 2 + (-2.871 X 10-12 )( 35 C)3
=0.0290145 kJ/mol. C
-3

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

Step 3 : Find C p (Stream 17-Stream 16)

Cp

Component
Methanol
phase)

Oxygen
phase)

(Liquid

=(Stream 17-Stream 16)


=0.08175 kJ/mol. C - 0.093817 kJ/mol. C
= - 0.012067 kJ/mol. C
(Gas

Cp

=(Stream 17-Stream 16)


=0.02949 kJ/mol. C - 0.03026 kJ/mol. C
= - 7.7 x 10 -4 kJ/mol. C

Formaldehyde (Gas
phase)

Water
phase)

Cp

(Liquid

Cp

=(Stream 17-Stream 16)


=0.03576 kJ/mol. C - 0.038823 kJ/mol. C
= - 3.063 x 10-3 kJ/mol. C
Cp

=(Stream 17-Stream 16)


=0.0754 kJ/mol. C - 0.0754 kJ/mol. C
= 0 kJ/mol. C

Hydrogen
phase)

(Gas

Nitrogen
phase)

(Gas

Cp

=(Stream 17-Stream 16)


=0.0288466 kJ/mol. C - 0.028884 kJ/mol. C
= - 3.74x 10-5 kJ/mol. C
Cp

=(Stream 17-Stream 16)


=0.0290145 kJ/mol. C - 0.029085 kJ/mol. C
= - 7.05 x 10-5 kJ/mol. C

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

Step 4 : Find C p ( Molecular Weight ) , MW 1000

C p MW 1000

Component
Methanol
phase)

(Liquid

C p MW 1000
kJ
g
=- 0.012067 mol . C 32.04 mol x 1000
kJ
= 0.037662 g C .

Oxygen
phase)

(Gas

C p MW 1000
kJ
g
4
=- 7.7 x 10 mol . C 16 mol

x 1000

3 kJ
= 4.8125 10 g C .

Formaldehyde (Gas
phase)

C p MW 1000
kJ
g
3
= 3.063 x 10 mol . C 30.031 mol

x 1000

kJ
= 0.101998 g C .

Water
phase)

(Liquid

C p MW 1000

kJ
g
18
mol . C
mol

x 1000

kJ
= 0 gC.

Hydrogen
phase)

(Gas

C p MW 1000

3.74 x 103

kJ
g
2
mol . C
mol

kJ
= 0.0187 g C .

x 1000

Nitrogen
phase)

(Gas

C p MW 1000
kJ
g
5
= 7.05 x 10 mol . C 28 mol

x 1000

3 kJ
= 2.5178 x 10 g C .

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

Step 5 : Find

C p ( Molecular Weight ) , MW 1000


Mol Fraction

Component
Methanol
phase)

(Liquid

C p ( Molecular Weight ) , MW 1000


Mol Fraction
kJ
g C.
0.00518

0.037662

=-1.95089 x 10
Oxygen
phase)

(Gas

4.8125 103

-4

kJ/g. C

kJ
gC .

=0 kJ/g. C
Formaldehyde (Gas
phase)

kJ
gC.
0.36023

0.101998

= - 0.0367427 kJ/g. C
Water
phase)

(Liquid

kJ
gC .
0.64351
0

=0 kJ/g. C
Hydrogen
phase)

(Gas

0.0187

kJ
g C.

=0 kJ/g. C
Nitrogen
phase)

(Gas

2.5178 x 103

kJ
g C.

=0 kJ/g. C
Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

Step 6 : m c p = up totalStep 5 total mass flow rate

kJ

0.036937789

kJ

up total Step5=1.95089 104 g C +(0.0367427) g C


kJ
gC

Total mass flow rate=Stream16+ Stream 17

8846.42

kg
kg
+8846.42
hr
hr
12692.84

kg
hr

m
c p = up totalStep 5 total mass flow rate

0.036937789
653.534

kJ
kg
12692.84
gC
hr

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

CALCULATE CP FOR PINCH CALCULATION.


Stream

Condition

Tin

Tout

mCp

Hot

200

100

3.46

Hot

106.7

35

0.182

Cold

40.8

150

0.644

Cold

180

200

0.012

Written by Saufi bin Safingi

CHAPTER 7 :

HEURISTICS

Equipment 3 : Heat Exchanger (E-806) Product Cooler

Stream 16

E-806

Stream 17

From Table 11.11 , use the following heuristic:


Rule 1 : Set F = 0.9 Fouling factor

Rule 6 : T= 10 C minimum temperature approach is 10C


for fluids
Rule 7 : By TLMTD calculation
- Cold side Temperature in : 30.0 C
- Cold side Temperature out : 40.0 C
Thus based on followed the rule accepted where
temperature inlet cooling water is 30.0 C ,
temperature outlet is 40.0 C (maximum).
Rule 8 : U=850 W/m2. C
For the moment , find A by :
Step 1 : Find the Log Mean Temperature Difference
Tm=

( T HinT Cout )( T Hout T Cin )


( T Hin T Cout )
ln
( T Hout T Cin )

Tm=

( 106.740.0 )( 3530 )
( 106.740 )
ln
( 3530 )
23.8 C

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt


Abd.Aziz

Step 2 : Find Q
Q=1169.7
324.9 kW

324900 W

MJ
0.27777778
h

Step 3 : Find Area


A=

A=

Q
U T lm F

324900
850 23.8 0.9

= 17.844 m2

Area cooler need for E-806 is 17.844 m2

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

Equipment 4 : Heat Exchanger (E-801) Methanol


Preheater

Stream 4

E-801

Stream 6

From Table 11.11 , use the following heuristic:


Rule 1 : Set F = 0.9 Fouling factor
Rule 6 : T= 10 C minimum temperature approach is 10C
for fluids
Rule 7 : By TLMTD calculation
- Cold side Temperature in : 30.0 C
- Cold side Temperature out : 40.0 C
Thus based on followed the rule accepted where
temperature inlet cooling water is 30.0 C ,
temperature outlet is 40.0 C (maximum).
Rule 8 : U=850 W/m2. C
For the moment , find A by :
Step 1 : Find the Log Mean Temperature Difference
Tm=

( T HinT Cout )( T Hout T Cin )


( T Hin T Cout )
ln
( T Hout T Cin )

Tm=

( 40.840.0 ) ( 15030 )
( 40.840 )
ln
( 15030 )

23.789 C
Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz

Step 2 : Find Q
Q=4111

MJ
0.27777778
h

1141.94 kW

1141944 W

Step 3 : Find Area

A=

A=

Q
U T lm F

1141944
850 23.789 0.9

= 62.749 m2

Area heater need for E-806 is 62.749 m2

Written by Nur Ezzah Nazihah bt Abd.Aziz