1.

INTRODUCTION
Languages borrow words. That is a fact purists around the globe are not prepared to accept without a fight. English is no exception. On the contrary. It has always been, and as the present situation shows, will always be, one of the most easily penetrable languages in the world. Its contributors come from all continents and all language groups. Our interest in this phenomenon will be limited to the input of the group of Slavic languages. The reason for that is perhaps a selfish but nevertheless, just one. Namely, our native tongue belongs to this group, and it was to discover its particular share in the English lexicon, that provided the initial stimulus for the selection of this specific topic. By examining Slavic loanwords in English, we hope to determine the extent of influence Slavic languages had on the English vocabulary and language throughout history, thereby gaining a comprehensive insight into the processes of linguistic borrowing in general. We are to achieve this aim by compiling a corpus of examples accompanied by quotes, which we will subsequently analyse. By doing so we shall touch upon the science of etymology, and ultimately semantics. To start with, we shall try to answer some basic questions about the background of borrowing Slavic words into English. Next, the analysis of the corpus will commence, by presenting a concise overview of Slavic languages and their individual share in the body of examples. To continue, we shall analyse the corpus first in terms of the basic three-fold division of loanwords into simple loans, adapted loans and calques or loan translations, and then in terms of Sir James Murray’s division into casuals, aliens, denizens and naturals, which will hopefully shed some light on the process of word-naturalization. Finally, a semantic analysis of the examples will follow, with the primary emphasis on the changes of meaning, as demonstrated with Slavic borrowings in the English language.

In the end, we hope this thesis with its body of examples, will prove a valuable reference to all interested in this area of linguistic science, and will also contribute a small fraction to the study of English – Slovene linguistic relations.

2. LOANWORDS FROM SLAVIC LANGUAGES: WHY, WHEN, AND HOW ?

English has never been a language of people isolated to the extent of not having any contacts with the world outside their own speech community. On the contrary, as Baugh & Cable (1993: 1) put it : “The diversity of cultures that find expression in it is a reminder that the history of the English language is a story of cultures in contact during the past 1500 years.” Following such reasoning, it seems inadequate to deal with loanwords simply linguistically, and ignore the political, economic, social, technological, and military events, that brought words like perestroika and glasnost into the scope of English vocabulary. English has over the centuries borrowed a great number of words from numerous languages around the world. Contributors range from well known Latin (delirium, axis…) and French (chauffeur, garage…) to more obscure Hindi (jungle, shampoo…) and Eskimo (kayak, anorak…). In this process Slavic languages have by no means been ignored: Russian, as the most prolific source, Polish, Serbo-Croat, Bulgarian and others, have made an impact on the English word stock. But why does a language borrow a word from another language? Usually this happens as a result of some new object or notion appearing for which the matrix or recipient language (Bright 1992: 199) has no word of its own. For example, a samovar is characteristic of Russia but has no suitable counterpart in the British culture (similarly the Bulgarian and Serbo-Croat rakia, Serbo-Croat tamburitza or Polish mazurka). Consequently, the word is imported, together with the object, into the English language. This “importation” of words occurs via commerce (new products not familiar to the borrowing language), war (new weaponry, army units, garments), development in science (inventions, discoveries), and progress in the numerous fields of intellectual activity (philosophy, literature, arts…). Another reason for borrowing words, as described by E. Haugen in the International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (1992: 199), can also be the consequence of a particular word being felt prestigious or just novel. According to the author, this is especially true if the speakers of the matrix language feel inferior to the speakers of the source language, as did the English when they were ruled by the Norman French (p.199). In the case of Slavic

borrowings, we believe, nothing of the kind ever occurred. The inferiority was and is, if anything, reversed. Nowadays, borrowing takes place on an unprecedented scale, partly because of the enormous number of new inventions in the 20th century made by people of various nationalities, and partly because international communications are now so much more rapid and important than a century or two ago (WWW, international TV networks like CNN, mobile telephones …). With regard to the latter phenomenon, it is important to understand that acquiring and passing of information is one of the most important and profitable businesses of the late 20th and early 21st century, in which speed is of great importance. As a result, foreign words enter a language like English easily, often without any change in their spelling or even pronunciation, for example: lunik, the name of the Soviet spacecraft; glasnost, the policy of public frankness in Russia, or the acronym KGB, standing for the Soviet secret police. To render such words into English would not only require time, but would also lose a lot in translation. English with its “cosmopolitan vocabulary” (Baugh & Cable 1993: 9), does not seem to mind the overwhelming influx of foreign words into its ranks. Quite the opposite. It has always shown “a marked tendency to go outside its own linguistic resources and borrow from other languages.” (Baugh & Cable 1993: 10) Moreover, English does not seem to be particularly selective from whom it borrows. That is, it does not choose a country or a political system similar to it, as politicians do, to form relations or borrow a word. If this were the case, languages belonging behind the former “iron curtain” (mainly Slavic) would stand no chance of contributing to the English lexicon. 2.1 THE 20TH CENTURY Fortunately, linguistic interaction does not follow the pattern of international politics, but the rather simple rule of filling a need when it occurs. Therefore, Slavonic languages at the time of the cold war were not removed from the linguistic map of its western neighbours. The communist era (from the October Revolution onwards) was the time during which a considerable number of Slavonic words, yet foremost of Russian origin, was imported into

the English language. Examples, predominantly political in their overtones, are quite a few: Aesopic, Agit-prop, agrogorod, apparat, apparatchik, artel, Bolshevik, Bolshevism, Cheka, Comecon, Cominform, Comintern, commissar, disinformation, Gosplan, intelligentsia, Ivan, kalashnikov, Katyusha, KGB, kolkhoz, Komsomol, kray, Kremlin, kulak, liquidate (to kill), lunik, lunokhod, marsokhod, Menshevik, N.K.V.D., oblast, okrug, planetokhod, pogrom, politbureau, rayon, refusenik, resident, samizdat, samizdatchik, SMERSH, Soviet, sovkhoz, sputnik, Stakhanovite, subbotnik, Talmudism, tamizdat, TASS, tolkach, tovarish, troika, udarnik, vozhd all from Russian. The reason why so many words dealing with the communist regime were imported during the 20th century, lies in the spirit of the time (especially the late 40s, 50s and the 60s, to a lesser extent in the 70s and 80s), during which communism was considered a threat to the western democracy and great interest was placed in the political development in the USSR. Every move the Russians made in the arms or space race was therefore accurately recorded and reported to the British, but even more so, the American public. The news of the period, whether in the newspapers, radio or TV, often contained the original Russian expressions in order to reinforce the message and create a feeling of immediate and present danger. Consequently, through the media “the sputniks” and “the KGBs” slowly penetrated the English word stock. This development was further strengthened by the Hollywood film industry, with its innumerable spy movies, and the popular spy literature, whose authors, in order to ultimately boost their sales, were more than keen on being as authentic as possible, and used whatever came across the Atlantic. What is from the present standpoint intriguing about the whole process, is the paradox that eventually developed. Namely, the fear of a country and its people, via its political system, helped in promoting its language, as demonstrated in the adoption of its words. It would appear, after examining the above enumerated loanwords, that only Russian terms connected with the communist regime were imported into the English vocabulary during the last century. This was of course not the case. Also other areas of human activity and other Slavonic languages contributed to the English lexicon: Acmeism, skaz (literature), biomechanics, constructivism (theatre), chernozem, dolina, podzol, rendzina, Sakmarian,

thermokarst (geology), cubo-futurism (painting), ferganite, innelite, irinite (mineralogy), idiogram, ploschadka karyotype (medicine), kok-saghyz tokamak (botany), (physics), phytosociology sulphazin (biology), (pharmacy), (archaeology), polaron,

suprematism (artistic movement), sluggish (psychology), sobornost (theology) from Russian; akathisia (psychology), ferritin (biochemistry), koktaite, slavikite, vrbaite (mineralogy), robot (theatre) from Czech; sharka (fruit disease) from Bulgarian; hum, polje, ponor, uvala (physical geography), takovite (mineralogy), from Serbo-Croat; macrolide (pharmacy), Mariavite (religion), metapsychics (psychology), Sejm (government), Tietze (medicine) from Polish and gley (geology) from Ukrainian. These words demonstrate the immense progress of human society in the 20th century, as well as its interrelation. They are all more or less specialised terms used mainly within their specialized areas. Once used by an author in a publication (a book, magazine or a manual), they were eventually taken up by an English speaking scholar and entered the English word stock. Borrowing them into English was much easier than searching for a suitable equivalent that would, in the end, perhaps not work. But still, not only words belonging to political and technical terminology, were imported from Slavonic languages during the 20th century. Also every day items found their way into English:, babushka, rubashka, shapka, valenki (items of clothing), blintze, kissel, knish, latke, Mukuzan, pavlova, pelmeny, piroshki, shashlik, smetana, solyanka, Stolichnaya, stroganoff, tvorog, zakuski (dishes and drinks), laika, tarbagan (animal names), mahorka, ongon, prisiadka, prospekt, provodnik, riza, sanitar, stolovaya, technicum, theremin, vigorish (miscellaneous) from Russian; dobro (a musical instrument), kolach (a dish) from Czech; Gamza (a drink) from Bulgaria; kolo (a dance), slatko (a dish), tamburitza (a musical instrument) from Serbo-Croat; kielbasa (a dish), oberek (a dance), yarmulke (a clothing item) from Polish; gopak (a dance) from Ukrainian and pivo (a drink) as a word of common Slavic origin (the exact Slavic language as the ultimate source is not given). A closer look at the above list reveals that more than a third of the words denote a dish or a drink. We could speculate about the reasons for that, but it is probably due to the importance of food to human beings (both in the sense of survival and the gourmet

understanding of the concept), that such words are so frequently borrowed among languages. A less philosophical rationale would be that Slavs immigrated in great numbers during the communist regime, which did not except a single Slavonic state existent at that time. Many ended in an English speaking country where some of them started a normal life by opening restaurants serving their national dishes. Naturally, they retained the original names that spread with the potential success of such enterprises. Other words from the list entered the English language in a similar manner, but also through itineraries of travellers, who crossed a Slavonic country and made notes of what they had seen and experienced, and through people who lived and worked there for a period of time, during which they became intimately familiar with the customs, language and people of the country. This way of adopting Slavonic words was even more prominent before the 20th century, in the times of tsars, kings and knezes.

2.2 THE PERIOD BEFORE THE 20TH CENTURY Individuals visited Slavonic countries for various reasons. Some came there on an errand, financed by their government or a wealthy company, while others were travellers, seeking adventures and knowledge. Upon their return, these people, almost as a rule, wrote accounts of their experiences. Amongst them were: Giles Fletcher senior (1548-1611), a diplomat in the tsarist Russia, with his work Of the Russe Common Wealth (1591), a comprehensive account of Russian geography, government, law, methods of warfare, church, and manners; Patrick Gordon (1635-1699), a Scottish soldier of fortune who became a general in the Russian army and a close friend of Peter I, with his diary; Edward Daniel Clarke (1769-1822), English mineralogist and traveller, who described his voyages in his principal work Travels in Various Countries of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 6.vol.

(1810-23), and John Perry, a cartographer known for measuring the flow of Volga, with his work State of Russia (1716). Words of Slavic origin that entered the English vocabulary through the works of these and other diplomats, scientists and travellers are the following: arsheen, vedro (measure), beluga, losh, mammoth, zubr (animals), bidarka, droshky, telega (means of transport), boyar, czar (aristocracy), caback, choom, isba, kibitka, ostrog, yurt (dwellings), chark (a drinking glass), ikary, kasha, koumiss, kvass, vodka (food and beverage), Khlist, ikon (religion), knout, moujik, peach, saffian, shaman, shuba, steppe, strelitz (miscellaneous) from Russian; Morlach (nation) from Serbo-Croat; hetman, uhlan (army) from Polish, and knez, voivode (aristocracy) lasset (animal) as words of undetermined common Slavic origin1.

2.3 SUMMARY Words brought into English during both periods (i.e. 20th century and before) clearly show how languages import items of vocabulary as a result of a linguistic need that emerges as cultures encounter one another. But what is more, ideas and notions characteristic of one group of people, enter the consciousness of another group via the borrowing of linguistic items. In other words, linguistic communication enables the penetration and transfer of concepts into and to cultures that might be completely different from the source environment (A good example is obviously English with its world-wide lingua franca status, established during the 20th century.). Applying this to the Slavic words in English, we see that especially Russian has left quite a prominent mark on the vocabulary of English speaking nations, and hence, as previously established, on their consciousness. For example, a word like tovarish cannot be used

stripped of its underlying meaning, i.e. without bringing up the association of communism, particularly that characteristic of the former Soviet Union. So, if we use it to refer to a person who is not a communist at all, we attribute such qualities to him or her via the special cultural connotation tovarish has brought along when adopted into English. We could also say that we attribute something “Russian” to the person in question. This transfer of ideas and notions from one language to another through the adoption of words is perhaps even more important than the linguistic process of borrowing in itself, for it proves that a nation and its language are not hermetically sealed, but open to influences and change.

3. CORPUS ANALYSIS

3.1 A CONCISE OVERVIEW OF SLAVIC (SLAVONIC2) LANGUAGES, AND THEIR APPEARANCE IN THE CORPUS According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica on CD-ROM (1999: section on Slavic languages), Slavonic or Slavic languages, which constitute a separate branch of the IndoEuropean language family, have spread from their original area between the Oder and the Dneper rivers, to the territory of the Balkans (Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian), central Europe (Czech, Slovak and Slovene), eastern Europe (Polish, Ukrainian, Russian), and the northern parts of Asia (Russian). The number of native speakers for the entire branch is about 268,000,000. In addition, Russian is still used as a second language by a great number of speakers in countries that used to be part of the Soviet Union.

In terms of intelligibility and to some extent in terms of shared features, Encyclopaedia Britannica (1999) divides the Slavonic language group into three branches: the South Slavonic, the West Slavonic and the East Slavonic branch. The same source maintains that in the spoken Slavonic dialects (as opposed to the sharply contrasted thirteen Slavonic literary standards) the linguistic frontiers are not always apparent, and that there are several transitional dialects and mixed forms of speech that connect the different languages, the exception being the area where the South Slavs are separated from the other Slavs by the non-Slavic Romanians, Hungarians, and Germanspeaking Austrians. But even in this latter region, some evidence of the old dialectical continuity (between Slovene and Serbo-Croatian on the one hand, and Czech and Slovak on the other) that was later interrupted, can be traced; the same traces of the old links are seen in comparing Bulgarian and Russian dialects. Therefore, the traditional schematic division of the Slavonic group into three separate branches is not to be taken as the real model of historical development. The Encyclopaedia Britannica proposes, that it would be more realistic to represent the historical development as a process in which tendencies to differentiate and to reintegrate the related dialects have been continuously at work, bringing up the remarkable degree of uniformity in the different dialects.

3.1.1 The South Slavonic branch The South Slavonic includes two subgroups: Eastern including Bulgarian and Macedonian and Western with Serbo-Croatian3 and Slovene.

3.1.1.1 Eastern subgroup Bulgarian is spoken by approximately 8,300,000 people in Bulgaria and adjacent areas of other Balkan countries and in certain areas of former Soviet Union. There are two major groups of Bulgarian dialects: an Eastern one that became the basis of the literary language in the middle of the 19th century and a Western one that influenced the literary language.

The modern Macedonian language, spoken by about 1,500,000 people in Macedonia and in adjacent areas of Bulgaria and Greece, was the last Slavonic language to attain a standard literary form. Namely, only as late as during World War ΙΙ (1944), its central dialects of Prilep and Veles were elevated to this status. The central Macedonian dialect is closer to Bulgarian, while the Northern dialects may be considered as links between the Eastern (Bulgarian) subgroup of South Slavonic and the Western (Serbo-Croatian) subgroup. It should be noted that Greece does not recognize “Macedonian” as the name for this language, because of the fact that the northern regions of Greece are officially named “Macedonia”.

3.1.1.2 Western subgroup The Slovene language is spoken by more than 2,000,000 persons in Slovenia and in the adjacent areas of Italy, Austria and Croatia. Eastern Slovene dialects blend with Kajkavian forms of Serbo-Croatian, but standard Slovene is remote from its Serbo-Croatian counterparts. Loan words from German, Italian, Friulian, and Hungarian speech can be heard. In addition, there are marked differences between as many as 47 dialects and the standard form. In Slovene (particularly its Western and North-western dialects) some traces can be found of old links with the West Slavonic languages (Czech and Slovak). The standard Serbo-Croatian language was formed in the first half of the 19th century on the basis of Shtokavian dialects. These dialects are called Shtokavian because they use the form što (shto) for the interrogative pronoun “what?”. They are distinguished from the Chakavian dialects of Western Croatia, Istria, the coast of Dalmatia, and of some islands in the Adriatic, where ča (cha) is the form for “what?”. A third main group of Serbo-Croatian dialects, spoken in north-western Croatia, uses kaj rather than što or ča and is therefore called Kajkavian. In all, more than 18,000,000 people speak Serbo-Croatian.

3.1.2 The West Slavonic branch The West Slavonic includes three subgroups: Czech-Slovak, Sorbian and Lekhitic (Polish and related tongues).

3.1.2.1 Czech (formerly Bohemian) is spoken by about 9,800,000 people in the historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and south-western Silesia in the Czech Republic. Its dialects are divided into Bohemian, Moravian, and Silesian groups. The standard language is based on the Central Bohemian dialect of Prague. The Slovak standard language was formed on the basis of a Central Slovak dialect in the middle of the 19th century. Western Slovak dialects are close to Moravian and differ from the Central and the Eastern dialects, which have features in common with Polish and Ukrainian. More than 4,600,000 speak Slovak; they are located mostly in Slovakia. 3.1.2.2 Sorbian dialects are still spoken by about 140,000 inhabitants of Lower Lusatia and Upper Lusatia in East Germany. There are three main groups of Sorbian dialects: High Sorbian (Upper Sorbian, called also Lusatian of Wendish), one of which, in the area of Bautzen, is the basis of the standard language; Low Sorbian (or Lower Sorbian); and East Sorbian. 3.1.2.3 Lekhitic includes Polish, Kashubian (and its archaic variant Slovincian) and extinct Polabian. Polish is spoken by approximately 40,000,000 people in Poland, in some regions of the Czech Republic, Slovakia and the former Soviet Union, and in France, the United States, and Canada. The main Polish dialects are Great Polish (in the north-west), Little Polish (in the south-east), Silesian and Mazovian. The last dialect shares some features with Kashubian. There are about 210,000 native speakers of Kashubian remaining in Poland on the left bank of the Lower Vistula River. Slovincian belongs to the northern group of Kashubian dialects, which is distinguished from the Southern group. Kashubian dialects (including Slovincian) are considered to be remnants of a Pomeranian subgroup that belonged to the Lekhitic group. Lekhitic also included Polabian, which was spoken up to the 17th and 18th centuries by the Slavonic population of the Elbe River region. (At that time a dictionary and some phrases in the language were written down.)

3.1.3

The East Slavonic branch

Russian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian (White-Russian) comprise the East Slavonic language group. 3.1.3.1 Russian is the native language of about 139,300,000 people and is widely used as a second language in other former republics of the USSR. Russian was also taught extensively in those countries lying within the Soviet sphere of influence, especially in eastern Europe, in the second half of the 20th century. Russian dialects are divided into the Northern group (stretching from St. Petersburg all across Siberia), the Southern group (in most of central and southern Russia), and the Central group (between Northern and Southern). Modern literary Russian is based on the dialect of Moscow. 3.1.3.2. Ukrainian, also called Ruthenian, is spoken by more than 42,700,000 people in Ukraine and in Ukrainian communities in the neighbouring Belarus, Russia, Poland, and Slovakia, and there are more than 580,000 Ukrainian speakers in Canada and the USA. Ukrainian dialects are classified into Northern, South-Eastern, South-Western and Carpathian divisions (the last group having features in common with Slovak); the standard language is based on the Kiev-Poltava dialect. 3.1.3.3 Byelorussian is the major language of Belarus (Belorussia). Belorussian forms a link between the Russian and Ukrainian languages, since it has transitional dialects to both. Although two dialect areas exist (North-Western Belorussian and North-Eastern Belorussian), the standard Belorussian is based on the dialect of Minsk, which lay on the border between these two groups. The language contains many Polish loanwords.

3.1.4 The languages in the corpus Not all of the above listed languages appear in the corpus, although an attempt has been made at finding at least one representative of each language. Proportionally, it is interesting, if not expected, how Slavic languages spoken by a smaller number of people, have left almost no trace in the English lexicon. The reasons, admittedly speculative, could be the influence or the absence of influence these nations had on the British culture throughout history, and the relatively poor British interest in them from a scientific, political and economic view, resulting in a lack of corresponding contacts and therefore in poor, if any,

linguistic intercourse. To put it more bluntly: these languages were and are simply not big and important enough to leave any prominent mark on the English vocabulary. Be that as it may, the following languages did make it to the corpus: Russian as the principal contributor of Slavic borrowings, Czech (formerly Bohemian; this term appears with a small number of examples in the OED), Bulgarian, Croatian, Serbian, Polish, Slovak and Ukrainian. A number of examples are designated broadly of “Slavic” origin, since the exact source cannot be determined.

3.2 ANALYSIS OF THE CORPUS ACCORDING TO THE DIVISION OF BORROWINGS INTO SIMPLE LOANS, ADAPTED LOANS AND LOAN TRANSLATIONS If we examine the total English vocabulary closely, we see that a great proportion of it consists of words of ultimately foreign origin. Yet, according to John Algeo (1991: 4): “Many such words were actually formed in English, so the extremely high percentage of borrowing sometimes reported for English is exaggerated.” Algeo (1991:4) divides borrowings or loanwords into three types: simple loans, adapted loans and loan translations. Simple loans are adopted directly into English, sometimes with minor changes in pronunciation to make them conform to English sound laws and patterns. Occasionally, spelling changes of a similar kind are also required but with no major change of form. To illustrate: apparatchik, artel, balalaika, glasnost from Russian, dumka from Czech, and gusle from Serbian. Adapted loans on the other hand, involve some morphological change (change of form), rather than only slight modifications of phonology and orthography. In other words, they are adapted from their foreign word pattern into a more native (English) one. For example, a foreign ending may be omitted and replaced with a native suffix: constructivism from the Russian konstruktivizm, folkloristics from the Russian folkloristika, and akathisia from the Czech akathisie.

Loan translations or calques differ from the above borrowings in that they are not foreign in their form but in the meaning they convey; i.e. instead of borrowing the form of a foreign word, English sometimes borrows its meaning, rendering the foreign sense by suitable words in the form of literal translations already part of the English vocabulary: biogeochemistry translating Russian biogeokhimiya, defamiliarization translating Russian

ostranenie, godless translating Russian bezbozhnik, sluggish translating Russian stértaya, superplasticity translating Russian sverkhplastichnost, and foregrounding translating Czech aktualisace. Often, calques exist alongside the corresponding simple loans they translate: bachelors and the Russian holluschickie, saturdaying and the Russian subbotnik, plum pox and the Bulgarian sharka. The examples of bachelors and foregrounding are somewhat peculiar and follow the definition of loan translations only to a certain degree. Namely, they are not literal translations of their foreign equivalents, but rather the “closest” possible renderings, both linguistically as well as culturally. For instance, the definition of bachelor is primarily that of “an unmarried man” and is therefore nearest to the meaning of holluschickie, a young seal that has not yet mated. A literal translation is not possible for there is no cultural, hence linguistic, equivalent in the English language. The corpus contains also examples of a phenomenon called partial translation, where part of the word or phrase is preserved in its original, and part of it is translated: agro-city, agrotown and the simple loan agrogorod, refusenik from the Russian original otkaznik, where – nik is a remnant from the source language (Bright 1992: 199) and refuse- is an English translation. .

3.2.1 Frequency of occurrence In analysing the corpus, the frequency of occurrence follows the order of description from the previous paragraphs. Most numerous are the simple loans, the majority of which have undergone some sort of phonological or orthographic change, so that there are few entries,

with absolutely no alterations to be found in the corpus; the rare examples being balalaika, burka, bylina, kasha, Katyusha. Following the simple loans in their number are the adapted loans. English, as other languages of the world, often adopts only stems rather than entire words, on which it can easily perform appropriate changes that make the word more “user-friendly”, i.e. easier to pronounce, spell and use for the native speaker. Changes include replacement of a foreign by a native affix, change of stress pattern and changes in spelling. The following examples are illustrative of the process: achtaragdite, introducing the native noun forming suffix –ite instead of the Russian achtaragda (similarly kalistrontite, nifontovite); acmeism with the native noun forming suffix -ism instead of the Russian akmeizm (similarly constructivism); astatki from the Russian ostátki, where the English form imitates the Russian pronunciation of the word; astrobotany using the noun forming suffix -y instead of the Russian astrobotanika (similarly the Polish kromesky) ; biomechanics using the noun forming suffix -ics and changing the spelling of the medial -kh- into a more English like -ch-, instead of the Russian biomekhanika (similarly folkloristics, meteoritics, metapsychics); choom imitating the Russian pronunciation but changing the orthography from Russian chum into English -oo-; crash where the second part of the original word was simply dropped and the initial Russian k in krashenina was changed into c-; kurchatovium employing the native noun forming suffix -ium instead of the Russian kurchatovi; pontian employing the adjective forming suffix -ian instead of the Russian ponticheski; Vepsian using the noun forming suffix -ian instead of the Russian Vépsi (similarly Zyrian); akathisia with the noun forming suffix -ia instead of the Czech akathisie; Glagolitic with the adjective forming suffix -ic instead of the Serbo-Croat glagolica. Even a superficial look at the above examples reveals that there are no instances of an English prefix or infix and a borrowed root included. The reason is quite simple: there aren’t any to be found, since the OED (electronic edition) does not contain such an entry. There are examples where the initial letter is changed, as in astatki from Russian ostatki pronounced with an initial a, where the pronunciation in the source language results in the change of spelling in the matrix language; or in caback where the initial c- is used in English instead of the Russian k- (kabak) to make the spelling more English-like. However, these

are not adapted loans with a native prefix added to the foreign root, but simple loans that underwent a slight cosmetic change. Last but not least, from the point of view of frequency, are the loan translations or calques, which appear every now and then almost as peculiarities in the corpus of predominantly simple and adapted loans. They are different from the other two types in that they were important enough to be translated into English, either because of high frequency of use, significance of the field of use or the object or notion in question, people who imported them and were first to use them, because words with similar meanings existed in the borrowing language, or because objects or phenomena denoted by these words were part of both cultures. For instance, the compound fellow-traveller, which primarily means “one who travels along with another”, is the English rendering of the Russian poputchik, “one who sympathizes with the Communist movement without actually being a party member.” In this example, the initial sense of “companionship” in fellow-traveller is used to convey the communist “comradeship” of poputchik. The borrowed sense does not have a corresponding simple loan, and has nowadays almost completely lost its communist Russian connotation, being used also with other political systems and convictions. Loan translations are, as the corpus shows, few and seem to occur where there is some sort of linguistic or cultural parallel between the two languages that calls for a translation. For example, the already mentioned sharka, a plum disease first described by a Bulgarian scientist, “characterized by yellow blotches on the leaves and pockets of dead tissue in the fruit.” (OED) The description resembles something the English are familiar with: pox. Therefore, since it occurs on plums, the logical translation is that of plum pox. A second cultural parallel that occurs with this example, arises from the fact that the disease itself is not unknown to the British Isles, where it caused problems in the past. If, on the other hand, an object or notion is so characteristic of the source environment that by translating it the original meaning would be entirely lost, a translation does not occur. For example, the term raskol denotes a specific event in the history of the Russian church, when a schism occurred as a result of reforms instituted by Patriarch Nikon in 1667. A

translation like separation is of course possible but pointless, since it does not refer to the particular separation in question. The corpus contains also instances which in their peculiarity appear similar to those from the previous paragraph, but are in fact quite different. Namely, when a word like tselina (land as the subject of an intensive agricultural programme by the Soviet government since 1954) is translated into virgin land and becomes a calque, it is because it has discarded its purely Russian connotation, and has acquired a more general meaning referring to any previously uncultivated land. Here, in contrast to the previous example of raskol, we witness a transfer of ideas from one language to another, whereby the original implication gives way to a broader semantic understanding of the term. The frequency of loan translations is also not affected by the “obscurity” of a word, in terms of its pronunciation or spelling. This does not appear to be a reason enough to produce an English rendering, for there are words in the corpus more difficult to pronounce and spell than for example sharka or subbotnik, that have not acquired their translation into English: the Polish witzchoura, szlachta, britzka, and the Russian yamstchik.

3.2.2 Summary In this chapter we have dealt with the threefold division of loanwords into simple and adapted loans and loan translations. We have seen that Slavic borrowings include all three types with all the characteristics of each type, and discussed their frequency in the corpus. In the next chapter we shall take a closer look at Sir James Murray’s division of loanwords into four stages of “citizenship”: the casual, the alien, the denizen, and the natural.

3.3 ANALYSIS OF THE CORPUS ACCORDING TO MURRAY’S DIVISION OF LOANWORDS INTO CASUAL, ALIEN, DENIZEN AND NATURAL Sir James Murray is considered by many the father of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED). He was the editor and the driving force behind the vast undertaking, and completed about half of the dictionary (sections A-D, H-K, O,P and T) himself. In addition to his work on the OED, he served as president of the Philological Society (1878-1880, 1882-1884) and wrote a number of articles on the English language, the most famous being the one published in the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1878). In the general explanations and introduction to the first edition of OED, Murray listed four stages of word “citizenship”: the casual, the alien, the denizen and the natural. They follow each other from the least to the most naturalised. The casuals appear only in travel writings and accounts of foreign countries, but citations must nevertheless be collected for them in order to record the early history of the word that may at a later stage become a full-grown member of the language. Aliens are names of foreign objects, titles, etc., which we have to use, and for which we have no native equivalents; they retain their foreign appearance and to some extent their foreign sound. Denizens are borrowings from foreign languages which have acquired full English citizenship. Most words when first borrowed are aliens, but if they survive they are gradually accommodated to the language which borrows them and become denizens. Naturals, members of the last stage of citizenship, are words that look, sound and feel like being in the language forever. They have lost their foreign character, and it is difficult to recognize that which was once alien in them. In the following paragraphs we shall apply Murray’s division to Slavic borrowings. We may assume that most of them will fall under aliens and denizens, with a few casuals also to be expected, whereas naturals will be hard to come by. The aim of this analysis is to examine to what extent Slavic words have become part of the English vocabulary, from the point of view of naturalization, i.e. whether and how many are considered “English-proper”, and if not, how close they are to achieving such status. 3.3.1 Slavic casuals

As we have noted in one of the previous chapters, words of Slavic origin often entered English via itineraries of travellers and memoirs, written by people who lived and worked in a Slavic country for a considerable period of time. Some of these words fall into the category of casuals. They are all simple loans with minor sound and spelling changes, appearing perhaps only two or three times in an English text: caback (a Russian dram-shop or pot-house), chark (a small Russian glass or cup), choom (a conical hut), kvass (a fermented beverage; rye beer), ostrog (a house or village in Siberia, surrounded by a palisade or wall, and serving as a fort or prison), peach or peech (a Russian stove), tarantass (a four-wheeled Russian travellingcarriage), telega (a four-wheeled Russian cart) and olen (a red deer), all from Russian. We have expected to find a few more examples in our analysis, but only the ones enumerated correspond in their “obscureness” to the formal criterion under which a casual is defined: they all appear in travel writings only. However, this proved not to be a reason enough to characterize them as casuals, since many other words also appearing in such works did not qualify for this category. Therefore, we looked also at whether the example is accompanied by a translation or a description in the quotes for better understanding, the age of the quotes – the older the better, and last but not least, the object denoted by the word itself – here the object was considered from the point of view of its present day relevance, i.e. whether it still has any bearing on the people in the land of its origin, and in this context, whether it is at least known, if not used, in the English speaking world. The rationale behind these criteria is that they all point to the somewhat “veiled” character of casuals, and only after looking at all of them a word could, with some reassurance, be designated as a casual; many examples that at a first glance appeared to fall under this category, in the end turned out to be aliens. In trying to understand the reasons for such a small number of Slavic casuals, we should look at the life of loanwords, once they enter the matrix or the recipient language. As already described, most of the loans, however obscure, go through certain modifications which make them, in our case, more English like. Besides spelling and pronunciation, they also adopt English morphology with the characteristic inflections of the corresponding part of speech. This process influences their use, in that they no longer appear only in accounts

of foreign countries, but also in literary works, newspapers and other writings. For example, the word knout, denoting a special kind of whip or scourge, eventually found its way to Tennyson’s “Maud” (1855): “Shall I weep if an infant civilisation be ruled with rod or with knout?” Similarly, kibitka (a circular tent, but also a Russian wagon or sledge) appeared in the Daily News (1899 14 Jan. 2/1): “His typical studio should be a kibitka of the Steppes.” And in Byron’s “Don Juan” (1823): “There in a kibitka he roll'd on, (A cursed sort of carriage without springs).” These and other loanwords passed from being mere “just-in-case” dictionary entries with an example or two to their name, to words of at least alien, if not denizen status. Only a relatively small number continued on as casuals, with the objects or notions they denote never becoming part of the English culture and way of life, but remaining mentions in the vast body of the English lexicon.

3.3.2 Slavic aliens As already mentioned, it is characteristic of the majority of Slavic borrowings that they were and are adopted directly as aliens and not as casuals first. This trait of loanwords results from an instant demand for naming an object or notion as it appears in the borrowing culture; recording it for future reference is in most cases simply not enough.

Aliens proved to be the most substantial group of Slavic loanwords, including adapted as well as simple loans: acmeism, aesopic, arsheen, artel, astatki, babushka, bidarka, blin, borsch, buran, bylina, Cadet, chernozem, copeck, coulibiac, dacha, feldscher, gusli, kalashnikov, kasha, kazachoc, kissel, koumiss, lunokhod, mazut, miryachit, moujik, oblast, okrug, pelmeny, ploschadka, polatouche, prisiadka, prospekt, samovar, sastruga, sevruga, shapka, shchi, sovkhoz, tamizdat, thermokarst, tokamak, tur, tvorog, yeri, zubr as only a few examples from Russian; akathisia, dumka, furiant, kolach, koruna, redowa, Taborite, Sokol, Strouhal from Czech; Gamza, lev, Pomak, rakija, Sobranye, stotinka from Bulgarian; Glagolitic, chetnik, dinar, gusle, hum (Physical Geography), kolo, polje, ponor, Skupstina, slatko, slava, slivovitz, stokavian, tamburitza, Ustashi, uvala, vila (wili, willi), zadruga from Serbo-Croat; bobac, britzka, gmina, hetman, kielbasa, Krakowiak, kromesky, Mariavite, mazurka, oberek, Piast, polacca, polka (clothing item), pospolite, schapska, Sejm, starosty, szlachta, witzchoura, zloty from Polish; gopak from Ukrainian; and bismar, calash, gherkin, heyduck, hospodar, knez, lasset, pivo, shabracque, suckeny, tabor, voivode, zibeline as examples of undetermined Slavic origin. In contrast to casuals, these words, although some of them are admittedly obscure and nowadays archaic, appeared not only in travel accounts but also in works of literature, newspapers, and in scientific writing. For example, the Russian prisiadka can be found in the following quotes in the OED: 1938 B. Schönberg tr. Sachs' World Hist. of Dance i. 28: “Wilder still are the Bavarian Schuhplattler and the Ukrainian prisjádka with their heel stamping.” (science) 1972 Daily Tel. 14 Aug. 6/9: “They burst out into wild Ukrainian dancing with every possible variation of the squatting step prisyadka.” (newspaper) 1977 J. Wambaugh Black Marble (1978) xii. 292: “I don’t care if I’m six feet tall” Valnikov said, squatting on his haunches, trying some prisiadka kicks that put him temporarily on his ass.” (literature) We see that the word has transcended from a simple note in a dictionary to a vocabulary item of interest not only to inquisitive yet incidental linguists, but also to a wider public of

dance enthusiasts, newspaper readers and lit-fans. It managed to penetrate into the English culture and settle itself as the name of something the English know and in some cases use, but do not designate using their own lexemes. Prisiadka, as other aliens, succeeded in making a step towards English citizenship, but its fate is still that of being left somewhere queuing in an endless line of anxious newcomers, perhaps never achieving the ultimate goal of becoming a legitimate member of English lexicon. This may, for some, appear a gloomy future for these words. However, in connection with that, we must bear in mind the element of time and its influence on the vocabulary of a language, which makes such outcome inevitable. Namely, these lexical items appeared in English at certain points in history and many were used only in and around those particular periods. A good example is the Russian arsheen, a measure of length used in Russia and Turkey. The key word here is “used”, which is to be read as past simple and not present, since the Russian metric system no longer employs such obsolete measures. Let us look at the quotes, again from the OED: 1734 Treaty in Magens Insurances II. 592: “English Cloth two Copyks in Rixdollars for each Archine.” 1783 Martyn Geog. Mag. II. 40: “The arshine or Russian ell, equal to twenty-eight and onetenth inches English.” 1819 J. Q. Adams in C. Davies Metric Syst. (1871) iii. 185: “Suwarrow said to his troops, “A soldier’s step is an arsheen.” 1828 Webster, Arshine. 1881 Nature XXV. 88: “The new system of weights and measures in Turkey, the archine, is exactly equal to the French metre.” We see that they are all from the 18 th and 19th century, but none from the 20th, which points to the fact that the object in question has gone out of use, making the word denoting it obsolete as well. Such development leaves little if no hope of arsheen and similar aliens

ever achieving the “timelessness” of lexemes that endure in a language for centuries 4. In other words, they will almost certainly never acquire the status of denizens or naturals, and will gradually become what casuals already are: mere entries in bulky dictionaries, with their position deteriorating with the passage of time, to the extent that we will eventually no longer be able to regard them as pretenders to anything but linguistic remnants of the years gone by. As such we could term them historical aliens, i.e. borrowings once used in their original form, but later becoming redundant parallel to the gradual disappearance of objects or notions they denoted. Contrary to the development from the previous paragraph, many aliens do achieve a certain degree of “timelessness” that promises later full naturalization. For example, the Russian coulibiac, the Bulgarian rakija., or the Serbo-Croat uvala: 1970 Simon & Howe Dict. Gastron. 237/1: “Koulibiac, a Russian type of pie.” 1980 J. Hone Flowers of Forest i. 21: “Playing chess over a bottle of rakia somewhere in Yugoslavia.” 1970 R. J. Small Study of Landforms iv. 152: “In many areas closely adjoining sotchs have amalgamated, through lateral extension, to give larger depressions comparable with the uvalas of the Karst proper.” Characteristically, the chosen examples denote a dish, a drink and a trait of nature, all of which are things that carry along an underlying sense of duration; first food and drink with their preparation, which are of essential and permanent interest to human beings, and then nature, although disposed to alteration, presenting a continuum in a lifetime of an average individual. Contrastively, words from areas that are subject to frequent change and are socially conditioned, such as economy, government or metric systems, do not seem to be able to stand the test of time. As it is to be expected with words, there are also examples, such as perestroika and glasnost, which for some reason or other, do not let themselves be influenced by the

passage of time. They are adopted very quickly as aliens, and do not require years to become denizens. If we concentrate on the above mentioned cases, we see that in the last two decades from their point of entry into English in the 1970s and 80s 5, the spelling and pronunciation of perestroika and glasnost haven’t changed dramatically, which makes them similar to aliens. What has changed, and why we ultimately defined them as denizens, is their meaning. Namely, both terms are associated with the political and economic reforms of Mikhail Gorbachov from the 1980s. The former word stands for “the restructuring or reform of the Soviet economic and political system”, and the latter for “the policy of public frankness and accountability” (Collins English Dictionary-CED). Both words were borrowed into English with these primary meanings, as is apparent from the earlier quotes (OED): 1981 Summary World Broadcasts: Soviet Union 26 Feb. c24: “They are outlined in the 26th April 1979 decision of the CPSU Central Committee. This is a long-term document. Essentially it deals with restructuring (Russian: perestroyka).” 1981 N.Y. Times 13 Mar. a7/1: “The Russians, it seems, have rediscovered the value of Lenin's dictum that glasnost, the Russian word for openness or publicity, is a desirable form of conduct.” 1986 Scotsman 9 May 10/1: “What seemed to be at risk was Mr. Gorbachev’s glasnost policy, the essence of which is more openness.” 1986 Sunday Tel. 9 Nov. 2/6: “I can see Mr Gorbachev on television going on about something he calls Perestroika, roughly translated as “the restructuring”. The subsequent development of their meaning went in the direction of extension or generalization6 . Perestroika came to denote “any radical change in economic policy”, and following such new interpretation, somewhere along the line an interesting imitation of its sound and meaning, referring to “the restructuring of the political policies of the South African government” (Among the New Words; fall 1990) called Pretoriastroika, emerged:

Atlantic Monthly 35 (George C. Lodge, heading and subhead): IT’S TIME FOR AN AMERICAN PERESTROIKA May 13 Economist 46: “Indian perestroika is at its most radical in the western state of Maharasthra, whose capital is Bombay. Maharasthra’s sharp change of course was announced late last month.” 1989 Oct 8 The Ottawa Citizen A-8/1 (editorial): “The ink is barely dry on President Frederik de Klerk’s order not to break up lawful, peaceful protests in South Africa and there’s already talk of “Pretoriastroika” and a “Pretoria spring.” As for glasnost, it began to be used also in connection with other countries apart from Russia, that were and are experiencing a similar favourable turn of events: 1987 Los Angeles Times 30 May i. 4/1 (heading): “Life is still hard under glasnost, Vietnamese style.” 1987 Jerusalem Post Mag. 19 June 6/5: “On the emigration front, the era of glasnost has seen decidedly mixed results.” The examples of perestroika and glasnost illustrate the whimsicality of the lexicon, which ultimately discards some but accepts other borrowings, giving so no easy answers and allowing no universalities. The reasons for such a character lie outside the language itself, and are to be sought in the society. To exemplify, we shall turn again to the above instances of perestroika and glasnost. It is well known that they were used as catchwords during the peaceful political and economic reforms in the USSR, which subsequently caused an avalanche of similar events in other countries behind the Iron Curtain. Both terms were instantly adopted by the West and hence by the English-speaking world, which, as we have discussed in one of the previous chapters, readily accepted any novelty from the communist realm. This initial alien period soon ended with the acquisition of additional meanings, making these loans true denizens.

What happened in this case, was that the external circumstances in the society were favourable for perestroika and glasnost to be adopted so rapidly into English, and to acquire such a generalizing meaning. This set them apart from similar alien-loans like lunokhod, sovkhoz or kalashnikov, which despite their communist background never made the breakthrough to the denizen status. The conclusion that presents itself almost self-evidently, is that it is between aliens and denizens that an invisible borderline exists, separating borrowings into two groups: those that we perceive as foreign on the one hand, and those that we already accept, although not entirely, as part of our lexicon on the other. In the next chapter we shall start dealing with the latter.

3.3.3 Slavic denizens In the literature, denizens are regarded as words that have acquired full English citizenship. Indicatively, they are altered in terms of spelling and pronunciation so as to look and sound English. We have discovered that whereas this is true of many denizens, there are also others that still retain their foreign appearance, but undergo significant changes in meaning, clearly distinguishing them from aliens (the familiar perestroika and glasnost examples). The following surprisingly substantial list illustrates this diversity within the category of denizens: achtaragdite, agit-prop, apparatchik, Bolshevik, Bolshevist, cancrinite, Cesarewitch, Checen, Cheka, Cheremis, Chuckchee, Circassian, Cominform, droog, ferganite, hydrotroilite, innelite, intelligentsia, irinite, Ivan, kalistrontite, karakul, kolkhoz, Kremlin, kurchatovium, mammoth, mendelevium, nielsbohrium, podzol, pogrom, Russ, Russia, Russian, samizdat, steppe, taiga, tsar, tundra, ukase, vodka, yurt as only a few examples from Russian; howitzer, Dobro, koktaite, Pilsener, polka, vrbaite from Czech; Bulgar from Bulgarian; cravat, Morlach, hussar, pandour, Serb, Croat, paprika, takovite from Serbo-Croat; horde, Kashube, Lech, marrowsky, Polack, Pole, pulk, uhlan from Polish; Slovak from Slovak; gley from Ukrainian; sable, siskin, Slovene, tsatske, vampire and Vlach as examples of undetermined Slavic origin. In order to fully understand the choice of words we have designated as denizens, some additional clarification is in order. First of all, the reader will have noticed many loans

ending in the noun forming suffix –ite, characteristic of, among other things, names of rocks and minerals. The total number of such examples in the corpus is around sixty (most of them Russian), which is why we have not included all of them in the above list. In most cases, it is difficult to recognize the Slavic origin of these borrowings since they have been significantly modified in terms of spelling and pronunciation. In addition to the English-like appearance, they denote objects which are of unlimited duration and immune to cultural influences that could affect their existence. Consequently, the future of these words in English is secure. Although used by a relatively small number of people, they will remain in the language, and in more or less the same form in which they appear at the present moment. Secondly, the corpus contains an equally substantial group of borrowings relating to, or characteristic of a nation or ethnic group, its people, or their language (again most of them have been adopted from Russian). We have categorized them as denizens for similar reasons as minerals. Namely, although nations are born anew and are being wiped out, the way they are called is seldom if at all altered. The ethnonym under which the nation is known is either that which the people call themselves, or what others, usually their neighbours, call them. Once established, it is adopted and adapted (spelling, pronunciation) unaware as not being of their native linguistic origin. Thirdly, there are borrowings included in the list, which arguably look and sound like aliens. However, as we have briefly discussed in the introductory paragraph to Slavic denizens, they appear in English with meanings sometimes completely different from those that we define as primary. At this point, we shall not attempt any semantic analysis, which is part of the next chapter dealing with the changes of meaning, but only enumerate some examples with quotes, to illustrate the point: a) Agit-prop: 1934 N. & Q. CLXVI. 73/1: “The A[g]itprop, the central organ for propaganda and agitation, has sent word round to writers, newspapers and publishers, that there is to be an organisation for mass-laughter.” (primary meaning) 1959 Spectator 6 Nov. 629/2: “The whole tone [of the play] is ten times heavier and cornier than any of the agitprop from the old Unity Theatre.” (transferred meaning) by other nations, thus becoming an integral part of their language; a part of which they are almost

b) Cesarewitch: Title as heir to the imperial Russian throne of the prince who became Alexander II. (primary meaning) A long-distance handicap horse-race run at Newmarket, instituted in 1839. 1839 Sporting Mag. 2nd. Ser. XIX. 263: “Newmarket.-His Imperial Highness the Grand Duke of Russia having presented the Jockey Club with the sum of 300, to be run for annually, …” 1891 G. Chetwynd Racing Remin. Ibid. 31: “At the next Newmarket meeting Cardinal York won the Cesarewitch by six lengths.” (transferred meaning) We believe that the quotes clearly show how these and similar loans have, despite their foreign appearance, assumed new identity in the English language, thereby losing their alien characteristic of simply naming an object or notion for which no native designation exists. What is more, they have altered their meaning so that an English speaker no longer associates them only with foreignness, but also with some new, even peculiarly English concepts. An essentially formal reason for including any of the already mentioned loans in the above list of denizens, was that a word is accompanied by many compounds and derivatives, which points to a high degree of naturalization7. For example, the Russian tsar and vodka, and the Slavonic vampire. tsar: tsarlet, tsarate, tsardom, tsarevich, tsarevna, tsarian(adj.), tsaricide, tsarina, tsarish(adj.), tsarism, tsaritsa, tsarship. vodka: vodka bottle, vodka flask, vodka glass, vodka Collins, vodka gimlet, vodka martini, vodka shop, vodka-tonic, vodkatini (a contraction from vodka-martini). vampire: vampirarchy, vampire bookseller, vampire corpse, vampire-fanned (adj.), vampire legend, vampire spell, vampire story, vampire superstition, vampire tinge, vampire

wing, vampire bat, vampire trap, vampire (verb), vampiredom, vampiric (adj.), vampirine (adj.), vampirish (adj.), vampirism, vampirize (verb), vamp (noun and verb, abbreviated from vampire), vampish (adj.), vampishness, vampy (adj.), vampiness. The great extent of naturalization which these words have achieved is distinctly evident from the above collection of new vocabulary items, denoting various new meanings. In this way tsar, vodka and vampire have made a strong mark on the English language; a mark so prominent that they no longer feel as denizens, but almost as naturals. Almost. They are somewhere in-between, neither black nor white, but of the many shades of grey the English lexicon is full of. During our survey, we came across a number of similar examples, which we will enumerate at this point: constructivism, cubo-futurism, defamiliarization, disinformation, diversionist, ethonym, folkloristics, idiogram, informatics, jarovization, karyotype, liquidate (in the sense of “to kill”), pedology, phytosociology from Russian; akathisia, ferritin, foreground, robot from Czech; macrolide, metapsychics, psychophonetics, sherryvallies from Polish; doodle (verb - to play the bagpipes) as a loan of undetermined Slavic origin. The reader will admit some degree of surprise in his/her mind, after having read the above set of examples. Especially words like robot, sherryvallies or doodle, baffle once their origin is disclosed. The reason for the majority of these items to appear so English lies in the fact that they are similar to English scientific vocabulary, coined from Greek and Latin words or roots: idiogram, metapsychics, constructivism, akathisia, phytosociology, disinformation. This shows us firstly, that it is not only English that makes use of classical languages to create learned expressions in various fields of science, and secondly, that English demonstrates no hesitation when it comes to adopting such items from foreign, in our case Slavic, languages. At this point, we should not be misled by the appearance and sound of this last group of Slavic loanwords, which are truly English-like, into considering them native-like words. The objects and notions they convey were discovered, used and described first by foreigners, before ever reaching the English language and consciousness, and are therefore foreign by

definition. We may in fact ask ourselves a justified question: are there any borrowings at all from Slavic languages that are closer to nativeness than denizens ? 3.3.4 Slavic naturals The answer to the question from the previous chapter is not a satisfying one. We were hoping to be able to present a list, however short, of Slavic naturals in the English language. Our good intentions were soon shattered by the realization that the foreign element in the words from the corpus was still strong enough to prevent such categorization. Why is that so? We believe that with every single loan in the corpus, not enough time has passed from its entrance into English till the present moment for the borrowing to lose its Slavic character either in spelling, sound or meaning, to the extent that we could regard it as being native. In order to clarify our point, let us provide some contrast in the form of the English word law. Everyday users of the language do not stop to ponder over its origin, for it sounds and looks as being there forever, its meaning all too familiar to everyone, and its presence in our lives secured. Despite all that, the word is not of Anglo-Saxon, but of Scandinavian origin. It is a Scandinavian borrowing (Davis&Klinar 1996: 136), but we can undoubtedly acknowledge it as a natural. Similarly, the French borrowings city, state, large and play (Davis&Klinar 1996: 141), which not many would recognize as being of foreign descent, fall into the same group. As Klinar puts it: “English vocabulary is permeated by French everywhere. Most of the earlier borrowings are not felt to be alien in any sense. The monosyllables in the following list are among the 250 most frequently used words in the language and are as thoroughly English as any that could be mentioned.” (Davis&Klinar 1996: 141) Slavic borrowings in English, even the most naturalized ones, are still a long way from achieving such status, and only time will tell if any make it that far at all.

3.3.5

Summary

Our premise at the beginning of the analysis, according to Sir Murray’s division, turned out to be quite accurate. A few casuals, a lot of aliens, a somewhat similar number of denizens, and no naturals among the gathered Slavic borrowings in the English language, is the more or less expected final outcome. But let us ignore the statistics, and focus on what is behind it. Namely, the analysis has shown that Slavic languages, especially Russian, contribute and did so in the past, to the English lexicon words that are not just “dead”, non-developing material, but lexical items with a flourishing life of their own, outside their primary linguistic environment. As such, they bring in new cultural aspects and meanings, in this way adding to the effect of great etymological diversity of the English language.

3.4 SEMANTIC ANALYSIS OF THE CORPUS: CHANGES IN MEANING Throughout the paper, we have been referring to the primary meaning of an individual Slavic borrowing, as it appeared in English with the first occurrence of the word. This primary meaning, or proper, essential, natural, and primitive, as it is also termed in literature (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 220, 233; OED, Volume 1 1989: xxvii), is in our case intended merely as a convenient wording for describing the semantic situation at the point of entrance into English. The term is in itself misleading, for: “In the absolute sense of the term a word has no essential meaning. Words are conventional signs. They mean what they are intended to mean by the speaker and understood to mean by the hearer. … any word - whatever its origin - bears, at any moment, that meaning which the speakers of the language have tacitly agreed to assign to it. And this meaning may or may not have a direct logical connection with the original sense of the root.” (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 220, 233) Therefore, a Slavic borrowing may have been taken into English already in a figurative, transferred, or specialized use, as an ecclesiastical, legal, grammatical or medical term, that being the “primary” meaning in which it manifested itself in the matrix or recipient language. In our semantic analysis, we shall depart from this “primary8” meaning, and describe different kinds of semantic change, as they appear with Slavic borrowings in the English language. The examination will be more or less limited to four general categories of semantic change: extension or generalization, and narrowing or specialization (contraction), as semantic changes in a horizontal dimension; amelioration and pejoration (deterioration) as changes on a vertical scale (Crystal 1995: 138; Webster’s Word Histories 1989: Introduction). By looking into these processes we hope to illustrate the evolution that certain Slavic borrowings have gone through since their introduction into the English lexicon. 3.4.1 Extension or generalization

In the case of extension or generalization, a lexeme widens its meaning. For example, the word picture. “Picture meant first a “painting,” but is now applied to any flat representation of an object or scene, except a mere plan or diagram. Thus photographs, pencil sketches, and drawings with pen or crayon, are all included with paintings under the general term pictures.” (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 244). A word can be generalized to different degrees. It may retain various levels of connection with its basic meaning, or it may “become so very general that it ceases to distinguish anything in particular from everything else.” (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 241) An example of the latter, mentioned by the same authors, is the word thing: “Its special modern sense of “inanimate object (usually regarded as its “real meaning”) is certainly due to generalization. The Anglo-Saxon noun thing often meant “terms” and also “a council of court,” and the verb thingiam, “to make conditions,”, “to arrange.” The word is thought to be cognate with L. tempus, “the (fitting) time,” “the right moment.” If so, we may feel confident that the oldest sense at which we can arrive in English is “that which is agreed upon as fitting.” From the “terms” of a bargain to a concrete “object of value” is a short step,- and from this to “anything” (actual or ideal) is no long stride.” (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 235, 236) With Slavic borrowings such extreme cases do not occur. There is always some trait of the basic meaning present in the new extended sense. Let us observe some characteristic instances9 with quotes, whereby the first quote always conveys the primary meaning: a) Apparatchik basically denoted a member of the apparat (the party machine of the Communist party in Russia), and a Communist agent or spy (a meaning that was developed already in Russia by the party members themselves). The meaning was eventually extended to refer also to a member of a political party in any country, who is responsible for the execution of policy. A further generalization occurs in the sense of a functionary of a public or private organization, where the political overtone is evidently fading, but still present. Quotes:

1963 Camb. Rev. 16 Feb. 277/1: “The party bureaucrat, or apparatchik, is distinguished from the ordinary party member by his professional attachment to the party, for as a rule he devotes himself exclusively to party activity. “ 1973 Daily Colonist (Victoria, B.C.) 5 July 5/1: “The United States was indeed being pushed in the direction of a police state. The pushers were not mere apparatchiks such as John Dean, but President Nixon and his closest associates.” 1985 Sunday Times 27 Jan. 38/5: “The radio programmes were put together in the privacy of his own computer-equipped studio at home, away from the controlling influence of BBC apparatchiks.” b) A similarly “political” example is provided by Bolshevik, which was originally the designation for a member of that part of the Russian Social-Democratic Party which took Lenin’s side in the split that followed the second Congress of the party in 1903, seized power in the “October” Revolution of 1917, and was subsequently renamed the (Russian) Communist Party. The generalization of the term focused on the revolutionary connotation of the basic meaning, and came to denote a person of subversive or revolutionary views, and a downright opponent of the existing social order or accepted codes. The shift away from the strictly political characteristics and in the direction of general human traits of rebellion and stubbornness, is very prominent, which indicates a possible development of the word’s meaning in the direction of a complete loss of political attributes. Quotes: 1918 E. J. Dillon Eclipse of Russia 10: “The Bolsheviks at once outbid the Cadets.” 1926 W. R. Inge Lay Thoughts 29: “The cliques of literary Bolsheviks, who seem to be inspired by a destructive hatred of civilisation.” Similar “communist” loanwords from Russian that were subject to generalization, whereby their meaning was extended to refer to objects or people with similar traits in general, are: cheka, intelligentsia, kolkhoz, samizdat, Ivan, Kremlin, Maximalist (another term for Bolshevik), Menshevik, Minimalist (in the sense of Menshevik), Soviet, sputnik, etc.

c) An interesting case in point is the loanword kulak, which was first adopted in preRevolution Russia, in the sense of a well-to-do farmer or trader. With the onset of communism this meaning changed, and the word was borrowed anew in the sense of a peasant-proprietor working for his own profit. We can see how the connotation of independence and relative wellbeing is present in both periods. In English the meaning was extended to “successful and independent farmers” in general. Quotes: 1877 D. M. Wallace Russia (ed. 2) I. vii. 159: “Not a few industrial villages have thus fallen under the power of the Kulaki - literally Fists - as these monopolists are called.” 1934 G. B. Shaw On Rocks 164: “They [sc. the Soviet government] also proscribed the kulak, the able, hardheaded, hardfisted farmer who was richer than his neighbors.” 1952 R. Campbell Lorca 7: “Lorca was by birth a landowning kulak.” 1957 Observer 10 Nov. 5/8: “The peasants [in China] have been “voluntarily” collectivised,but there has been no Russian-style campaign for the “elimination of the kulak as a class.” d) A somewhat older loan is tsar, with its basic meaning of the title of the autocrat or emperor of Russia. In the process of generalization, the underlying connotation of power, domination and limitless authority, extended to people in general possessing such qualities. In addition to that, a comparatively stronger sense of “tyrant” also came to be associated with this borrowing. Quotes: 1890 Morfill Russia 56: “Ivan assuming the cognizance of the double-headed eagle, and partially taking the title of Tsar, the complete assumption of it being the achievement of Ivan IV.” 1893 McClure's Mag. I. 375: “He was being held up as “The Czar”---a man whose iron heels were crushing out American popular government.”

1970 Guardian 18 Apr. 10/6: “ Many [American] Presidents establish a staff “Czar” to cut down on “unnecessary” memos and contacts.” e) The word mammoth, which is another Russian borrowing, basically denotes a large extinct species of elephant, formerly native in Europe and northern Asia. In the United States the first generalization of the loan took place, where mammoth became a superordinate, often applied also to the fossil mastodon, another extinct species of elephant. The second extension of meaning is connected with the characteristic strength and huge size of the animal, which led to the use of the word to describe anything of huge size, and also to its use as an adjective, denoting something comparable to the mammoth in size. Quotes: 1850 Lyell 2nd Visit U.S. II. 197: “The fossil remains of the mammoth (a name commonly applied in the United States to the mastodon).” 1863 A. C. Ramsay Phys. Geog. xxviii. 463: “Man, the Mammoth, and other extinct mammalia, were contemporaneous.” 1894 Cornh. Mag. Mar. 269: “Bayle’s “Dictionnaire Historique”, 5 vols. folio, or any kindred mammoth among books.” 1974 Economist 21 Dec. 65/1: “Britain’s mammoth current account deficit.” f) The geographical term Muscovy, originally denoting a Russian principality (13th to 16th centuries), of which Moscow was the capital, came to be applied by extension to Russia generally, and is used attributively in the name of things belonging to, orginating or produced in and obtained from Russia. In this case the economic and political power of the capital, with which most of the commerce with the West took place, provided such a strong association as to substitute for established geographical names. Quotes: 1796 Kirwan Elem. Min. (ed. 2) I. 211: “Mr. Sage found muscovy glass infusible in the strongest heat.”

1825 J. Nicholson Operat. Mechanic 740: “Substituting varnished metallic gauze in the room of Muscovy talc, a kind of mica.” g) The original meaning of pogrom also has a negative connotation of death and devastation. It denotes an organized massacre in Russia for the destruction or annihilation of any body or class: originally and especially applied to those directed against the Jews (specialization of meaning). In generalized use pogrom refers to an organized, officially tolerated, attack on any community or group. Quotes: 1919 N. Sokolow Hist. Zionism II. p. li,: “Not even the dark ages extracted so heavy a toll of Jewish blood: something like 1400 pogroms took place all over the Ghetto.” 1971 Sunday Times 13 June 12/4: “The army units, after clearing out the rebels, pursued the pogrom in the towns and villages.”

h) Examples from languages other than Russian are less frequent, as is correspondingly smaller their number in the corpus. The first we are to examine is the Czech Pilsener. The loanword originally denoted the origin of a beer (Czech. Plzen, a province and city in W. Bohemia, Czechoslovakia.), but is nowadays by extension used, also in the Czech Republic itself, as a designation for the type of beer, which is a pale-coloured lager beer with a strong hop flavour. The actual beer from Plzen itself is known as Pils(e)ner Urquell. The word was not adopted directly from Czech, but rather indirectly via German. Quotes: 1877 C. Schreiber Jrnl. 3 Aug. (1911) II. 49: “Much rain - no breakfasts in the garden and Pilsner beer luncheons this year!” 1980 Brit. Med. Jrnl. 29 Mar. 916/1: “It [sc. class 2 beer] was available in two strengths-a middle European Pilsner beer, and a somewhat stronger English lager type.”

2000 www.geocities.com/bohemianbeertours/czech_beers.htm : “However, the dominant element of Czech beers is the hops. Saaz or Zatek hops give a Czech pilsner its distinctive flavor. Each brewery usually has several styles of pilsner.”

i) Another non-Russian, but subjectively the most “successful” Slavic loan is the Czech robot. It was conceived by Karel Capek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots, 1920) It originally denoted one of the mechanical men and women in Capek’s play; hence, a machine (sometimes resembling a human being in appearance) designed to function in place of a living individual, especially one which carries out a variety of tasks automatically or with a minimum of external impulse. By extension, the meaning reverted to human beings, and so the word refers to a person whose work or activities are entirely mechanical. The borrowing developed many derivatives and compounds, which all retained the original connotation of automation. Quotes: 1923 Times 9 June 10/5: “If Almighty God had populated the world with Robots, legislation of this sort might have been reasonable.” 1955 Times 27 July 9: “It might be a pretty compliment to the brothers Capek if we called this new way of life robotry.” 1977 G. W. H. Lampe God as Spirit ii. 51: “The person who is “seized” by the Spirit is thought of as a passive object, temporarily reduced to the status of a robot.” 1980 Times 1 July 19/5: “A real robot is programmable; it can be programmed to perform different, and changing tasks. In 1978 Japan put 1,100 playback or programmable robots into its factories.” j) The loan hussar10 has been in English for quite some time. In the languages it was adopted from, the word originally denoted a “free-lance” and a “freebooter”. In the second half of the 15th century, it became applied to the Hungarian light horsemen, in which application hussar became known and used in the Western European languages. Hence, the name of light cavalry regiments formed in imitation of these, which were subsequently introduced, and still exist, in most European armies, including that of Great Britain. When the extension occurred, the original meaning of a “freebooter”, a “free-lance”, primarily not borrowed with the word, was adopted into English, and the borrowing came to denote an adventurer, a free-lance in literature or debate. Quotes:

1768 Foote Devil on 2 Sticks 11: “The hussars and pandours of physic, rarely attack a patient together.” 1768-74 Tucker Lt. Nat. (1852) I. 473: “Your infinitely-infinite monades in infinitely-never single bodies, cannot get the better even of my light armature, my skipping scampering hussars.” 1800 A. Carlyle Autobiog. 432: “He was a mere hussar, who had no steady views to direct him.” 1802-16 C. James Milit. Dict. s.v.,: “There are also several regiments of hussars in the British service.” In the case of hussar, the negative connotation of the word, associated with negative moral values and fighting, is clearly reflected in the loan’s generalization. Similar semantic change occured also with the words pandoor and uhlan, which also basically denote an army force. k) Our last example in the section on generalization is vampire. The word has become quite popular since its adoption in the 18th century, especially after the publication of the wellknown Bram Stoker’s Dracula. Its origin is somewhat obscure, but the loan is agreed upon as being of Slavonic descent. Vampire primarily denotes a supernatural being of an evil nature (in the original and usual form of the belief, a reanimated corpse), supposed to seek nourishment, or do harm, by drinking the blood of sleeping persons. Hence, a man or woman abnormally endowed with similar habits. The vicious nature of the creature is reflected also in the generalized or extended meaning of the borrowing, referring to a person of a malignant and loathsome character, especially one who preys ruthlessly upon others, a vile and cruel blackmailer or extortioner.

Another, perhaps less known generalization of vampire, is connected with the practice of drinking blood supposedly performed by this being. The association this disagreeable act evokes is that of annoyance and harassment, which is to some extent parallel to the feelings we experience when we are bored, or being bored by someone else. Hence, a vampire is also an intolerable bore or a tedious person. Last but not least, the word is by extension applied also to miniature blood-sucking monsters, mosquitoes. Quotes: 1813 Byron Giaour Note 38: “The freshness of the face, and the wetness of the lip with blood, are the never-failing signs of a Vampire.” 1847 Mrs. A. Kerr tr. Ranke's Hist. Servia iv. 71: “Speedy death was the inevitable consequence of such a visitation, and any one who so died became himself a vampyre.” 1862 B. Taylor Home & Abroad III. ii. 215: “In the German language there is no epithet which exactly translates our word “bore”, or its intensification, “vampyre.” 1864 Geikie Life Woods iv. (1874) 58: “A sharp prick and the little vampire is drinking your blood.” 1899 F. T. Bullen Log of Sea-waif 164: “The vampires who supplied them with liquor had somehow obtained a claim upon all their wages.” 1968 Word Study Dec. 4/2: “A vampire is a woman who uses sex to facilitate the acquisition of money or other signs of wealth.” Generalization has proven to be a very frequent semantic change with Slavic borrowings, although it never reaches the degree of extension of thing or picture, as described in the opening remarks. An interesting common trait of some of the examples is that they express an underlying human trait which transfers itself from the original to the extended meaning. Others again denote certain prominent objects which are famous or important enough to become

associated with a wider array of other, in some way related objects. Judging from these two sets of examples, it seems that if the loan’s meaning is to be extended, the primary denotation, but even more so connotation of the word has to be something special, unique, strong or, quite the opposite, general enough, to earn such semantic change. Whether this applies to all words equally (native or loan - Slavic or other), is a matter worth examining, but is not the subject of our paper. Therefore, we shall leave this question open for others to resolve. In the next section an opposite process will be discussed, and we will also try to deduce a rationale, speculative as it may be, behind its occurrence with Slavic loanwords.

3.4.2 Narrowing or specialization With narrowing or specialization a lexeme becomes more specialized in meaning. In a bit longer definition: “When a word is equally applicable to a number of different objects which resemble each other in some respects, or to a vague or general category of ideas, it may at any moment become specialized by being used to name one of those objects or to express one of those ideas. And if this particular application gains currency in the language, a new and specialized sense is the result.” (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 248) English is full of such words. Affection meant “feeling” in Elizabethan English. Goods is literally “good things.” Myth is merely the Greek for “story.” Meat was once “food” of any kind. Deer was formerly any “animal.” (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 249) Let us now look at Slavic borrowings and their specialized senses in the English language. a) Our first example is the loan babushka, which originally meant “grandmother”. The word was adopted into English already with a narrowed meaning, denoting a head covering folded diagonally and tied under the chin, a kind of a “head-scarf”. This type of headwear must have been, and probably still is, worn by Russian peasant women, providing the association for the specialized use of the word. Quotes:

1938 Chatelaine Feb. 33/2: “The babushka is a peasant-sort of hood you wear over your pretty curls.” 1959 Encounter Oct. 32/2: “A voile scarf tied babushka-style.” b) A somewhat peculiar example is the communist borrowing commissar. In English the word already existed as another form of commissary, adapting. French commissaire, adapting medieval Latin commissari-us. The loan in its primary sense denotes one to whom a special duty or charge is committed by a superior power, one commissioned to act as representative, in other words, a deputy or delegate. Hence, we cannot say that the form of the word itself is of Slavic origin, but rather the specialized meaning borrowed from the communist Russia. In this sense the loan designates a representative appointed by a Soviet, a government, or the Communist party to be responsible for political indoctrination and organization, especially in military units; and also the head of a government department in the U.S.S.R. or any of its constituent republics (in full “People’s Commissar”). Quotes: 1681 Act Prot. Relig. Scotl. in Lond. Gaz. No. 1649/2: “All Sheriffs-Officers of the Mint, Commissars and their Deputs, their Clerks and Fiscals.” 1921 Chambers's Jrnl. 151/1: “The Bolsheviks retreated in a panic, killing their own commissars as they fled.” 1955 J. Carmichael tr. Sukhanov's Russ. Revol. i. iii. 62: “Braunstein proposed that directives be given - for district committees to be formed, and for plenipotentiary Commissars to be appointed in each district to restore order and direct the struggle against anarchy and pogroms.” c) The verb to liquidate11 comes from late Latin liquidat, and most frequently conveys the meaning of to settle or pay off a debt, claim etc., and to terminate the operations of a commercial firm, bankrupt estate, etc. The sense we are interested in comes from the Russian likvidírovat, and means to put an end to, abolish, to stamp out, wipe out, and ultimately to eliminate or kill. This special meaning emerged in the time of communist

regime, which ruthlessly did away with its enemies, true or imagined. The connection between the senses is self-evident, and has as its focal point the notions of conclusion and termination. Quotes: 1834 H. Martineau Moral iv. 135: “No effort should be spared to liquidate the National Debt.” 1883 Manch. Exam. 27 Nov. 4/7 : “It has been decided to liquidate the Exchange Bank.” 1971 Sunday Times 13 June 12/6: “When the army units fanned out in Dacca on the evening of March 25, many of them carried lists of people to be liquidated.” d) The next example of specialization belongs to the group of lexemes Klinar terms “author’s contributions” (Davis&Klinar 1996: 156). The borrowing droog, which originally meant “friend”, was brought into the language by Anthony Burgess, an English novelist and critic. He gave the word a completely new and specialized sense of a member of a gang, a young ruffian, or an accomplice or henchman of a gang-leader. The only association left between the basic and specialized sense is that of accompaniment and alliance, characteristic of friendship - like relations. Quotes: 1962 A. Burgess’ Clockwork Orange i. 1: “There was me, that is Alex, and my three droogs, that is Pete, Georgie, and Dim.” 1984 Times Lit. Suppl. 13 Apr. 402/2: “How long ago it seems since the New York Times referred to the spray-can droogs of the subways as “little Picassos.” e) Kasha was adopted from Russia in its original meaning of a gruel or porridge made from cooked buckwheat or other meals or cereals. The specialized meaning developed in English is associated with the colour of this dish, describing it as a beige colour resembling that of buckwheat groats. Quotes: 1958 Hayward & Harari tr. Pasternak's Dr. Zhivago ii. ix. 270: “I'll get Uncle Yury to stay to dinner and take the kasha out of the oven.”

1971 Guardian 19 Jan. 9/3: “Principal colours are navy, “Kasha” (a Russian buckwheat porridge beige), and “smoke”. f) Another example where the sense but not the form was adopted, is the compound fellowtraveler, used as a noun and also as a verb to fellow-travel. As we have already noted in the section on calques, the specialized meaning of fellow-traveller, which primarily means one who travels along with another, is one who sympathizes with the Communist movement without actually being a party member. In this example, the original sense of “companionship” in fellow-traveller is used to convey the communist “comradeship” of Trotsky’s original - poputchik. It is intriguing how this specialization of meaning is gaining ground at the expense of the original sense, and has even acquired its own generalized meaning in that it is being applied also to other political systems or convictions. Quotes: 1814 Wordsworth Excursion ii. 55: “ My Fellow Traveller said with earnest voice, As if the thought were but a moment old, That I must yield myself without reserve.” 1952 A. Wilson Hemlock & After 147: “Bernard, if not a fellow-traveller, was certainly the perfect material for Communist propaganda.” 1963 Observer 18 Aug. 20/8: “The Germans who fellow-travelled with Hitler in the 1930s were guilty of a gross dereliction of national duty.” g) An example from a Slavic language other than Russian is the Polish Polack, which basically denotes a native or inhabitant of Poland. It is in fact a less common term for a Pole. The word has two specialized meanings, the first being the designation for a Jew from Poland; and the second somewhat derogatory sense of a Polish immigrant or person of Polish descent, chiefly limited to North America in its use. Quotes: 1909 Cent. Dict. (Suppl.): “Polack, a name given to the Jews of the Polish provinces, by their Lithuanian co-religionists.” 1922 M. F. Liddell in Contemp. Rev. Dec. 770: “Danzig fears and hates the “Polacks” and still more the French.”

1952 F. L. Allen Big Change iii. 53: “They were scornfully known as Dagoes, Polacks, Hunkies, Kikes.” h) The borrowing calash is of undetermined Slavic origin, and also has more than one specialized meaning. The original meaning, with which all the specializations are connected, denotes a kind of light carriage with low wheels, having a removable folding hood or top; in Canada the vehicle with the same name has two wheels, is usually without a cover, and is equipped with a seat for the driver on the splashboard. The first specialization refers to the folding hood of such a carriage, and by extension also the hood of a bathing machine, perambulator, etc. The characteristic shape of such a hood resulted in the term being used also for a woman’s hood made of silk, supported with whalebone or cane hoops, and projecting beyond the face, this being the loan’s second specialized meaning. In the case of calash, the borrowing began to be applied to a part of the entire object, namely the hood, which in turn became the expression for a particular kind of headgear worn by women. In other words, the semantic development went in the direction of specialization acquiring its own specialized meaning. Quotes: 1849 Sir R. Wilson Life (1862) I. iii. 129: “Sleeping in the Calash.” 1852 Hawthorne Blithed. Rom. II. xii. 212: “Priscilla wore a calash, which she had flung back from her head, leaving it suspended by the strings.” 1856 A. Smith Mr. Ledbury I. xv. 117: “The calash of a bathing-machine.” i) Two special kinds of specialization, which are surprisingly frequent with Slavic loanwords, are eponymy and toponymy12. The former denotes a process in which personal names are used in the formation of new lexemes – the name is applied to a thing, because the person in question invented, discovered or introduced it, or because the inventor named it after himself. Everyday examples are Wellingtons, mackintosh, shrapnel, sandwich. (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 382)

The latter, however, refers to the derivation of new lexemes from place names – articles of commerce are often named after the place from which they come or are supposed to come: champagne, china, cashmere, magnet. (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 384) The first Slavic example of eponymy is already a familiar one. Cesarewitch is originally the title of heir to the imperial Russian throne of the prince who became Alexander II. In England the name came to be applied to a long-distance handicap horse-race run at Newmarket, instituted in 1839. Kalashnikov is the surname of the inventor of a rifle or sub-machine gun, known to generations of soldiers all over the world, which became identified under this name. Markov comes from the surname of Andrei Andreevich Markov (1856-1922), a Russian mathematician, who investigated stochastic processes for which the probabilities, at any one time, of the different future states depend only on the existing state and not on how that state was arrived at - Markov process. The term is used also attributively in the expressions Markov chain, a Markov process in which there are a finite or countably infinite number of possible states or in which transitions between states occur at discrete intervals of time, and also one for which in addition the transition probabilities are constant (independent of time); and Markov property, the characteristic property of Markov processes. The next term also comes from a surname. Marrism, from the name of Nikolai Yakovlevich Marr (1865-1934) a Russian linguist and archaeologist, denotes the linguistic theories advocated by this scientist, in which language is regarded as a phenomenon of social class rather than of nationality. A less scientific example comes from Australian chefs, who as a reflection of her popularity, used the name of the famous Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova (1885-1931), as the designation for a dessert or cake, now usually one made with meringue, whipped cream, and fruit – pavlova.

Puschkinia from the name of Apollos Mussin-Puschkin, Russian chemist and plant collector, is the name of a small spring-flowering bulbous plant of the genus so called, belonging to the family Liliacea, and bearing spikes of blue or white cup-shaped flowers. From Czech comes Strouhal (Czech scientist Cenek Strouhal, 1850-1922), which is used attributively in the phrase Strouhal number, denoting a dimensionless number used in the study of the vibrations produced in a body by a fluid flowing past it. Nipkow disc is a term originating from the name of its inventor Paul Nipkow (1860-1940), Polish electrical engineer, who invented the device in 1884. It denotes a scanning disc used in some early television transmitters and receivers. The last and most curious example of eponymy we shall analyse is the name (proprietary in the U.S.) for a type of acoustic guitar with steel resonating discs fitted inside the body under the bridge, popular for playing country and western music. Dobro, as the instrument is called, is an acronym from the name of its Czech-American inventors, the Do(pera) Bro(thers). The coincidence with Czech dobro (the) good, a good thing, may also help to explain the choice of this form. In this case, we could talk about partial eponymy, since the second part of the acronym is not a personal name at all. Eponymy quotes: 1856 “Stonehenge” Brit. Sports 373/1: “Cesarewitch Course – 2 miles, 2 furlongs, 28 yards.” 1973 Times 11 Apr. 1/8: “He ran to get his kalashnikov (a Russian assault weapon) but when he returned, the Israelis had burst through the door.” 1960 Kemeny & Snell Finite Markov Chains ii. 25: “A finite Markov chain is a finite Markov process such that the transition probabilities pij(n) do not depend on n.”

1966 B. Collinder in Birnbaum & Puhvel Anc. Indo-European Dial. 199: “Marrism, which was officially encouraged in Russia for political reasons, has raged as a kind of Asiatic flu in some European universities west of the Iron Curtain.” 1975 Times 16 Dec. 12/4: “A Pavlova, an Australian dessert – a meringue with cream, passion fruit, ice cream and strawberries.” 1974 H. G. W. Fogg Compl. Handbk. Bulbs vii. 122/2: “As long as they are not forced, puschkinias can be grown indoors like crocuses.” 1975 Offshore Engineer Dec. 42/3: “For an isolated stationary cylinder the Strouhal number is fairly constant for a wide range of Reynolds numbers.” 1962 G. A. T. Burdett Automatic Control Handbk. xxi. 6: “There are three types of scanning device in existence – the Nipkow disc, the flying-spot scanner and the pick-up tube.” 1984 Washington Post 24 Dec. B7/6: “The ornate surface of Ben Eldridge’s banjo and the brittle precision of John Duffey’s mandolin were answered by the warm and elastic dobro of Mike Auldridge.” The first Slavic example of toponymy is karakul, which is originally the name of a province and lake in Bokhara. The borrowing denotes a breed of sheep with coarse wiry fur, and also the glossy curled coat of a young karakul lamb, valued as fur. A similar example is astrakhan (from Astrakhan in Russia), which denotes the skin of stillborn or very young lambs, the wool of which resembles fur. The borrowing also refers to a kind of cloth used chiefly as an edging or trimming for garments. The next example is the proprietary name of a variety of Russian vodka. Stolichnaya literally means “of the capital”, metropolitan, so vodka that comes from the capital.

Many minerals carry the names of their discoverers, or of the places where they were discovered for the first time. Murmanite is a typical example, coming from Murman, name of a shore in the north of the Kola peninsula in Russia. A more familiar example is the famous dance mazurka, which owes its form to the Polish province Mazovia. A similar instance is the ceremonial marchlike dance called polonaise. It comes from the adjective “Polish”; however, not directly from this Slavic language, but via French as a direct adoption of polonaise. Toponymy quotes: 1957 V. Nabokov Pnin v. 134: “The warm rose-red silk lining of her karakul muff.” 1958 Hayward & Harari tr. Pasternak’s Dr. Zhivago i. vi. 183: “Her astrakhan cape hung open over the quaking layers of her double chin.” 1977 J. Wambaugh Black Marble (1978) i. 3: “He stealthily withdrew the bottle of Stolichnaya from the pocket of his raincoat.” 1968 I. Kostov Mineralogy ii. v. 298: “Murmanite and lomonosovite form a complete isomorphous series and are monoclinic like sphene and fersmanite.” 1842 Motley Corr. (1889) I. iv. 116: “He is at all the parties perpetually, and perpetually dancing the mazurka.” 1813 Lady Burghersh Lett. (1893) 93: “The ball began with polonaises, which are in fact only walking in time.” Specialization has, somewhat contrary to what we have expected, turned out to be quite a frequent semantic change with Slavic borrowings. Especially numerous are cases of

eponymy and toponymy, where in the field of mineralogy almost every borrowing is derived from a personal or place name. An interesting characteristic of a number of examples is the fact that the word itself already existed in English, so that it was only the specialized meaning that was imported into the language. With other instances the change occurred in the matrix language as a result of miscellaneous reasons, which can hardly point to a deducible pattern we could put forward as a universal motive for specialization. With this we conclude the discussion on semantic changes in a horizontal dimension, and proceed to modifications on a vertical scale.

3.4.3 Amelioration With amelioration a word develops a positive sense of approval. It may change from pejorative to neutral or positive. “The ascent, however, is not in obedience to any general tendency, but occurs in response to some peculiar cause” (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 295). Well - known examples are also quite amusing: Marshal once meant “horse-boy”, constable “stall-attendant”, chamberlain “the servant in charge of the chambers”, nice meant “foolish”, and pioneers were once the soldiers who cleared the way for an army, and did all the hard and unpleasant work. After scrutinizing the corpus for examples of amelioration with Slavic borrowings, we cannot offer a single word for consideration. The only instance that came somewhat close is the Slavic heyduck. The loan that originally meant “robber”, “bandit”, “brigand” (a sense still retained in Serbia and adjacent countries), in Hungary became the name of a special body of foot-soldiers (to whom the rank of nobility and a territory were given in 1605), and in Poland of the liveried personal followers or attendants of the nobles. It is interesting that all three meanings appear in English; i.e., from the most disagreeable (robber), to the neutral (servant), as is evident from the quotes: 1684 Scanderbeg Rediv. iv. 54: “First Marched five Companies of Heyduques.”

1847 Mrs. A. Kerr Hist. Servia 49: “Such as refused to appear before the Kadi, fled into the forests and turned Heyducs or robbers.” 1889 Athenćum 15 June 768/1: “One of that extinct species of servants, the heyducs, holds the horse of the fat monarch.” The amelioration of meaning in this case occurred already in the source languages, so that English simply adopted and used whatever sense it had the need to express, without any participation or interest in the semantic change on its own. As we have previously noted, amelioration does not happen as a result of a regular inclination for such a change, but rather as a consequence of some curious stroke of fate. In addition to that, a word must primarily and quite obviously have a negative connotation to be a suitable candidate for a subsequent rise in dignity and agreeableness. Nevertheless, we feel that in general a word should be present in a language for a substantial period of time in order to, through its extensive use, experience such “fortuitous” semantic alteration.

3.4.4

Pejoration or deterioration

With deterioration (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 284, talk about degeneration of meaning) a lexeme develops a negative sense of disapproval. The process is best described by Greenough & Kittredge in their work Words and Their Ways in English Speech (1961: 284): “Descent is easy, and words, like people, show a propensity to fall away from their better selves. The degeneration is sometimes due to special causes. Usually, however, the word takes its first step in the downward path when it is used in slight, perhaps jocose, disparagement. As time goes on, it gets into worse and worse odor, until at last it may become a term of extreme contempt or reprobation.” More or less familiar examples in the English language are villain, which originally signified “a farm-laborer”, lust, which originally meant simply “pleasure”, vile literally “cheap”, and fanatic, a Latin synonym for “enthusiastic”.

In the case of deterioration, the corpus of Slavic borrowings did offer a few examples. a) Polack originally refers to a native or inhabitant of Poland, a Pole. In North America the term acquired negative connotation denoting a Polish immigrant or person of Polish descent, used derogatorily by the ethnic majority (Anglo-Saxon origin), but also by other ethnic minorities in the USA and Canada. Quotes: 1895 Funk's Stand. Dict.: “Polack, same as Pole.” 1976 National Observer (U.S.) 26 June 1/3: “The Crusher’s a clean-living Polack from Milwaukee who don’t truck with no drugs or bad women.” b) Anthony Burgess’s droog, a borrowing denoting a member of a gang, a young ruffian, or an accomplice or henchman of a gang-leader, is a case of significant deterioration of meaning. In Russian the word means simply “friend”, which is, by most standards, a positive, warm feelings provoking meaning. The author’s motives for such a use of the word must have been quite interesting, and perhaps politically motivated. Quotes: 1972 Telegraph (Brisbane) 6 May 7/2: “A world where youth gangs – the teddy boys of yesterday and the “droogs” of tomorrow – have virtually taken over, sweeping all forms of law and order aside.” c) Tsar basically denotes the title of an autocrat or emperor of Russia. For most people this represents a neutral use of the word, although it may produce a special personal connotation to a native Russian, or a Russian expatriate. The deteriorated meaning originates from the United States, and refers to a person having great authority or absolute power – a tyrant, “boss”. Quotes: 1810 E. D. Clarke Trav. Russia, etc. (1839) 29/1: “The connection which subsisted between the tsars of Muscovy and the emperors of Constantinople.” 1959 Listener 5 Nov. 784/1: “The Czar – as we say – or President of the Motion Picture Producers’ Association.”

d) The next example, of miscellaneous origin, is the notorious horde. Originally the term refers to a tribe or troop of Tartar or kindred Asiatic nomads, dwelling in tents or wagons, and migrating from place to place for pasturage, or for war or plunder, and is as such applied also to other nomadic tribes. In anthropology the loan, quite positively, denotes a loosely-knit social group consisting of about five families. The degeneration of meaning focuses on the war – or – plunder part of the basic sense, hence referring to a great company, especially of the savage, uncivilized, or uncultivated – a gang, troop, crew. Quotes: 1799 W. Tooke View Russian Emp. II. 78: “The Kirghises have always been divided into three hordes, the great, the middle and the little hordes.” 1847 Disraeli Tancred vi. iv: “I am sprung from a horde of Baltic pirates.” 1883 19th Cent. May 901: “In all our large cities there are hordes of little ragged urchins who live on the streets.” 1939 Geogr. Jrnl. XCIV. 89: “Davidson points out that the horde, a unit of about five families, in all some thirty-five persons, was the largest political unit known to the Australians.” e) Our last case comprises three words which all suffered a similar turn for the worse. Hussar, pandoor and uhlan primarily denote special army units, without any special connotation added. In the time of their active participation in warfare, the however, bad reputation of these warriors was immense. Particularly pandoors, who were known for their rapacity and brutality, and Black or Death Hussars, who in the war with France reportedly showed no mercy, ultimately contributed to the ill-fame nowadays associated with these, admittedly, more and more obscure loans. Hence, a person who is referred to as an uhlan, pandoor or hussar, is bestowed upon all the worst characteristics of a soldier, but also courage and awe, which accompany such men. Quotes:

1768 Foote Devil on 2 Sticks 11: “The hussars and pandours of physic, rarely attack a patient together.” 1799 Campbell Pleas. Hope i. 352: “When leagued Oppression pour'd to Northern wars Her whisker’d pandoors and her fierce hussars.” 1800 A. Carlyle Autobiog. 432: “He was a mere hussar, who had no steady views to direct him.” 1816 Scott Let. to Jas. Ballantyne ibid.: “I belong to the Black Hussars of Literature, who neither give nor receive criticism.” 1851 Gallenga Italy 471: “Squadrons of hussars and Hulans were scouring the plain in every direction.” 1851 Gallenga Italy 131: “Three squadrons of hulans and four companies of Croatians.” 1886 Pall Mall G. 6 March 5/2: “Those uhlans of commerce who have lately been so urgently calling for the establishment of railway communication with China through Burmah. “ Contrary to amelioration, deterioration of meaning revealed itself as being relatively frequent with Slavic loanwords in English. War, power and nationality are sensitive issues, where a slight change in human relations may cause dramatic changes in all areas. Words in such circumstances act as symbols and may provoke strong emotions when uttered at a wrong or, for that matter, right place. Deterioration of meaning is thus far easier to create than is the case with the reverse process. In other words, old “resentments” die hard.

3.4.5

Summary

The semantic analysis of the corpus has shown us that not all Slavic borrowings, after they have been borrowed into English, remain semantically unchanged, but that they acquire new, often quite different meanings. Their “evolution” is frequently manifold in nature, i.e.

not limited to one kind of semantic change only. For example, tsar experienced both generalization and deterioration, whereas have hinted at in the previous section. In short, Slavic loans in English behave, in terms of meaning, just as other words, provided they are given a proper stimulus or enough time. Therefore, the complete naturalization of some of them is perhaps not so remote after all, as robot clearly exemplifies. droog underwent specialization and deterioration. Amelioration is virtually non-existent with Slavic borrowings, for reasons we

4. THE STATUS OF SLOVENE IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
When we began our work on this thesis, our expectations about the Slovene contribution in the English language were at least optimistic if not idealistic. We hoped to discover some new words, in addition to those Mr. Klinar had mentioned in his classes on English wordformation (dolina, polje, uvala, ponor, karst). However, disappointment struck hard, and illusions vanished in thin air. Moreover, even Klinar’s words fell out of the game, once OED flashed on the screen: Dolina is supposed to be an adaptation of Russian dolína. Polje comes from Serbo-Croat polje. Uvala is again an adoption from Serbo-Croat uvala, as is ponor from ponor. And Karst came into English from German der Karst, which is again only an adaptation of the Serbo-Croat Kras. Once this was established we stopped looking at individual words and ran an etymological search in the OED. We discovered that Slovene does exist in etymological definitions, and were delighted to see the results of the query. And this is what came up: bread, cat, church, gherkin and knez. With each of these words, however, Slovene appeared only as a small fragment in a lengthy etymological discussion, and by no means as the only source of the lexeme. Closest to this came knez, with the following etymology: [A Slavonic word:

Serbian, Slov. knez, Boh. knez, Sorbian knjez, Russ. knjaz:---Old Slav. kunenz, prehistoric a. OTeut. *kuning- king. From Slov., also Romanian knęz, Alban. knez, Magyar kenez.] . After that we decided to look at the word Slovene. Again we discovered that the English are more than partial to adopting words via German: [a. G. Slovene (Slowene), pl. Slovenen, ad. Styrian, etc. Slovenec, pl. Slovenci; the name is a survival of the old native designation of the Slavs, which appears in OSlav. as Slovene, and is supposed to be derived from the stem of slovo word, sloviti to speak.] When all hope was already gone of finding at least one borrowing of purely Slovene origin, the word vila appeared as if from nowhere. The origin of the word is according to the OED [Serbo-Croat and Slovenian]. What this actually means is not entirely clear to us. It could suggest either that the word was adopted from one or the other or that the origin is uncertain – Serbo-Croat or Slovene. Be that as it may, vila is the only word listed in the OED that their etymologists define as undoubtedly coming from Slovene. In the end, little remains to be said, now that we have described our “Odyssey” of search for Slovene borrowings in the English language. We may either agree or disagree with the etymologists, but that ultimately does not change their ruling. Is this status of Slovene in English the result of ignorance of these scientists? Probably not, since they are all more than qualified for their job. Is it the result of a mistake? Not likely, and certainly not with the OED. In our opinion, Slovene, or perhaps better, Slovenia is simply not influential enough to be given any linguistic credit for words that are, at least to our mind, undeniably ours. Therefore, the only thing we can “accuse” the English of, is bias.

5. CONCLUSION
The corpus has shown that Slavic words are present in the English lexicon in a number that can hardly be described as insignificant, with the most prolific source amongst Slavic languages being undoubtedly Russian. Analysing the body of examples in terms of three-fold division into simple and adapted loans and loan translations, has produced anticipated results in terms of their frequency, whereby they follow each other from the most to the lest frequent in the same order as they are discussed. The subsequent examination of various degrees of naturalization of Slavic borrowings, described by Murray as casual, alien, denizen and natural, has proven invaluable to our thesis. Its results are less interesting from a statistical perspective, but far more so for their underlying message, which demonstrates how words once they are borrowed, do not remain unchanged but start a life of their own in their new linguistic environment, which provides fresh stimuli for their existence. Next, our attention turned towards semantics. We analysed semantic changes as they occur with Slavonic loanwords, focusing on generalization, specialization, amelioration and degeneration of meaning. This turned out to be the most compelling part of our work,

providing results that ultimately substantiate the summarising thought from the previous paragraph. Last but not least, we tried to find some answers as to why Slovene does not feature more prominently in the English lexicon. We concluded that our native tongue is probably not influential enough, to make the “giant” step in the direction of English dictionaries. To conclude, we would like to point out that we are aware that the corpus, and by extension its analysis, is not up to date. The reason for that lies in the fact that it is based on the OED, i.e. its second edition from 1992, and for a small part on Fifty Years Among the New Words, by John Algeo, from 1991. This means eight years of more or less blank space. We have tried to find some neologisms of Slavic origin in corresponding dictionaries, but without any luck. We have also probed the internet, but it turned out to be like looking for a needle in a haystack. All that, of course, does not mean there are not any new Slavic words in English already in use in everyday speech. So, as not to sound too apologetic, we are nevertheless convinced that this thesis represents a comprehensive survey of Slavic borrowings in the English language for the most part of its linguistic history.

6. NOTES
1 – Among the enumerated entries are also some that were imported into English via translations of works by non-English authors, for example from Travels in the Caucasus by the German orientalist and explorer Heinrich Julius Klaproth, or Journey Through Various Provinces of the Russian Empire by the German naturalist Peter Simon Pallas. 2 – In literature both terms are used interchangeably and inconsistently. Hence, this thesis employs the same policy. 3 – A former mixture of Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian also features in the corpus since it is also used in the OED. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, Serbian and Croatian are

dialects of the common Serbo-Croatian However, from the point of view of the present linguistic situation resulting from the war in the former republic of Yugoslavia, this view and subsequent terminology is obsolete and incorrect, since both nations regard their languages as unique and completely different from each other. In addition, the Croats have in recent years put a great deal of effort into separating their own language from that of the Serbs. Note the following words: zrakomlat vs. helikopter, pučanstvo vs. stanovništvo, zaleđe vs. ofsajd , bojovnik vs. Major, etc. 4 – To use “forever” would not be appropriate in connection with language. 5 – This is only partially correct. For glasnost “is recorded in dictionaries from the eighteenth century, but in the more general sense of publicity. It was used in the context of freedom of information in the Soviet State by V. I. Lenin, and called for in an open letter to the Soviet Writers' Union by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn in 1969, but did not become a subject of serious public debate in the Soviet Union until an Izvestiya editorial requested letters on the subject on 19 Jan. 1985. Its use by Mikhail Gorbachev on 11 Mar. 1985 in a speech accepting the post of General Secretary of the CPSU has subsequently led to its being associated particularly with his policies.” (OED) 6 – For a more detailed discussion on extension or generalization, see the chapter on the changes of meaning. 7 – Of course not all candidates could meet this requirement, as the examples of Agit-prop and Cesarewitch show. For those, other criteria came into consideration (meaning, form). 8 – The term “primary meaning” will in the discussion be replaced by the term “basic meaning” or “original meaning”, so as to avoid any misunderstanding. 9 – Perestroika and glasnost have already been discussed in the section on Slavic aliens. In order to avoid repetition we shall not examine them again in the present section. 10 – The etymology of the word shows that hussar is not exclusively of Slavic origin. We have nevertheless included it in the corpus, for its Serbian roots: a. Hungarian huszar, orig.

“freebooter, free-lance”, later “light horseman”, ad. OServian husar, also gusar, hursar, gursar, kursar pirate, robber, freebooter, ad. It. corsaro, corsare (OED on CD–ROM; 1992) 11 − The first three examples of babushka, commissar and liquidate are different from the rest of the set in that the specialised meanings were adopted into English already from the primary language and did not develop in the borrowing language. They are included in the discussion as an illustration of the semantic process itself. 12 – The term primarily denotes a special branch of onomastics which deals specifically with the origin of place names.

7. REFERENCES
Books Algeo, J. 1991. Fifty Years Among the New Words; A Dictionary of Neologisms, 1941– 1991. Cambridge: CUP. Baugh & Cable. 1993. A History of the English Language. London: Routledge. Berg, D. 1993. A Guide to the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: OUP. Bright, W. eds. 1992. International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Oxford: OUP. Crystal, D. 1995. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge: CUP. Davis, M. & Klinar,S. 1996. English Word-Formation; Part One. Ljubljana: Filozofska fakulteta Univerze v Ljubljani.

Greenough, J.& Kittredge, G. 1961. Words and Their Ways in English Speech. New York: The Macmillan Company. Malkiel, Y. 1993. Etymology. Cambridge: CUP. ---The Oxford English Dictionary; Volume 1 A–Bazouki; Introduction and General

Explanations. 1989. Oxford: OUP. ---- Webster’s Word Histories. 1989. Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam–Webster. Electronic sources ---------Encyclopedia Britannica on CD–ROM. 1995 and 1999 Editions. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia–World English Edition. 1996 Edition. Oxford English Dictionary on CD–ROM; 2nd edition. 1992. Oxford: OUP.

Sinclair, J. eds. 1992. The Collins Electronic English Dictionary & Thesaurus. Glasgow and London: HarperCollins Publishers. ---www.geocities.com/bohemianbeertours/czech_beers.htm

8. APPENDIX

8.1. CORPUS

8.1.1 Introductory remarks In the corpus the languages follow one another, with the exception of Russian, in alphabetical order. Russian as the most prolific source, is placed at the beginning in order to stress its prominence. The corpus is based on an etymological search run in the OED, and in part on the Collins Cobuild Electronic Dictionary and Fifty Years Among the New Words by John Algeo. The borrowings are listed alphabetically for each language. Each entry is equipped with etymology, explanation, and one or more quotes if they are available. The pronunciation has been abandoned partly for technical reasons, and partly because it does not feature importantly in our discussion. The reader is advised to refer to one of the following books if he/she shows specific interest in this area:

a) Roach & Hartman. 1997. English Pronuncing Dictionary. Cambridge: CUP.

b) Wells, J.C.1992. Pronunciation Dictionary. Harlow: Longman.

8.1.2 Russian
1. achtaragdite Min. [f. Achtaragda a Russian river + -ite min. formative.] An earthy hydrous aluminous silicate, considered by Dana a doubtful species, and placed in his appendix to clays. 2. Acmeism [ad. Russ. akmeizm, f. Gr. ____ acme: see -ism.] An early twentieth-century movement in Russian poetry which rejected the values of Symbolism in favour of formal technique and clarity of exposition; the poetic theory represented by this movement. e.g. 1961 H. Muchnic From Gorky to Pasternak 10 This individualist attitude, variously manifested, not only in Symbolism itself but in its several offshoots---Acmeism, Futurism, Formalism, as well as in the entirely personal nightmares of such writers as Leonid Andreyev---was to clash most sharply with the dogma of Soviet art. Also Acmeist, a member or admirer of the Acmeist movement in poetry (usu. in pl.); also attrib. or as adj. 3. Aesopic a. Also (now U.S.) Esopic. spec. In relation to Russian and (Soviet) Communist literature [Russ. ezopovski, first so used by M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin, Unfinished Conversations (1875) iv.; cf. Lenin Party Organization & Party Lit. in Novaya Zhizn (1905) 13 Nov.]: using a style or language that has hidden or ambiguous meaning, esp. as a device to disguise dissident political writing in allegorical form and so avoid official censorship. Cf. Aesopian a. 2. e.g. 1977 R. Hingley Russ. Writers & Society in Nineteenth Cent. iv. xvii. 165 Despite all obstacles writers still found means of communicating. One technique was indirect allusion in Aesopic language. 4. Agit-prop, agit-prop [f. Russ. agitpróp, f. agit(átsiya agitation + prop(agánda propaganda.] A department of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party responsible, with its local branches, for _agitation and propaganda' on behalf of Communism; its activities. Also, a person engaged in agitprop. Also transf. e.g. 1952 Economist 1 Mar. 508/2 Any businessman who goes to Moscow in the belief that he will be able to strike an effective blow for anything he believes in and the Communists do not is simply inviting the Agitpro' experts to make a monkey of him.

1959 Spectator 6 Nov. 629/2 The whole tone [of the play] is ten times heavier and cornier than any of the agitprop from the old Unity Theatre. 5. agrogorod Pl. -a. [Russ., f. agro- as in agronomic a. + górod town.] A group of amalgamated collective farms (kolkhozes) forming an administrative unit; a rural city. Also, by partial translation, agro-city, -town. e.g. 1951 Soviet Stud. Oct. III. 158 Under the leadership of the Politburo member Nikita Khrushchev, a campaign was begun for a great enlargement of the individual kolkhozy by _voluntary' mergers, by corresponding consolidation of villages into what were proudly called “agro-cities”. 1959 E. Crankshaw Khrushchev's Russia 83 He [sc. Khrushchev] had had his wild ideas, like the premature scheme for agrogoroda; but he had had his good schemes too.

6. apparat [Russ., a. Ger. apparat apparatus, instrument, f. L. apparatus apparatus.] The party machine of the Communist party in Russia, etc. Also attrib. e.g. 1950 A. Koestler God that Failed i. i. 46, I found Communist apparat-work much less efficient than its scared opponents presume. 1952 ---- Arrow in Blue xxviii. 262 This is true not only of members of the Apparat but of militant Communists in general. 7. apparatchik Pl. apparatchiki, apparatchiks. [Russ.] 1. A member of the apparat; also, a Communist agent or spy. e.g. 1963 Camb. Rev. 16 Feb. 277/1 The party bureaucrat, or apparatchik, is distinguished from the ordinary party member by his professional attachment to the party, for as a rule he devotes himself exclusively to party activity. 2. transf. A member of a political party in any country, who is responsible for the execution of policy; a functionary of a public or private organization (in quot. 1969 used attrib. of machinery). e.g. 1985 Sunday Times 27 Jan. 38/5 The radio programmes were put together in the privacy of his own computer-equipped studio at home, away from the controlling influence of BBC apparatchiks. 8. arsheen Also arshine, archine. [Russ.] A measure of length used in Russia and Turkey. e.g. 1783 Martyn Geog. Mag. II. 40 The arshine or Russian ell, equal to twenty-eight and one-tenth inches English. 9. artel [Russ. artél'.] In Russia, an association of craftsmen or other workers for work in common. Also attrib. in artelman [partial tr. of Russ. artél'shchik]. e.g. 1955 H. Hodgkinson Doubletalk 27 A brigade, or artel, chosen without regard for family connections, undertake particular functions---ploughing, reaping, processing, milking, etc.---as and where required. 10. astatki [ad. Russ. ostátki (pronounced a_statki_), pl. of ostátok remainder.] The waste product of the distillation of Russian petroleum atomized with steam and made combustible for use as fuel. Also attrib. e.g. 1885 Jrnl. Soc. Chem. Ind. IV. 78/1 Petroleum residuum or astatki is the only fuel employed in distilling petroleum at Baku. 11. astrakhan a. The skin of still-born or very young lambs from Astrakhan in Russia, the wool of which resembles fur. b. A kind of cloth used chiefly as an edging or trimming for garments.

e.g. 1965 Which? Mar. 96/2 Most astrakhan cloth is imitation fur, usually made from wool and mohair. For coats, hats, trimmings. 12. astrobotany [ad. Russ. astrobotanika (Tikhov 1945)], the study of plant organisms on the celestial bodies; hence astro-botanist; e.g. 1952 Sci. News Let. 5 Jan. 2 There is much attention [in the Soviet Union] to what is called *astrobotany. 1956 Newsweek 22 Oct. 26/2 Gabriel Tikhov, Soviet astrobotanist, reports confirmation of his theory that higher forms of vegetation, similar to trees, exist on Mars. 13. babushka Chiefly N. Amer. [Russ., grandmother, f. baba (peasant) woman.] A head covering folded diagonally and tied under the chin; a head-scarf. e.g. 1938 Chatelaine Feb. 33/2 The babushka is a peasant-sort of hood you wear over your pretty curls. 1948 F. Brown Murder can be Fun (1951) vii. 106 She wore a greenish mottled babushka and stringy hair pushed out in front of it. 1959 Encounter Oct. 32/2 A voile scarf tied babushka-style. 14. badiaga [Russ. ba_dyaga _river-sponge.'] A species of alga, the powder of which is used to take away the livid marks of bruises. e.g. 1753 in Chambers Cycl. Supp. 1853 in Mayne Exp. Lex. 15. balalaika [Russ.] A musical instrument of the guitar kind, with a triangular body, popular in Russia and other Slav countries. Also attrib. e.g. 1954 Grove's Dict. Mus. (ed. 5) I. 368/2 Balalaika bands have frequently visited Western Europe. 16. barometz [App. an erroneous adaptation of Russ. baranets (dimin. of baran ram') applied to species of Clubmoss, Lycopodium.] A spurious natural-history specimen, consisting of the creeping root-stock and frond-stalks of a woolly fern (Cibotium barometz) turned upside down; formerly represented as a creature half-animal and half-plant, and called the Scythian Lamb (already referred to by Maundevile, ch. xxvi. p. 264). e.g. 1791 E. Darwin Bot. Gard. i. 279 Waves, gentle Barometz, thy golden hair. 17. bashlik Also bashluik, beshlik, etc. [ad. Russ. bashlýk.] A kind of hood with long side-pieces worn by Russians in inclement weather as a protective covering for the head. Also transf., a light covering for the head, worn by women in the U.S. (Cent. Dict.). e.g. 1904 Daily Chron. 28 Mar. 3/1 The bashluik, or hood, worn to protect the ears. 18. beluga Also bellougina. [In sense 1, a. Russ. be_luga; in sense 2, a. Russ. be_lu_a; both f. belo-, white + -uga, -u_a, augmentative formatives. Fletcher's word is evidently the Russ. deriv. bię_luzhina flesh of the beluga.] 1. A species of fish: the Great or Hausen Sturgeon (Acipenser huso), found in the Caspian and Black Seas, and their tributary rivers. e.g. 1869 Nicholson Zool. (1880) 493 The various species of sturgeon attain a great size, one---the Beluga--often measuring 12 or 15 feet in length. 2. The white Whale (Delphinapterus leucas), an animal of the Dolphin family, found in herds in the Northern Seas, and in the estuaries of rivers. e.g. 1817 in Burrowes Cycl. 1847 Carpenter Zool. _211 The Beluga or White Whale_rarely visits our own coasts.

19. bidarka Also baidarka, baidarke, bidarkee. [ad. Russ. ba_dárka, pl. -ki, dim. of ba_dára an oomiak.] In Alaska and adjacent regions, a portable canoe for one or more persons; a kayak. e.g. 1898 Century Mag. LV. 672 Their kayaks and bidarkees. 1967 J. C. Beaglehole in Cook's Jrnls. (1967) III. i. 412 The small baidarka [was] the same as the Eskimo kayak.

20. biogeochemistry [f. geochemistry, after Russ. biogeokhimiya], the branch of biochemistry that deals with the relation of chemicals found in the soil to living organisms; the biological application of geochemistry; hence biogeochemical a.; e.g. 1938 tr. Vernadsky's On some Fundamental Probl. Biogeochem. 5 Biogeochemistry, which is a part of geochemistry and has peculiar methods and peculiar problems of its own, may be finally reduced to a precise quantitative mathematical expression of the living nature in its indissoluble connection with the external medium, in which the living nature exists. 21. biomechanics. Russ. Theatre. [cf. Russ. biomekhanika.] Also biomechanism. (See quots.) e.g. 1930 P. England tr. Fülöp-Miller & Gregor's Russ. Theatre 68 The classical example of bio-mechanism is the comedy The Magnificent Cuckold. In this the movements of the performers were so standardized that they seemed to obey some geometric law._ Large revolving wheels were also employed, in order to register the various emotions that prevailed from time to time in the breasts of the actors. 22. blin, n. Pl. blini, bliny, blinis. [Russ., pancake.] (See quots.) e.g. 1945 E. Waugh Brideshead Revisited i. vi. 152 The maitre d'hotel was turning the blinis over in the pan. 23. blintze, and variants. [Yiddish blintse, f. Russ. blinets, dim. of blin.] = blin. e.g. 1961 Woman 21 Jan. 16/3 Blintzes are cheese-filled pancakes served with jam. 24. Bogomil, -mile Hist. [ad. med.Gr. of disputed origin; the first syllable may represent Russ. Bog God.] A member of a heretical Bulgarian sect which arose in the 10th or 11th century, whose main tenet was that God the Father had two sons, Satan and Christ. Hence Bogo_milian a. and n., _Bogomilism, _Bogomilist. e.g. 1939 A. J. Toynbee Stud. Hist. IV. iii. 633 The Bogomil Church is a monument of the successful execution of this project. 1941 _R. West' Black Lamb & Grey Falcon I. 172 The Puritan heresy known as Paulicianism or Patarenism or Bogomilism or Catharism. 25. Bolshevik n. and a. Also rarely -ic. [a. Russ. bol_shevík, f. ból_she more, f. bol_shó_ big. The Russ. pl. bol_shevikí has been used by some English writers.] A. n. A member of that part of the Russian Social-Democratic Party which took Lenin's side in the split that followed the second Congress of the party in 1903, seized power in the _October' Revolution of 1917, and was subsequently renamed the (Russian) Communist Party. e.g. 1917 19th Cent. July 141 The Mensheviki or Minimalists (Moderate Socialists)._ The Bolsheviki (Extreme Socialists). b. transf. and fig. A person of subversive or revolutionary views; an out-and-out opponent of the existing social order or accepted codes.

e.g. 1926 W. R. Inge Lay Thoughts 29 The cliques of literary Bolsheviks, who seem to be inspired by a destructive hatred_of civilisation. B. adj. = Bolshevist a. e.g. 1919 J. Pollock Bolshevik Adv. p. xx, The part played by the Jews in Bolshevik Russia. Bolshevikism = Bolshevism; Bolshevikize v. = Bolshevize v. 1918 Nation (N.Y.) 7 Feb. 135/1 What Germany is resolved upon is that these lands shall not be Bolshevikized economically. 1919 H. S. King Russia during War 49 The rising tide of Bolshevikism. 26. Bolshevism [a. Russ. bolshevízm: see Bolshevik.] The doctrines and practices of the Bolsheviks; the communistic form of government adopted in Russia since the Bolshevik Revolution of October (November), 1917. e.g. 1917 New Europe 8 Nov. 112 The good sense of Russian democracy threw off the yoke of Bolsevism. 1926 D. H. Lawrence Plumed Serpent ii. 47 Bolshevism only smashed your house or your business or your skull, but Americanism smashes your soul. _Bolshevy [after Muscovy], the land of Bolshevism; Russia under the rule of the Bolsheviks. e.g. 1920 Chambers's Jrnl. 514/1 Life in Bolshevisia---such as it was in July 1918. 1921 Times Lit. Suppl. 18 Mar., Bolshevy from within. 27. Bolshevist [a. Russ. bol_shevíst (now disused) Bolshevik.] A Bolshevik; a supporter of Bolshevism. Also transf., esp. as a term of reproach for an out-and-out revolutionary. Also attrib. or as adj. e.g. 1917 19th Cent. Dec. 1106 The reign of Bolshevists and Terrorists. 1940 Tablet 4 May 417/1 Under the Bolshevist-Nazi dictatorship, two hundred million human beings are forced to live deprived of the foundations on which Western civilization was built. Hence Bolshevistic a., of, pertaining to, or characteristic of, the Bolshevists; Bolshevistically adv. e.g. 1920 Punch 13 Oct. 282/1 In these Bolshevistic days I should have preferred of course to have started off with _Comrade' or _Brother'. 28. borsch Also borscht, borshch, bortsch. [Russ. borshch.] A Russian soup of several ingredients, esp. beetroot and cabbage. e.g. 1963 V. Nabokov Gift iii. 153 She was slowly mixing a white exclamation mark of sour cream into her borshch. 29. borzoi Also 9 barzoi. [a. Russ. borzó_, a male dog of the breed called borzáya, f. bórzy_ swift.] A breed of dog, also called the Russian or Siberian wolf-hound. e.g. 1945 C. L. B. Hubbard Observer's Bk. Dogs 30 The Borzoi arrived in England about 1875. 30. boyar, boyard Forms: boiaren, bojar, boyaren, boyar, boyard. [a. Russ. boyárin, pl. boyáre _grandee, lord':---earlier bolyárin, prob. f. OSlav. root bol- great; but Miklosich would connect it with Turkish boj stature, boijlu high; Dahl, and others, with Russ. boi _war', which may have influenced the later form. The word occurs in Byzantine Greek; Bulg. bolerin, Serb. bolyar, Roman. boiér.] A member of a peculiar order of the old Russian aristocracy, next in rank to a knyaz or prince, who enjoyed many exclusive privileges, and held all the highest military and civil offices: the order was abolished by Peter the Great, and the word is in Russia only a historical term, though still often erroneously applied by English newspaper writers to Russian landed proprietors. In Romania the boiér still existed (- 1887) as a privileged class. (The Eng. boyar appears to have been taken from the plural; boyard is an erroneous French spelling.) e.g. 1879 R. S. Edwards Russ. at Home I. 202 The rich _boyars' (as foreigners persist in styling the Russian proprietors of the present day). Hence

boyardism. 1848 Tait's Mag. XV. 482 Boyardism stands a good chance of being vanquished by democracy [in Roumania]. 31. Bukharinism [f. the name of N. I. Bukharin (1888_1938), a Russian leader and editor + -ism.] The political principles of Bukharin. So Bu_kharinist a. and n. e.g. 1949 I. Deutscher Stalin ix. 384 Conspiratorial activities of the Trotskyist and Bukharinist leaders. Ibid. xi. 486 The evils of Trotskyism, Bukharinism, and other deviations. 32. buran [a. Russ. burán, ad. Turki boran.] In the steppes, a snowstorm, esp. one accompanied by high winds; a blizzard. e.g. 1936 P. Fleming News from Tartary vi. xi. 305 When we went on the evening sky was overcast and presently the buran hit us. 33. burka n. Also burkha, boorka, burqa. [Russ.] A long Caucasian cloak of felt or goat's hair. e.g. 1927 Ibid. Sept. 299/1 Broad-built men, like giants in their hairy boorkas and astrakhan caps. 34. bylina Pl. byliny, bylinas. [Russ.] A Russian traditional heroic poem. e.g. 1932 N. K. Chadwick Russ. Heroic Poetry 2 Even in the province of Olonets on Lake Onega, the district in which the great majority of the byliny have been collected, the practice of singing byliny has for long been restricted to a limited area. 35. caback [Russ. ka_bak, dram-shop.] A Russian dram-shop or pot-house. e.g. 1591 G. Fletcher Russe Commw. (1836) 58 In every great towne of his realme he hath a caback or drinking house, where is sold_mead, beere, etc. 1678 in Phillips. 36. Cadet (second meaning) Also Kadet. [Russ. Kadét, f. the names (Ka de) of the initials of Konstitutsiónny_ demokrát Constitutional Democrat, with ending assimilated to that of cadet1.] In Russian politics, a member of the Constitutional Democratic Party. This party was formed in 1905 by a fusion of the group favouring autonomy for Poland and a federal constitution for the Russian empire with the (so-called) Independence Party formed by political exiles at Paris in 1903. e.g. 1958 Times Lit. Suppl. 10 Jan. 14/3 The Kadets must properly be described as radicals. Ibid. 17 Jan. 31/4 The Cadets advanced the claim_to a sovereign and democratically elected legislature. 37. cancrinite Min. [Named after Cancrin, a Russian statesman: see -ite.] A massive mineral found at Minsk in the Urals, a silico-carbonate of aluminium and sodium. e.g. 1879 Rutley Stud. Rocks x. 108 Cancrinite is probably an altered condition of nepheline. 38. cantonist. [ad. Russ. kanto_nist, from Fr.] The child of a (Russian) soldier in cantonment. 1854 Fraser's Mag. L. 481 The so-called military cantonists supply a yearly contingent of recruits, of which it is impossible to estimate the amount. 39. carlock [a. Russ. karlúk isinglass; in F. also carlock.] Isinglass from the bladder of the sturgeon, imported from Russia.

1768 in E. Buys Dict. Terms of Art. 1819 in Pantologia; and in mod. Dicts. 40. Cesarewitch [ad. Russ. tsesarévich, title as heir to the imperial Russian throne of the prince who became Alexander II.] A long-distance handicap horse-race run at Newmarket, instituted in 1839. 1839 Sporting Mag. 2nd. Ser. XIX. 263 Newmarket.-His Imperial Highness the Grand Duke of Russia having presented the Jockey Club with the sum of 300, to be run for annually, the first race for it will take place in the Second October Meeting, and is thus officially announced: The Cesarewitch Stakes-a free Handicap Sweepstakes.' 41. chark [Russ. charka, dim. of chara glass, noggin.] A small (Russian) glass or cup. 1591 G. Fletcher Russe Commw. (1857) 146 They beginne commonly with a chark, or small cuppe, of aqua vitae. 1686 Diary P. Gordon 26 Jan. (Spalding Club 1859) Receiving a charke of brandy out of the youngest his hand. 42. Chechen Also Tchechene, etc. [a. Russ. chechén (now chechénets), pl. _chechény (now chechéntsy).] a. (One of) a North Caucasian people, forming the major part of the population of the Russian Autonomous Republic of Checheno-Ingushetia. b. The North Caucasic language of this people. e.g. 1957 R. N. C. Hunt Guide to Communist Jargon xxi. 77 The false impression that the Caucasian peoples_were hostile to Russia, whereas this had been true only of the Ingush and the Chechens. 43. Cheka Also Chay-ka, Tcheka. [a. Russ. cheká, f. the names (che, ka) of the initials of Chrezvychá_naya Komíssiya, Extraordinary Commission (for combating Counter-revolution, Sabotage, and Speculation).] An organization set up in 1917 under the Soviet régime in Russia for the investigation of counterrevolutionary activities (superseded in 1922 by the G.P.U. or Ogpu). Also transf. Hence Chekist [a. Russ. chekíst], n. and a. e.g. 1934 C. Lambert Music Ho! ii. 77 The most lynx-eared of the fashionable cheka who are the selfappointed arbiters of vogue. 1938 Times 1 Jan. 11/5 A wide application of Chekist methods. 1953 J. Cary Except the Lord 216 Autocracy with a sword is followed by democracy with a cheka. 44. Cheremis(s Also Tcheremiss. [Russ.] (One of) a Finnish people living in the region of the middle Volga. Also, the Finno-Ugric language of this people. Also attrib. Hence Cheremissian a. and n. e.g. 1879 Encycl. Brit. IX. 219/2 The Volga Finns include the Cheremissian on the left bank of the Volga. 1957 Encycl. Brit. XIV. 889/1 The Marii were called by the Russians Cheremis.

45. chernozem Geol. Also chernosem, tchern-, tchorn-, tschern-. [a. Russ. chernozëm black earth, f. chërny_ black + zemlyá earth, soil.] Black earth or soil (see black a. 19), a type of soil, rich in humus, characteristic of natural grassland in cool to temperate semi-arid climates, as in central and southern Russia, central Canada, etc. e.g. 1965 A. Holmes Princ. Physical Geol. (ed. 2) xiv. 406 The upper layer of the soil profile is black, becoming brown in depth where there is less humus. For this reason the soil type is called chernosem. 46. chervonetz Also chervonets, tchervonetz. Pl. chervontsi, -sy, -zi. [Russ. chervónets, pl. chervóntsy.]

A Soviet bank-note of the value of ten gold roubles, in circulation from 1922 to 1947. e.g. 1954 E. H. Carr Interregnum 32 Narkomfin authorized the acceptance of chervontsy notes for tax payments at the current rate of exchange. 47. chinovnik Also tchinovnik. [Russ.] In Tsarist Russia, a government official; a civil servant; esp. a minor functionary; a clerk. e.g. 1919 H. Walpole Secret City i. vi. 25 He was a Chinovnik, and held his position in some Government office with great pride and solemnity. 1959 D. Davie Forests of Lithuania ii. 23 When fate must send To live next door Dog-loving dull chinovnik. 48. choom [Russ. chum, f. native name.] Among the nomadic peoples of Siberia, a conical hut or tent of fir poles covered with skins or birch bark. e.g. 1889 V. Morier in Murray's Mag. Aug. 175 A little encampment of Samoyede summer chooms, i.e. birch-bark tents. 1895 F. G. Jackson Gt. Frozen Land 82 Of the choom which forms the Samoyad's home there are two kinds, one for summer and another for winter. 49. Chukchee, Chukchi n. and a. Also Chukch, Chukche, Tchuktchi, etc. [a. Russ. Chúkchi pl. (sing. Chúkcha).] A. n. a. A Palćoasiatic people of extreme north-eastern Siberia. b. One of these people. c. The language spoken by them. B. adj. a. Of or pertaining to this people or one of their number, or their language. b. Of the district which some of them inhabit. e.g. 1957 Encycl. Brit. XIII. 250/1 The Chukchi peninsula lies north of the line that would connect Chaun bay on the Arctic ocean with Kresta_bay on the Anadir gulf._ The number of Chukchi in the Chukchi peninsula was estimated at 2,000_but the Chukchi have spread to Kamchatka._ Their name means rich in reindeer. 50. Circassian n. and a. Also 7 Sarcassen and (of a woman) Sarcashen, -cashien. [f. Circassia, latinized form of Russ. cherkés (fem. cherkéshenka, pl. cherkésy) + -ia: see -ian.] A. n. 1. A native or inhabitant of Circassia, a region in the northern Caucasus, of Caucasian race but non-IndoEuropean in language; also, the North Caucasian language of this people. e.g. 1923 L. & A. Maude tr. Tolstoy's War & Peace II. vii. x. 235 An hussar was Natasha, and a Circassian was Sonya, with a burnt-cork moustache and eyebrows. 2. A thin worsted fabric. Also attrib. e.g. 1824 J. Hogg Conf. Justified Sinner 341 Rather a gentlemanly personage---Green Circassian hunting coat and turban---Like a foreigner. B. adj. Of, pertaining to, or connected with the Circassians; Circassian circle: a type of dance popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. e.g. 1963 C. Mackenzie My Life & Times II. 109 At the dancing-class_the thrill of meeting Clive and taking her hand for a moment or two in the peregrinations of the Circassian circle. 51. collegium Pl. collegia. [a. L. collegium (see college n.), tr. Russ. kollégiya.] In Russia: an advisory board or committee (see quots.). e.g. 1957 N. C. Hunt Guide to Communist Jargon x. 36 Reference should also be made to the practice revived by the Bolsheviks when they came into power, as it had in fact been introduced by Peter the Great, of attaching to every People's Commissar a Collegium of members of his Commissariat which he was required to consult before promulgating an order. 52. Comecon [Acronym f. the initial letters of Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (or Aid), tr. Russ. Sovet Ékonomichesko_ Vzaimopomoshchi.] The economic association of Communist countries in Eastern Europe.

e.g. 1981 Economist 24 Jan. 87/1 East Germany seems to be weathering the storm better than some in Comecon. 53. Cominform [Russ., f. the first elements of the Russ. forms of com(munist and inform(ation.] An information bureau set up in 1947 by the communist countries of eastern Europe for the interchange of experience and coordination of activities and dissolved in 1956. Also attrib. and transf. e.g. 1947 in Amer. Speech (1949) XXIV. 73 The cominform, an information bureau set up by the Communist parties of nine European countries. Ibid., Considering both Mexico City and Montevideo_as headquarters for a _Cominform' in the Western Hemisphere. 1958 New Statesman 6 Sept. 265/2 The new Cominform is in business, and its business is the publication of a new journal from which Communists all over the world will take their cue. Cominformist, a supporter of the Cominform; spec. a Yugoslav Communist who advocated the return of Yugoslavia to the Soviet bloc, after its expulsion in 1948; e.g. 1984 New Yorker 12 Mar. 97/1 As the seventies continued, hundreds of people---most of them in Croatia, Kosovo, and Bosnia-Herzegovina---were convicted of _Cominformist' sympathies or activities, of various crimes _endangering the territorial integrity and the independence of Yugoslavia,' or of spreading _hostile propaganda'. 54. Comintern Also Kom-. [Russ. Komintérn, f. the first elements of the Russ. forms of com(munist and intern(ational.] The Communist International, the international organization of the Communist Party, founded in 1919 and dissolved in 1943. e.g. 1959 New Statesman 25 Apr. 562/3 There is no doubt that Tito knows many damaging things about Soviet and Comintern history: he has been a leader of the Yugoslav C.P. for 22 years, a Comintern functionary for much of that time, and he has had frequent private meetings with Soviet politicians. 55. commissar [ad. Russ. komissár.] a. = commissary 1; esp. during and after the Revolution of 1917 in Russia, a representative appointed by a Soviet, a government, or the Communist party to be responsible for political indoctrination and organization, esp. in military units. b. In full People's Commissar, the head of a government department in the U.S.S.R. or any of its constituent republics. (In 1946 the title was replaced by Minister'.) e.g. 1955 J. Carmichael tr. Sukhanov's Russ. Revol. i. iii. 62 Braunstein proposed that directives be given_for district committees to be formed, and for plenipotentiary Commissars to be appointed in each district to restore order and direct the struggle against anarchy and pogroms. 56. commissariat [tr. Russ. komissariát.] In the U.S.S.R., a government department. (In 1946 the title was replaced by _Ministry'.) e.g. 1952 Economist 15 Nov. 459/2 Ministries---as the Commissariats were renamed in 1946---were set up for every major branch of economic activity. 57. constructivism. [f. constructive a. + -ism.] [ad. Russ. konstruktivízm] a. The theory or use of mechanical structures in theatrical settings. e.g. 1959 W. C. Lounsbury Backstage from A to Z 24 Constructivism, a once popular theatre movement in Russia (during the twenties) with the emphasis on machines, mechanical devices, and skeleton construction. b. An artistic movement, originating in Moscow in 1920, concerned mainly with expression by means of constructions (construction 4 a); the type of art produced by this movement. e.g. 1948 Archit. Rev. CIV. 299/1 The Renaissance school which took the place of this nihilistic constructivism is also proving worthless in face of the new Soviet architecture. 58. copeck Also 7_8 copec, 8 copeik, copique, capeck, kapeke, 8_9 copeek, 9 kopek. [ad. Russ. kopięika, kopeika, deriv. (dim. form) of kopyé lance, pike.

So called from the substitution in 1535 of the figure of Ivan IV. on horseback with a lance, for that of his predecessor with a sword. Cf. Bestuzhev-Riumin, Russkoya Istoriya, 1885, II. 206, and Karamzin VIII. i. (citing the contemporary Chronicle of Rostov.).] A Russian copper coin, the 1100 part of a rouble, now (1893) worth from 14 to 13 of a penny English. e.g. 1888 Times 27 June 12/1 A tax of half a copeck per pood should be levied on exported corn. 59. coulibiac Also koulibiac. [ad. Russ. kulebyáka.] A Russian pie of fish or meat, cabbage, etc. e.g. 1970 Simon & Howe Dict. Gastron. 237/1 Koulibiac, a Russian type of pie. 60. crash n [ from Russian krashenina coloured linen] e.g. 1. a. A coarse kind of linen, used for towels, etc. 1812 J. Smyth Pract. Customs 125 A coarse sort of narrow Russia Linen_commonly called Crash, and generally used as Towelling. b. attrib. Made of crash. 1875 I. L. Bird Sandwich Isl. (1880) 106 A basin, crash towels, a caraffe. 1887 Pall Mall G. 2 June 14/1 Strong white _crash' bags. 2. The name of a tint in textile fabrics, the colour of unbleached cotton. 1927 Daily Express 2 Apr. 6 In shades of Peach, Bracken, Sunburn, Caramel, Gold, Crash, White. 61. Cubo-Futurism [ad. Russ. kubo-futurizm (1914): see Cubism and futurism.] An early 20th-century movement among Russian painters, characterized by works treating the subjects of peasant art in the abstract geometrical manner of Cubism. e.g. 1982 A. Lieven tr. L. A. Zhadova's Malevich i. 16 _Cubo-Futurism' as a general and widely-accepted label gained currency at a time when both critics and general public lumped together the pictures of the Cubists and the poems of the Futurists as equally incomprehensible. Hence CuboFuturist a. and n. 1962 C. Gray Great Experiment v. 132 The Woodcutter of 1911 is Malevich's first mature Cubo-Futurist work. Ibid. vi. 182 The circle of the Moscow Cubo-Futurists. 1981 Oxf. Compan. 20th-Cent. Art 138/2 Some historians_have used the term _Cubo-Futurist' to describe this primitivist reaction generally, far though it often is from either Cubism or Futurism. 62. czar [Russ. tsar from Russian tsar, via Gothic kaisar from Latin: CAESAR a. Hist. The title of the autocrat or emperor of Russia; historically, borne also by Serbian rulers of the 14th c., as the Tsar Stephen Dushan. In Russia it was partially used by the Grand Duke Ivan III, 1462_1505, and by his son Basil or Vasili, but was formally assumed by Ivan IV in 1547. According to Herberstein its actual sense in Russian was king', but it was gradually taken as emperor', a sense which it had in other Slavonic languages. Peter the Great introduced the title imperator emperor', and the official style shortly before the Revolution of 1917 was Emperor of all the Russias, Tsar of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland'; but the Russian popular appellation was still tsar. e.g. 1890 Morfill Russia 56 Ivan assuming the cognizance of the double-headed eagle, and partially taking the title of Tsar, the complete assumption of it being the achievement of Ivan IV. b. transf. A person having great authority or absolute power; a tyrant, boss. orig. U.S. e.g. 1959 Listener 5 Nov. 784/1 The Czar---as we say---or President of the Motion Picture Producers' Association. Hence tsarlet, a petty Tsar. 1889 Fortn. Rev. XLVI. 285 This frightful régime of innumerable Tsarlets. 63. dacha Also datcha, datsha. Pl. da(t)chas, datche. [Russ. dácha, orig. _grant (of land)', f. dat_ to give.] In Russia, a small house or villa for summer use, in the country near a town. e.g. 1971 Guardian 21 Jan. 3/3 Mr Krushchev in the country dacha to which he had retired.

64. daggett Also degote, degutt. [ad. Russ. dëgot_ tar.] A dark tar obtained by the distillation of the bark of the European white birch, and used in the preparation of Russia leather, and formerly as a local application for diseases of the skin. e.g. 1935 Discovery Oct. 299/2 Birch bark_by destructive distillation, yields an empyreumatic oil, known as Oil of Birch Tar, Dagget [etc.]. 65. defamiliarization. Lit. Theory. [de- II. 1; tr. Russ. ostranenie (V. Shklovski_, in Poétika (1919), II. 105), lit. “making strange”.] In structuralist (esp. Russian Formalist) theory: the process or result of rendering unfamiliar; spec. of literature, in which formal devices are held to revitalize the perception of words and their sounds by differentiation from ordinary language or (subsequently) from other habituated formal techniques. e.g. 1982 N. & Q. June 278/2 Terms like authenticity, phenomenology, alienation and defamiliarization float free of any historically determining pain. defamiliarize v. trans., to render unfamiliar; to subject to defamiliarization. e.g. 1984 Review Eng. Stud. XXXV. 352 He attempts to defamiliarize and deconstruct the text and thus account for its persuasive power. 66. Dekabrist Also Deca-. [a. Russ. dekabríst, f. dekábr_ December.] One who took part in an uprising which occurred in St. Petersburg on 26 December 1825, on the accession of the Emperor Nicholas I. e.g. 1925 Glasgow Herald 5 Mar. 4 Prince Wolkonsky, as became a descendant of a Dekabrist, was a liberal. 67. demidovite Min. Also demidoffite. [ad. F. démidovite (N. Nordenskiold 1856, in Bull. Soc. imp. des Naturalistes de Moscou XXIX. i. 128), f. the name of Prince Anatoli Nikolaevich Demidov (1813_1870), Russian patron and traveller: see -ite1.] e.g. 1955 M. H. Hey Index Min. Species (ed. 2) 214 Demidovite. Silicate and phosphate of Cu. Ibid. 401 Demidoffite._ Syn. of Demidovite. 68. dessiatine, desyatin Also des(s)atine, desaetine, dessjaetine. [ad. Russ. desyat_na lit. _tenth, tithe'.] A Russian superficial measure of 2400 sq. sazhens. e.g. 1901 Daily Chron. 29 Aug. 5/1 The Tsar is said_to own in private property, mostly in the Baltic Provinces, a million desatines of land. 69. disinformation. Also dis-information. [f. dis- + information; perh. ad. Russ. dezinformatsiya (1949, in S. I. Ozhegov Slovar_ russkogo yazyka, allegedly ad. Fr., although F. désinformation is not recorded until 1954 (Quemada, Matériaux (1971) II. 53); cf. misinformation.] a. The dissemination of deliberately false information, esp. when supplied by a government or its agent to a foreign power or to the media, with the intention of influencing the policies or opinions of those who receive it; false information so supplied. e.g. 1984 Daily Tel. 9 Oct. 9/2 It is Sir James’ position that the Soviets made a conscious decision to seek to discredit the West German politician and mounted a campaign of defamation, disinformation and provocation against him. b. attrib. e.g. 1983 Listener 1 Sept. 24/1 He surveyed the range of surveillance and disinformation technology which modern technology has placed in the hands of governments. Hence (as a back-formation) disinform v. trans., to supply with false information. e.g. 1980 de Borchgrave & Moss The Spike 85 He had proved a willing collaborator in their efforts to disinform the American press. 70. diversionist [f. diversion + -ist; cf. Russ. diversánt] In Communist usage: a saboteur; also, one who conspires against the government. Also attrib. or as adj. Hence diversionism, the activity of a diversionist.

e.g. 1955 Times 1 July 10/6 He pleaded Guilty to political crimes and diversionist activity, but denied collaborating with the Gestapo during the war. 71. dolina, doline Geol. [ad. Russ. dolína valley, plain.] A depression or basin in a karstic limestone region, esp. one that is relatively extensive and funnel-shaped. e.g. 1962 Nature 16 June 1037/2 Vertically walled, knife-edged arętes and pinnacles of bare limestone standing like battlements around dolines covered by montane forest of mossy aspect. 72. Dosto(y)evskian a. Also Dostoievskian. [f. the name of Feodor Michaelovich Dostoevsky (1821_1881), Russian novelist.] Of, or characteristic of, Dostoevsky or his work e.g. 1961 Times 30 Mar. 15/2 Jesus is shown as a despised Dostoevskian epileptic. 73. Doukhobor Also Dukh-. Pl. -ors or -ortsy. [Russ. Dukhobór, pl. -bóry, also -bórets, pl. -bórtsy, spirit-wrestler (see spirit n. 23 c).] A member of a Russian religious sect which originated in the 18th century, many of whose members emigrated to Western Canada in the late nineteenth century after persistent persecution. Also attrib. e.g. 1968 Woodcock & Avakumovic Doukhobors i. 19 The name of Doukhobor was first used in anger and derision by one of their opponents, Archbishop Amvrosii Serebrennikov of Ekaterinoslav. It means _Spirit Wrestlers', and it was intended by the archbishop, when he invented it in 1785, to suggest that they were fighting against the Holy Ghost. Ibid., There is a central, constant element in Doukhobor Christianity.

74. droog [ad. Russ. drug friend.] Anthony Burgess’s word for a member of a gang (see quot. 1962); a young ruffian; an accomplice or henchman of a gang-leader. e.g. 1984 Times Lit. Suppl. 13 Apr. 402/2 How long ago it seems since the New York Times referred to the spray-can droogs of the subways as little Picassos. 75. droshky, drosky. Also droitzschka, drojeka, droshka, -ke, -ki, droska, droskcha. [ad. Russ. drozhki, dim. of drogi waggon, hearse; properly pl. of droga perch, or _reach' of a fourwheeled vehicle. So Fr. droschki, Ger. droschke.] A kind of vehicle: orig. and prop. a Russian low four-wheeled carriage without a top, consisting of a narrow bench on which the passengers sit astride or sideways, their feet resting on bars near the ground; hence transferred to other vehicles in use elsewhere; in some German towns the name of the ordinary fourwheelers or fiacres plying for hire. e.g. 1882 Strathesk Bits fr. Blinkbonny xiii. 294 He met the drosky containing Mrs. Barrie and the children. attrib. 1838 J. L. Stephens Trav. Greece, etc. 71/1 The drosky boy_dressed in a long surtout_sits on the end. 76. duma Also (in Fr. form) douma. [Russ. dúma.] In Russia, an elective municipal council. the Duma, an elective legislative assembly (Gosudárstvennaya Dúma), which was established in 1905 by a ukase of Tsar Nicholas II and lasted until the Revolution of 1917. Hence dumaist, a member of a duma or the Duma. e.g. 1955 G. B. Carson Electoral Practices in U.S.S.R. 2 The most important electoral machinery was that created for elections to the imperial duma. 77. dvornik [Russ. dvórnik, f. dvor courtyard.] A house-porter. e.g. 1923 Blackw. Mag. Feb. 203/2 The _dvornik' had been with the family for years. 78. ethnonym Anthropol.

[f. ethno- + -nym, as in homonym, pseudonym; app. a. Russ. étnonim (cf., for example, Sovetskaya Étnografiya (1946), iv. 34); also étnonimika, ethnonymics, the study of ethnonyms (1939).] A proper name by which a people or ethnic group is known; spec. one which it calls itself. e.g. 1966 Y. Malkiel in Current Trends in Linguistics III. 360 Refractory ethnonyms fell into desuetude in Romance. 79. feldscher Also feldschar, feldsher. [Russ. fél'dsher, ad. G. feldscher field surgeon.] In Russia, a person with practical training in medicine and surgery, but without professional medical qualifications; a physician's or surgeon's assistant; a local medical auxiliary. e.g. 1957 H. Bower Short Guide Soviet Life 58 There are also 600 schools for training nurses, feldshers (auxiliary nurses) and midwives. 80. ferganite Min. Also ferghanite. [ad. Russ. ferganit (I. A. Antipov 1908, in Górnyi Zhurnál lxxxiv. IV. 259), f. Ferg(h)an-a (see Feraghan): see -ite1.] A hydrated vanadate of uranium. 1910 Mineral. Mag. XV. 421 Ferganite. 1925 Ibid. XX. 294 It has already been suggested by K. A. Nenadkevich that ferganite is identical with tyuyamunite._ On the other hand, ferganite may represent a leached or weathered product of tyuyamunite. 81. folkloristics n. pl. (const. as sing.). [ad. Russ. fol_kloristika (1926, Yu. M. Sokolov in Khudozhestvenny_ Fol_klor I. 7), f. folkloristic] The study of folklore; folklore as a discipline or subject of research. e.g. 1985 Jrnl. Amer. Folklore XCVIII. 331 The following contribution to the folkloristics controversy is intended to shift the discussion_away from a condemnation of the term toward a consideration of terminology. 82. glasnost [Russ. glasnost_, lit. _the fact of being public; openness to public scrutiny or discussion'.] In relation to the affairs of the Soviet Union: a declared party policy since 1985 of greater openness and frankness in public statements, including the publication of news reflecting adversely on the government and political system; greater freedom of speech and information arising from this policy. Also applied transf. to similar developments in other countries. The Russ. word is recorded in dictionaries from the eighteenth century, but in the more general sense of _publicity'. It was used in the context of freedom of information in the Soviet State by V. I. Lenin, and called for in an open letter to the Soviet Writers' Union by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn in 1969, but did not become a subject of serious public debate in the Soviet Union until an Izvestiya editorial requested letters on the subject on 19 Jan. 1985. Its use by Mikhail Gorbachev on 11 Mar. 1985 in a speech accepting the post of General Secretary of the CPSU has subsequently led to its being associated particularly with his policies. e.g. 1981 N.Y. Times 13 Mar. a7/1 The Russians, it seems, have rediscovered the value of Lenin's dictum that _glasnost', the Russian word for openness or publicity, is a desirable form of conduct. 1986 Daily Tel. 10 Oct. 6/6 What about Mr Gorbachev's exciting campaign for greater glasnost', meaning frankness, in tackling defects in the Soviet system? 83. godless the Godless [Russ. bezbózhnik]: the title of a union (and its press organs) in Soviet Russia, having for its primary object the suppression of religion. e.g. 1967 G. von Stackelberg in Fletcher & Strover Relig. & Search for New Ideals in U.S.S.R. 95 Publication of atheist propaganda was_revived in 1947 when the Association of Militant Godless was dissolved and the Society for Dissemination of Political and Scientific Knowledge established. 84. gorbuscha Also garbusche. [ad. Russ. gorbúsha, f. gorb hump, humpback.] The humpback salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha. e.g. 1960 Guardian 15 Nov. 6/7 Soviet scientists had been transporting the eggs of gorbuscha from Sakhalin Island to the rivers of the Kola Peninsula.

85. Gosplan [Russ. gosplán, abbrev. of Gosudárstvenny_ plánovy_ komitét (sovéta minístrov) SSSR, State Planning Committee (of the Council of Ministers) of the U.S.S.R.] An organization formed in 1921 to draw up plans for the development of the national economy of the U.S.S.R. (The governments of the constituent republics also have Gosplans.) e.g. 1962 Economist 16 June 1078/2 There is no sign as yet of a budding Gosplan in the Soviet block. 86. Grand Duke. [a. F. grand duc, a literal rendering of It. granduca, G. groszherzog, Russian veliki kniaz. See duke.] 1. a. The title of the sovereigns of certain European countries (called Grand Duchies); the rank so designated is understood to be one degree below that of king. b. In pre-revolutionary Russia, the title of any of the sons of an emperor. (Cf. duke 2, 2 c.) The title seems to have been first assumed by the ruler of Tuscany in the 16th c. Before Peter the Great, the sovereign of Russia was styled Grand Duke of Muscovy' in European diplomacy. e.g. 1875 T. Martin Prince Consort I. 214 The Emperor [of Russia] had been in England before when Grand Duke. 87. gusli [a. Russ. gúsli.] A Russian musical instrument resembling a zither. e.g. 1961 A. C. Baines Mus. Instruments 206 A true psaltery of medieval vintage survives in Russia in certain forms of gusli, much used by ballad singers formerly. 88. holluschickie n. pl., collect. Also holloschickie, holluschuckie. [ad. Russ. kholostyakí pl., bachelors.] Young males of the northern, Pribilof, or Alaska fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus; = bachelor 4 c. e.g. 1901 Munsey's Mag. XXV. 355/1 The holluschickie who have reached the age when they contemplate matrimony. 1929 Encycl. Brit. IX. 952/1 The young males or bachelors (holloschickie). 89. hydrotroilite Min. [ad. Russ. gidrotroilit (M. Sidorenko 1901, in Mém. Soc. Naturalistes Nouv.-Russie XXIV. 1. 119)], a black hydrated ferrous sulphide, FeS.nH2O, occurring in the mud of lakes and inland seas; 90. idiogram Cytology and Med. [ad. Russ. idiogramma (S. Navashin: in Zhurn. Russk. Bot. Obshch. (1921) VI. 171 he is reported as having used the term in his lectures for many years)] Usually, a diagrammatic or systematized representation of a chromosome complement (of one cell or of many) indicating the number of chromosomes, their relative lengths, the position of the centromeres, etc. e.g. 1973 Lancet 24 Feb. 420/1 Strictly speaking the actual pictures [of chromosomes] are karyotypes, and an idiogram is a diagram of the chromosome state of an individual. 91. ikary, icary. Obs. In 6 ickary. [ad. Russ. ikra caviare.] = caviare. e.g. 1887 Pall Mall G. 15 Feb. 11/1 Can you use the roe of any other fish but sturgeon and sterlet as caviar, or ikra, as you call it? 92. informatics [tr. Russ. informátika (A. I. Mikhailov et al. 1966, in Nauchno-tekhnicheskaya Informatsiya XII. 35)] informatical a., informatician. e.g. 1967 FID News Bull. XVII. 73/2 Informatics is the discipline of science which investigates the structure and properties (not specific content) of scientific information, as well as the regularities of scientific information activity, its theory, history, methodology and organization. 93. Ingush Also Ingoush. Pl. Ingoushee, Ingush, Ingushes. [a. Russ. Ingúsh, the name of the former autonomous area of Ingush.] a. One of a North Caucasian people, forming the minor part of the population of Checheno-Ingushetia. Also attrib. or as adj. b. The North Caucasic language of this people.

e.g. 1954 Pei & Gaynor Dict. Ling. 101 Ingush, a Chechen dialect (Eastern Caucasian group of the North Caucasian family of languages). 94. innelite Min. [ad. Russ. innelit (S. M. Kravchenko), f. Inneli, Yakut name for the Inagli river: see -ite1.] A yellow-brown complex silicate of barium, near Ba4Ti312Si4O18(OH)112.Na2SO4, found as tabular crystals in pegmatites in the Inagli massif, South Yakutsk, U.S.S.R. e.g. 1963 Doklady Earth Sci. CXLI. 1297/1 Innelite_was discovered in 1957 in aegirite-akermanitemicrocline pegmatites of the Inagli massif which occur in dunites.

95. intelligentsia Also (formerly) intelligenzia. [f. Russ. intelligéntsiya, ad. L. intelligentia intelligence n.] The part of a nation, orig. in pre-revolutionary Russia, that aspires to intellectual activity; the class of society regarded as possessing culture and political initiative. e.g. 1971 H. Seton-Watson in A. Bullock 20th Cent. 139/1 The revolutionary propensity of the intelligentsia has been definitely correlated with the extent of the cultural gap between the educated élite and the mass of the people. 96. Intourist [Russ. Inturíst, abbrev. of inostránny_ turíst foreign tourist.] Name of the State Travel Bureau of the U.S.S.R. e.g. 1958 J. Gunther Inside Russia Today i. 29 You go to any travel agency that has an arrangement with Intourist, the official Russian agency_and apply for a tourist visa. 97. irinite Min. [ad. Russ. irinit (Borodin & Kazakova 1954, in Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. XCVII. 725), f. the name of Irin-a Dmitrievna Borneman-Starynkevich, Russian geochemist: see -ite1.] An oxide-hydroxide of sodium, cerium, thorium, titanium, and niobium occurring as red-brown crystals in the Khibiny Massif, U.S.S.R., and belonging to the perovskite group of minerals. e.g. 1962 W. A. Deer et al. Rock-forming Min. V. 51 Irinite, described as a new mineral of the perovskite group_has a high thorium and rare earth content. 98. isba Also isbah, izba. [ad. Russ. izbá (related to stove n.).] A Russian hut or log-house. e.g. 1943 E. M. Almedingen Frossia ii. 89, I was twenty-one, married, had my own izba, owned my own livestock. 1962 Observer 20 May 21/1 We lived in a tiny isba, or log cabin, together with three other families. 99. ispravnik Hist. Pl. ispravniki, ispravniks. [Russ., lit. _executor'.] A chief of police in a rural district in Tsarist Russia. e.g. 1967 H. Seton-Watson Russ. Empire i. i. 20 The chief executive officer at the uezd level was the ispravnik, who was elected by the nobility, and presided over the local court which was an administrative rather than a judicial body. 100. Ivan [Russ., = John.] Used for: a Russian, esp. a Russian soldier (as typical of the Russian army). e.g. 1972 Guardian 8 Sept. 12/4 A situation in which Ivan continues to come a lot cheaper than GI Joe. 101. jarovization Also iarovization. [ad. Russ. yarovizátsiya] = vernalization. The technique of exposing seeds, young plants, etc., to low temperatures in order to hasten subsequent flowering; also, the natural process induced by cold weather which this technique imitates. e.g. [1933 Whyte & Hudson in Bull. Imperial Bureau Plant Genetics No. 9. 3 The Russian word “Jarovizatzia”, referred to in German publications as “Jarowisation”, has here been translated by the

latinized equivalent “vernalization” in consultation with the School of Slavonic Studies, London, and Miss M. V. Cytovic 102. jeremeievite, -ieffite Min. [Named 1883 after Jeremejev or Yeremeieff, a Russian mineralogist + -ite.] A transparent colourless borate of aluminium occurring in hexagonal prisms. 1883 Amer. Jrnl. Sc. Ser. iii. XXV. 478 Jeremeieffite, a new mineral. 103. Josephite Also Josephine. [f. the name of St. Joseph (1439_1515), Abbot of Volokolamsk, a Russian zealot.] A member of an ascetic and caesaro-papist party formed among Russian Orthodox monks in the sixteenth century. Josephism2, Josephitism, the doctrines of this party. e.g. 1953 K. S. Latourette Hist. Christianity xxvii. 618 Probably it was inevitable that the Josephites and the Non-Possessors should clash. Ibid. xl. 905 The Josephites believed in the possession of property by the monasteries and the Church. They were ascetic, approved works of charity, and stressed ritual. The Josephites believed in the maintenance of a close tie between Church and State. 104. Kabardian n. and a. Also Kabard, Kabardan, Kabardin(e), Kabardinian. [f. Russ. Kabarda (place-name) + -ian.] A. n. a. A member of one of the peoples inhabiting the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic in the northern Caucasus, related ethnically to the Circassians, of Caucasian race but non-Indo-European in language. b. The north-western Caucasian language of this people. e.g. 1960 A. H. Kuipers Phoneme & Morpheme in Kabardian 8 The Kabardians differed from their Western relatives in that they formed a well-developed feudal ceremony. B. adj. Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of the Kabardians or their language. e.g. 1965 D. Fidlon tr. Trunov's Trip N. Caucasus 14 She was a graceful Kabardinian girl with a healthy suntan. 105. kalashnikov [Russ.] The name of a type of rifle or sub-machine gun made in the U.S.S.R. Also attrib. e.g. 1973 Times 11 Apr. 1/8 He ran to get his kalashnikov (a Russian assault weapon) but when he returned, the Israelis had burst through the door. 106. kalistrontite Min. [ad. Russ. kalistrontsit (M. L. Voronova 1962, in Zap. Vsesoyuz. Mineral. Obshch. XCI. 712), f. káli-_ potassium (cogn. w. kali1) + strónts-i_ strontium + -it -ite1.] A sulphate of potassium and strontium, K2Sr(SO4)2, found as colourless hexagonal crystals. e.g. 1963 Mineral. Abstr. XVI. 183/2 A new potassium and strontium sulphate found in saline anhydrite rocks from a borehole near the village of Alshtan, Bashkir, A.S.S.R., is named kalistrontite. 107. Kalmuck Also 8 -muc, 9 -muk, -myk, 7_9 Calmuc(k. [Russ. kalmyk.] 1. a. A member of a Mongolian people living on the north-west shores of the Caspian Sea. Also attrib. or as adj. e.g. 1972 J. Poyer Chinese Agenda (1973) xiii. 180 A caravan of Kalmuck traders. Ibid. 181 These Kalmucks are strictly traders. b. The language of this people, belonging to the Ural-Altaic group. e.g. 1883 Encycl. Brit. XVI. 750/2 The Kalmuk and East Mongolian dialects do not differ much._ In Kalmuk_the guttural can only be traced through the lengthening of the syllable. 1947 [see Buriat]. 2. (With small initial letter.) A kind of shaggy cloth, resembling bearskin (see also quot. 1940). e.g. 1940 Chambers's Techn. Dict. 128/1 Calmuc, a coarse type of wool, from the Khirghiz district, Central Asia. Kalmuckian a. 1727 J. G. Scheuchzer tr. Kćmpfer's Hist. Japan I. i. vi. 90 The Prince of the Calmuckian Tartars.

108. Kamchadal Also Kamtchat(ka)dale, Kamt(s)chadale. [Russ.] a. A member of a Mongoloid people inhabiting the Kamchatka peninsula on the Pacific coast of Siberia. b. The language of this people. e.g. 1937 R. H. Lowie Hist. Ethnol. Theory ii. 15 The Kamchadal cooked meat in wooden troughs filled with water into which they threw heated rocks. 109. kamish [ad. Russ. kamýsh reed.] The common reed, Phragmites communis. 1964 R. Perry World of Tiger i. 2 The vast beds of kamish reeds_which stretch for miles from the slow flood of the Kuban to the Persian shore of the Caspian. 110. karakul Also caracul(e), carakul, karacul. [Russ., f. Karakul, name of a province and lake in Bokhara, where the breed originated.] a. A breed of sheep with coarse wiry fur; a sheep of this breed. b. The glossy curled coat of a young karakul lamb, valued as fur. Also attrib., as karakul cloth, a kind of cloth made in imitation of karakul. e.g. 1949 Amer. Speech XXIV. 95 Lambs from China or the interior of Asia possess pelts distinguished by a flat, open, wavy curl and give their name to a common variety of skin very common in the industry called karacul, also spelled carakul. 1960 Times 31 May (S. Afr. Suppl.) p. vi/7 Wool, of course, is a major export and is well supported by karakul pelts. 111. karpinskyite Min. [ad. Russ. karpinskiit (L. L. Shilin 1956, in Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR CVII. 737), f. the name of A. P. Karpinsky (1847_1936), Russ. geologist: see -ite1.] A hydrous alumino-silicate of sodium, beryllium, zinc, and magnesium, Na2(Be,Zn,Mg) Al2Si6O16(OH)2, occurring as radial aggregates of white, needle-shaped crystals. 1956 Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR CVII. 628 (table of contents) Karpinskyite---a new mineral. 112. karyotype n. Biol. and Med. [ad. Russ. kariotip (L. N. Delone (Delaunay) 1922, in Vestnik Tiflisskogo botanicheskogo Sada 2nd Ser. 1. 49): see karyo- and -type. Orig. coined by Delaunay in sense 2, but according to quot. 1931 it was later coined independently (again in Russ.) by Lewitsky (1924), in sense 1 a.] 1. a. The chromosomal constitution of a cell (and hence of an individual, species, etc.) as determined by the number, size, shape, etc., of the chromosomes (usually, as observed at metaphase during cell division). e.g. 1931 G. A. Lewitsky in Trudy po Prikladno Botanike i Selektsii XXVII. i. 221, I have proposed myself, independently from Delaunay, the same term “Karyotype”, but merely for designation of nuclear peculiarities of a given organism or systematical unit.b. A systematized representation of the chromosomes of a cell or cells, esp. a photographic one e.g. 1973 Lancet 24 Feb. 420/1 Strictly speaking the actual pictures are karyotypes, and an idiogram is a diagram of the chromosome state of an individual. 2. [After the original meaning of the Russ.] A group of species having similar karyotypes (sense 1 a). Obs. rare. e.g. 1932 H. G. Bruun in Symbolae Bot. Upsalienses I. 111 The species [of Primula] can be divided according to their nuclear constitution into different cytological types called “karyotypes”. 113. kasha Also casha. [Russ.] 1. A gruel or porridge made from cooked buckwheat or other meals or cereals. e.g. 1973 Times 3 Feb. 13/5 You can try the kneidlach soup (with matzo-meal dumplings), the kasha (buckwheat) and the tzimmes. 2. A beige colour resembling that of buckwheat groats. e.g. 1971 Guardian 19 Jan. 9/3 Principal colours are navy, _Kasha' (a Russian buckwheat porridge beige), and _smoke'. 114. Katyusha

[Russ.] A Russian rocket launcher. e.g. 1972 E. Ambler Levanter vi. 170, I remembered what Barlev had told me about the 120-mm. Katyusha rocket: fifty kilo warhead, range of about eleven kilometres. 115. kazachoc Also kozatchok and other forms repr. the acc. or pl. of the Russ. word. [Russ., dim. of kazák Cossack.] A Slavic, mainly Ukrainian, dance with a fast and usu. quickening tempo. Sometimes used erron. for a step of this dance, properly called the prisiadka, in which the male dancer squats on his heels and kicks out each leg alternately to the front. e.g. 1966 K. Giles Provenance of Death iii. 78 She switched on the player and danced the Kazachka, mainly to spite Harry who invariably fell over when he tried. 116. Kazakh Also K(h)asa(c)k, Kazak, Qazaq. Pl. Kazakhi, Kazakhs. [Russ.] One of a Turkic people of central Asia, forming the basic population of the Kazakh S.S.R. (Kazakhstan); the language spoken by this people. Also attrib. or as adj. e.g. 1972 Times 11 Dec. 1/7 An 800-mile border with China. It crosses mountainous areas which provide pasture land used by Kazakh and other hill shepherds. 117. kësterite Min. Also kesterite. [ad. Russ. kësterit (Z. V. Orlova, 1956), f. Këster, name of its locality in Yakutia, Siberia: see -ite1.] A black sulphide of copper, tin, zinc, and iron, Cu2(Zn,Fe)SnS4. e.g. 1968 I. Kostov Mineral. ii. 147 Sakuraiite_is considered an indium analogue of kesterite. 118. keta Also _keth. [Russ.] e.g. 1962 Co-op Grocery News Bull. (Saskatoon) 1 Aug. 1 Formerly known as dog salmon, the chum, with the scientific name Oncorhynchus Keta, has also been called the qualla, keta and calico salmon. It is caught all along the coast of British Columbia. 119. Khlist Also Chlist, Khlyst. Pl. Chlists, Khlisti, Khlysts, Khlysty. [Russ., lit. a whip.] A member of a sect of ascetic Russian Christians, formed in the 17th century, who believed that Christ could be reincarnated in human beings through their suffering. e.g. 1967 D. T. Kauffman Dict. Relig. Terms. 274 Khlysts, Chlists, or Klysty flagellants, Russian ascetics originating in the seventeenth century. 120. kibitka Also 8_9 -ki, 9 -ke. [Russ. kibitka, tent, tilt-wagon, f. Tartar kibits, with Russ. suffix -ka: cf. Arab. qubbat _tent covered with skins'.] 1. A circular tent made of lattice work and covered with thick felt, used by the Tartars; transf. a Tartar household or family. e.g. 1899 Daily News 14 Jan. 2/1 His typical studio should be a kibitka of the Steppes. 2. A Russian wagon or sledge with a rounded cover or hood; a sledge with a tilt or covering. e.g. 1855 Englishwoman in Russia 79 They were hurried off to Siberia, in the prisoners' kabitkas that stood ready to receive them. 121. Kipchak Also Qipchak. [Russ., ad. Jagatai.] A. n. a. A member of a Mongolian people of central Asia. b. The language of this people, a Turkic dialect. B. adj. Of or pertaining to this people, or their language. e.g. 1959 Chambers's Encycl. VI. 426/2 Golden Horde, or West Kipchak Horde, the name given to the western division of the great Mogul empire_after_1241._ The neighbouring East Kipchak Horde was known as _White'. 122. Kirghiz n. and a. Also Khirgese, Kirghis, Kirgiz.

[ad. Russ. Kirgíz.] A. n. A widespread Mongolian people of west central Asia, now chiefly inhabiting the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic; a member of this people; their Turkic language. B. adj. Of or pertaining to the Kirghiz; spec. Kir_ghizian a. and n. e.g. 1935 Huxley & Haddon We Europeans vii. 212 Ethnologists use the word [sc. Turki] loosely and in several different senses:---_(b) To designate a certain ethnic group of which the Turks, the Kirghis and the Tatars are best known. 1971 Whitaker's Almanack 1972 966 The Kirghiz S.S.R. occupies the north-eastern part of Soviet Central Asia and borders in the south-east on China. 123. kissel Also keessel. [ad. Russ. kisél_.] A sweet dish made from fruit juice mixed with sugar and water, which is boiled and thickened with potato or cornflour. e.g. 1969 Guardian 15 Aug. 7/4 Blackberry kissel._ Blend the cornflour with a little cold water, and with the brandy, stir into the blackberry puree. 124. knish [Yiddish, f. Russ. knish, knysh a kind of cake.] A dumpling of flaky dough filled with chopped liver, potato, or cheese, and baked or fried. e.g. 1973 Daily Colonist (Victoria, B.C.) 27 May 2/4 He consumed three meat knishes, two blueberry knishes, four potato knishes and two cream-filled knishes. 125. knout n. Also 8 knoute, knowt, 8_9 knoot. [a. French spelling of Russ. knut.] A kind of whip or scourge, very severe and often fatal in its effects, formerly used in Russia as an instrument of punishment. e.g. 1855 Tennyson Maud i. iv. viii, Shall I weep if an infant civilisation be ruled with rod or with knout? 126. kochubeďte Min. Also kotschubeite. [ad. G. kotschubeit (N. von Kokscharow 1863, in Bull. de l'Acad. Imp. des Sci. de St.-Pétersbourg V. 369), f. the name of Count P. A. Kochubei, 19th-century Russian mineralogist: see -ite1.] A mineral of the chlorite group that is a chromiferous variety of clinochlore and occurs as rose-red rhombohedral crystals. e.g. 1910 Encycl. Brit. VI. 256 Alumina may also be partly replaced by chromic oxide, as in the rose-red varieties [of chlorite] kämmererite and kotschubeite. 127. kok-saghyz [ad. Russ. kok-sagyz, of Turkic origin.] A kind of dandelion, Taraxacum koksaghyz, whose roots contain a latex used for making rubber. e.g. 1954 H. J. Stern Rubber i. 18 Kok saghyz (Taraxacum kok saghyz. Rodin). This plant was discovered in 1931._ The roots contain about 90 per cent. of the total rubber in the plant. 128. kolinsky Also kolinski. [f. Russ. Kola, name of a port in north-west Russia.] A name for the fur of a Mustela sibirica, the Japanese mink. Also attrib. e.g. 1968 J. Ironside Fashion Alphabet 155 The Siberian China mink is known as Kolinsky.

129. kolkhoz Also kolhoz, kolkhos, etc. Pl. kolkhoz, kolkhozes, kolkhozy. [Russ., f. kol(lektívnoe khoz(yá_stvo, collective farm.] A collective farm in the U.S.S.R. Also transf. e.g. 1943 E. M. Almedingen Frossia viii. 285 He knows Russia._ He has seen Sovhozes and Kolhozes. 1972 Guardian 4 Aug. 4/4 A kolkhoz, or collective farm, is a symbol of the crude rustic for city dwellers. _kolkhoznik (pl. -niki), a member of a kolkhoz. 1955 H. Hodgkinson Doubletalk 27 Each worker, or kolkhoznik, has to give between 100 and 150 work days on the common land.

130. kolovratite Min. [ad. Russ. kolovratit (V. I. Vernadsky 1922, in Compt. Rend. de l'Acad. d. Sci. de Russie A. 37), f. the name of L. S. Kolovrat-Chervinsky (1884_1921), Russian radiochemist: see -ite1.] A greenish-yellow amorphous or finely crystalline mineral that is probably a hydrous vanadate of nickel and zinc. e.g. 1962 Canad. Mineralogist VII. 314 Our evidence suggests, however, that kolovratite is a hydrous zincnickel vanadate, or possibly a silico_vanadate, rather than a nickel vanadate as inferred in the original description. 131. Komsomol Also Comsomol. [Russ. komsomól, short f. Kommunistícheski_ Soyúz Molodëzhi Communist Union of Youth.] An organization of Communist youth in Russia; a member of this organization. Also attrib. e.g. 1973 Nat. Geographic May 606/2 The Komsomol (Communist youth organization) in her district had advertised openings at Togliatti stating that a modern low-rent apartment was part of the employment contract. 132. Koryak Also Korak, Koriac(k), Koriak. [Russ. Koryáki (pl.), the Koryak people.] a. A people inhabiting the northern part of the Kamchatka peninsula; also, a member of this people. b. The Palćo-Asiatic language of this people. Also attrib. or as adj. e.g. 1954 Pei & Gaynor Dict. Ling. 116 Koryak, a language, spoken by about 1,000 persons in north-eastern Asia; a member of the Chukchi-Kamchadal family of languages, classified in the Hyperborean or PalaeoAsiatic group. 133. koumiss Forms: (cosmos, cosmus, cossmos: see cosmos), chumis, kumisse, (kumish), koumiss, kumiss, kumis, koumis, koomiss, kumys(s, (kimmiz, khoumese). [ from Russian kumys, from Kazan Tatar kumyz] A fermented liquor prepared from mare's milk, commonly used as a beverage by the Tartars and other Asiatic nomadic peoples; also applied to a spirituous liquor distilled from this. The fermented beverage is used dietetically and medicinally in various diseases, as phthisis, catarrhal affections, anćmia, chlorosis, etc., and for these purposes imitations are also prepared from asses' milk and cow's milk. e.g. 1892 Daily News 28 Dec. 5/4 Mrs. Isabel Hapgood_gives some interesting particulars of koumiss (or _kumys', as she prefers to spell it). attrib. 1884 Pall Mall G. 15 Sept. 11/2 The koumiss cure is growing greatly in popularity._ Sometimes patients spend six or seven summers at the koumiss establishments. 134. kovsh Pl. kovshi. [Russ.] A ladle or container for drink. e.g. 1966 Daily Tel. 18 Oct. 16/5 At Sothebys._ A Russian silver and enamel kovsh, a squat wine jug, went to G. Lawrence for _210. 135. kray Also krai. [Russ.] In the U.S.S.R., a second-order administrative division, a region, a territory. e.g. 1967 J. P. Cole Geogr. U.S.S.R. vi. 101 In Siberia some krays and oblasts are enormous, and extend from the Trans-Siberian Railway as far as the Arctic Coast. 136. Kremlin Also 7 cremelina, 8 kremelin, 9 kremle. [a. F. kremlin, f. Russ. kreml citadel, of Tartar origin.] a. The citadel or fortifed enclosure within a Russian town or city; esp. that of Moscow, which contains the imperial palace and various public buildings. b. The Kremlin (in Moscow): (used for) the government of the U.S.S.R. Also transf. (in trivial use). e.g. 1961 Evening Bull. (Philadelphia) 5 Mar., The Kremlin is the only world capital powerfully arrayed against crossing the new frontier. 1973 Times 19 Feb. 18/7 People who referred to their head offices as _the Kremlin'_were somehow lacking in motivation. Kremlinology, the study and analysis of the Soviet Government and its policies;

Kremlinological a.; Kremlinologist, such an analyst; also transf. e.g. 1971 Times 22 Jan. 8/8 Kremlinology gone wild. 1972 A. Ulam Fall of Amer. University i. 35 The budding Kremlinologists were put in their place, which often and quite properly turned out to be the C.I.A. 137. krimmer Also crimmel, crimmer, krimma. [G., f. Krim (Russ. Krym) Crimea (see Crimean a.).] A grey or black fur made from the wool of young lambs in or near the Crimea; an imitation of this. e.g. 1949 Amer. Speech XXIV. 96 Another common type of Persian lamb is the krimmer._ It is characterized by heavier fur and looser curl. Other strains of lamb can be dyed to simulate krimmer. 138. kryzhanovskite Min. [ad. Russ. kryzhanovskit (A. I. Ginzburg 1950, in Doklady Akad. nauk SSSR LXXII. 763), f. the name of V. I. Kryzhanovski (1881-1947), Russ. mineralogist: see -ite1.] A greenish-brown hydrated basic phosphate of manganese and ferric iron, MnFe2(PO4)2(OH)2_H2O, found in Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R. e.g. 1971 Amer. Mineralogist LVI. 5 Since kryzhanovskite is predominantly the ferric equivalent of the phosphoferrite group, the species has valid status and the name is to apply to all members of the phosphoferrite group containing an excess of 50 mol percent Fe3+ in the octahedral sites. 139. kulak Also koolack, koulak. [Russ. kulák fist, tight-fisted person, pl. kulaki, f. Turki kul hand.] In pre-Revolution Russia, a well-to-do farmer or trader; in the Soviet Union, a peasant-proprietor working for his own profit. Also transf. e.g. 1951 G. Mikes Down with Everybody 48 He was a kulak, a spy and an enemy agent, but now he had realised his mistake---namely that it was a mistake to be a kulak, a spy and an enemy agent. 1970 New Scientist 1 Jan. 15/1 The improved grain husbandry_may favour the rise of _kulaks' or _improving landlord' groups. 140. kulturny a. [Russ. kul'túrny- civilized.] In the Soviet Union: cultured, civilized. e.g. 1959 New Statesman 23 May 711/3 Aesthetic considerations never played a part in the previous drives for a more kulturny mode of life, which were more concerned with manners than with the cultivation of good taste. 1973 J. Shub Moscow by Nightmare ix. 97 She let the porter take her one small suitcase---it wouldn't be “kulturny” to carry it herself. 141. kurchatovium Chem. [ad. Russ. kurchátovi_ (Flerov & Kuznestov 1967, in Priroda Nov. 35), f. the name of Igor Kurchatov (1903_60), Russ. nuclear physicist: see -ium.] (A name proposed for) an artificially produced transuranic element, atomic number 104. Symbol Ku. e.g. 1971 Inorg. & Nucl. Chem. Lett. VII. 1115 The present work shows once again that the doubts expressed by the Berkeley group_concerning the chemical identification of kurchatovium are completely unfounded. 142. kurgan [Russ. kurgan barrow, tumulus; of Tartar origin.] A prehistoric sepulchral tumulus or barrow in Russia and Tartary. 1889 J. Abercromby E. Caucasus 218, I remarked two green basins._ They had been found in a kurgan. 1890 Huxley in 19th Cent. 769 These Tschudish kurgans abound in copper and gold articles_but contain neither bronze nor iron. 143. kurnakovite Min. [f. the name of N. S. Kurnakov (1860_1941), Russian mineralogist: see -ite1.] A hydrated borate of magnesium, Mg2B6O11_13H2O, found as colourless granular aggregates with a vitreous lustre at Inder, Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R. e.g. 1970 Soviet Physics: Doklady XIV. 1141/2 In kurnakovite an isolated H2O particle is bonded to four boroxy rings by a single Mg octahedron.

144. kvass Forms: quass(e, quas, quash, kuass, kvass, kvas. [Russ. kvas -leaven, kvass.] A fermented beverage in general use in Russia, commonly made from an infusion of rye-flour or bread with malt; rye beer. e.g. 1863 Mrs. Atkinson Tartar Steppes 232 They have bread in unlimited quantity, quass,_farinaceous food. 1894 Garnett tr. Turgenev's Ho. Gentlefolk 121 _Fetch the kvas', repeats the same woman's voice. 145. laika Pl. laiki. [Russ. la_ka, f. la_ bark.] A dog belonging to a group of Asiatic breeds of the spitz type, characterized by a pointed muzzle, pricked ears, a stocky body with a thick, rough, grey, fawn, white, or black coat and a tail curled over the back. e.g. 1971 F. Hamilton World Encycl. Dogs 599 Laiki are seen all over Northern Russia._ When a Laika, out hunting, sees a bird in a tree or bush, it barks ceaselessly. 146. latke Also lutka, lutke. [Yiddish, a. Russ. látka a pastry.] In Jewish cookery, a pancake, esp. one made with grated potato. e.g. 1974 Times 15 Oct. 13/8 He really does need a few more of my potato lutkas. 147. Lesghian n. and a. Also Lesghi(e), Lesghien, Lesgian, Lezg(h)ian, Lezgin. [ad. Russ. Lezgin.] A. n. A member of a tribe of the north-eastern Caucasus; also (in earlier quots.), one of a mountain people of Daghestan. Also, the language of these people. B. adj. Of or pertaining to these people. Also_Lesg(h)ic a. e.g. 1959 B. Geiger et al. Peoples & Lang. Caucasus 38 Lezgian_has the status of a literary language in the Dagestan ASSR. 148. liman [Russian liman estuary; applied to the salt-marshes at the mouths of the Dnieper (cf. Turkish liman harbour, mod.Gr.] (See quots.) 1858 Simmonds Dict. Trade, Liman, a shallow narrow lagoon, at the mouth of rivers, where salt is made. 1859 Rawlinson Herod. III. iv. liii. 48 note, The word in the Greek_is rather _marsh' than _lake', and the liman of the Dniepr is in point of fact so shallow as almost to deserve the name. 1879 Webster Suppl., Liman, the deposit of slime at the mouth of a river. 149. link g. [tr. Russ. zvenó.] The name of a small labour unit on a collective farm in the U.S.S.R. Hence link leader; link system, a system of organizing collective farming into links. e.g. 1965 Economist 18 Dec. 1283/1 The _links' are a veiled compromise between the American type of large-scale farming and the Soviet collective method. 150. liquidate [after Russ. likvidírovat- to liquidate, wind up.] To put an end to, abolish; to stamp out, wipe out; to kill. e.g. 1943 C. S. Lewis Abolition of Man iii. 37 Once we killed bad men: now we liquidate unsocial elements. 1971 Sunday Times 13 June 12/6 When the army units fanned out in Dacca on the evening of March 25_many of them carried lists of people to be liquidated. 151. lomonosovite Min. [ad. Russ. lomonosovit (V. I. Gerasimovsky 1941, in Dokl. Akad. nauk SSSR XXXII. 498), f. the name of Michael Lomonosov (1711_65), Russian mineralogist: see -ite1.] A phosphate, silicate, and oxide of sodium and titanium, Na5Ti2(Si2O7)(PO4)O2, found as dark brown triclinic crystals in the Kola peninsula, U.S.S.R. e.g. 1966 Geochem. Internat. III. 197 It is better to interpret lomonosovite as an inorganic clathrate of murmanite structure and sodium phosphate, with the possible formation of intermediate compounds between lomonosovite and sodium-poor lomonosovite.

152. losh n.1 Also 7 losy. [a. Russ. los.] 1. An elk. Obs. e.g. 1674 Milton Hist. Mosc. ii. Wks. 1851 VIII. 482 People riding on Elks and Loshes. 2. losh hide, leather: the untanned hide of the elk, and later of the buffalo and ox, prepared with oil; a soft buff-coloured leather; wash-leather. (Cf. lasch n.) e.g. 1864 Craig, Suppl., Losh-hide, a hide not dressed in any way, but simply oiled. 153. Ludian Also Lüd, Lude, Ludic, L'üdiks, Lüdish. [f. Olonetsian liüdi (? ad. Russ. ljudi, people) + -an, -ian.] A language of the Finnish group of the Finno-Ugrian family of languages, used by a small number of speakers in the region of Olonets, now in the north-west part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. e.g. 1974 Encycl. Brit. Micropćdia V. 709/3 Ludic, a minor group of dialects spoken to the south of Karelian, is considered to be a blend of Karelian and Veps. 154. lunik Astronautics. Also Lunik. [f. L. lun-a moon + -nik, after sputnik, or ad. Russ. lúnnik (similarly f. Russ. luná moon).] Any of a series of Russian spacecraft sent to or close by the moon. e.g. 1967 Punch 28 June 937/1 The Luniks were soon joined by American Surveyors and Lunar Orbiters and by the end of 1966, by no stretch of poetic imagination could the moon be described as companionless. 155. lunokhod Astronautics. Also (as the proper name of individual vehicles) with capital initial. [a. Russ. lunokhód, f. luná moon + -khod, suffix denoting something that travels (f. khodít' to go).] A type of Russian self-propelled, radio-controlled vehicle for transmitting information about the moon as it travels over its surface. e.g. 1970 Guardian 18 Nov. 1/2 Russia is likely to try to bring its moon crawler Lunokod-1 back to earth. 156. mahorka Also makharka, makhorka. [Russ. makhórka shag.] A coarse tobacco smoked in Russia mostly by soldiers and peasants. Also attrib. e.g. 1964 Sunday Mail Mag. (Brisbane) 22 Nov., Villagers in the Caucasus have been smoking a mossy mixture known as mahorka. 157. Malo-Russian n. and a. [f. Russ. Malorossíya Little Russia, or ad. Malorós(s), -rús or Malorossiyánin Little Russian.] A. n. A former name for a member of the Ukrainian people; the Ukrainian language. B. adj. Of or pertaining to this people; Ukrainian. e.g. 1923 E. A. Ross Russ. Soviet Republic 58 Between Great Russia and the Black Sea live the Ukrainians or Little Russians (Malo-Russians). 158. mammoth n. and a. Also mammuth, mamant, maman, mamont, mammon, mammot, (mammoht), mammouth. [a. Russian mammot, whence mammotovoi kost mammoth's bones (Ludolf Gram. Russ. 1696, p. 92); now mamant. Hence also F. mammouth, mamant, mammont. The word is of obscure origin; the alleged Tartar word mama “earth” (usually cited as the etymon) is not known to exist.] A. n. 1. a. A large extinct species of elephant (Elephas primigenius) formerly native in Europe and northern Asia; its remains are frequently found in the alluvial deposits in Siberia. e.g. 1863 A. C. Ramsay Phys. Geog. xxviii. (1878) 463 Man, the Mammoth, and other extinct mammalia, were contemporaneous. b. attrib. and Comb., as mammoth horn, ivory, tusk; mammoth-wise adv. e.g. 1903 Expositor June 460 Wrought objects of mammoth ivory. c. U.S. Often applied to the fossil mastodon. e.g. 2. fig. Something of huge size (cf. B). 1894 Cornh. Mag. Mar. 269 Bayle's _Dictionnaire Historique', 5 vols. folio, or any kindred mammoth among books. B. adj. a. Comparable to the mammoth in size; huge, gigantic. Freq. in American usage before 1850. e.g. 1974 Economist 21 Dec. 65/1 Britain's mammoth current account deficit.

b. mammoth powder (see quot. 1875); mammoth-tree, the Sequoia (Wellingtonia) gigantea, a large coniferous tree, native of California. 1866 Treas. Bot. 1051/1 The Wellingtonia of our gardens, and the Big or Mammoth-tree of the Americans. 1875 Knight Dict. Mech. s.v. Gunpowder, For very heavy ordnance a much larger grained powder_called mammoth powder, was introduced by the late General T. J. Rodman. 159. manna-croup [ad. Russian mannaya krupa (mannaya fem. adj. _pertaining to manna', krupa groats), or the equivalent in some other Slavonic language. The Ger. synonym is mannagrütze (grütze = grit).] a. A coarse granular meal consisting of the large hard grains of wheat-flour retained in the bolting-machine, or in the grooves of the grinding-stones, after the fine flour has passed through, used for making puddings, soups, etc. b. A similar meal made from the seeds of the manna-grass, Glyceria fluitans. e.g. 1872 Sowerby Eng. Bot. XI. 98 Floating Meadow-Grass._ In several parts of Germany this grass is cultivated for its seeds, which form the manna croup of the shops. 160. Markov Math. Also Markoff. [The name of Andrei Andreevich Markov (1856-1922), Russian mathematician, who investigated such processes.] Markov process: any stochastic process for which the probabilities, at any one time, of the different future states depend only on the existing state and not on how that state was arrived at. Markov chain: a Markov process in which there are a finite or countably infinite number of possible states or in which transitions between states occur at discrete intervals of time; also, one for which in addition the transition probabilities are constant (independent of time). Also Markov property, the characteristic property of Markov processes. e.g. 1973 Manch. Sch. Econ. & Social Stud. XLI. 401 (heading) A Markov chain model of the benefits of participating in government training schemes.

161. Marrism [f. the name of N. Ya. Marr (1865_1934), Russian linguist and archćologist + -ism.] The linguistic theories advocated by Nikolai Yakovlevich Marr, in which language is regarded as a phenomenon of social class rather than of nationality; the advocacy of such theories. Hence Marrist a. e.g. 1966 B. Collinder in Birnbaum & Puhvel Anc. Indo-European Dial. 199 Marrism, which was officially encouraged in Russia for political reasons, has raged as a kind of Asiatic flu in some European universities west of the Iron Curtain. 162. marsokhod Also Marsokhod. [a. Russ. marsokhód, f. Mars Mars (after lunokhod).] A type of Russian self-propelled vehicle for transmitting information about the planet Mars as it travels over its surface. 1970 Sci. News Let. 21 Nov. 397/3 In addition to discussing future Lunokhod explorations of the moon, the Soviets also described similar automated stations and robots for Venus, Mars and Mercury. These they call “planetokhods” or “marsokhods”. 163. maximalism [f. maximal a. + -ism or ad. Russ. maksimalízm.] The policy or theory of a maximum programme of some kind. e.g. 1967 C. Seton-Watson Italy from Liberalism to Fascism xii. 524 Maximalism_provided only revolutionary talk as a substitute for revolution. 164. Maximalist Also maximalist. [f. maximal a. + -ist or ad. Russ. maksimalíst, f. L. maximum, or ad. F. maximaliste.] A member of the more extremist fraction of the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party which split off from the main body of the party in 1904 and which used and advocated terrorist methods. Later regarded as a translation of Russ. bolshevik and used as an alternative name for a Bolshevik. Also, a member of any similar group outside Russia. Also attrib. or as adj., of or pertaining to a policy or theory of maximum demands (of some kind specified in the context).

e.g. 1969 D. M. Smith Italy (ed. 2) vii. xxvii. 216 The maximalists were made strong and uncompromising by the belief that history was on their side. 165. mazut Also masut, mazout. [Russ. mazút, ad. Arab. makhzulat refuse, waste.] The viscous liquid left as residue after the distillation of Russian petroleum, used as fuel oil and a coarse lubricant. e.g. 1974 P. Highsmith Ripley's Game v. 47 He tackled with broom and dustpan the exterior of the pipes and the floor around their mazout furnace. 166. mendelevium Chem. [f. the name of Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834_1907), Russian chemist + -ium.] An artificially produced transuranic element, the longest-lived isotope of which has a half-life of two months. Atomic number 101; symbol Md (formerly Mv). e.g. 1967 New Scientist 21 Sept. 598/2 The new mendelevium isotope, with 101 protons and 157 neutrons, falls into the odd-odd class._ The long half-life will enable quite large quantities of mendelevium to be made. 167. Menshevik a. and n. (obs. Menshevist) [a. Russ. men_shevík, f. mén_she, compar. of mály_ little. The Russ. pl. men_shevikí has been used by some English writers.] A. adj. Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of, the Mensheviks or Menshevism. e.g. 1975 Times Lit. Suppl. 4 July 740/5 When accused of holding menshevik positions, he replies that revolutionary virginity is not worth preserving at the price of inaction. B. n. A member of the political group or party forming the smaller part of the Russian Social-Democratic Party after the split with the Bolsheviks in 1903 and denounced as counter-revolutionaries after the October Revolution of 1917. Cf. Bolshevik n. Also transf. and fig. e.g. 1923 E. A. Ross Russ. Soviet Republic 322 The Mensheviks can get no paper, which is a government monopoly, for pamphlets or leaflets at election time. 1973 Listener 1 Feb. 135/3 The Provisionals by playing the Bolsheviks to the Officials Mensheviks---though not in ideology of course---have indeed become the party of the majority. 168. Menshevism [a. Russ. men-shevízm: see Menshevik a. and n.] The doctrines and practices of the Mensheviks. 1920 Glasgow Herald 14 May 9 Communism as it is offered to Trans-Caucasia has assumed the form of Menshevism. 169. meteoritics n. pl. (const. as sing.). [f. meteorit(e + -ics, as ad. Russ. meteoritika (Yu. I. Simashko 1889, in Niva XX. 82/2).] The scientific study of meteors and meteorites. e.g. 1975 Sci. Amer. Jan. 29/1 In recent years the discipline of meteoritics has moved beyond the taxonomic stage, and sound geochemical and physical reasoning has been applied in interpreting the masses of data. meteo-riticist, an expert in meteoritics. e.g. 1975 Sci. Amer. Jan. 29/2 Some meteoriticists boldly construct multistage scenarios of condensation, agglomeration, accretion, heating, metamorphism and differentiation to explain the accumulated facts. 170. minimalist n. and a. [f. minimal a. + -ist; tr. Russ. menshevík Menshevik a. and n.] A. n. 1. (Also with capital initial.) = Menshevik n.; more widely, a person who advocates small or moderate reforms or policies. e.g. 1918 E. P. Stebbing From Czar to Bolshevik iii. 25 The Social Democrats consisted chiefly of Bolsheviks with a smaller Menshevik group. The Social Revolutionaries were subdivided into Maximalists and Minimalists. 171. mir n [Russ.] A village community in pre-revolutionary Russia. Also attrib.

1975 Times 8 Jan. 15/7 The democratic and civic traditions of Russia, from Kievian Rus to the mirs and the Zaporozhean Republic. 172. miryachit Also erron. myri-. Path. [Russian miryachit_ (inf.) to be epileptic (Pavlovsky).] A peculiar nervous disease observed in Siberia and in some non-European countries, the chief characteristic of which consists in mimicry by the patient of everything said or done by another. e.g. 1902 Quain Dict. Med. 440 The subjects of Myriachit react only to impulses entering through the efferent optic and auditory channels. 173. Mordvin Also Mordv, Mordvian, Mordvine, Mordvinian. [Russ.] a. A member of a Finnish people inhabiting the region of the middle Volga. b. The Finno-Ugric language of this people. Also attrib. or as adj. So Mordva, this people collectively. e.g. 1971 P. Longworth Cossacks ii. 55 There was a ruling class of semi-nomadic Tatars and the primitive Ostyaks, Voguls and Mordvins paid them tribute. 174. moujik, muzhik Now Hist. Forms: musick, mousike, mousick, mugike, mougik, -jik, muzhik, mooshik, -zheek; mouzhik, mujik. [Russ. muzhik peasant.] 1. A Russian peasant. e.g. 1963 V. Nabokov Gift iv. 216 He began dabbling in propaganda by conversing with mujiks. 2. (In full moujik blouse, coat). A loose fur cape for ladies' wear. 1897 Westm. Gaz. 30 Sept. 3/2 This moujik coat is now too popular. 1901 Ibid. 4 July 3/1 The moujik, that little blouse coat, cut low in the neck and with open fronts [etc.]. 175. Mukuzani [Russ.] A red wine from Georgia, U.S.S.R. e.g. 1968 A. H. Gold Wines & Spirits of World 467 The wines tend to be full and the red ones dark. Mukuzani and Saperavi are two dark strong red wines of 14_ alcoholic strength from the eastern side of Georgia in the Tiflis region. 176. murmanite Min. [ad. Russ. murmanit (A. E. Fersman 1923, in Doklady Ross. Akad. Nauk 63), f. Murman, name of a shore on the north of the Kola peninsula in Russia + -it -ite1.] A hydrated silicate of sodium and titanium with lesser and variable amounts of manganese, zirconium, iron, calcium, and niobium, which is found as violet monoclinic crystals. e.g. 1968 I. Kostov Mineralogy ii. v. 298 Murmanite and lomonosovite form a complete isomorphous series and are monoclinic like sphene and fersmanite. 177. Muscovy Also Muskovie, muskevia, Muscovia. [a. F. Muscovie, earlier Moscovie, ad. mod.L. Moscovia, f. Russian Moskova Moscow.] The name of the principality of Moscow, applied by extension to Russia generally. I. 1. Used attrib. or quasi-adj. in the name of things belonging to, orginating or produced in and obtained from Muscovy, as Muscovy hide, leather, Russia leather; Muscovy glass, common mica; also, sometimes, = talc; Muscovy lantern, one furnished with Muscovy glass; Muscovy talc = Muscovy glass. e.g. 1825 J. Nicholson Operat. Mechanic 740 Substituting varnished metallic gauze in the room of Muscovy talc, a kind of mica. 178. NIR [f. the initials of Russ. Nauchno-Issledovatel_skaya Rabota scientific research work], a colour television system developed in Russia, similar to SECAM; 179. N.K.V.D. [Russ. Naródny_ Komissariát Vnútrennikh Del]

Soviet Commissariat of Internal Affairs e.g. 1973 T. Allbeury Choice of Enemies vi. 21 He was wearing an NKVD uniform. 180. nagaika Pl. -kas, -ki. [Russ., of Turkic origin.] A thick plaited whip used by Cossacks. e.g. 1917 Daily Chron 22 June 1/4 The Cossacks drove off the agitators from the station with their nagaikas. 181. Narodnik Also narodnik. Pl. Narodniki, Narodniks. [Russ., f. narod people + -nik.] A supporter of the type of populist agrarian socialism originating amongst the Russian intelligentsia in the late 1860s which regarded the peasants and intelligentsia as the only revolutionary forces and denied the revolutionary role of the working class; one who tries to educate politically communities of rural or urban poor while sharing the conditions of their lives. Also attrib. and transf. Hence Narodnikism, the theory of making political power a reality for the masses. e.g. 1970 G. Jackson Let. 25 Mar. in Soledad Brother (1971) 197 The dialectic between Narodnik and Nihilist should never break down. 1971 Graphic (Durban) 7 May 12/2 Her aunts were active in the populist narodniki movement [in Russia]. 182. nefedyevite Min. Also nefediewite, nefedievite. [ad. Russ. nefed_evit (P. Puzyrevsky 1872, in Zapiski imperat. S.-Peterburgsk. mineral. Obshch. VII. 15, f. the name of V. V. Nefed_ev, 19th_cent. Russian mineralogist: see -ite1.] A white or pinkish aluminosilicate of magnesium and calcium belonging to the clay family and similar to montmorillonite. e.g. 961 Doklady Earth Sci. CXXXV. 1296/1 In view of the great structural similarity between true montmorillonite and nefedyevite, doubling of the unit cell along the c axis can be expected. 183. nekulturny n. and a. Also nekulturniiy. [Russ. nekulturny_ uncivilized.] A. n. One who is by Russian standards considered unenlightened, a boor. B. adj. Not having cultured manners, boorish. e.g. 1967 J. Fores Desirable Dictator iv. 97 We are not gangsters, Mr. C.I.A. We leave that kind of nekulturny behaviour to the West. 184. nenadkevichite Min. [ad. Russ. nenadkevichit (Kuz_menko & Kazakova 1955, in Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR C. 1159), f. the name of K. A. Nenadkevich (b. 1880), Russian mineralogist: see -ite1.] A hydrated silicate of sodium, calcium, niobium, and titanium, (Na,Ca)(Nb,Ti)Si2O7.2H2O, which is found as pale yellow orthorhombic crystals. e.g. 1972 Mineral. Abstr. XXIII. 225/2 Localities are described representing the alkalic complex of Augusta County [Virginia]._ Associated with the alkalic rocks are nenadkevichite, astrophyllite, and bastnäsite. 185. nenadkevite Min. [ad. Russ. nenadkevit, f. as prec.] Any member of a range of isomorphous, basic, hydrated silicates of uranium(IV), uranium(VI), magnesium, calcium, thorium, and lead. e.g. 1960 Mineral. Abstr. XIV. 401/1 Rarer uranium deposits include those in which the ore mineral is the silicate nenadkevite. 186. Nenets Pl. Nentsi, Nentsy. [a. Russ. Nénets, pl. Néntsy.] A Samodian (formerly Samoyedic) people inhabiting the far north-east of Europe and the north of Siberia; a member of this people; their language. e.g. 1968 Encycl. Brit. XVI. 210/2 The Nenets people, a Finno-Ugrian group formerly known as the Samoyed, make their living chiefly by reindeer herding. 187. nielsbohrium Chem.

[f. Niels Bohr (see Bohr) + -ium, as ad. Russ. nil_sbori_, a name used by G. N. Flerov and co-workers (e.g. in Flerov & Zvara Report D7_6013 (Joint Inst. Nuclear Res., Dubna, U.S.S.R., 1971) 56), though no explicit coinage of the word has been traced in the literature available.] (A name proposed for) an artificially produced transuranic element, of atomic number 105. (The name hahnium has also been proposed for it.) 1973 Nuclear Sci. Abstr. XXVIII. 1209/2 Proposed names for Nos. 103_105 are Lawrencium (Lr), Kurchatovium (Ku), and Nielsbohrium (Bo). 188. nifontovite Min. [ad. Russ. nifontovit (Malinko & Lisitsyn 1961, in Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR CXXXIX. 188), f. the name of P. V. Nifontov, 20th-cent. Russian geologist: see -ite1.] A hydrated borate of calcium, CaB2O4.2_3H2O, found as colourless monoclinic crystals. 1961 Mineral. Mag. XXXII. 990 Nifontovite._ Small anhedral grains in skarn deposits in the Urals. 189. nordite Min. [ad. Russ. nordit (V. I. Gerasimovsky 1941, in Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR XXXII. 496): see quot. 1941 and -ite1.] A silicate of sodium, strontium, manganese, calcium, and lanthanides, found as light brown orthorhombic crystals. e.g. 1970 Amer. Mineralogist LV. 1167 The structure of nordite is closely related to the structures of melilite and datolite-gadolinite, and can be considered as an unusual combination of both. 190. nu [Yiddish, f. Russ. nu well, well now.] An exclamation variously used to express interrogation, surprise, emphasis, doubt, etc. e.g. 1971 D. Meiring Wall of Glass xvii. 147 Nu? thought Geyra, So what? 191. nudnik U.S. Also nudnick. [Yiddish nudnik, f. Russ. núdny_ tedious, boring; see -nik.] Someone who pesters, nags, or irritates; a bore. Also attrib. e.g. 1961 John o' London's 28 Sept. 345/2 What a pair of nudniks they are. 1972 New York 8 May 70/1 Too many of our nudnik moviegoers_dread the prospect of sharing their pleasures with the plain folks. 192. oblast [Russ.] A second-order administrative subdivision in Imperial Russia and the U.S.S.R.; a Russian province or region. Also attrib. e.g. 1976 Survey Spring 57 He embarked on a successful career in party administration, attaining the rank of oblast First Secretary. 193. obruchevite Min. [ad. Russ. obruchevit, f. the name of V. A. Obruchev (1863_1956), Russian geologist: see -ite1.] A mineral containing appreciable proportions of yttrium and uranium that was orig. regarded as a member of the pyrochlore group (see quot. 1977). e.g. 1966 Z. Lerman tr. Vlasov's Geochem. & Mineral. Rare Elements II. 509 The mode of occurrence of obruchevite and its mineral paragenesis show that it forms during the latest stages of the replacement process. 194. Octoberist, -brist [f. October + -ist] 2. (Chiefly in form Octobrist.) a. [Russ. oktyabríst.] In Russian politics, a member of the League of the 17 October 1905 Old Style (30 October New Style), formed in response to the Imperial Constitutional Manifesto of the same date. Also attrib. or as adj. e.g. 1967 A. Ransome Autobiogr. (1976) xxii. 195 Pares was intimate with Gutchkov of the Octobrists. b. [Russ. oktyabryónok.] A member of a Russian communist organization founded in 1925 for young people below the normal age of the _Pioneers' (see pioneer n. 3 c). e.g. 1960 A. Kassof in C. E. Black Transformation Russ. Society v. 485 The Octobrists_includes members from seven through nine years of age.

195. Ogpu Also O.G.P.U. [f. the initials of the Russ. Ob_edinënnoe Gosudárstvennoe Politícheskoe Upravlénie United State Political Directorate.] An organization for investigating and combating counter-revolutionary activities in Soviet Russia, which superseded the Cheka and the G.P.U. (G. III. f) in 1923 and was replaced by the N.K.V.D. (N II. 1) in 1934. e.g. 1972 T. Wittlin Commissar (1973) xxxiv. 248 For almost ten years an intensive chase after Agabekov was conducted by the men of the OGPU in Paris. 196. Okhrana Also Ochrana. [a. Russ. okhrána, lit. “guarding, protection”.] An organization of political police set up in 1881 in tsarist Russia after the assassination of Alexander II to maintain the security of the state and suppress revolutionary activities, and disbanded in 1917. e.g. 1974 T. P. Whitney tr. Solzhenitsyn's Gulag Archipel. I. i. ii. 67 Section 13, presumably long since out of date, had to do with service in the Tsarist secret police---the Okhrana. 197. okrug [a. Russ. and Bulg. ókrug.] In Russia and Bulgaria, a territorial division for administrative and other purposes. Also attrib. e.g. 1976 Survey Spring 65 There are [in the USSR] 14 union republic central committees, 10 okrug committees_and 4,243 city and raion committees. 198. Old Ritualist [tr. Russ. staroobryádets] = Old Believer; Old Believer. [tr. Russ. starovér.] A member of that section of the Russian Orthodox Church which refused to accept the liturgical reforms of the patriarch Nikon (1605_1681). Also called Raskolnik. e.g. 1973 Guardian 5 Mar. 2/7 The Soviet magazine Science and Religion_was criticising small groups of Old Believers_in Tuvinskaya province. 1957 Oxf. Dict. Chr. Ch. 1287/1 Starovery, another name for the Russian sect of the Old Believers. 199. oligomictic a. [f. oligo- + Gr. mixed + -ic.] 1. Petrol. [ad. Russ. oligomiktovy (M. S. Shvetsov Petrografiya Osadochnykh Porod (1934) viii. 155).] e.g. 1935 Jrnl. Sedimentary Petrology V. 106/2 Rocks consisting of one to two dominant minerals are termed oligomictic and those composed of several minerals polymictic._ The book is written in Russian._ The review is based on a typewritten summary in English. 1971 Nature 28 May 247/1 Structureless to planar cross-stratified, sheet-like bodies of oligomictic conglomerates and subarkoses are interbedded. 2. Limnology. Applied to a lake that exhibits a stable thermal stratification and only rarely undergoes an overturn. e.g. 1968 R. W. Fairbridge Encycl. Geomorphol. 617/1 The lake water body is stratified, thus oligomictic. 200. omul [a. Russ. omul.] A fish of the salmon family, Coregonus autumnalis, found in Lake Baikal and regions bordering the Arctic Ocean. e.g. 1976 _S. Harvester' Siberian Road i. 18 The Cossacks went after sturgeon and omul, a white-fish. 201. ongon [Russ.] In the Shamanist religion of the Buriats of Mongolia, an image of a god or spirit supposed to be endowed with the power of the force it represents; a fetish. e.g. 1970 New Society 5 Mar. 393/1 The word, “ongon”, means both a spirit and the material representation of a spirit. Drawings are made only of known spirits, each of which has particular magical powers. Since the representation is the spirit, the drawings themselves become magical: according to the spirit, an ongon can cure smallpox, keep young lambs healthy, give protection to fishermen and so on.

202. osseter Zool. [a. Russ. osétr = Serb. jesetra, Pol. jesiotr, Lith. asetras, ershketras sturgeon.] A species of sturgeon, Acipenser Güldenstädtii. e.g. 1887 Chamb. Jrnl. IV. 630/2 The sturgeon_and its kindred the great sturgeon or beluga_, the sewruga_, the osseter (A. Guldenstadtii), and the small sturgeon or sterlet. 203. Ossetian n. and a. Also Ossetan Osset(e) Ossetic [f. Russ. osetín, f. Georgian os, oset_i Ossetia (place-name) + -ian.] A. n. a. A member of a people of the Central Caucasus, inhabiting North Ossetia (the North Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) and South Ossetia (an Autonomous Oblast of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic). b. The language of this people, one of the Eastern Iranian group. e.g. 1971 L. Zgusta et al Man. Lexicogr. vii. 300 The glosses would probably be given in Ossetic, the dictionary being determined for the Ossetes. B. adj. Of or pertaining to this people or their language. e.g. 1974 Country Life 24 Jan. 146/4 An Ossete folk-ballad, adapted by the poet Kosta Khetagurov (the Caucasian equivalent of Robert Burns), begins: The fox has been whetting her teeth for the badger. 204. ostrog [Russ. ostróg stockade, blockhouse, f. o = ob about + sterech - to guard.] A house or village in Siberia, surrounded by a palisade or wall, and serving as a fort or prison. e.g. 1833 R. Pinkerton Russia 215 From the ostrog we proceeded to the town hospital. 205. Ostyak Also Ostiac, Ostiack, Ostiak, etc. [Russ. ostyák.] a. (A member of) a Finno-Ugric people, also called Khantý, living in the Ob River basin in Western Siberia. b. The language of this people, belonging to the Ob-Ugrian group. Also attrib. or as adj. e.g. 1975 G. F. Cushing tr. Hajdu's Finno-Ugrian Lang. & Peoples iii. 123 Anthropologically the Voguls and Ostyaks_are classed by anthropologists as Europo-Sibirid or Uralic. 206. otriad [a. Russ. otryád a detachment.] In Russia: a detachment, group of soldiers (see also quot. 1916). e.g. 1916 Yorkshire Post 23 Feb. 4/4 An Englishman who works with a volunteer ambulance or otriad, behind the Russian lines. 1933 Vanessa iv. i. 672 The Retreat had begun and with the rest of the Otriad he had been flung into the little town of O. 207. Ouspenskyist [f. the name of Peter Demianovich Ouspensky (1878_1947), Russian philosopher + -ist.] A follower of Ouspensky or his teaching. Also Ouspenskian, Ouspenskyite adjs. e.g. 1975 M. Bradbury History Man v. 81 A radical Catholic priest and his Ouspenskyite mistress. 208. Pavlov Also Pavloff, etc. The name of the Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849_1936), used attrib. or in the possessive to designate aspects of his work, esp. those connected with conditioning the salivary reflexes of a dog to the mental stimulus of the sound of a bell. e.g. 1976 A. White Long Silence ii. 19 You're not a Pavlov dog, trained to bark when I ring a bell. You have a mind of your own. 209. pavlova Austral. and N.Z. [f. the name of Anna Pavlova (1885_1931), Russian ballerina.] A dessert or cake, now usually one made with meringue, whipped cream, and fruit. Also attrib. e.g. 1975 Times 16 Dec. 12/4 A Pavlova, an Australian dessert_a meringue with cream, passion fruit, ice cream and strawberries. 210. peach, n. Obs. Also peech. [a. Russ. petchi oven, stove.]

A (Russian) stove. 1591 G. Fletcher Russe Commw. xxviii. (Hakl. Soc.) 147 All the winter time_they heat their peaches, which are made lyke the Germane bathstoaves, and_so warme the house. 1778 Phil. Trans. LXIX. 327 A number of billets of wood are placed in the peech or stove. 211. pedology [f. pedo- + -ology. Cf. G. pedologie (e.g. F. A. Fallou Pedologie (1862) 1. 9), Russ. pedológiya (e.g. Entsikl. Slovar_ (1898) XXIVa s.v. pochvovedenie; Pochvovedenie (1900) II. 140, (1902) IV. 1; the Fr. title of this periodical was La Pédologie from its inception in 1899). The usual Russ. word for the subject has always been pochvovédenie, lit. soil science (cf. G. bodenkunde, given by Fallou as a synonym of pedologie). The Eng. word pedology occurs in the galley proofs of an unpublished dict. of _ 1900_10, according to L. D. Stamp Gloss. Geogr. Terms (1961) 358, but prob. only in reference to foreign equivalents.] The scientific study of soil, esp. its formation, nature, and classification; soil science. e.g. 1973 Nature 27 July p. ii/1 (Advt.), Scientists interested in sediments and in allied fields such as pedology, geomorphology, soils engineering and cement technology will find in this book a valuable research tool. Hence pedologic, -_logical adjs., of or pertaining to pedology or soil; pedologically adv., in pedological terms; as regards pedology; pedologist, one who studies pedology. e.g. 1974 Nature 4 Jan. 74/1 There was no known method by which termites or pedological processes could bring about the observed accumulation of calcium carbonate in termite mounds. 212. pelmeny n. pl. Also -ni. [a. Russ. pel'méni.] In Russian cookery, small pastry cases stuffed with meat, etc. e.g. 1972 Times 12 Apr. 9/2 Such Russian specialities as Pelmeny (a kind of ravioli). 213. pentahydroborite Min. [ad. Russ. pentagidroborit (S. V. Malinko 1961, in Zapiski Vsesoyuz. Min. Obshchesvta XC. 673)], a hydrated calcium borate, CaB2O4_5H2O, occurring as small, colourless triclinic crystals; 214. pentahydrocalcite Min. [ad. Russ. pentagidrokal_tsit_ (P. N. Chirvinski_ 1906, in Ezhegodnik_ po Geol. i Mineral. Ross_i VIII. 241)], a pentahydrate of calcium carbonate, CaCO3_5H2O, the natural occurrence of which is uncertain; 215. perestroika Pol. Also perestroyka. [a. Russ. perestro_ka restructuring.] The restructuring or reform of the Soviet economic and political system, first proposed at the 26th Party Congress in 1979 and actively promoted under the leadership of Mikhail Gorbachev from 1985. e.g. 1987 Observer (Colour Suppl.) 25 Oct. 39/1 Let conversation turn to the perestroika and mostly you hear grumbles: about higher prices, harder work---and the vodka famine. 216. perovskia Also perowskia, perowskya. [mod.L. (G. Karelin 1841, in Bull. Soc. Imp. des Naturalistes de Moscou 15), f. the name of V. A. Perovski (1794-1857), once governor of the Russian province of Orenburg.] A herb or sub-shrub of the genus so called, belonging to the family Labiatć, native to temperate regions of west and cental Asia, and bearing panicles of deep blue flowers. e.g. 1973 C. D. Brickell in A. Gemmell Sunday Gardener iii. 85 Perovskia, with tall upright growths with grey-green aromatic leaves, will reach four feet, with long sprays of lavender-blue in September. 217. phytosociology [ad. Russ. fitosotsiologiya.] The study of plant communities, their composition and structure. So phytosociological, a., phytosociologically adv.; phytosociologist, one engaged in this study. e.g. 1977 Dćdalus Fall 130 In some of its branches, such as biogeography and phytosociology, the systems of classification and quantitative description reached phantasmagoric extremes.

218. pirog Also piroga, piroque. Pl. pirogen (a. Yiddish), pirogi (a. Russ.), pirogs. [Russ. piróg, Yiddish (a. Russ.) pirog.] A large pie. Cf. piroshki n. pl. e.g. 1971 Guardian 23 July 9/6 Pirogi and Piroshki, literally big pies and baby pies. 219. piroshki n. pl. Also pirotchki, pirozhki, pyrochki. Occas. in sing. piro_shok [a. Russ. pirozhkí pl. of pirozhók, dim. of piróg (pirog).] Small patties. e.g. 1977 J. Wambaugh Black Marble (1978) x. 218 Valnikov held a paper plate stacked with golden pastries and said, _Piroshki. They're very light and filled with cheese or meat. My brother usually makes them both ways.' 220. planetokhod Also Planetokhod. [a. Russ. planetokhód, f. planéta planet n.1 (after lunokhod).] A Russian self-propelled vehicle for transmitting information about another planet as it travels over its surface. e.g. 1970 Times 18 Nov. 1 The vehicle is called Lunokhod-1. Soviet scientists are predicting that other such vehicles, named Planetokhod or Marsokhod, will eventually move over the surface of the Planets. 1973 Nature 23 Mar. 219/2 His remarks relating to the possible “planetokhod” exploration of Venus and the outer planets seem highly speculative. 221. plet n.2 Also plete, plitt. [a. Russ. pleti scourge, whip.] A three-thonged whip loaded with lead, formerly used for flogging in Russia. e.g. 1885 A. Griffiths in Encycl. Brit. XIX. 762/2 There is another flagellator, called the plete, a whip of twisted hide, retained at a few of the most distant Siberian prisons. 222. ploshchadka Archćol. Pl. ploshchadki. [Russ., = ground, area, platform.] In Ukrainian sites of the Neolithic period, a raised area or platform, spec. one formed of burnt clay from the debris of collapsed buildings. e.g. 1957 V. G. Childe Dawn Europ. Civilization (ed. 6) viii. 137 The houses of later phases are represented by the celebrated ploscadki, areas of baked clay resulting from the burning and collapse of walls and floors. 223. podzol Soil Sci. Also podsol, and formerly also with capital initial. [a. Russ. podzól, f. pod- under- + zolá ash.] An acidic, generally infertile soil which is characterized by a well-marked white or grey ash-like subsurface layer from which minerals have been leached into a lower dark-coloured layer, and which occurs esp. under coniferous trees or heath vegetation in moist, usu. temperate climates (typically in parts of N. Russia). Orig. applied only to the ash-like layer itself. e.g. 1973 Sci. Amer. Dec. 64/2 The tropical podzols are useless even for shifting agriculture; the Dayak peoples of Borneo call them kerangas: _land on which one cannot grow rice'. podzolic (or -ds-) a., of the nature of or resembling a podzol in possessing a layer from which some leaching of bases has occurred. e.g. 1973 P. A. Colinvaux Introd. Ecol. iii. 46 Some heath lands of northern Europe, with acid litter and leached soils, reveal podzolic profiles.

224. pogrom n. [Russian pogrom, devastation, destruction.] a. An organized massacre in Russia for the destruction or annihilation of any body or class: orig. and esp. applied to those directed against the Jews. e.g. 1979 O. Sela Petrograd Consignment 142 Wasn't he eager to go back to Russia to read the Protocols of the Elders of Zion again; wasn't another pogrom all he lived for. b. In general use: an organized, officially tolerated, attack on any community or group. Also fig. e.g. 1975 R. Browning Emperor Julian iii. 51 Hannibalianus had been killed in 337 in the pogrom of his relations engineered by Constantius.

c. attrib. and Comb. e.g. 1978 D. Murphy Place Apart viii. 167 Few of us would wish to see our army crossing the [Irish] border to fight Loyalist paramilitaries._ If another _pogrom' situation did arise_it would make more sense to welcome_refugees into the Republic. pogromist (also stressed ‘pogromist), an organizer of or participant in a pogrom. e.g. 1978 I. B. Singer Shosha xiv. 254 People sacrificed themselves for Stalin, for Petlura, for Machno, for every pogromist. 225. polaron Physics. [f. polar(ization and related words + -on1; orig. formed as Russ. polyarón (S. Pekar 1946, in Zh. eksper. i teoret. Fiziki XVI. 344).] A quasi-particle consisting of a free electron in an ionic crystal and the associated distortion of the crystal lattice. e.g. 1971 Mott & Davis Electronic Processes in Non-Crystalline Materials iv. 115 At low temperatures a polaron, whether large or small,_will behave exactly like a heavy particle, being scattered by impurities or lattice vibrations; moreover a high density of polarons can form a degenerate gas. polaronic a. e.g. 1978 Nature 16 Feb. 647/1 There will_be some stored energy involved in the system due to the polaronic nature of the moving charge carrier. 226. polatouche Zool. [F. polatouche, ad. Russ. poletuchi_ flying; cf. letuchaya bęlka flying squirrel.] The small flying squirrel of Europe and N. Asia, Sciuropterus volans. e.g. 1827 Griffith Cuvier's Anim. K. III. 84 Their molars_are the same as those of the squirrels and polatouches. 1861 Wood Nat. Hist. I. 594 The polatouche of Siberia. 227. Politbureau, -buro Also politbureau, -buro. [a. Russ. politbyuró, f. polit(ícheskoe political + byuró bureau.] The highest policy-making committee of the U.S.S.R., or of some other Communist country or party (in quot. 1930, a district committee). Also attrib., transf., and fig. e.g. 1978 Whitaker's Almanack 1979 959/1 The real power of the Party is vested, however, in the Politbureau, the Secretariat and the permanent Departments of the Central Committee. 228. Polovtsy n. pl., collect. Also Polovtsi, Polovtzi, Polovzi. [Russ.] A union of the nomad tribes belonging to the Kipchak Turks, which inhabited the steppes between the Danube and the Volga in the 11th_13th centuries. So Polovetsian, Polovtsian a., of or pertaining to these people or their language; also as n. e.g. 1954 Grove's Dict. Mus. (ed. 5) I. 821/1 Toward the end of 1874 Borodin's interest in Igor' was revived; the _Polovtsian March' was composed, and in the following summer the famous dances. 1974 T. Szamuely Russian Tradition i. ii. 13 The Kievan state had been engaged in perpetual warfare since its foundation. Khazars, Pechenegs, Polovtsy---one wave followed the other.

229. polymictic a. [f. as prec. + -ic.] 1. Petrol. [ad. Russ. polimiktovy (M. S. Shvetsov Petrografiya Osadochnykh Porod (1934) viii. 155).] e.g. 1969 S. H. Haughton Geol. Hist. Southern Afr. iv. 89 At various horizons above the Intermediate Reefs bands of polymictic conglomerates occur. 2. Limnology. Applied to a lake that has no stable thermal stratification but exhibits perennial circulation. e.g. 1966 McGraw-Hill Encycl. Sci. & Technol. V. 523/2 In addition there are_low-altitude tropical oligomictic lakes with irregular circulation, and high-altitude tropical polymictic lakes with continuous circulation. 230. polynya Formerly also polynia. Pl. polynyas (rarely ||polynyi.). [Russ. poluinya a rotten place in the ice, an open place amidst ice, f. root of pole, polyana field.] A space of open water in the midst of ice, esp. in the arctic seas.

e.g. 1971 Nature 1 Jan. 37/2 The present study was undertaken to measure the actual distribution of CO2 between the atmosphere and the sea over open leads and polynyi in the ice-covered Bering Sea. 231. Pomeranchuk Physics. [Name of Isaak Yakovlevich Pomeranchuk (1913_66), Russian physicist.] a. Used attrib. with reference to the cooling that a mixture of liquid and solid helium 3 undergoes when it is solidified by compression. [Described by Pomeranchuk in Zh. éksper. i teoret. Fiziki (1950) XX. 919.] e.g. 1976 Ibid. 23 Sept. 276/1 A pair of Pomeranchuk cells was used both for cooling the 3He into the superfluid A-phase and also for inducing a flow of liquid through the narrow tube which connected them together. b. Used, chiefly attrib., to designate certain concepts relating to the scattering of sub-atomic particles at high energies, as Pomeranchuk pole, a special Regge pole with _(0) = 1 and even signature, and with zero isospin, charge, hypercharge, and baryon number (_ being the trajectory function); Pomeranchuk('s) theorem, a theorem according to which the reaction cross-sections for a particle and for its anti-particle incident on the same target particle should approach the same constant value as the energy of the incident particle is increased; (proposed by Pomeranchuk in Zh. éksper. i teoret. Fiziki (1958) XXXIV. 725); Pomeranchuk trajectory, the trajectory traced by a Pomeranchuk pole as _ increases. e.g. 1976 N. W. Dean Introd. Strong Interactions xvi. 303 If all total cross sections are to become asymptotically constant, the Pomeranchuk trajectory must be present in all elastic scattering amplitudes. 232. Pontian a. Geol. [ad. Russ. Ponticheski_ (N. Barbot de Marny Geol. ocherk' Khersonsko_ Gubernii (1869) xiv. 106), f. as Pontic a.1: see -ian.] Of, pertaining to, or designating the uppermost stage of the Miocene series in Europe (sometimes regarded as the lowest of the Pliocene series). Also absol. e.g. 1973 Ibid. 15 June 391/1 Estimates by most vertebrate palaeontologists have ranged between 10_12 m.y. because of the supposed initial appearance of the three-toed Hipparion in the lower part of the stratotype Pontian of the eastern Mediterranean. 233. pood Forms: pode, poude, poad(e, (p_d), pudde, pud, poud, pood. [Russ. pudu, ad. LG. or Norse pund pound.] A Russian weight, equal to 40 lb. Russian, or slightly more than 36 lb. avoirdupois. e.g. 1952 E. H. Carr Bolshevik Revolution II. xix. 285 Kalinin estimated the total of relief supplies up to December 1921 at 1,800,000 puds of grain and 600,000 puds of other foodstuffs from home stocks.

234. fellow-traveller transf. One who sympathizes with the Communist movement without actually being a party member. Also in extended uses. The equiv. Russ. popútchik (Trotsky) was used of non-communist writers sympathizing with the Revolution. e.g. 1936 Nation (N.Y.) 24 Oct. 471/1 The new phenomenon is the fellow-traveler. The term has a Russian background and means someone who does not accept all your aims but has enough in common with you to accompany you in a comradely fashion part of the way. In this campaign both Mr. Landon and Mr. Roosevelt have acquired fellow-travelers. Hence (as a back-formation) fellow-travel v. intr., to be a fellow-traveller; trans., to support (the Communist movement) as a fellowtraveller; freq. as fellow-travelling vbl. n. and ppl. a. e.g. 1963 Observer 18 Aug. 20/8 The Germans who fellow-travelled with Hitler in the 1930s were guilty of a gross dereliction of national duty. 235. posnjakite Min. [ad. Russ. poznyakit (Komkov & Nefedov 1967, in Zap. Vsesoyuz. Min. Obshch. XCVI. 58): see quot. 1967 and -ite1.]

A hydrated basic copper sulphate, Cu4(SO4)(OH)6_H2O, that occurs as dark blue crystals similar to langite. e.g. 1970 Mineral. Mag. XXXVII. 740 (heading) Posnjakite from Cornwall. Ibid., While examining and surveying the disused workings of the Drakewalls mine, Gunnislake, we have found specimens of the recently described species posnjakite in old stopes_above the deep adit level. 236. preobrazhenskite Min. [ad. Russ. preobrazhenskit (Ya. Ya. Yarzhensky 1956, in Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR CXI. 1087), f. the name of P. I. Preobrazhensky (1874_1944), investigator of Russian salt deposits: see -ite1.] A hydrated magnesium borate found as nodules in salt deposits in Kazakhstan. e.g. 1957 Amer. Mineralogist XLII. 704 Preobrazhenskite._ It occurs in colorless, lemon-yellow, and dark gray nodules in fine-grained halite-polyhalite rock. 237. Presidium Also Prćsidium. [Russ. prezídium, ad. L. prćsidium, garrison, f. prćsidere (see preside v.).] The presiding body or standing committee in a Communistic organization, esp. in the Supreme Soviet. Also attrib. e.g. 1974 L. Deighton Spy Story xiii. 129 Madame Furtseva, the first woman to reach the Presidium of the Central Committee. 238. prikaz Also pricasse, prikas. Pl. prikazy. [Russ.] In Russia: an office or a department, esp. in the central administration (now only Hist.); an order or a command. e.g. 1963 N. V. Riasanovsky Hist. Russia xviii. 212 The authority of a prikaz extended over a certain type of affairs, such as foreign policy in the case of the ambassadorial prikaz. 239. prisiadka Also prisjádka, prisyadka. [Russ.] A dance-step in which the male dancer squats on his heels and kicks out each leg alternately to the front. Also used for the dance itself. e.g. 1977 J. Wambaugh Black Marble (1978) xii. 292 “I don't care if I'm six feet tall,” Valnikov said, squatting on his haunches, trying some prisiadka kicks that put him temporarily on his ass.

240. pristaf. Also -affe, -av (-aw); prestave. [Russ. _pr_stavu an inspector, commissioner, bedell, lit. one appointed or commissioned, a prefect; f. pr_- before + _stav_ti to set up, place, post.] A commissioner, police officer, overseer. e.g. 1889 G. Kennan in Century Mag. Apr. 893/1 The original report of a Russian police pristav, written upon a printed form. 241. Profintern [Russ. Profintérn, f. Krásny_ Internatsionál Profsoyúzov Red International of Trade Unions, after Komintérn Comintern.] An international organization of left-wing Trade Unions, founded in 1921 and dissolved in 1937. e.g. 1977 N.Y. Rev. Bks. 26 May 26/4 Nikolsky was a representative of the Profintern, the Trade Unions International. 242. proletAbbrev. [after Russ. prolet- in proletkult for proletárskaya kultúra proletarian culture] of proletarian a. and n., as in prolet-art, -cult, (-kult), -cultist, -cultural adj., used to designate cultural activities (esp. such as were started in Russia after 1917) which supposedly reflect or encourage a purely proletarian ethos. e.g. 1976 T. Eagleton Crit. & Ideology v. 165 Such purely gestural, shamefaced materialism will provoke_the reaction of those who press their questioning of the intrinsic élitism of literature and its aesthetics to neo-proletkult limits.

243. Prospekt Also with small initial. [a. Russ. prospékt.] In the Soviet Union: a long, wide street; an avenue, a boulevard. Esp. used of the great avenues of Leningrad, e.g. Nevsky Prospekt. e.g. 1979 O. Sela Petrograd Consignment 105 Petrograd was a tedious panorama of featureless white. Sleds slipped noiselessly along the prospekts. 244. protopope [ad. Russ. protopopu: see proto- and pope n.2; after eccl. Gr. protopapas. So F. protopope.] A chief priest, or priest of higher rank, in the Greek Church. e.g. 1900 Pilot 7 July 6/2 One formerly a playmate, but now the fiercest opponent of Nikon, the protopop Avvakum. 245. provodnik [Russ.] In the U.S.S.R.: a. A guide. b. An attendant or guard on a train. e.g. 1976 National Observer (U.S.) 21 Feb. 7/2 A provodnik is shaving in one of the two lavatories at the height of the morning rush. 246. purga [Russ.] A blizzard of very fine snow in the U.S.S.R. e.g. 1978 Soviet Geogr. XIX. 574 A purga is not just any snowstorm; it is a violent storm associated with an invasion of cold air. 247. puschkinia [mod.L. (J. M. F. Adams 1805, in Nova Acta Acad. Petropolitanć XIV. 164), f. the name of Apollos Mussin-Puschkin (d. 1805), Russian chemist and plant collector + -ia1.] A small spring-flowering bulbous plant of the genus so called, belonging to the family Liliacea, and bearing spikes of blue or white cup-shaped flowers; also called the striped squill. e.g. 1974 H. G. W. Fogg Compl. Handbk. Bulbs vii. 122/2 As long as they are not forced, puschkinias can be grown indoors like crocuses. 248. Rabfak Also rabfac. [a. Russ. rabfák, f. rab(óchi_) fak(ul_tét) workers' school.] A workers' school, established after the Russian Revolution, to prepare workers and peasants for higher education. Also attrib. e.g. 1960 Twentieth Cent. June 573 In 1922 he [sc. Kruschschev] was sent by the Party for a three-year adult education course at a “Rabfak”school. 249. Rabkrin [a. Russ. rabkrín, f. rab(ňche)-kr(est_yánskaya) in(spéktsiya) worker-peasant inspectorate.] An organization established in 1920 by Lenin to examine the conformity of state organizations to official policy. e.g. 1949 I. Deutscher Stalin vii. 230 The Rabkrin, as the Commissariat was called, was set up to control every branch of the administration. 250. Rachmaninovian a. and n. [f. the name of Sergei Vasilyevich Rachmaninov (1873_1943), Russian pianist and composer.] A. adj. Of or resembling the style or the works of Rachmaninov. B. n. An admirer of Rachmaninov. e.g. 1977 Ibid. Nov. 874/1 What Rachmaninovians ought to be shouting for now, however, is a recording of the Liturgy, Op. 31. 251. ramsayite Min. [ad. Russ. ramzait (E. E. Kostyleva 1923, in Compt. Rend. de l' Acad. des Sci. de Russie A. 55), f. the name of Wilhelm Ramsay (1865_1928), Finnish geologist: see -ite1.] A silicate of sodium and titanium, Na2Ti2Si2O9, occurring as orthorhombic crystals.

e.g. 1967 Norsk Geol. Tidsskr. XLVII. 249 Ramsayite is an important constituent of the mosandrite pseudomorphs._ The crystals range in length from about 0_1 mm to 1_5 mm. They are colourless to greyish. 252. raskol Also rascol. [Russ. raskól separation, schism: cf. next.] 1. a. The schism in the Russian Church which resulted from the reforms of Patriarch Nikon, who excommunicated dissenters in 1667. e.g. 1969 K. Minogue in Ionescu & Gellner Populism 203 The Russian raskol after 1654, although a religious phenomenon, has been taken as a peasant reaction to urban culture. b. Dissent from an established orthodoxy. 1947 Partisan Rev. XIV. 396 Russian revisionism was a heterodoxy, a fanatic schism, a raskol. 2. collect. A body of dissenters under the raskol (sense 1 a). 1888 _Stepniak' Russ. Peasantry II. 441 The Rascol proper, the _Old Believers'. 253. Raskolnik Also 9 Rasckolnick, Rascholnik. [Russ. Raskól_nik separatist, schismatic, f. raskól separation: see prec.] A dissenter from the national Church in Russia. e.g. 1897 Daily News 8 June 5/3 The Raskolnik who buried alive_twenty-five of his fanatic co-religionists. 254. rayon Also raion. [a. Russ. rajón.] In the U.S.S.R., a small territorial division for administrative purposes. e.g. 1959 Economist 14 Mar. 946/1 In at least two of Moscow's fifteen raions, the chaps at the local Agitpunkts seem to have been lying down on the job.

255. Rayonism, Rayonnism Also rayon(n)ism, ||rayonnisme. [ad. F. Rayonnisme, f. rayon rayon1 + -isme -ism; cf. Russ. luchízm, f. luch ray.] A style of abstract painting developed c 1911 in Russia by M. Larionov (1881_1964) and N. Goncharova (1881_1962), in which projecting rays of colour are used to give the impression that the painting floats outside time and space. Hence Rayon(n)ist a., of or pertaining to Rayonism; also as n.; Rayonistic a. e.g. 1968 D. Barran tr. Veronesi's Into Twenties iii. 76 Larionov founded the rayonnist movement, loosely based on the concepts of the futurist movement. 1977 New Yorker 2 May 31/3 What makes it unique is the inclusion of some dazzling experimental pictures from the early twentieth century---Cubist, Futurist, Rayonist, and Suprematist. 256. refusenik Also refusnik [Partial tr. Russ. otkáznik, f. stem of otkazát' to refuse: see -nik.] A Jew in the Soviet Union who has been refused permission to emigrate to Israel. e.g. 1980 Radio Times 29 Oct. 63/4 Tonight Avital talks about her life since she left Russia, a life of waiting and campaigning to free her husband and other Jewish refusniks from jail in the USSR. 257. residence [tr. Russ. residentura.] A group or organization of intelligence agents in a foreign country. 1969 H. H. Cooper Cave with Two Exits i. 69 In Rome he was met by a young man from the Residence. The Resident himself was extremely secure. His cover was strictly diplomatic. 258. resident, rezident [tr. Russ. rezidént.] An intelligence agent (in a foreign country). Cf. also rezident. e.g. 1975 Times 16 Dec. 7/5 Herr Guillaume soon became a _resident'---the head of a group of spies. 259. residentura Also rezidentura, rezidentsia. [Russ. rezidentúra] A group or organization of intelligence agents in a foreign country.

e.g. 1979 Daily Tel. 15 Oct. 5/2 The deputy chief of the KGB Rezidentura in Tokyo_maintains numerous contacts among the staff and research fellows. 1968 W. Garner Deep, Deep Freeze xi. 130 A rezidentsia is a network of Soviet _deep-cover' agents working in a foreign country. Its members_are known as Illegals. 260. riza [Russ., f. OSlav. riza garment.] A metal shield or plaque framing the painted face and other features of a Russian icon, and engraved with the lines of the completed picture. e.g. 1978 Daily Tel. 24 Aug. 12/5 Among the collection is a 17th century icon of the Virgin of Kazan, with embossed silver-gilt riza_dating from the end of the 19th century. 261. rouble Forms: rubbel, rubbell, rubble, roble, robell. ruble, rubel. rouble (rooble). [a. Russ. ruble (also rublevik' silver rouble), of doubtful origin. The current English spelling has been adopted from French.] 1. The Russian monetary unit, in early times a money of account equal in value to an English mark, or 13s. 4d., subsequently a silver coin (worth, e.g. in 1897, 2s. 112d.). Florio (1611) defines Robbone as _a coine of gold in Muscouy called a rubble or roble', but see quot. 1617 here. Roubles of gold and platina have been coined in the 19th cent. e.g. 1635 E. Pagitt Christianogr. (1639) 17 Some of their Bishops have 2000, some 3000 Rubbles per annum. 1855 Englishwoman in Russia 37 He came to borrow a few rubles, which she kindly gave him. 1891 Melbourne Argus 7 Nov. 13/7 The yearly pay of a private [in the Russian army] is 2 roubles 70 copecks. 2. A paper money of less value than the silver rouble (see quots.). The rouble is now available primarily in paper form. e.g. 1875 Bedford Sailor's Pocket-bk. ix. (ed. 2) 317, 100 Copecks = 1 Silver Rouble = 3s. 2d. Paper money is the chief medium of payment. The paper Rouble is worth about 2s. 6d. sterling. 262. rubashka Pl. rubashkas, rubashki. [Russ.] A type of blouse or tunic worn in Russia. The pl. rubashka in quot. 1956 is erron. e.g. 1972 Nat. Geographic Sept. 401 The bearded men wore rubashki, the hand-embroidered blouses of old Russia. 263. Rus Also Russ. [Russ. Rus' Arab. Rus;] The name of a group of Swedish merchant warriors who established themselves around Kiev and the Dnieper in the ninth century, whose settlements gave rise to the later Russian principalities. e.g. 1976 H. R. E. Davidson Viking Road to Byzantium i. iv. 56 It is in the ninth century that we first hear of the Rus, who were well known to Arab geographers, and whom the Byzantine Greeks called Rhos._ For most western scholars, the name Rus is taken primarily to denote the Scandinavian settlers in Russia, particularly those established at Kiev in the ninth century. Russ, n. and a. Forms: Rows(s)e, Rousse, Russe, Rush, Russ. [ad. Russ. Rus_, native name of the people and country. Cf. Sw. Ryss, Du. Rus, G. and F. Russe.] A. n. 1. A Russian. Now rare. e.g. 1822 Byron Juan viii. cxx, Some twenty times he made the Russ retire. b. An adherent of the Russian Church. Obs. e.g. 1635 E. Pagitt Christianogr. 66 The Russes and the Greeks do not elevate the consecrated Bread to be worshipped at the Altar. 2. The Russian language. e.g. 1882 Sala Amer. Revis. (1885) 31, I tried my hardest_to learn a little Russ. B. adj. Russian. e.g. 1822 Byron Juan vii. xxix, The Russ flotilla getting under way. 264. Russia [med.L., f. Russi the Russians: see Russ. The Russian form Rossiya appears to have been adopted from Byzantine Gr.]

The name of the country in the east of Europe, used attributively. 1. a. Russia leather, a very durable leather made of skins impregnated with oil distilled from birch-bark, extensively used in bookbinding. e.g. 1871 M. Collins Marq. & Merch. II. viii. 227 Russia leather odorous with the aroma of silver birchrind. attrib. e.g. 1704 Lond. Gaz. No. 4027/4 With a new Russia Leather Saddle and Bridle. b. ellipt. in this sense. e.g. 1876 Geo. Eliot Dan. Der. xxxvi, The scent of russia from the books. attrib. and Comb. 1846 G. Dodd Brit. Manuf. VI. 103 An elegant morocco or russia-bound book. 2. a. In the specific names of various articles, chiefly made in, or imported from, Russia, as Russia ashes, braid, crash, drab, duck, etc. (see quots.). e.g. 1882 Caulfeild & Saward Dict. Needlewk. 429/1 Russia Braids. These are made respectively in two materials---Mohair and Silk. b. ellipt. for Russia iron, linen. e.g. 1884 Knight Dict. Mech. Suppl. 772/2 s.v. Russian Iron, The American product, or imitation Russia. Russianism, Russianist, Russianize- to Russify, Russianness (shifts & Englishized forms) 265. Russki, a. and n. slang or colloq. Also Roosky, Ruski, Rusky, Russky. [ad. Russ. Russkiy.] Russian a. and n. Hence Russki-land, Russia. e.g. 1961 Even. Bull. (Philadelphia) 29 Mar. 22/3 (caption) Keeping up with the (Russki) Joneses. 1978 I. B. Singer Shosha ii. 38 A Russky with all these qualities is awaiting you there. 266. Russian n. and a. Also colloq. Rhoosian, Roos(h)ian, etc. n. and a. [ad. med.L. Russian-us, f. Russia: see prec. So F. Russien, Sp. Rusiano.] A. n. 1. a. A native or inhabitant of Russia. Also with distinguishing adjs., as Great, Little, White Russians (see quot. 1866). e.g. 1886 Encycl. Brit. XXI. 79/1 Three different branches can be distinguished among the Russians since the dawn of their history:---the Great Russians, the Little Russians, and the White Russians. b. A member of the Russian church. e.g. 1963 T. Ware Orthodox Church viii. 165 It is not without reason that the expressions “Soviet Church” and “Soviet Patriarch” have now become common in the mouth of Russians. c. Austr. An unruly animal. e.g. 1845 D. Mackenzie Emigrant's Guide 118 These wild Russians, as they are here called, will_clear at the first leap a stockyard six feet in height. 2. The language of Russia; also (with distinguishing adjs.), a form or dialect of this. Also Comb., as Russian-speaking. e.g. 1976 _M. Barak' Secret List of Heinrich Roehm vii. 77 You need Russian-speaking agents to infiltrate Russian circles. 3. ellipt. for Russian cigarette, hemp, iron, leather, wheat. e.g. 1963 N. Freeling Because of Cats x. 163 He had juju cigarettes too; like Russians, with a big mouth piece, and pretty loose. B. adj. 1. a. Of or pertaining to Russia or its people; inhabiting, native to, characteristic of, Russia. Also with distinguishing adjs., as Great, Little, White Russian e.g. 1963 Times Lit. Suppl. 31 May 388/4 The growth of Great-Russian jingoism. Comb. e.g. 1976 Times 15 May 14/8 Sholem Aleichem came from a middle class Russian-Jewish background. b. Trading with Russia or in Russian goods. 1885 Census Instruct. Index, Russian Merchant. 2. In specific names or designations: a. Of animals, etc., as Russian bear (often fig.), dove, eagle, gadus; Russian Blue, a lightly built short-haired cat belonging to the breed so called, distinguished by greyish-blue fur, green eyes, and large pointed ears; Russian long-hair(ed) (cat), a stocky, long-coated cat with a relatively short tail, belonging to a breed once so called but no longer a distinct group; Russian pony, a small, hardy, roan pony belonging to a breed originally developed in Russia; cf. Cossack 2 b; Russian sable, the heavy dark fur of the sable, Martes zibellina; cf. sable n.1 1 a; Russian wolfhound = borzoi.

e.g. 1976 Botham & Donnelly Valentino viii. 59 He bought a pair of Russian wolfhounds (white). b. Of fruits or plants, as Russian apple, birch, cabbage, fenugreek, maple, rhubarb; Russian olive (U.S.), the oleaster, Elćagnus angustifolia, a spiny shrub with silvery leaves belonging to the family Elćagnaceć, native to Europe and western Asia, and naturalized in parts of western North America; Russian poplar (Canada), a poplar native to north-east Asia, Populus maximowiczii, which has leathery leaves with whitish undersides; Russian thistle (U.S.), a tumbleweed, Salsola kali, a creeping prickly herb belonging to the family Chenopodiaceć; = saltwort 1; Russian vine, a fast-growing deciduous climbing plant, Polygonum baldschuanicum, of the family Polygonaceć, native to southern Turkestan and bearing clusters of white or pink flowers. e.g. 1977 K. O'Hara Ghost of T. Penry iv. 25 The stone arch_was half-blocked by the ruins of a ramshackle gate overgrown with Russian vine. c. Of economic products, as Russian deal, iron, leather (cf. Russia 1), mat, rope. e.g. 1874 in Ruskin Fors Clav. xlvi. IV. 242 On the relative strength of hand_spun yarn rope_and Russian yarn rope. d. Miscellaneous uses, as Russian bagatelle, blouse, braid, chess, crash, diaper, embroidery, poker, stitch. e.g. 1882 Caulfeild & Saward Dict. Needlewk. 125/1 Ribbed Stitch_is also called Russian stitch. It is much used for babies' socks and muffatees. e. Special collocations: Russian ballet, a style of ballet developed at the Russian Imperial Ballet Academy and popularized in the West by Sergei Diaghilev's Ballet Russe from 1909; also a group of dancers trained in this style; Russian Bank (Banker, banque), a card game similar to solitaire but played by two persons; Russian bath = Turkish bath s.v. Turkish a. 2 a; also fig.; Russian boot, a leather boot that extends to the calf, usu. with a wide cuff; Russian cigarette, a cigarette with a hollow pasteboard filter; Russian dancer, one who performs a Russian folk-dance; Russian dinner, a style of dinner in which fruit and wine are placed at the centre of a table and courses are served from a sideboard; Russian doll, any of a set of hollow wooden dolls, the smallest of which fits inside the next smallest, and so up to the largest; Russian dressing, a savoury dressing with a mayonnaise base; Russian Easter egg, an artificial egg shell designed as a container for presents given at Easter; Russian egg, a poached egg served on a lettuce leaf with mayonnaise; Russian (spring_summer, etc.) encephalitis, a viral encephalitis transmitted by wood ticks; Russian Revolution, the overthrow of the Tsar and the eventual establishment of the Bolshevik form of government in Russia between February and October (Old Style) 1917; cf. October Revolution s.v. October 3 and revolution n. 11; Russian roulette, an act of bravado in which a person loads (usu.) one chamber of a revolver, spins the cylinder, holds the barrel to his head, and pulls the trigger; also fig.; Russian salad, a salad of vegetables with mayonnaise; Russian scandal, (a) a game in which a whispered message, after being passed from player to player, is contrasted in its original and final versions; (b) gossip inaccurately transmitted; Russian tea, (a) tea grown in the Caucasus or a drink made from this; (b) any tea laced with lemon or rum. e.g. 1977 V. S. Pritchett Gentle Barbarian xiii. 212 Turgenev_wandered about in heavy Russian boots. 1940 E. Hemingway For whom Bell Tolls ii. 20 Robert Jordan_brought out one of the flat boxes of Russian cigarettes._ They were long narrow cigarettes with pasteboard cylinders for mouth pieces. 1976 Lancet 9 Oct. 776/2 Abusive parents are often the scarred survivors of generations of reproductive russian roulette. 3. Of or pertaining to, concerned with, the Russian language or literature. e.g. 1888 Jacobi Printers' Vocab. 117 Russian cases, cases of special lay for type used in composing that language. Hence Russian v., to force by Russian influence or pressure. nonce-wd. e.g. 1756 H. Walpole Let. to Mann 25 Jan., The King of Prussia has been Russianed out of their [the French] alliance. 267. saffian Forms: 6 saphian, -ion, 8_ saffian.

[a. Russ. saf_yan, corruptly a. Rumanian saftian, a. Turkish (Persian) sa_tiyan. Cf. Ger. saffian.] A leather made from goatskins or sheepskins tanned with sumach and dyed in bright colours. Also saffian leather. e.g. 1834_6 P. Barlow in Encycl. Metrop. (1845) VIII. 551/2 A valuable Saffian or dyed Maroquin leather, almost equal to that of Turkey, is prepared at Astracan and in other parts of Asiatic Russia. 268. sagene Also 8 sajen, 9 sachine, sashen, sashine, sajene, sazhen. [Russian sazhen.] A measure of length formerly used in Russia, equal to seven English feet. e.g. 1896 Redwood Petroleum I. 285 Boring, at 75 roubles per sagene (1 sagene = about 7 feet) for the first 100 sagenes [etc.]. 269. saiga [a. Russ. sa_ga. Cf. F. saďga.] A kind of antelope (Saiga tartarica) of the steppes of Russia. Also saiga-antelope. 1801 Shaw Zool. II. ii. 339 The Saiga, or Scythian Antelope. Ibid. 340 The Saigas are of a migratory disposition. 1896 Lydekker Brit. Mammals 305 The Saiga Antelope. 270. sakhaite Min. Also sahaite. [ad. Russ. sakhaít (I. V. Ostrovskaya et al. 1966, in Zapiski vsesoyuznogo min Obshchestva XCV. 193), f. Sakha, name of the locality in Siberia where it was discovered: see -ite1.] A hydrous borate and carbonate of calcium and magnesium, the crystals of which belong to the cubic system and occur as greyish white masses. e.g. 1970 Canad. Mineralogist X. 694 The formula of sakhaite was recalculated in an attempt to determine whether a relationship existed between sakhaite and harkerite. 271. Sakmarian a. Geol. [ad. Russ. Sakmarski_ (first used as a stratigraphical term by A. Karpinsky 1874, in Zap. Imperatorskago Min. Obshchestva IX. 269), f. Sakmara, name of a river in the Southern Urals: see -ian.] Name of a stage in the Lower Permian in the Soviet Union; of or pertaining to this stage and the rocks that characterize it, and the geological age during which they were deposited. Freq. absol. e.g. 1974 Nature 8 Feb. 396/1 McLachlan and Anderson have recorded orthocerid nautiloids, the brachiopod Attenuatella, [etc.]_from the base of the succession near Kimberley. They favoured a Sakmarian age for this marine incursion. 272. samizdat Also with capital initial. [Russ., abbrev. of samoizdátel_stvo self-publishing house, f. samo- self + izdátel_stvo publishing house.] The clandestine or illegal copying and distribution of literature (orig. and chiefly in the U.S.S.R.); an underground press; a text or texts produced by this. Also transf. and attrib. or as adj. Phr. in samizdat, in this form of publication. e.g. 1970 New Statesman 20 Feb. 241/1 The underground distribution of manuscripts and their publication abroad means that the samizdat writers have---at least in the eyes of the authorities---opted out of the Soviet scheme of things. 1978 Manch. Guardian Weekly 27 Aug. 7 Jiri Hrusa's novel “The Questionnaire”, which was printed by the Prague Samizdat. samizdatchik [Russ. -chik, agent suffix], one who takes part in the writing, copying, and distribution of samizdat material (pl. samizdatchiki). e.g. 1972 N.Y. Times Mag. 10 Sept. 92 To fill their reserves_the samizdatchiki seek ties with other cities._ They arrive with copies of the originals, which have been given abroad. 273. samovar [Russian samovar, _self-boiler', f. samo- self + variti to boil.] A Russian tea urn. 1830 tr. Kotzebue's New Voy. II. 22 note, A Samowar, or self-boiler_generally stands in the middle of the tea-table.

1882 Pall Mall G. 14 June 2/1 The samovar is a tea-kettle which has its fire in a tube running through it, and which, with a few pieces of lighted charcoal dropped into the tube, maintains the water at boiling point with a minimum of evaporation.

274. Samoyed n. and a. Forms: Samoit, Samoed, Samoid, Samoied, Samojede, Samoiede, Samoyede, Samoyed. [Russian samoyed. The rendering _self-eater' (cf. myasoyed flesh-eater), interpreted as “cannibal”, is already mentioned by Purchas 1613.] A. n. 1. One of Mongolian race inhabiting Siberia. e.g. 1972 Language XLVIII. 206 The Samoyeds make up only one small group of scattered tribes among the many non-Russian peoples who have inhabited Siberia. 2. Also with small initial. A white or buff dog belonging to the breed so called, once used as working dogs in the Arctic, and distinguished by a thick, shaggy coat, stocky build, pricked ears, and a tail curled over the back. Also attrib. e.g. 1977 G. Marton Alarum 61 The well-fed passengers_probably expected to be carried across immense ice fields by rough Samoyed dogs. B. adj. Of or pertaining to the Samoyeds. Also quasi-n., their language. e.g. 1956 J. Whatmough Language 28 In the north, Samoyede, a member of the same family as the Finnish dialects. 275. sanitar [Russ.] In Russia, a hospital attendant; spec. a medical orderly in the army. e.g. 1974 F. Farmborough Nurse at Russian Front ii. 30 The 1st Letuchka, (Flying Column)_was staffed with four surgical sisters,_two doctors,_about 30 sanitars (ambulance orderlies) and an officer. 276. sarafan Also -phan(e. [Russian sarafan.] A long mantle, veil, or sleeveless cloak, forming part of the national dress of Russian peasant women. e.g. 1896 Daily Tel. 27 May 7/1 The Grand Duchesses wore the national veil or scarf, called sarafan. 277. sastruga [from Russian zastruga groove, from za by + struga deep place] One of a series of irregular ridges formed on a snow surface by wind erosion and deposition, aligned parallel to the direction of the prevailing wind. e.g. 1982 B. W. Aldiss Helliconia Spring ii. 89 Only Yuli had experience of the tundras and zastrugi, which stretched away to the north of the Quzint. 278. satellite n. Cytology. A short section of a chromosome demarcated from the rest by a constriction (if terminal) or by two constrictions (if intercalary). [The sense is due to S. G. Navashin, who used Russ. spútnik satellite (Izvestiya Imper. Akad. Nauk (1912) VI. 378).] e.g. 1975 A. & D. Löve Plant Chromosomes i. i. 26 A secondary constriction may demarcate a short part of the chromosome, either intercalary or, most frequently, terminally. Such a terminal piece is called a satellite. 279. Saturdaying vbl. n. [f. Saturday + -ing1, after Russ. subbótnik.] An English rendering of subbotnik. So Saturdayite. e.g. 1932 C. Hogarth tr. Kollontai's Free Love 233 She will persuade you_that it is necessary_to deny oneself everything that gives joy, to live only for the _Saturdayites'. 280. sevruga Forms: severiga, sewruga, sevruga. [Russ. sevriúga.] 1. A species of sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus.

e.g. 1964 A. Launay Caviare & After i. 18 There are three varieties of acipenser used in the production of caviare, the Beluga, the Ocietrova or sturgeon and the Sevruga. 2. Caviare made from the roe of this fish. e.g. 1977 Times 16 Nov. 18/5, I have never been able to say “when”, whether it be a second helping of Sevruga or just another wee drop of the hard stuff. 281. shaman n. [C17: from Russian shaman, from Tungusian saman, from Pali samana Buddhist monk, ultimately from Sanskrit srama religious exercise] A. n. A priest or priest-doctor among various northern peoples of Asia. Hence applied by extension to similar personages in other parts, esp. a medicine-man of some of the north-western American Indians. Occasionally in wider sense: an adherent of shamanism. Also more recently, with recognition of the widespread similarity of primitive beliefs, the term denotes esp. a man or woman who is regarded as having direct access to, and influence in, the spirit world which is usu. manifested during a trance and empowers them to guide souls, cure illnesses, etc. Also fig. e.g. 1979 London Rev. Bks. 25 Oct. 1/1 America lacks this type of magician---the shamans there are grander, more worldly, more pretentious. B. adj. (or attrib.) Of or pertaining to a shaman or to shamanism. e.g. 1901 Contemp. Rev. Jan. 95 The necessary spiritual gifts entitling to the Shaman-office often are bestowed. shamanian n., a shamanist; shamanic a., akin to shamanism; also, of or connected with a shaman. Also shamanka, shamaness, shamanin, terms sometimes applied to a female shaman. e.g. 1968 N. K. Sandars Prehist. Art of Europe i. 26 In Siberia there were also women who were shamankas. 282. shapka [Russ., = hat.] A brimless Russian hat of fur or sheepskin. e.g. 1963 V. Nabokov Gift iv. 271 He never removed either his fur-lined dressing gown or his lambskin shapka. 283. shashlik [ad. Russ. shashlýk, ult. f. Turk. sis a spit, skewer; cf. shish kebab.] An Eastern European and Asian kebab of mutton and garnishings often served on a skewer. Also attrib. e.g. 1977 N.Y. Times 9 May l2/2 An outdoor shashlik stand just off Ashkhabad's Marx Prospekt was pulling in passers-by. 284. shcherbakovite Min. [ad. Russ. shcherbakovít (Es_kova & Kazakova 1954, in Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR XCIX. 837), f. the name of D. I. Shcherbakov (1893_1966), Russian mineralogist: see -ite1.] A silicate of potassium, sodium, barium, titanium, and niobium, (K,Na,Ba)2(Ti,Nb)2(Si2O7)2, found as brittle, brown, orthorhombic crystals. e.g. 1964 Doklady Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R.: Earth Sci. Sect. CLI. 129/1 The goniometric measurements were made on small long prismatic crystals of shcherbakovite from an arfvedsonite-feldspar vein in the Khibiny alkalic massif. 285. shchi Also tschee, stchi, stchie, stchee, shtchee, shtchi, shtshi, etc. [Russian shchi kail.] Cabbage soup. e.g. 1977 N.Y. Rev. Bks. 14 Apr. 10/4 In exchange for a few dissident intellectuals the Ibanskians import from America tons of shchi, the Russian national dish of cabbage soup. 286. shefstvo Also chefstvo. [Russ.] Patronage, sponsorship: variously used (see quots.). e.g. 1955 H. Hodgkinson Doubletalk 120 Shefstvo, patronage exercised by a shef or chief is the Soviet equivalent of empire building in Western business and service jargon. 287. sheltopusik Also sch-.

[a. Russ. zheltopuzik.] A lizard of the genus Pseudopus (P. pallasii). e.g. 1841 Penny Cycl. XXI. 25/2 Scheltopusik or Sheltopusik, the ordinary name for a genus of Reptiles, Pseudopus of Merrem. Ibid. 72/2 The Scheltopusiks. 1882 Günther in Encycl. Brit. XIV. 735/1 The Glass-Snake (Pseudopus pallasii) or Sheltopusik (Russ.) is common in Dalmatia, Hungary, southern Russia, and_Central Asia. 288. shuba Also shooba; anglicized shube ( shoube, shub, shoobe, schub, shoub). [Russian shuba.] A fur gown or greatcoat. Also, a piece of fur. e.g. 1904 F. Whishaw Tiger of Muscovy xxviii, Amy stood dressed in her fur shooba. 289. shungite Min. Also schungite. [ad. G. schungit (A. von Inostranzeff 1886, in Neues Jahrb. für Mineral. i. 92), f. Schunga (Russ. Shunga), name of a village in Russia close to the Finnish border] e.g. 1972 Gloss. Geol. (Amer. Geol. Inst.) 656/2 Shungite, a hard, black, amorphous, coal-like material containing over 98% carbon, found interbedded among Precambrian schists. It is probably the metamorphic equivalent of bitumen, but it may represent merely impure graphite. 290. Sibiriak Also Sibiryak. [Russ. Sibiryák Siberian.] A Siberian descended from European Russian settlers. Also attrib. or as adj. e.g. 1974 Encycl. Brit. Macropćdia XVI. 726/1 There were long-established Russian peasant societies in certain parts of Siberia, in many cases the descendants of exiled religious dissidents. Such people, known as Sibiryaks or local Russians, have a culture and an outlook differing markedly from those of the people of European Russia. 291. sierozem Soil Sci. Also serozem. [ad. Russ. serozém, f. séry_ grey + zemlyá earth, soil.] A type of soil, usu. calcareous and poor in organic material, that is characterized by a brownish-grey surface horizon grading into harder, carbonate-rich lower layers, and is developed typically under mixed shrub vegetation in arid climates. e.g. 1976 H. E. Dregne Soil of Arid Regions 79 A typical Serozem_from near Isfahan in Iran_had a 1 cm. thick desert pavement of fairly angular volcanic rocks overlying a loose, light brownish-gray, coarse sandy loam 4 cm. thick. 292. Siryenian n. and a. Also Sirenian, Syrianian, -jenian, Syryenian, Ziranian, Zyrenian. [f. mod.L. Syrićnus (ad. Russ. zyryánin.] e.g. 1911 Ibid. XXVI. 317/2 Syryenians (also Sirianian, Syrjenian, Zyrenian, Ziranian, Zyrian and Zirian), a tribe belonging to the Permian division of the eastern Finns. 293. skaz [Russ.] First-person narrative in which the author assumes a persona. Also attrib. e.g. 1980 Times Lit. Suppl. 7 Nov. 1264/4 The narrator [is] a typically Russian busybody in the skaz tradition. 294. skhod [Russ.] In the U.S.S.R. (and pre-Revolutionary Russia), an assembly of villagers. Also selskii skhod e.g. 1972 T. Shanin Awkward Class ix. 164 A _rural gathering' (sel'skii skhod) was to be established in parallel with the _land gathering'. The _rural gathering' would consist of all the inhabitants with Soviet electoral rights within the area of a Rural Soviet. 295. Skoptsi n. pl. Also occas. Skoptzi, Skopzy, etc. [Russ., pl. of skopéts, eunuch, member of Skoptsi.] An ascetic Russian Christian sect, known since the eighteenth century and now forbidden, given to selfmutilation (see quots.). Also rarely as sing. Skoptsism, the faith and practice of the Skoptsi.

e.g. 1970 B. Walker Sex & Supernatural ix. 84 The best known of the modern castrant cults called the Skoptsi, or _eunuchs', a mystical Russian sect which first came into prominence in the middle of the 18th century but which was said to have been in existence for at least three centuries before that. 296. sluggish [Rendering of Russ. stértaya (shizofreníya), worn, hackneyed (schizophrenia).] Applied to an alleged type of schizophrenia ascribed to political or religious dissidents confined in state psychiatric hospitals in the U.S.S.R. e.g. 1980 Prisoners of Conscience in USSR (Amnesty Internat.) (ed. 2) 184 Schizophrenia, often in its “sluggish” form, has been the diagnosis most commonly made of dissenters. 297. SMERSH, Smersh [Russ. abbrev. of smert_ shpionam, lit. “death to spies”.] The popular name of the Russian counter-espionage organization, originating during the war of 1939-45, which is responsible for maintaining security within the Soviet armed and intelligence services. e.g. 1977 Times Lit. Suppl. 29 Apr. 534/3 Missing, from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, are two Abakumovs, Andrei Ivanovich, and Viktor Semenovich, head of Smersh during the Second World War and Minister for State Security after it. 298. smetana Also with Fr. spelling smitane [a. Russ. smetána sour cream, f. Smetat - to sweep together, collect.] Sour cream. Freq. attrib. as smetana (or smitane) sauce, a sauce made with sour cream and seasonings, usu. served with meat. e.g. 1979 N. Freeling Widow xiv. 83 Any sort of sauce you like except tomato. Smitane maybe. 299. smolyaninovite Min. Also smolia-. [ad. Russ. smolyaninovít (L. K. Yakhontova 1956, in Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR CIX. 849), f. the name of N. A. Smolyaninov: see -ite1.] A hydrated arsenate of iron, cobalt, nickel, and other metals found as a yellow oxidation product of cobalt and nickel ores. e.g. 1957 Chem. Abstr. LI. 4885 (heading) Smolyaninovite, a new mineral. 1977 Mineral. Mag. XLI. 388 A specimen purchased by the [British] Museum in 1927_from Schneeberg, Saxony, has been found to carry small amounts of smolyaninovite, constituting a third occurrence of the mineral. 300. sobornost Theol. [a. Russ. sobórnost_ conciliarism, catholicity.] A unity of persons in a loving fellowship in which each member retains freedom and integrity without excessive individualism. e.g. 1977 Church Times 21 Jan. 13/3 Sobornost furthermore provides a further incentive to Roman Catholic officialdom not to regard Church unity too exclusively from a juridical point of view. 301. socialist realism. [tr. Russ. Sotsialistícheski realízm.] The official theory of art and literature of the Soviet Communist party, according to which the artist's or writer's work should reflect and commend the life and ideals of socialist society. Also attrib. e.g. 1978 Jrnl. R. Soc. Arts Dec. 64/2 In 1934 the term “socialist realism” came into current use, and architecture suffered from various interpretations of it. Hence socialist-realist n. and a. e.g. 1977 V. S. Pritchett Gentle Barbarian xiii. 218 The crude, black and white, schematic works of the Socialist Realists of our time. 302. solod Soil Science. Also soloth. Pl. (sometimes const. as sing.) solodi, soloti; also solods. [a. Russ. sólod, f. sol- salt.] A type of soil derived from a solonetz by leaching of saline or alkaline constituents, having a pale, leached subsurface horizon, and occurring characteristically under grass or shrub vegetation in semi-arid and desert regions. e.g. 1974 E. A. Fitzpatrick Introd. Soil Sci. vii. 119 Solods can be regarded as leached solonetzes in which the upper horizons are strongly bleached becoming pale grey or white.

solodic a., being, resembling, or characteristic of a solod; solodize v. intr., to change into a solod; solodization (also solot-), the formation of a solod by the leaching of salts from a solonetz; solodized (solot-) ppl. a., altered by this process. e.g. 1978 Faniran & Areola Essent. Soil Study viii. 183 Salinization, solonization, and solodization_resulting in the formation of solonchaks, solonetz, and solodic soils respectively. 303. solonchak Soil Science. Also solontschak, etc. [a. Russ. solonchák salt marsh, salt lake, f. sol-salt.] A type of salty, alkaline soil that has little or no structure, is characteristically pale in colour, and occurs typically under salt-tolerant vegetation in poorly-drained semi-arid or desert regions. e.g. 1972 J. G. Cruickshank Soil Geogr. iv. 145 Where sodium salts exceed 2 per cent of the mineral matter, a salic horizon is produced which may even be a salt crust on the soil surface under extremely dry conditions and high groundwater table. The soil is called a solonchak. 304. solonetz Soil Science. Also -nez, -nietz. [ad. Russ. solonéts salt marsh, salt lake, f. sol-salt.] A type of alkaline soil that is rich in carbonates, consists characteristically of a hard, dark, columnar subsoil overlain by a thin, friable surface layer, and occurs in conditions similar to those associated with solonchaks but having better drainage. e.g. 1972 J. G. Cruickshank Soil Geogr. iv. 127 (caption) A solonetz profile in South Australia showing strong prismatic structure in the B horizon. solonetzic a., being, resembling, or characteristic of a solonetz. e.g. 1974 E. C. Stacey Peace Country Heritage ii. 74 If the parental material has a high salt content, a hardpan solonetzic soil will result. 305. solyanka Also soljanka. [Russ.] A soup made of vegetables and meat or fish. e.g. 1972 M. Glenny tr. Solzhenitsyn's August 1914 xlii. 422 _Well, now, young men---what is it to be? Solyanka, meatballs, scrambled eggs?' said the old man invitingly. 306. sotnia Now Hist. [Russ. sotnya hundred, f. sot-, related to Skr. satam, L. centum, etc.] A squadron of Cossack cavalry. e.g. 1878 N. Amer. Rev. CXXVI. 150 On the 11th a party of Cossacks reached Pescherna_; one sotnia turned northward. 307. sotnik. Now Hist. Also ssotnik, sodnick. [Russ. sotnik', f. sotnya] A local official among the Cossacks; also, a commander of a sotnia. e.g. 1854 R. G. Latham Native Races Russian Emp. 56 Instead of the_Sodnick or head of a certain number of villages---these would have been the native nobles. 308. Soviet n. and a. Also soviet. [a. Russ. sovét council.] A. n. 1. a. In the U.S.S.R.: one of a number of elected councils which operate at all levels of government, having legislative and executive functions. The term was also applied to various revolutionary councils set up prior to the establishment of socialist rule in 1917. e.g. 1979 O. Sela Petrograd Consignment 20 During the 1905 uprising in St. Petersburg, together with Rakovsky and Trotsky he [sc. Helphand] had led the Soviet. b. In other countries: a similar council organized on socialist principles. e.g. 1977 J. Cleary High Road to China ii. 45 The Bolshevists_in Saxony_have taken over some of the towns, declared soviets. c. transf. and fig. e.g. 1972 History Workshop Pamphlet No. 6. 26 The cavilling system_was an embryo of workers' control._ It was a little Soviet which had grown up within the capitalist system. 2. A citizen of the U.S.S.R. Chiefly in pl. (hence loosely, = Soviet Union or its leaders).

e.g. 1977 C. McCarry Secret Lovers iii. 34 _Who did Bülow meet in Dresden?'_ _A Soviet, an Army captain named Kalmyk.' B. adj. 1. Of, pertaining to, or having, a system of government based on soviets; Soviet Union: the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. e.g. 1974 tr. Snieckus's Soviet Lithuania 16 The congress called for a socialist revolution in Lithuania and the establishment of Soviet power. 2. Of, pertaining to, under the influence of, or living in the U.S.S.R. e.g. 1977 Times 14 June 16/7 He is a Soviet Jew whose family has been refused an exit visa to go to Israel. Comb. e.g. 1978 Detroit Free Press 5 Mar. (Parade Suppl.) 14/4 Romanov would crack down on the mishmash of more than 100 government ministries and independent agencies that create confusion in Sovietland. 3. In combination with adjs. designating another country or people in the sense _Soviet and_', as SovietAmerican, -Chinese, -German, etc. e.g. 1978 F. Maclean Take Nine Spies iv. 158 The Soviet_German Pact of August 1939. Sovietic a. (now rare), of or pertaining to the (Russian) Soviet system; Sovietism, the (Russian) Soviet system; Sovietist rare, an adherent of the Soviet system; Sovietophile a., that loves the Soviet Union; Sovietophobia, fear of the Soviet Union Sovietophobe. e.g. 1976 Survey Summer-Autumn 237 After 1968 Sartre discovered that ultimately his philosophy was more likely to culminate in anarchy than in Sovietism. 1980 Daily Tel. 8 July 14 Should not the British media sort out this phobia? Otherwise Sovietophobes might well be in danger of alienating the most convinced of their potential allies, i.e. the Russians. 309. sovkhoz Also sovhoz, sovkhos, etc. Pl. sovkhoz, sovkhozes, sovkhozy. [Russ., f. sov(étskoe khoz(yá_stvo Soviet farm.] In the U.S.S.R.: a state-owned farm. Also attrib. e.g. 1967 Bull. Inst. Study USSR (Munich) June 15 A wave of sovkhoz development followed which, beginning in 1954, did not recede until 1964. 310. sovnarkhoz Also Sovnarkhoz. Pl. sovnarkhozy, sovnarkhozie. [Russ. sovnarkhóz, abbrev. of sovét naródnovo khozyá_stva, council of national economy.] In the U.S.S.R.: a regional council for the local regulation of the economy. These councils were introduced in 1957 and abandoned in 1965. e.g. 1964 Economist 12 Dec. 1242/2 The system of regional councils, or Sovnarkhozy, introduced by Mr Khrushchev in 1957. 311. Sovnarkom [a. Russ. sovnarkóm, abbrev. of sovét naródnykh komissárov, council of people's commissars.] The highest executive and administrative organ of government of the U.S.S.R. (renamed the Council of Ministers in 1946). Also, a council having analogous functions in one of the republics of the U.S.S.R. e.g. 1959 E. H. Carr Socialism in One Country II. iv. xx. 244 Even in the domain of treaty-making Sovnarkom acquired independent constitutional powers. 312. specialist [tr. Russ. spetsialíst.] In Communist parlance, a person with a specialist knowledge in some area of science, engineering, or culture; an engineer, scientist. e.g. 1977 S. Leys’ Chinese Shadows (1978) ii. 101 It [sc. the Tower of the Six Harmonies] is such a sturdy building that an army of “specialists” would have been necessary to demolish it. 313. sputnik Also Sputnik. [a. Russ. spútnik, lit. “travelling companion”, f. s with + put_ way, journey + -nik, agent suffix (cf. -nik).] An unmanned artificial earth satellite, esp. a Russian one; spec. (usu. with capital initial) the proper name of a series of such satellites launched by the Soviet Union between 1957 and 1961. The first Sputnik, launched on 4 October 1957, was the first artificial satellite. e.g. 1983 N.Y. Times 7 Jan. a1/4 It is not a dangerous situation_and we have no worries about the fate of this sputnik.

b. transf. and fig. e.g. 1963 Punch 17 Apr. 549/1 Such Hollywood sputniks as Frank Sinatra and Sammy Davis Jnr. 1968 [see loop v.1 6]. 2. attrib. and Comb., as sputnik diplomacy, race, town; Sputnik double Bridge, a take-out double of a suit overcall of one's partner's opening bid; also absol. as Sputnik. e.g. 1966 Listener 19 May 729/3 In preparation for the creation of Moscow's own ring of Sputnik towns'--though this development may not happen until after 1980. sputnik(e)ry, sputnikitis (nonce-wds.). e.g. 1960 Spectator 10 June 826 The abnormal concentration of effort in such fields as sputnikery'. 1961 New Scientist 6 July 38/1 The narrower field of sputnikry. 314. Stakhanovite n. and a. [f. the name of the Soviet coal-miner Aleksé_ Grigór_evich Stakhánov (1906_77) + -ite1; cf. Russ. stakhánovets n., stakhánovski_ adj. The Soviet authorities publicized the prodigious output achieved by Stakhanov in 1935 as part of a campaign to increase industrial output.] A. n. In the U.S.S.R. during the 1930s and 1940s, a worker whose productivity exceeded the norms and who thus earned special privileges and rewards; transf., one who is exceptionally hard-working and productive. B. adj. Designating, pertaining to, or characteristic of such a worker or such workers collectively. e.g. 1977 Time 1 Aug. 5/3 Though U.S. workers have been regularly chided at home for goofing off on the job, they are veritable Stakhanovites compared with some of their European counterparts. Stakhanovism, a movement in the U.S.S.R. aimed at encouraging hard work and maximum output, following the example of Stakhanov; also transf.; Stakhanovist a. and n. e.g. 1970 G. Greer Female Eunuch 123 Many others [sc. working wives] pride themselves on the way they manage to run a home and hold their own in a job at the same time, accepting the patronizing title of “working wonders” in a kind of unofficial Stakhanovism. Ibid. 275 Women's literature is full of the trumpeting of female Stakhanovists. 315. Stalinism [f. Joseph Stalin (Russ. Iósif Stálin), the assumed name of Iosif Vissariónovich Dzhugashvíli (18791953), leader of the Soviet Communist Party and head of state of the Soviet Union + -ism.] The policies pursued by Stalin, based on but later deviating from Leninism, esp. the formation of a centralized, totalitarian, objectivist government. e.g. 1977 Time 21 Mar. 12/2 In a bitter statement, Gui accused the Communists of practicing Stalinism, calling himself the victim of the chamber’s “will for my political execution”. 316. stanitza Also staniza. [Russian stanitsa, dim. of stan station, district.] A Cossack community or township. e.g. 1895 Daily News 13 June 5/4 It were well, too, that a large number of Cossack stanitzas should be intermingled with the new colonists. 317. starets, staretz Pl. startsy, startzy [Russ., = (venerable) old man, elder.] In the Russian Orthodox Church, a spiritual leader or counsellor. Also transf. e.g. 1983 Church Times 4 Feb. 7/1 They tell us of the hidden work of the Startsy, the elders or spiritual fathers, whose counsel and prayer is an inspiration to many. 318. starosta Pl. starosti. Also anglicized starust, stahrost, starost(e. [Russian starosta, Polish starosta, lit. “elder”.] In Russia, the head man of a village community. e.g. 1901 Scotsman 5 Apr. 7/2 At Nijni Novgorod the starosta, or chief of the village artel, comes to buy the supply of material. 319. Stavka [Russ., f. stavit_ to put, place.] The general headquarters of the Russian army.

e.g. 1963 P. Fleming Kolchak xiv. 158 The swollen Stavka, besides embodying all the worst technical vices of Russian military bureaucracy, was rotten to the core with dishonesty, nepotism and intrigue. 320. steppe Also step. [a. Russian step_. Cf. F., G. steppe.] 1. One of the vast comparatively level and treeless plains of south-eastern Europe and Siberia. e.g. 1876 Burnaby Ride to Khiva xxvi. 240 The Turkomans and other nomad races in the steppes often attribute a disease or illness to the devil. 2. transf. An extensive plain, usually treeless. e.g. 1903 W. R. Fisher tr. Schimper's Plant Geog. 551 The steppe of the Hungarian plain exhibits close climatic similarity to that of South Russia. 3. attrib. and Comb., as steppe bird, country, district, fauna, horse, lake, land, -travelling; steppe cat, the manul (Felis manul or caudatus); steppe-murrain = rinderpest; steppe rue, the plant Peganum Harmala, the seeds of which are sometimes eaten as a narcotic. e.g. 1881 Spon's Encycl. Industr. Arts etc. iv. 1324 Syrian or *Steppe Rue. 1890 R. Boldrewood' Col. Reformer xvi, The monotony of Australian *steppe-travelling. steppe-ful nonce-wd. 1857 Dufferin Lett. High Lat. 37 [He] could let me have a steppe-ful of horses if I desired. 321. sterlet Also sterledey, sterledy, starlett, sterled, -ett, -id, (? pl. sterlitz), sterlit, ( sterelet). [a. Russ. sterlyadi. Cf. G. and F. sterlet.] A small species of sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus, found in Russia. e.g. 1915 B. Digby in Travel July 23 Sterelet, one of the numerous kinds of fishes found in Baikal, is usually smoked and eaten raw. attrib. 1860 Wraxall Life in Sea v. 124 Prince Potemkin is said to have frequently paid three hundred roubles for a Sterlet soup. 322. stishovite Min. [f. the name of S. M. Stishov, Russian geochemist, who first synthesized it in 1961: see -ite1.] A dense, tetragonal polymorph of silica, formed at very high pressure and found in meteorite craters. e.g. 1971 I. G. Gass et al. Understanding Earth i. 35/1 The diamonds occasionally contain minute inclusions of coesite_but do not contain stishovite, another polymorph forming at even higher pressures. 323. Stolichnaya [Russ., lit. “of the capital, metropolitan”.] The proprietary name of a variety of Russian vodka. e.g. 1977 J. Wambaugh Black Marble (1978) i. 3 He_stealthily withdrew the bottle of Stolichnaya from the pocket of his raincoat. 324. stolovaya [Russ.] A canteen, a cafeteria. e.g. 1982 Spectator 27 Mar. 21/3 The food in a Russian stolovaya (or “diner”). 325. Stolypin [The name of Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin (1862_1911), Russian conservative statesman.] 1. Stolypin's necktie, the noose. colloq. 1909 J. R. Ware Passing Eng. 234/2 Stolypin's necktie (Europ. Politics, 1897), the final halter. This term was brought into fashion in 1907 (Nov._Dec.), at a Duma then recently assembled in St Petersburg. One Rodicheff, an extreme Radical, brought in the term on 30th November 1907. 1974 Encycl. Brit. Micropćdia IX. 583/1 Stolypin instituted a network of courts-martial._ Within the few months of their existence they used Stolypin's necktie' (the noose) to execute more than 1,000 defendants. 2. Used attrib. and absol. to designate a type of railway carriage made for the transport of prisoners. e.g. 1974 T. P. Whitney tr. Solzhenitsyn's Gulag Archipelago I. ii. i. 491 The prisoners got used to calling this kind of railroad car a Stolypin car, or, more simply, just a Stolypin. 326. strelitz Hist. Forms: sing. strelits, strelitz, often incorrectly as pl.; pl. strelsey, strelsies, strelitzi, strelitzes.

[a. Russian strie_lets, archer (pl. strieltsy), agent-n. f. strielyati to shoot with the bow, f. striela arrow.] A soldier belonging to a body of Russian troops composed of infantry raised by the Tsar Ivan the Terrible (1533_84) and abolished by Peter the Great in 1682. Also attrib. e.g. 1904 F. Whishaw Tiger of Muscovy xxxi, A Strelitz soldier lay sleeping at the door leading to the corridor._ To the Strelitz the Tsar said: _Go quickly,_and follow the Boyar Nagoy. 327. 'stroganoff Also stroganov, strogonoff and with capital initial. [a. Fr., f. the name of the 19th-cent. Russian diplomat Count Paul Stroganov.] A dish of strips of beef cooked in a sauce containing sour cream. In full, beef stroganoff, b_uf stroganoff. e.g. 1980 A. N. Wilson Healing Art xiv. 157 Did you get Gale to fix you_her strogonoff, followed by bilberry strudel? 328. struvite Min. [ad. G. struvit (G. L. Ulex 1846) f. name of Struve, Russian minister at Hamburg.] Hydrous phosphate of ammonium and magnesium, found in small yellowish-brown or greyish crystals. e.g. 1870 Amer. Jrnl. Sci. Ser. ii. L. 272 Struvite in crystals occurs in guano, in the Skipton Caves near Ballarat. 329. Stundist [a. Russ. stundist, f. G. stunde hour, said to be used by the German settlers as the name for their religious meetings: see -ist.] A member of a large Evangelical sect (called stunda) which arose among the peasantry of South Russia about 1860, as a result of contact with German Protestant settlers, and in opposition to the doctrine and authority of the Orthodox Church. e.g. 1888 Stead Truth about Russia 363 Deputations came to St. Petersburg from the Stundists, the Molokani, and the Baptists. attrib. 1893 The Stundists 35 Ivan Golovtchenko, a Stundist preacher_was taken before the Court on a charge of propagating Stundist doctrines. 330. subbotnik Pl. -niki, (anglicized) -niks. [a. Russ. subbótnik, f. subbóta Saturday: cf.] In the Soviet Union, the practice or an act of working voluntarily on a Saturday, for the benefit of the collective; = Saturdaying vbl. n. The practice originated with workers on the Moscow-Kazan railway in Moscow on 10 May 1919. e.g. 1975 T. P. Whitney tr. Solzhenitsyn's Gulag Archipelago II. iii. i. 14 Soon after that there began the Communist _subbotniki'---_voluntary Saturdays'. 1979 Nature 16 Aug. 532/3 The Vietnamese economy is in such an urgent state that 75% of the proceeds of this year's Subbotnik, the Saturday in April when Soviet citizens contribute a day's work for the good of the economy, are to be devoted to Vietnam. 331. sudak [Russian sudák.] A species of pike-perch (a fish) e.g. 1973 Nat. Geogr. Mag. May 612/1 All the strange but delicious bounty of the Volga, handsome, fat fish with names like sazan, sudak. 332. sulphazin Pharm. Also (chiefly U.S.) sulfazin. [a. Russ.] A drug consisting of a suspension of one per cent purified sulphur in peach oil, given intramuscularly to induce fever. e.g. 1981 M. C. Smith Gorky Park i. xii. 185 Sulfazin was one of the favorite narcotics of the KGB. 333. superplastic, a. and n. Metallurgy.superplastically adv.; A. adj. Of, pertaining to, or designating a metal capable of extreme plastic extension under load; involving or characteristic of such materials.superplasticity e.g. 1978 Nature 16 Nov. 209/2 The consolidated product can have very fine grain sizes which in turn leads to great ductility at ambient temperature---even to superplastic behaviour. B. n. A superplastic metal.

e.g. 1971 Britannica Yearbk. Sci. & Future 1972 406 While the superplastics are only starting to shed their image as laboratory curiosities, the fiber composites have almost arrived. [tr. Russ. sverkhplastichnost_ (Bochvar & Sviderskaya 1945, in Izvestiya Akad. Nauk SSSR: Otdelenie tekhnicheskikh Nauk ix. 824)], the state or quality of being superplastic. e.g. 1978 Ibid. CXXVI. 688/1 When the temperature of the blank reaches 950_C the argon pressure is increased at a programmed rate to expand the blank into the tool superplastically. 334. Suprematism Also suprematism. [ad. Russ. suprematízm.] An artistic movement initiated by the Russian painter Kazimir Malevich in 1913; the abstract, geometrical style of art produced by this movement. Hence Su-prematist1 (a) n., an adherent of Suprematism; (b) adj., of, pertaining to, or characteristic of Suprematism. e.g. 1955 Archit. Rev. CXVII. 226/1 Malevitsch, in Bauhausbuch No. 11, hopefully says of his own filleted and rectilinear aesthetic “thus one may also call Suprematism an aeronautical art”. 1958 Spectator 14 Feb. 203/1 His Suprematist work exploiting a simple vocabulary of colours and shapes and rhythms. 1980 I. Murdoch Nuns & Soldiers i. 80 He became a cubist, then a surrealist, then a fauve: a futurist, a constructivist, a suprematist. 335. suslik Also souslik, -lic, suslic. [a. Russ. suslik. Cf. F. souslic, -lik.] A species of ground-squirrel, Spermophilus citillus (or other related species), found in Europe and Asia. e.g. 1842 Ibid. XXII. 270/1 The sousliks are very quarrelsome among themselves. 336. Svan Also _(pl.) Ssuanes. [Russ., cf. L. Suani (also used).] (A member of) a southern Caucasian people living in Svanetiya in western Georgia; also, the language of this people. Also Svanian, Swanian. Also attrib. e.g. 1962 D. M. Lang Mod. Hist. Georgia i. 10 The Svans were cut off for centuries from the main stream of Georgian civilization. Ibid. 18 Svanian and Mingrelo-Laz_are separate languages. 337. taiga [a. Russ.] The swampy coniferous forest area of Siberia; also, the zone of temperate coniferous forest stretching across Europe and North America. e.g. 1980 Jrnl. R. Soc. Arts Feb. 140/1 These are generally described in terms of bioclimatic zones---arctic, tundra, taiga, boreal forest, temperate deciduous forests, prairies, desert savanna, and rain forest. 338. Talmudism fig. in Pol. use [tr. Russ. talmudízm] e.g. 1957 R. N. C. Hunt Guide to Communist Jargon xviii. 65 Dogmatism---or Talmudism, as Stalin at times called it---is defined as “the uncritical acceptance of dogma without considering the conditions of its application”. 1965 P. O'Donovan et al. United States iii. 56/1 Is this the victory of pragmatism over Constitutional talmudism? 339. talnakhite Min. [ad. Russ. talnakhit (Bud'ko & Kulagov 1968, in Zap. Vsesoyuznogo Min. Obshchestva XCVII. 63), f. Talnakh, name of a locality near Dudinka in northern Siberia: see -ite1.] A sulphide of copper and iron, Cu9Fe8S16, found as yellow, usu. iridescent, crystals of the cubic system. e.g. 1969 Mineral. Abstr. XX. 148/1 (heading) The new mineral talnakhite---the cubic variety of chalcopyrite. 340. tamizdat [Russ., f. tam there + izdat, abbrev. of izdat'el'stvo publishing house, after samizdat.]

Russian writings which are published abroad and smuggled back into the U.S.S.R.; also this system of publication. e.g. 1982 Times Lit. Suppl. 3 Sept. 950/1 It is thus a combination of samizdat and tamizdat (i.e., both unofficial Soviet and émigré publications). 341. tangeite Min. [ad. Russ. tangeít (A. Fersman 1925, in Priroda No. 7_9. 239), f. the name of the Tange Gorge, TyuyaMuyun, Fergana, central Asia] An orthorhombic basic vanadate of copper and calcium, CuCa(VO4)(OH), that is a secondary mineral found as green or greenish yellow crystals; calciovolborthite. e.g. 1951 C. Palache et al. Dana's Syst. Min. (ed. 7) II. 816 Tangeite appears to be identical with calciovolborthite. 342. tarantass Also -as. [ad. Russ. tarantasu.] A four-wheeled Russian travelling-carriage without springs, on a long flexible wooden chassis. e.g. 1882 H. Landell Through Siberia I. 135 A roofless, seatless, springless, semi-cylindrical tumbril, mounted on poles which connect two wooden axle trees called by the general name of tarantass. 343. tarbagan Also tarabagan. [a. Russ. tarbagán.] A large long-haired marmot, Marmota bobak or M. sibirica, found in the steppes of eastern and central Asia; also, the pelt of this animal. e.g. 1971 P. C. C. Garnham Progress in Parasitol. iii. 32 The infection primarily occurs in a variety of wild rodents_such as the tarabagan in Mongolia. 344. Tass Also TASS. [a. Russ., acronym f. the initial letters of Telegrafnoe agentstvo Sovetskogo Soyuza.] The official Soviet news agency. e.g. 1981 Guardian 27 Apr. 5/2 Tass, reporting from Warsaw, said_that _revisionist elements in the party' were trying to paralyse it. 345. Tat n.8 Also Tât. [a. Russ., from Turkish.] (A member of) an agricultural people perh. related to the Tajiks and living in Azerbaijan and Dagestan; also, the Iranian language spoken by this people. e.g. 1981 Jewish Chron. 24 Apr. 6/5 A Tat, a mountain Jew from Daghestan in the Caucasus, Mr Irmiya Rabayev, 31, has been a refusenik for seven years. 346. Tavgi n. (and a.) Also Tavghi, Tavghy, Tavgy. [a. Russ.] a. (A member of) a Finno-Ugric people (now called Nganasan) living between the Yenisey and Khatanga rivers in north-west Siberia. b. The language of this people. Also attrib. or as adj., esp. in Tavgi-Samoyed. e.g. 1977 C. F. & F. M. Voegelin Classification & Index World's Lang. 343 Yenisei Samoyed_appears to be transitional between Yurak and Tavgy Samoyed. 347. tchetvert Also chetvert. [Russian tchetverti quarter, f. tchetvero four.] A Russian measure of capacity, = .68 of an imperial quarter. e.g. 1890 Daily News 5 Nov. 5/6 Of rye,_there were yielded 113 million tchetverts, the Russian quarter, as against 112, the average for the last five years. 348. tchin [Russian chin rank.] Rank; person or persons of quality. e.g. 1904 Daily Chron. 29 July 4/4 M. Plehve_well knew that the Tsar, the amiable youngster,_was a tool in the hands of the omnipotent tchin. Comb.

1904 Contemp. Rev. Aug. 165 The dismal tchin-ridden Russian villages. 349. technicum Also tekhnikum. Pl. -s, -y. [ad. Russ. tekhnikum, f. mod.L. technicum, neut. sing. of technicus technical (see technic a. and n.).] In the U.S.S.R., a technical college. e.g. 1974 T. P. Whitney tr. Solzhenitsyn's Gulag Archipelago I. i. ii. 72 In Leningrad, the Latvian Technicum, and the Latvian and Estonian newspapers were all closed down. 350. telega Also telego, telaga, telegga, teljčga, (telegue). [a. Russ. teljęga; whence also F. télčgue.] A four-wheeled Russian cart, of rough construction, without springs. e.g. 1903 19th Cent. Mar. 421 A party of poor telega-drivers. 351. terem Russ. Hist. [Russ., lit. “tower”.] Secluded separate quarters for women. e.g. 1943 E. M. Almedingen Frossia iv. 169 The maiden lived in her terem, its windows strictly latticed. 352. theremin Also thérémin, and with capital initial. [f. the name of its inventor, L. Thérémin (b. 1896), Russian engineer.] An electronic musical instrument in which the tone is generated by two high-frequency oscillators and the pitch controlled by the movement of the performer's hand towards and away from the circuit (see quot. 1971). e.g. 1982 New Scientist 16 Dec. 753 Moog recently recorded her playing the theremin. 353. thermokarst [a. Russ. termokárst (M. M. Ermolaev 1932, in Trudy Soveta po Izuch. proizv. Sil: Ser. yakutsk. 211)], topography in which the melting of permafrost has produced hollows, hummocks, and the like reminiscent of karst; e.g. 1970 Globe Mag. 17 Jan. 4/3 Even south of the Alaska Range there is much permafrost within the forested areas which will create further problems of heat loss, permafrost melt and thermokarst development. 354. tochilinite Min. [ad. Russ. tochilinít (N. I. Organova et al. 1971, in Zap. Vsesoyuznogo Min. Obshch. C. 477), f. the name of M. S. Tochilin (1910_55), Russian geologist: see -ite1.] A mineral that is a complex of iron sulphide and magnesium and iron hydroxides, found as bronze-black grains and fibrous aggregates. e.g. 1973 Mineral. Abstr. XXIV. 186/2 A new mineral tochilinite_occurs in two habit modifications. 1976 Papers Geol. Survey Canada No. 76_ib. 66/1 Tochilinite is associated with clear and white calcites, some of which are coarse euhedral crystals. 355. tokamak Physics. [a. Russ. tokamák, f. toroidálnaya kámera s magnítnym pólem, toroidal chamber with magnetic field.] One kind of toroidal apparatus for producing controlled fusion reactions in a hot plasma, distinguished by the fact that the controlling magnetic field is the sum of a toroidal field due to external windings and a poloidal field due to an induced longitudinal current in the plasma. e.g. 1984 N.Y. Times Bk. Rev. 1 Apr. 23/2 In the race to achieve commercial success, Princeton's tokamak (the original Russian acronym for a toroidal magnetic chamber) is pitted against_laser technology. 356. tolkach Pl. tolkachi. [Russ., f. tolkat_ to push or jostle.] In the U.S.S.R., a person who negotiates difficulties or arranges things, a fixer. e.g. 1977 Western Political Q. XXX. 217 The premier practitioner of blat is the tolkach. He is the plant's representative who travels the country searching for needed supplies or unsnarling bureaucratic bottlenecks. 357. torgsin Also Torgsin. [a. Russ., contraction of vsesoyuznoe ob_edinenie po torgovle s inostrantsami, the All-Union Association for Trade with Foreigners.]

A Soviet trading organization in the 1920s and 1930s which sold goods only in return for foreign currency. Used attrib. e.g. 1968 Listener 3 Oct. 434/2 It was fairly easy for us because of those Torgsin shops where you could really get everything. 358. tosudite Min. [ad. Russ. tosudít (V. A. Frank-Kamenetsky et al. 1963, in Zap. Vsesoyuz. Min. Obshch. XCIII. 563): see quot. 1964 and -ite1.] A blue mixed-layer clay mineral (see quots.). e.g. 1964 Mineral. Abstr. XVI. 549/2 This newly characterized mixed-layer mineral consisting of unusual aluminian chlorite and montmorillonite is named tosudite, in honour of Toshio Sudo, who described the Japanese occurrences. 1976 Clays & Clay Minerals XXIV. 142/1 The name tosudite is usually used for a regularly interstratified mineral with dioctahedral or di-trioctahedral chlorite component. 359. tovarish, tovarich Also tav-; -isch, -ishch, -istch, -itch. Pl. -i. [ad. Russ. továrishch comrade.] In the U.S.S.R., comrade (freq. as a form of address). e.g. 1977 Time 28 Feb. 12/3 To compensate for her lost lover, she found at least one more torrid tovarish. 360. trihydrocalcite Min. [ad. Russ. trigidrokaltsit (P. N. Chirvinsky 1906, in Ezhegodnik po Geol. i Mineral. Rosi VIII. 241/1)], a trihydrate of calcium carbonate, CaCO3.3H2O, the natural occurrence of which is uncertain; e.g. 1910 Mineral. Mag. XV. 432 Trihydrocalcite. Hydrated calcium carbonate, CaCO3.3H2O, occurring as a mould-like encrustation on chalkmarl near Nova-Alexandria. 361. troika [Russ. trojka.] 1. A Russian vehicle drawn by three horses abreast. e.g. 1904 Daily Record & Mail 22 Apr. 4, I crossed the Baikal in a troika, a basket sleigh on wooden runners, drawn by three horses abreast. 2. A group or set of three persons (rarely things) or categories of people associated in power; a three-person commission or administrative council. Also attrib. e.g. 1976 M. J. Lasky Utopia & Revolution (1977) ii. 92 Ideas, images, and ideology never quite manage to be harnessed into a controllable troika. 362. tsarevich, czar-, -wi(t)ch Also spelt (after Polish) czarowitz, -witch, etc. [a. Russ. tsa_revich, son of a tsar; in Pol. carowicz, F. tsarowitz, Ger. zarewitsch, etc. See tsar.] A son of a tsar. (Superseded, after the time of Paul I, by veliki knyaz - Grand Duke', lit. great prince'. The eldest son or hereditary prince had the differentiated title cesarevitch, -witch, Russian tsesarevich, formed on tsesar_ Cćsar, emperor.) e.g. 1906 P. Kropotkin Mem. Revolutionist (1908) II. ix. 143 The Tsarevich began to scold the officer. 363. tsarevna, czarevna [Russ. tsarevna.] A daughter of a tsar. (Not the official title in Russia; the wife of the cesarevitch was the cesa_revna. See prec.) e.g. 1890 Morfill Russia 343 The favourite of the Tsarevna Sophia. 364. tsarish, cz- a. [f. tsar + -ish; rendering the Russian adj. tsarski, for which A. Marvell used tzarskoy.] Of or pertaining to a tsar, spec. of the tsar of Russia. e.g. 1904 Longm. Mag. Oct. 204 If his Tsarish Grace should_find himself in danger. 365. tsaritsa, czaritza Also czarissa. [a. Russ. tsa_ritsa, fem. of tsari.] The Russian title for which tsarina was in ordinary English use. (The Russian official title was impritsa empress.) e.g. 1890 Morfill Russia 183 The Tsaritsa Eudoxia, the first wife of Peter the Great. 366. tundrite Min.

[ad. Russ. tundrít (E. I. Semenov Mineralogiya Redkikh Zemel (1963) 209), f. Russ. túndra tundra (from its being first found on the Lovozero tundra near Murmansk): see -ite1.] A silicate and carbonate (essentially) of cerium (normal tundrite, tundrite-(Ce)) or neodymium (tundrite(Nd)), sodium, and titanium found as triclinic brownish- or greenish-yellow crystals. e.g. 1965 Amer. Mineralogist L. 2098 Tundrite occurs in 3 nepheline syenite pegmatites of Mt. Nepkha, Lovozero tundra, Kola Peninsula. 1974 Ibid. LIX. 633/2 Infra-red study of tundrite from a new locality in the Khibina massif showed bands of carbonate; this was confirmed by spectra of the Greenland mineral. 367. tur [a. Russ.] A greyish-brown wild goat, Capra caucasica, native to south-eastern Russia. e.g. D. Morris Mammals 428 There are several other species which are also called Ibex. These include the Tur, or Caucasian Ibex. 368. turanose Chem. [ad. Russ. turanoza (A. Alekhina 1889, in Zhurnal Russkago fiziko-khim. Obshchestva XXI. 418), after Pers. Turan Turkistan, place of origin of the manna used to prepare this] The reducing disaccharide sugar C12H22O11, formed by partial hydrolysis of melezitose; 3d-glucopyranosyl-d-fructose. e.g. 1975 Nature 10 July 128/1 Maltose was slightly more effective, and sucrose, turanose, kojibiose, trehalose and melezitose all inhibited binding at significantly lower concentrations than glucose. 369. tvorog [a. Russ. tvórog.] A soft Russian cheese similar to cottage or curd cheese. e.g. 1982 L. Chamberlain Food & Cooking of Russia (1983) 245 By Good Friday several pounds of tvorog (curd cheese) would have been sitting for at least 24 hours under a wooden press to extract the last drops of whey. 370. tyuyamunite Min. [ad. Russ. tyuyamunít_ (K. A. Nenadkevicha 1913, in Izvestiya imper. Akad. Nauk_ VI. 945), f. Tyuya Muyun, name of a village near Osh, Kirgiziya, U.S.S.R.] A hydrous uranyl vanadate of calcium, Ca(UO2)2(VO4)2.5-8H2O, occurring as soft, yellowish orthorhombic crystals and mined for its uranium content. e.g. 1979 Mineral. Abstr. XXX. 362/1 The San Rafael mining area is situated along the east flank of the San Rafael Swell in east-central Utah. Coffinite is the most abundant primary ore mineral, and tyuyamunite is the most abundant secondary ore mineral. 371. udarnik Pl. -i. [Russ.] A shock-worker e.g. 1966 Economist 29 Oct. 464/1 Various forms of socialist competition were gradually introduced, first with the aid of shock workers or udarniki, and then by the encouragement of Stakhanovites. 372. Ugrian a. and n. [f. Ugri, the name given by early Russian writers to an Asiatic race dwelling east of the Ural Mountains.] A. adj. Belonging to, of or pertaining to, a division of Ural-Altaic peoples, which includes the Finns and Magyars. e.g. 1889 S. Bryant Celtic Ireland 5 The early Finnish or Ugrian type, that wandered westwards from the north-east. B. n. 1. A member of the Ugrian stock. e.g. 1889 S. Bryant Celtic Ireland 5 Later immigrations may have included mixtures of the Ugrian with the Celt. 2. The language of the Ugrians. Also attrib. e.g. 1877 Encycl. Brit. VII. 183/1 The following is the order of the groups, some of the more important languages standing alone:---Celtic, Lithuanic, Slavonic, Ugrian, Turkish.

373. ukase Also oukauze, ukause, (o)ukaz. [ad. Russ. ukaz, f. ukazatj to show, direct, order, decree. Hence also F. ukase, oukase, Pg. ukase, Sp. ucase, G., Da., Sw. ukas.] 1. A decree or edict, having the force of law, issued by the Russian emperor or government. e.g. 1894 Times 11 Dec. 8/3 In execution of the Imperial Oukaz to the Minister of Finance. 2. transf. Any proclamation or decree; an order or regulation of a final or arbitrary nature. e.g. 1859 Kingsley Misc., Plays & Purit. II. 136 That New England ukase of Cotton Mather's, who punished the woman who should kiss her infant on the Sabbath day. 1880 Mrs. Whitney Odd or Even? xxx, Whatever the Autocrat of the Breakfast Table may have found true, or have recorded by his ukase, twenty years ago. 374. Uniat, Uniate [ad. Russ. uniyat, f. uniya union (spec. the united Greek and Roman Catholic Churches), f. L. uni-, unus one.] A Russian, Polish, or other member of that part of the Greek Church which, while retaining its own liturgy, acknowledges the supremacy of the Pope and is in communion with the Roman Catholic Church; a United Greek. e.g. 1883 A. Beresford-Hope Worship & Order 127 The restoration of the uniates to Eastern communion. b. attrib. or as adj. Of, adhering or pertaining to, or denominating the United Greek Church. e.g. 1905 Times 22 Sept. 7 The much persecuted Uniate or Greek Catholic creed. 375. uprava [Russ., = authority.] In Imperial Russia: the executive board of a municipal council. e.g. 1954 G. Vernadsky Hist. Russia (ed. 4) x. 221 The representatives elected a board known as the uprava for a term of three years. 376. uralborite Min. [ad. Russ. uralborit (S. V. Malinko 1961, in Zap. Vsesoyuznogo Min. Obshchestva XC. 673), f. the name of the Ural Mountains: see -ite1.] A basic calcium borate, CaB2O4, occurring as colourless monoclinic crystals. e.g. 1977 Soviet Physics---Doklady XXII. 279/1 The most interesting feature of uralborite is the [B4O4(OH)8]4 island groups, which are overlapped by the Ca deltadodecahedra forming a threedimensional cationic skeleton. 377. ureilite Geol. [ad. Russ. ure_lit (Erofeev & Lachinov 1888, in Zhurnal Russ. fiziko-khim. Obshchestva pri Imper. St. Petersburgsk. Univ. XX. 213), f. the name of Novo-Ure, a village near Penza, in the vicinity of which a meteorite belonging to this class fell.] Any of a group of calcium-poor achondrite meteorites that consist mainly of olivine and pigeonite. e.g. 1971 I. G. Gass et al. Understanding Earth viii. 116/1 The presence of diamond in the small group of ureilites appears to be due to extraterrestrial shock effects. 378. Uzbek Also formerly Usbeck, Usbeg, Uzbeg, and other varr. [a. Russ.] One of a Turkic people of central Asia, forming the basic population of the Uzbek SSR (Uzbekistan), and also living in Afghanistan; the language of this people. Also attrib. or as adj. e.g. 1976 Times 3 Nov. 16/5 A dark-haired agronomist from an Uzbek collective farm. 379. valenki n. pl. Also valinki, -ky. [Russ., pl. of valenok felt boot.] Felt boots of a type worn by Russians. e.g. 1981 M. C. Smith Gorky Park i. viii. 107 The girl dressed in the kind of felt boots called valenki. 380. Varagian, a. [f. mod.L. Varagi (pl.), ad. Old Russian Variagi.] = Varangian a. The form Varegian (after the mod.L. variant Varegi) has also been employed. e.g. 1841 Penny Cycl. XX. 258 A Varagian (probably Danish) freebooter of the Baltic, named Rurik.

Varangian n. and a. Hist. [f. med. or mod.L. Varang-us, ad. med.Gr. ad. (through Slavonic languages) ON. Vćringi (pl. Vćringjar), app. f. vár- (f. pl. várar) plighted faith. In the Old Russian chronicle of Nestor the name occurs as Variagi and Variazi (pl.), and survives in mod.Russ. varyág a pedlar, Ukrainian varjah a big strong man.] A. n. 1. One of the Scandinavian rovers who in the 9th and 10th centuries overran parts of Russia and reached Constantinople; a Northman (latterly also an Anglo-Saxon) forming one of the bodyguard of the later Byzantine emperors (see B.). e.g. 1889 Baring-Gould Grettir xliii. 379 The company called the Varangians, who acted as a bodyguard to the Emperor. 2. The language spoken by these. e.g. 1831 Scott Ct. Rob. iii, Mustering what few words of Varangian he possessed, which he eked out with Greek. B. adj. Of or pertaining to the Varangians; composed of Varangians, etc. e.g. 1900 Hector H. Munro Rise Russ. Empire ii. 17 A Varangian power had sprung up among the tribes of the Slavic hinterland. b. Varangian Guard, the bodyguard of the Byzantine emperors, formed of Varangians. e.g. 1831 Scott Ct. Rob. ii, This account of the Varangian Guard is strictly historical. 381. vedro. Also 8 wedro. [Russ. vedró pail.] A Russian liquid measure equal to 2.7 imperial gallons. e.g. 1907 Edin. Rev. Jan. 224 The peasants of that province drank this year 62,924 vedros of vodka more than last. 382. Vepsian Also Veps, Vepsic, Vesp, Wepsian, etc. [f. Russ. Vépsi + -an, -ian.] a. (A member of) a Finnish people dwelling in the region of Lake Onega, now in the north-west of the U.S.S.R. b. The Finno-Ugric language spoken by this people. Also attrib. or as adj. e.g. 1964 Language XL. 98 The Veps, Votic, and Estonian cognates. 1977 Ibid. LIII. 477 Since the boundaries of the European continent make up the geographical frame work of H's analysis, he includes such little-known languages as Votyak, Cheremis, and Vepsian (Uralic), and Bashkir, Karaim, and Kalmyk (Altaic).

383. vernalization [f. vernal a. + -ization, as tr. Russ. yarovizátsiya.] The technique of exposing seeds, young plants, etc., to low temperatures in order to hasten subsequent flowering; also, the natural process induced by cold weather which this technique imitates. Also transf. and fig. e.g. 1971 E. O. Wilson Insect Societies viii. 154/1 The vernalization (chilling) effect that renders Myrmica and Formica brood queen potent can be interpreted as a token stimulus. Hence (by back-formation) vernalize v. trans., to treat or affect (seeds, etc.) in this way; vernalized ppl. a. (in quots. transf.), vernalizing vbl. n. e.g. 1976 Sci. Amer. Sept. 99/3 The crop flowers and produces grain in the spring after being vernalized, or induced to flower, by the low temperatures in winter. 384. verst Forms: werste, werst, worst, wurste. verst, verste, vorst; verse (pl. versse), ferse. [ad. Russ. verstá, partly through G. werst and F. verste.] A Russian measure of length equal to 3500 English feet or about two-thirds of an English mile. e.g. 1864 Burton Scot Abr. II. ii. 204 A country house of the Tzaar's seven versts from Moscow. 385. vigorish U.S. slang. Also viggerish, etc. [prob. f. Yiddish, ad. Russ. vyigrysh gain, winnings.]

The percentage deducted by the organizers of a game from the winnings of a gambler. Also, the rate of interest upon a usurious loan. Also transf. and fig. e.g. 1978 Film Rev. 1978-9 13/1 The companies are not in any way stealing from the picture-makers. They have to have built-in vigorishes---or else they'd go broke. Who pays for the 21 million dollars lost on The Sorcerer? The Studio! 386. virgin land, previously uncultivated land, spec. [tr. Russ. tseliná] in Western Siberia and Kazakhstan, land made the subject of an intensive agricultural programme by the Soviet government since 1954 e.g. 1967 C. Cockburn I, Claud xxxv. 438 Hardly anyone can be packed off to some social equivalent of the Russian “virgin lands” for lousing things up. 387. vladimirite Min. [ad. Russ. vladimirit (E. I. Nefedev 1953, in Zap. Mineral. Obshch. LXXXII. 317), f. the name Vladimir: see -ite1.] A hydrated arsenate of calcium, Ca5H2(AsO4)4.5H2O, occurring as colourless acicular monoclinic crystals. e.g. 1978 Mineral. Rec. IX. 73 Vladimirite. Fine, acicular, brilliant, colorless crystals in quartz cavities or with talmessite crusts were found in 1963 at the Irthem mine [in Morocco]. 388. vodka Also vodki, -ky, wodky; votku, votky. [a. Russ. vódka (gen. sing. vódki)] a. An ardent spirit used orig. esp. in Russia, chiefly distilled from rye, but also from barley, potatoes, or other materials. Also, a glass or drink of this. e.g. 1891 Blackw. Mag. Oct. 470/2 Anything which his understanding failed to connect directly with the price of bread and “vodky”. b. attrib., as vodka bottle, flask, glass, etc.; vodka Collins; vodka gimlet [gimlet n.], a cocktail made of vodka and lime-juice; vodka martini, a martini cocktail in which vodka is substituted for gin; vodka-tonic, a drink consisting of vodka and tonic water. e.g. 1974 R. B. Parker God save Child ix. 61 Can I get you a drink? Would you take a vodka gimlet? 1976 J. Hayes Missing (1977) iii. 61 She poured another vodka-tonic. 389. Vogul Also Vogoul, Wougoul, Wogul, Wogule, Vogule. [a. Russian vogul, G. Wogul, etc.] a. A member of a Ugrian people inhabiting Tobolsk and and Perm. e.g. 1948 D. Diringer Alphabet 483 The Voguls in the Ural mountains. b. The language of this people, belonging to the Ob-Ugrian group. e.g. 1980 Amer. N. & Q. Oct. 29/1 Marianne Sz. Bakró-Nagy has pulled together some 500 terms on the bear as a tabu animal in the Urals among the Ostyak (Khanty) and Vogul (Mansi) speaking peoples. Wogulian (-olian); Wogulic a. e.g. 1925 P. Radin tr. Vendryčs's Language ii. iii. 118 In Wogulian mini he goes[is] formed like puri “taking”. 390. volborthite. Min. [Named (1837) after its discoverer, Alexander von Volborth, a Russian scientist.] Hydrous vanadate of copper, barium and calcium, found in small, yellowish-green crystals' (Chester). e.g. 1844 Dana Min. (1868) 611. 1878 Lawrence tr. Cotta's Rocks Classified 41 Volborthite occurs as an accessory ingredient in many sandstones of the Permian formation of Russia. 391. volost [Russ. volost_.] The smallest rural administrative subdivision in Imperial Russia and the U.S.S.R. (abolished in 1930). e.g. 1974 Encycl. Brit. Macropćdia XVI. 59/1 Kiselev provided for a measure of self-government under which the mayor of the volost (a district grouping several villages or peasant communes) was elected by male householders.

392. Votyak n. (a.) Also Votiak.[Russ.] 1. A member of a Finno-Ugrian people inhabiting the Udmurt republic in the northwestern region of the U.S.S.R. Also attrib. or as adj. e.g. 1974 Encycl. Brit. Macropćdia VII. 313/1 In the lud sanctuaries of the Votyaks, worship was performed by members of the family. 2. The language of this people, belonging to the Permian branch of the Finno-Ugrian family. e.g. 1932 W. L. Graff Language & Languages 406 Votyak (about 400,000) is situated between the Viatka and the Kama. 393. vozhd [Russ., lit. = chief'.] A leader, one who is in supreme authority: applied esp. to the Russian statesman Joseph Stalin (1879-1953). e.g. 1959 W. Treadgold Twentieth Cent. Russia xviii. 289 Even the top functionaries were subject to Stalin's supreme power, and the word Vozhd (Leader) came to be used openly to acknowledge and proclaim that fact. 1978 Encounter Feb. 42/1 The Vozhd of Moscow made his exit in triumph. 394. vysotskite Min. [ad. Russ. vysotskit (Genkin & Zvyagintsev 1962, in Zap. Vsesoyuz. Min. Obshch. XCI. 718), f. the name of N. K. Vysotsky (d. 1932), Russian mineralogist: see -ite1.] A sulphide of palladium and often nickel, (Pd,Ni)S, found as minute silvery tetragonal crystals having a metallic lustre. e.g. 1978 Amer. Mineralogist LXIII. 832/1 Vysotskite has since been reported, from the Stillwater Complex of Montana, and the Lac des Isles deposit, Ontario. 395. White-Russian, Belorussian a. and n. Also Byelorussian [f. Russ. Belorussiya Belorussia, f. belo- white + Russia + -an.] A. adj. Of or pertaining to Belorussia, one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union, its people or its language. B. n. = White Russian e.g. 1958 Economist 1 Nov. 424/2 General Uborevich, commander of the Byelorussian district. 396. Yakut n. and a. Also Yakouti, Yakuty, Yakute. [a. Russ.] A. n. a. (A member of) a Mongoloid people of north-eastern Siberia which now constitutes the majority of the population of the Yakutsk Republic of the Soviet Union. e.g. 1981 M. C. Smith Gorky Park i. viii. 107 Some twenty-odd Russians and Yakuts surrounding a small group of Westerners and Japanese. b. The language of the Yakuts, an Altaic one usually placed in the Turkic group. e.g. 1976 “S. Harvester” Siberian Road xiv. 165 The middle-aged woman translated what he said into a language he took to be Yakut. B. adj. Pertaining to or designating the Yakuts. e.g. 1981 I. Boland tr. Ginzburg's Within Whirlwind ii. iv. 218 He was a Yakut boy---or at least his mother was Yakut. 397. yamstchik Also yamsheek, yems(t)chick, -schik, yamshik. [Russ. yamshchik, f. yam yam n.2] The driver of a post-horse. e.g. 1911 Encycl. Brit. XXV. 15/1 Parties of yamshiks-a special organization of Old Russia entrusted with the maintenance of horses for postal communication. 398. yeri [a. Russ.] The name of the Russian vowel y, the twenty-eighth letter of the Russian alphabet. e.g. 1921 E. Sapir Language ix. 212 Both nasalized vowels and the Slavic “yeri” are demonstrably of secondary origin in Indo-European. 1977 Word 1972 XXVIII. 249 The /ď/ is a back unrounded vowel, similar to the Russian yeri.

399. yuft Also youghten, jucten, juff, juft, youft. [a. Russ. yuft, yukht, whence also G. juften, juchten.] Russia leather. e.g. 1853 Ure Dict. Arts (ed. 4) II. 60 The Russians have long been possessed of a method of making a peculiar leather, called by them jucten, dyed red with the aromatic saunders wood. 400. yurt Forms: jourt, jurt, y(o)urte, yurta, yuert, yort, yurt, yurta, yourt. [ad. Russ. yurta, through F. yourte or G. jurte.] A semi-subterranean dwelling or hut of the natives of northern and central Asia, usually formed of timber covered with earth or turf. Also, a circular skin- or felt-covered tent, with collapsible frame, used by the nomadic peoples of Siberia and Central Asia. Also transf. and attrib. e.g. 1981 Nordic Skiing Jan. 51/2 Skiing the system of five yurts set five miles apart in the Sawtooth Mountains is what Leonard Expeditions is all about. 401. zakuski or zakouski pl. n., sing. -ka (-k) [Russian, from zakusit ' to have a snack] Russian cookery. hors d'oeuvres, consisting of tiny open sandwiches spread with caviar, smoked sausage, etc., or a cold dish such as radishes in sour cream, all usually served with vodka. 402. Zembl(i)an, a. and n. rare. [f. (Nova) Zembla = Russ. Novaya Zemlya “new land”.] a. adj. Belonging to Nova Zembla, a group of islands in the Arctic Ocean north of Archangel in Russia; hence, arctic. b. n. A native or inhabitant of Nova Zembla. e.g. 1749 Cawthorn Poems (1771) 179 Thy unwearied soul_gave to Britain half the zemblian sky. 1806 Shee Rhymes Art (ed. 3) 10 Lybian sands, or Zemblan snows. 403. zemni Also ziemni, zemmi. [Short for Russ. dial. schenók zemnói “puppy of earth” (zemnói adj. f. zemlya earth).] The blind mole-rat, Spalax typhlus. Also zemni-rat. e.g. 1785 Smellie tr. Buffon's Nat. Hist. (1791) VIII. 232 In Poland and Russia there is another animal called ziemni or zemni, which is of the same genus with the zisel. 1836-9 Todd's Cycl. Anat. II. 571/2 Some are devoid of the auricle, as the mole, the zemni-rat, the mole-rat. 404. zemstvo Also zem(p)stwo. Pl. zemstvos, zemstva. [Russ., f. zemlya land.] An elective district or provincial council in Russia for purposes of local government, created by Alexander II in 1864. e.g. 1983 P. Ustinov My Russia xi. 122 Members of local zemstvos might soon enjoy a voice in the internal government of the country. Hence zemstvoist, a member of zemstvo. e.g. 1905 Times 8 May 5/3 The Zemstvoists have split over the question of universal suffrage. 405. zirconolite Min. [ad. Russ. tsirkonolít (L. S. Borodin et al. 1956, in Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR CX. 845)] A mixed oxide of (essentially) calcium, zirconium, and titanium, now regarded as identical with zirkelite. e.g. 1957 Chem. Abstr. LI. 6440 (heading) The new mineral zirconolite, a complex oxide of the type AB3O7.zolotnik, 406. zubr Also zuber. [Russ. See Columna lui Traian (1875) 97 ff.] The European bison or aurochs, Bos bonasus. e.g. 1847 W. C. L. Martin Ox 8/1 He who kills a zubr without permission of the Russian government, has to pay as a fine 2000 rubles. 407. Zyrian n. and a. Also Syrian, Syryane, Syryen, (and esp.) Zyryan. [ad. Russ. Zyryánin: see -ian.] A. n. A member of the Komi people of northern central U.S.S.R. b. The language of this people; = Komi b.

B. adj. Of or pertaining to this people or their language. e.g. 1978 K. Rédei (title) Zyrian folklore texts.

8.1.3 Bohemian & Czech 8.1.3.1 Bohemian
408. Czech, Czekh n. and a. Also Tshekh. [Boh. Cech, Pol. Czech.] The native name of the Bohemian people; Bohemian; the language of this people. Also = Czechoslovakian n. and a. Czechian, Czechic, Czechish adjs. e.g. 1957 Encycl. Brit. VI. 951/2 The native home of the Czechs today lies in the Czechoslovak republic in the western parts of which they are the dominating and almost the sole population. Czechize v. [f. Czech + -ize.] trans. To make Czech in character, language, etc. So Czechization. e.g. 1938 Times 26 Aug. 10/1 Increasing Czechization of industries and railways. 409. howitz, haubitz. Obs. Forms: _. hau-, hawbitz, hob(b)its. howitts, hau-, howitz. [a. Ger. haubitze, in 15th c. haufnitz, haufenitz, ad. Boh. houfnice stone-sling, catapult. (Introduced into German during the Hussite wars.) From the Ger., also 17th c. It. obiza, obice, F. obus bomb-shell.] e.g. 1781 in Sparks Corr. Amer. Rev. (1853) III. 488 Two field-pieces, some howitz, and perhaps a mortar. 410. Taborite [ad. G. Taboriten pl., ad. Boh. taborzhina, f. tabor tabor n.; so called from their encampment on a craggy height, now the town of Tabor in Bohemia.] A member of the extreme party or section of the Hussites led by Zizska. e.g. 1861 J. Gill Banished Count vi. 68 The Calixtines might be styled the Gallicans of Bohemia, and the Taborites the Protestants.

8.1.3.2 Czech
411. akathisia, acathisia Path. [mod.L., ad. Czech. akathisie (L. Haskovec in Sborn. Klin. v. Praze (1901-2) III. 193), Fr. akathisie, f. Gr. priv. (a- prefix ) + sitting] Inability to sit; morbid fear of sitting. Also used joc. (quot. 1938). e.g. 1938 S. Beckett Murphy vii. 119 It was true that Cooper never sat, his acathisia was deep-seated and of long standing. 1953 E. Podolsky Encycl. Aberrations 3/2 The inability to sit down or the dread to sit down is known as acathisia. 412. dobro orig. U.S. [f. the name of its Czech-American inventors, the Do(pera Bro(thers; the coincidence with Czech dobro (the) good, a good thing, may also help to explain the choice of this form.] The name (proprietary in the U.S.) for a type of acoustic guitar with steel resonating discs fitted inside the body under the bridge, popular for playing country and western music. e.g. 1976 National Observer (U.S.) 5 June 20/5 These country people have rough but honest faces, look to have the moral fiber of birch, love strangers, play fiddles and dobros, [etc.]. 1984 Washington Post 24 Dec. B7/6 The ornate surface of Ben Eldridge's banjo and the brittle precision of John Duffey's mandolin were answered by the warm and elastic dobro of Mike Auldridge. 413. dumka Mus. Pl. dumkas, dumky. [Czech. = plaintive song, elegy.] An alternately melancholy and gay piece of music, found chiefly in the work of Slavonic composers.

e.g. 1947 A. Einstein Mus. Rom. Era xvii. 302 Dvoršák was less regionally limited than Smetana; although he still wrote polkas, dumkas, and furiants, he also wrote waltzes and mazurkas. 414. ferritin Biochem. [a. Czech ferritin (V. Laufberger 1934, in Biologické Listy XIX. 77), f. ferri- after ferratin.] A water-soluble crystalline protein containing ferric iron that occurs in many animals, esp. in the liver and spleen, and is involved in the storage of iron by the body. e.g. 1962 New Scientist 21 June 658/2 Biologically active iron compounds such as transferrin, ferritin, and haemosiderin. 415. foreground, v. [f. the n.] trans. To place in the foreground. Hence foregrounding vbl. n.; spec. in Linguistics [rendering Czech aktualisace modernization (Havránek and Weingart Spisovná čeština a jazyková kultura (1932))], the use of unorthodox or unexpected devices in language. e.g. 1962 S. R. Levin Ling. Struct. Poetry ii. 17 Foregrounded linguistic elements call attention to themselves. 1964 P. L. Garvin Prague School Reader p. viii, Automatization refers to the stimulus normally expected in a social situation; foregrounding---in Czech aktualisace---on the other hand refers to a stimulus not culturally expected in a social situation and hence capable of provoking special attention. 416. furiant Mus. [Czech.] A type of Bohemian dance, or its music, in quick triple time with frequently-shifting accents. e.g. 1943 Times 11 Nov. 6/5 The ballet, with Miss Sasha Machov to teach them the authentic style in polka and furiant. 417. hácek n. [from Czech] A diacritic mark (ˇ) placed over certain letters in order to modify their sounds, esp. used in Slavonic languages to indicate various forms of palatal articulation, as in the affricate ´and the fricative trill ąused in Czech. e.g. 1984 E. Stankiewicz Grammars & Dict. Slavic Lang. 3 Hus replaced the medieval system of digraphs with one of diacritics, among which the dot (later replaced by a hácek) marked the palatals. 418. koktaite Min. [ad. Czech koktait (J. Sekanina 1948, in Acta Acad. Sci. Nat. Moravo-Silesiacae XX. i. 1), f. the name of Jaroslav Kokta, Czech mineralogist] Hydrated calcium ammonium sulphate, (NH4)2Ca(SO4)2H2O, occurring in acicular monoclinic crystals and identical with artificial ammonium syngenite. e.g. 1948 Mineral Abstr. X. 352 Artificial ammonium-syngenite has the composition (NH4)2Ca(SO4)2H2O (analysis by J. Kokta), and agrees in the optical data with the mineral, named koktaite, from Zeravice. 1968 I. Kostov Mineral. ii. ix. 504 Syngenite and koktaite are isotypic. 419. kolach Also kolache, kolachi, kolachy. Pl. kolache kolaches. [ad. Czech kolác, f. kolo wheel, circle.] A small tart or pie popular in Czechoslovakia, topped or filled with a sweet mixture, preserve, etc. e.g. 1961 H Watney tr. Brízová's Cooking Czech Way 143 Kolache (flat fruit buns) and filled rolls made from yeast dough are typically Czech. 1967 Mrs. L. B. Johnson White House Diary 7 July (1970) 545 For dessert a typical specialty of the area---“kolaches”, a rich pastry that has a center of dried apricots or prunes. 420. koruna Also erron. korona. Pl. korunas, koruny. [Czech, lit. crown.] The basic monetary unit of Czechoslovakia, introduced as the Czech crown after the 1914-18 war (abbrev. Kc), and replaced and revalued after the 1939-45 war as the crown of the Czech and Slovak State (abbrev. Kcs); 1 Kcs = 100 hellers (halér, pl. halére). Also, a coin corresponding to this unit. Also attrib. The forms KC and KCS (for Czech Kc and Kcs) in quot. 1947 are erroneous.

e.g. 1967 Economist 19 Aug. p. xxvi/3 An annual turnover in the region of 6,000 million koruna (just under 900 million). 421. Pilsener, Pilsner [G., f. Pilsen (Czech. Plzen), a province and city in W. Bohemia, Czechoslovakia.] In full Pils(e)ner beer. A pale-coloured lager beer with a strong hop flavour. Also attrib. The name now designates type rather than origin. Beer from Plzen itself is known as Pils(e)ner Urquell (G., primary source). e.g. 1980 Brit. Med. Jrnl. 29 Mar. 916/1 It [sc. class 2 beer] was available in two strengths---a middle European Pilsner beer, and a somewhat stronger English lager type. b. Special Combs., as Pils(e)ner glass, pils(e)ner glass, a tall beer glass tapered at the bottom. e.g. 1975 Times 18 Jan. 12/1 A “sight of the world” through the bottom of a Pilsner glass. 422. polka n [= Fr. and Ger. polka: of uncertain origin. The dance being of Bohemian origin (orig. called Nimra), it has been suggested that polka was a corruption of Czech pulka half, a characteristic feature being its short half steps'. Another suggestion is that the actual form, whether or not altered from pulka, is due to the Polish Polka, fem. of Polak a Pole: cf. polonaise (also a dance), and mazurka.] 1. A lively dance of Bohemian origin, the music for which is in duple time. Danced at Prague in 1835, at Vienna 1839, Paris 1840, London in the spring of 1842: see Memoirs of Anna M. W. Pickering (1903) xvi. polka-mazurka, a modification of the mazurka dance to the movement of a polka; polka-time. e.g. 1884 St. James' Gaz. 28 Apr. 5/1 It was Taglioni who introduced into England the polka. attrib. 1844 Illustr. Lond. News 11 May 301/1 You perform the galop waltz, substituting the Polka step just described. 1967 Chujoy & Manchester Dance Encycl. (rev. ed.) 738/2 Polka-Mazurka, a Polish variation of the polka, in 3/4 time, danced as a ballroom dance in countries of Eastern Europe. 2. A piece of music for such a dance, or in its time or rhythm. 1867 M. E. Braddon R. Godwin I. i. 16 The guard's horn playing a joyous polka made itself heard among the trees. 3. On account of the popularity of the dance, polka was prefixed as a trade name to articles of all kinds (cf. quot. 1898 in 1); e.g. the polka curtain-band (for looping up curtains), polka-gauze, polka hat; polka-dot, a pattern consisting of dots of uniform size and arrangement; also fig., attrib. or as adj., and as v. trans.; hence polka-dotted adj. 1979 C. Wood James Bond & Moonraker xi. 112 She had big puffed sleeves and a petticoat effect of overlapping polka-dotted skirts. Hence (nonce-wds.) polka v. intr., to dance the polka; polkaic a., of the character of a polka; polkamania, a mania for dancing the polka; polkery, an assembly for polka dancing; polkist, -iste, one who dances the polka. e.g. 1845 M. J. Higgins Ess. (1875) 218 Morning *polkeries in Grosvenor Square. 1846 G. Warburton Hochelaga I. 93 Some of them are the best waltzers and *polkistes I have ever seen. 423. redowa Also redowak. [a. F. or Ger. redowa, ad. Czech rejdovák, f. rejdovati to steer, manipulate (as with a carriage pole), to wheel about.] A Bohemian folk dance, in Western Europe developed into a dance in relatively quick triple time; the music for such a dance. e.g. 1960 P. J. S. Richardson Social Dances of 19th Cent. Eng. ix. 99 As late as 1894 or 1895 I can clearly remember being present at a popular assembly in London when the Redowa was announced, but only about three veteran couples were able to perform it. 424. robot [Czech, f. robota forced labour; used by Karel Capek (1890-1938) in his play R.U.R. (“Rossum's Universal Robots”) (1920).]

1. a. One of the mechanical men and women in Capek's play; hence, a machine (sometimes resembling a human being in appearance) designed to function in place of a living agent, esp. one which carries out a variety of tasks automatically or with a minimum of external impulse. e.g. 1980 Times 1 July 19/5 A real robot is programmable; it can be programmed to perform different, and changing tasks. In 1978 Japan put 1,100 playback or programmable robots into its factories. b. A person whose work or activities are entirely mechanical; an automaton. e.g. 1977 G. W. H. Lampe God as Spirit ii. 51 The person who is “seized” by the Spirit is thought of as a passive object, temporarily reduced to the status of a robot. c. Chiefly S. Afr. An automatic traffic-signal. e.g. 1974 Eastern Province Herald 2 Oct. 9 Vandals removed the lamps from seven traffic robots and the flashing head from a warning pole. d. A robot bomb. temporary. 1944 Daily Tel. 11 July 1/5 Many of the robots launched against England on Sunday night finished up in the sea. 1944 J. Lees-Milne Prophesying Peace (1977) 86 From here Jamesy saw his first robot. 2. attrib. and Comb., as robot army, astronaut, -brain, clerk, -land, -maker, masses, (petrol) station, -pilot, satellite, system, type, -worker; robot-controlled, -like (also adv.), -run adjs.; robot bomb = flying bomb s.v. flying vbl. n. 3; robot plane, (a) = queen bee s.v. queen n. 14; (b) = robot bomb; robot roost, a place for the storage of robot bombs; robot teacher, an electronic teaching aid; robot train, a robot-controlled underground train. e.g.1959 H. Barnes Oceanogr. & Marine Biol. 177 It is convenient to mount a Robot-type camera in a water tight case, usually fastened to a pole. 1935 H. G. Wells Things to Come 13 All the balderdash about “robot workers” and ultra skyscrapers, etc., etc., should be cleared out of your minds. Hence roboteer, an expert in the making of robots; robotesque a., resembling or suggestive of a robot; robotian a., of or belonging to a robot or robots; robotism, mechanical behaviour or character; robotnik [-nik], a person behaving with mindless obedience to authority; robotry, the condition or behaviour of robots; roboty a., robot-like. 1970 A. Toffler Future Shock ix. 180 Despite setbacks and difficulties, the roboteers are moving forward. 425. Slavikite Min. [ad. Czech. slavíkit (Jirkovský & Ulrich 1926, in Vestník Státního Geol. Ústavu Cesk. Repub. II. 345), f. the name of Frantisek Slavík (1876_1957), Czech mineralogist: see -ite1.] e.g. 1968 I. Kostov Mineral. 500 Slavikite is trigonal, found in minute uniaxial negative crystals tabular on {0001}. 426. Sokol [Czech, lit. “falcon”.] A Slav gymnastic society first formed in Prague in 1862 (and disbanded in Czechoslovakia in 1952), bearing the falcon as its ensign, and aiming to promote a communal spirit and physical fitness. Also, (a member of) a club in this society. e.g. 1978 Chicago June 56/2 The program will include folk dancing as well as calisthenics and apparatus work. Sponsored by the Central District of the American Sokol Organization. 427. Strouhal Mech. [The name of Cenek (or Vincent) Strouhal (1850-1922), Czech scientist.] Strouhal number: a dimensionless number used in the study of the vibrations produced in a body by a fluid flowing past it, defined as vd/u (or u/vd) where u is the fluid velocity, v the frequency of the vibration, and d the effective diameter of the body. e.g. 1949 Proc. R. Soc. A. CXCVIII. 175 The results are expressed in the form of Strouhal number: S(R) = fd/Uo, where R = Uod/v.

1975 Offshore Engineer Dec. 42/3 For an isolated stationary cylinder the Strouhal number is fairly constant for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. 428. vrbaite Min. [ad. Czech vrbait (B. Jezek 1912, in Rozpravy Ceské Akad. XXI. xxvi. 2), f. the name of K. Vrba (1845-1922), Bohemian mineralogist: see -ite1.] A sulphide of thallium, mercury, arsenic, and antimony, Tl4Hg3Sb2As8S20, found as dark grey, tabular or prismatic, orthorhombic crystals. e.g. 1913 Mineral Mag. XVI. 375 Vrbaite. Found embedded in realgar and orpiment from Allchar, Macedonia. 1973 Mineral. Abstr. XXIV. 22/2 The structure was determined on vrbaite from Allchar, Macedonia, the type locality.Vrbaite is the first structure with mixed (As, Sb) chains.

8.1.4 Bulgarian
429. Bulgar n. [ad. med.L. Bulgarus (F. Bulgare, G. Bulgar), ad. OBulg. Blugarinu (Bulg. Balgarin, Russ. Bolgáry pl., Bolgárin sing.).] Any member of an ancient Finnish tribe who conquered the Slavs of M_sia in the seventh century a.d. and settled what is now Bulgaria, becoming Slavonic in language; a native or inhabitant of Bulgaria. Also attrib. or as adj., Bulgarian. e.g. 1965 H. M. Smyser in Bessinger & Creed Medieval & Linguistic Stud. 93 The Bulgars and the socalled Jewish Khazars, about whom Ibn Fadlan learned from his Bulgar hosts. Bulgarize v. trans., to make Bulgarian in character; so Bulgarization. e.g. 1925 Glasgow Herald 2 Oct. 5 Fully Bulgarised Macedonians. 430. Gamza Also Gumza. [Bulgarian.] A dark red grape of Bulgaria, or the red wine made from it. Also attrib. e.g. 1959 World Crops XI. 111/1 The most universally grown is the Gumza red grape. The typical Gumza red wines are made mainly in northern Bulgaria. Gumza grapes are grown in some neighbouring countries. e.g. 1959 Wine & Spirit Trade Rev. 13 Feb. 32/2 Mavroude and Gamza [are] dark reds. 1961 Spectator 7 Apr. 495 The red Gamza, which is fresh and flavoury, rather like a Beaujolais. 431. lev. Also (erron.) leva. Pl. leva, levas, levs. [Bulg. lev (pl. leva), lion.] The basic monetary unit of Bulgaria. e.g. 1972 D. Dakin Unification of Greece xiii. 188 Bulgaria had borrowed from France 245 million leva in 1904 and 1907. 432. plum pox [tr. Bulgarian sharka na slivite (D. Atanasoff 1932, in Godishnik na Sofiďskiya Universitet Agronomski Fakultet XI. 49)], a virus disease of plum trees characterized by yellow blotches on the leaves and pockets of dead tissue in the fruit; also known as sharka; e.g. 1952 E. Ramsden tr. Gram & Weber's Plant Diseases ii. 204/2 A disease called plum pox, well known in Bulgaria, probably occurs as far north as Bohemia and Holland. 433. Pomak [Bulg.] A Muslim Bulgarian. e.g. 1972 D. Dakin Unification of Greece 269 The Slav minority, which included 16,000 Pomaks, was about 80,000. 434. rakia Also rakija. [a. Bulg. rakíya, Serbo-Croat rakija: cf. raki.] In the Balkan countries: brandy, liquor; = prec.

e.g. 1980 J. Hone Flowers of Forest i. 21 Playing chess over a bottle of rakia somewhere in Yugoslavia. 435. sharka Also (rare) sarka. [f. Bulg. sharka na slivite pox of plums.] e.g. 1974 K. M. Smith Plant Viruses (ed. 5) ii. 13 In the parenchyma cells of fruit from plum trees infected with the “Sharka” virus, plum pox, cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies have been observed. 436. Sobranye Also Sobraniye, -je, Subranie. [ad. Bulg. sabránie assembly; cf. Russ. sobránie and quot. 1902.] The parliament or national assembly of Bulgaria. e.g. 1957 Times 21 Dec. 5/4 Some 4,500,000 to five million Bulgarians will go through the motions of electing a new Sobranye. 437. stotinka Usu. in pl. -ki. [Bulg.] A Bulgarian unit of currency, one-hundredth of a lev; a coin of this value. e.g. 1976 A. Grey Bulgarian Exclusive vii. 48 I'll bet you fifty stotinki that he'll start telling us anticommunist jokes. 438. Vlach Also 9 Vlache. [a. Bulg. vlakh or Serb. vlah, = OSlav. vlakhu Romanian, Italian, Czech vlach Italian, Pol. wloch Italian, woloch Walachian, ORuss. volokh Walachian, Italian; these terms are Slavonic adoptions of the Germanic walh (OHG. walh, walah, MHG. walch; OE. wealh) foreigner, applied especially to Celts and Latins.] A member of the Latin-speaking race occupying portions of south-eastern Europe; a Walachian or Romanian. e.g. 1905 Speaker 23 Sept. 580/1 The Greek bands fell to murdering the leaders of the Vlach movement. Vlachian a. e.g. 1909 Q. Rev. April 681 Not the least interesting constituent of this chaotic population is the Vlachian.

8.1.5 Croatian, Serbian, Croato – Serbian, Serbo - Croatian
439. cravat n. Forms: 7 crabbat, crabat, cravett, crevet, cravatt, crevat, cravat, ( gravat). [a. F. cravate (1652 in Hatzfeld), an application of the national name Cravate Croat, Croatian, a. G. Krabate (Flem. Krawaat, ad. Croato-Serbian Khrvat, Hrvat, OSlav. Khruvat, of which Croat is another modification: cf. the following 1703 Lond. Gaz. No. 3903/2 Monsieur de Guiche Colonel-General of the Regiments of Horse called the Cravates. 1721 De Foe Mem. Cavalier (1840) 119 We fell foul with two hundred Crabats. 1752 Hume Ess. ii. vii. I. 355 The troops are filled with Cravates and Tartars, Hussars and Cossacs.] 1. a. An article of dress worn round the neck, chiefly by men. It came into vogue in France in the 17th c. in imitation of the linen scarf worn round their necks by the Croatian mercenaries. When first introduced it was of lace or linen, or of muslin edged with lace, and tied in a bow with long flowing ends, and much attention was bestowed upon it as an ornamental accessory. In this form it was originally also worn by women. More recently the name was given to a linen or silk handkerchief passed once (or twice) round the neck outside the shirt collar and tied with a bow in front; also to a long woollen comforter wrapped round the neck to protect from cold out of doors. e.g. 1888 Frith Autobiog. III. xii. 236 Dickens wore one of the large cravats which had not then gone out of fashion. b. fig. in reference to hanging or strangling. e.g. 1820 Byron Juan v. lxxxix, With tough strings of the bow. To give some rebel Pacha a cravat. c. A scarf or necklet of lace, fur, etc., worn by women. e.g. 1905 Westm. Gaz. 11 Nov. 13/2 The cravat effect of the ermine on the shoulders is charming. d. Surg. e.g 1900 G. M. Gould Pocket Med. Dict. (ed. 4) 186 Cravat, a bandage made from a triangular cloth. 2. attrib. and Comb., as cravat-goose, a name for the Canada Goose (Bernicla canadensis), from the white mark on its throat; cravat-string, the part by which the cravat was tied. e.g. 1795 Hull Advertiser 13 June 4/1 With cravat puddings battle wage. 1838 Penny Cycl. XI. 308 The Canada Goose, or Cravat Goose L'Oie ŕ cravate of the French.

cravat v. trans., to furnish with a cravat, fig. to cover as with a cravat; intr. to put on a cravat. cravatless a., without a cravat. cravatted a., wearing a cravat. cravatteer, one who ties a cravat. (All more or less nonce-wds.) e.g. 1814 Syd. Smith Mem. & Lett. (1855) II. cvi, Douglas alarmed us the other night with the croup. I cravatted his throat with blisters, and fringed it with leeches. 1827 Lytton Pelham xxxiii, I redoubled my attention to my dress; I coated and cravatted. 1834 Blackw. Mag. XXXVI. 779 Pozzlethwayte was cravat-less. 1848 Thackeray Van. Fair I, The young man handsomely cravatted. 1859 Chamb. Jrnl. XI. 319 The master of the wardrobe put the cravat round the royal neck, while the “cravatteer” tied it. 440. Glagolitic [from New Latin glagoliticus, from Serbo-Croatian glagolica the Glagolitic alphabet; related to Old Church Slavonic glagol° word] adj. of, relating to, or denoting a Slavic alphabet whose invention is attributed to Saint Cyril, preserved only in certain Roman Catholic liturgical books found in Dalmatia. 441. Morlach n. and a. Also Morlacchi (pl.), Morlacchian, Morlacco, Morlack, Morlak. [ad. It. Morlacco, pl. -cchi (also Croatian Morlak, pl. -laci; also Morovlah), ad. late L. Morovlachus.] A. n. A member of a Vlach people centred on the eastern Adriatic port of Ragusa (mod. Dubrovnik) and, from the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries, in parts of maritime Croatia and northern Dalmatia, forming the country known eventually as Morlacchia, being later incorporated with Slavic peoples. B. adj. Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of Morlacchia or its people. e.g. 1849 A. A. Paton Highlands & Islands of Adriatic II. iii. 32 The Morlack principle is to allow the man to grow as the beast of the forest. Ibid. 33 The Morlack is the best soldier and the worst citizen in the Austrian empire. 1922 D. H. Low tr. Kraljevic's Ballads p. xii, In 1775 a translation by Werthes of the Morlacchian section was published at Berne. 1968 Ibid. XXIII. 93/2 There were also colonies of the Morlachs in the interior of the ancient Serbia. 442. chetnik Also cetnik, C-. [a. Serbian cetnik, f. ceta band, troop.] A member of a guerrilla force in the Balkans. e.g. 1943 Ann. Reg. 1942 207 A well-organised guerrilla army in Yugoslavia consisting of between 80,000 and 150,000 chetniks. 1949 F. Maclean Eastern Approaches ii. viii. 279 The resistance of General Mihajlovic and his Cetniks to the enemy. 443. dinar [a. Serbian dinar, f. L. denarius.] The monetary unit of Yugoslavia (formerly of Serbia). e.g. 1927 Economic Jugoslavia 34 The National Bank has paid up capital to the amount of 30 million dinars. 444. gusle Also gusla, gustlé, guszla, guzla. [Serbian.] A bowed stringed musical instrument found in the Balkans, usually having only a single string, and used chiefly to accompany and support the chanting of the epic poems of the southern Slavs. e.g. 1969 Observer 26 Jan. 32/5 This was the residence of Petar Petrovic Njegos II, prince, crack shot, player of the gusle (the Montenegrin lute) and author. guslar (pl. guslari), one who plays the gusle; a singer of traditional epic poems. e.g. 1891 E. S. Hartland Sci. Fairy Tales i. 16 A viol having only one string accompanies the passages in verse; and a similar instrument seems to be used among the orthodox Guslars of Bosnia and Herzegovina. So: guslar 445. hussar n. Also hussayre, -are, husare, (vs(s)aron). [a. Hungarian huszar, orig. “freebooter, free-lance”, later “light horseman”, ad. OSerbian husar, also gusar, hursar, gursar, kursar pirate, robber, freebooter, ad. It. corsaro, corsare, corsair.]

1. a. One of a body of light horsemen organized in Hungary in the 15th c., and long confined to the Hungarian army; hence, the name of light cavalry regiments formed in imitation of these, which were subsequently introduced, and still exist, in most European armies, including that of Great Britain. The dress of the Hungarian force set the type for that of the hussars of other nations, these being distinguished by uniforms of brilliant colours and elaborate ornament, two special characteristics being the dolman and busby (the former of which is now abandoned in the British army). e.g. 1851 Gallenga Italy 471 Squadrons of hussars and Hulans were scouring the plain in every direction. b. Black or Death Hussar, one of the “Black Brunswickers” (hussars with black uniform) who, in the war with France, 1809-13, neither gave nor received quarter; hence fig. e.g. 1815 Sir C. Bell Let. to G. J. Bell 2 July in Lockhart Scott, This was a Brunswicker, of the Black or Death Hussars. 1816 Scott Let. to Jas. Ballantyne ibid., I belong to the Black Hussars of Literature, who neither give nor receive criticism. 2. transf. and fig. A skirmisher; a free-lance in literature or debate. e.g. 1800 A. Carlyle Autobiog. 432 He was a mere hussar, who had no steady views to direct him. 3. attrib. and Comb., as hussar blue, boot, broth, cap, jacket, livery, regiment, saddle, waistcoat, war, etc.; hussar-like adj. and adv. e.g. 1774 J. Collier Mus. Trav. (1775) 60 A pair of hussar boots laced at the seams. 1834 Medwin Angler in Wales II. 211 He wore a deep green hussar jacket. 1846 Knickerbocker XXVII. 287 [He had] a smart hussar cap of green chestnut burrs. Hence (nonce-wds.) hussar v. intr., to carry on light warfare like a hussar. hussared a., made or ornamented like that of a huss 446. pandour, pandoor Also pandur. [= F. pandour, Ger. pandur; all a. Serbo-croatian pŕndur, a constable, bailiff, beadle, summoner, or catchpole; a mounted policeman or guardian of the public peace; a watcher of fields and vineyards', having also in earlier times the duty of guarding the frontier districts from the inroads of the Turks. For ulterior etymology see Note below. The sense in which the word became known in Western Europe is involved in the history of Trenck's body of pandours.] 1. In pl. The name borne by a local force organized in 1741 by Baron Trenck on his own estates in Croatia to clear the country near the Turkish frontier of bands of robbers; subsequently enrolled as a regiment in the Austrian Army, where, under Trenck, their rapacity and brutality caused them to be dreaded over Germany, and made Pandour synonymous in Western Europe with “brutal Croatian soldier”. e.g. 1843 Penny Cycl. XXV. 185/2 On Maria Theresa's succession to the throne, Trenck offered his own and the services of his men, his regiment of Pandours, as he called them, to the young empress. fig. 1768 Foote Devil on 2 Sticks 11, The hussars and pandours of physic rarely attack a patient together. 2. In local use, in Croatia, Serbia, Hungary, etc.: A guard; an armed servant or retainer; a member of the local mounted constabulary. e.g. 1886 W. J. Tucker E. Europe 155 The “pandurs” came to fetch him, and dragged him before the commission. Ibid. 169 These Pandurs, your police, your mounted constabulary, or whatever you call them, are they of no use? [Note. The word pandur, with all or some of the senses mentioned above, is found in nearly all the South-Slavonic (Serbian) dialects, and in Magyar, also as pandur in Romanian; it has entered Turkish as pandul. Earlier forms in Magyar and Serbo-croatian were bŕndur, bŕndor; the former is still used in and near Ragusa. The word is not native either in Magyar or Slavonic, and the question of its origin and course of diffusion in these langs. is involved in considerable obscurity. But Slavonic scholars are now generally agreed in referring it through the earlier bŕndur, bŕndor, to med.L. banderius, orig. “a follower of a standard or banner” (see banner), or to some Italian or Venetian word akin to this. Among senses evidenced by Du Cange for banderius (and bannerius), are those of “guard of cornfields and vineyards”, also “summoner, apparitor”, which are both senses of pŕndur; It. banditore (Venetian bandiore) has also the sense of “summoner”. The alleged derivation of the word from Pandur or Pandur Puszta, “a village in Lower Hungary”, given in Ersch & Grüber's Cyclopćdia, and repeated in many English Dictionaries, is absolutely baseless.] 447. Serb n. and a. Also 9 Syrbe. [a. Serbian Srb, Serb. Cf. F. Serbe.] A. n.

1. a. A Wend of Lusatia. (Cf. Sorb.) Obs. b. A native of Serbia, a Serbian. e.g. 1883 Morfill Slav. Lit. ii. 33 The Serbs have, unlike the Russians and other Slavs, kept their old name. 2. The Serbian language. e.g. 1905 Macm. Mag. Nov. 40 Everyone, whether Christian or Moslem, speaks Serb only. B. adj. Serbian, Servian. 1876 A. J. Evans Through Bosnia i. 16 The barbarous Serb races who settled in the Danubian basin in the fifth and succeeding centuries. 1835 Penny Cycl. III. 328/1 A stronghold to the Servians in their wars with the Turks. 448. Croat [ad. mod.L. (pl.) Croatae (F. Croate, G. Kroat), ad. Serbo-Croatian Hrvat.] a. A native or inhabitant of the former Austrian province of Croatia, now forming part of Yugoslavia; one of a race descended from the people which occupied that country in the seventh century. b. A soldier of a former French cavalry regiment, composed mainly of Croats. c. The language of the Croats. Also attrib. or as adj. e.g. 1942 L. B. Namier Conflicts 48 In Yugoslavia the conflict between Croats and Serbs offered the Nazis rich opportunities for political intrigue. 1959 J. Remak Sarajevo iii. 42 Franz Ferdinand replied, ending with a sentence spoken in Croat. 449. hum n. Physical Geogr. [Serbo-Croat, = hill.] A small, usually conical, hill characteristic of karst topography. e.g. 1971 B. W. Sparks Rocks & Relief v. 204 The interfluvial areas are finally reduced to little hillocks known as hums. 450. kolo [Serbo-Croatian, = wheel.] A Yugoslav dance performed in a circle. e.g. 1969 Daily Tel. 5 Nov. 13/6 The dancers launched themselves on an old Bosnian dance, a silent kolo from Glamotch. 451. paprika [Hungarian, f. Serbo-Croat pŕpar pepper (see H. H. Bielfeldt 1965, in Sitzungsber. d. deutsch. Akad. d. Wissensch. zu Berlin: Klasse für Sprachen, Literatur u. Kunst i. 20).] 1. A condiment made from the dried, ground fruits of certain varieties of the sweet pepper, Capsicum annuum. Also attrib. and fig.of several European varieties of the sweet pepper, Capsicum annuum, bearing mildly flavoured fruits. e.g. 1978 Times 16 Mar. 25/4 The paprikas grow freely [under glass] as though Holland were a tropical country. 3. The orange-red colour of paprika. Also attrib. e.g. 1972 Guardian 11 Aug. 9/6 The colour combinations are: lemon with navy/lemon plaid, and paprika with wine/yellow plaid. 4. Used attrib. to designate various dishes flavoured with either the condiment or the vegetable. e.g. 1969 R. & D. De Sola Dict. Cooking 168/1 Paprika butter, butter sauce colored and flavored with paprika. 1977 K. Benton Red Hen Conspiracy ix. 53 The table was set with dishes ranging from the delicate flesh tones of Parma ham, the rusty scarlet of paprika sausage, [etc.]. 452. polje Physical Geogr. Also polye. Pl. poljes, polja, (after Ger.) poljen. [Serbo-Croat polje field.] An enclosed plain in a karstic region, esp. Yugoslavia, that is larger than a uvala and usu. has steep enclosing walls and a covering of alluvium. e.g. 1958 Geogr. Jrnl. CXXIV. 41 Some of the largest polja are found among the Dinaric Alps in the hinterland of Split. 1972 Science 12 May 664/3 The perennial flooding of the farmlands in the poljes of Yugoslavia. 453. ponor Physical Geogr. [Serbo-Croat.] A steep natural shaft leading from the surface of the ground in a karstic region.

e.g. 1971 J. N. Jennings Karst vi. 139 In some poljes certain ponors change function for a period in the wet season and spew out water. 1976 S. T. Trudgill in E. Derbyshire Geomorphol. & Climate iii. 92 They observed in the Kuh-E-Parau limestone area of Iran how the overall form on a large scale is solutional in origin, with rounded hills, dolines and ponors. 454. Skupstina Also Scubsch'tina, Skoupschina, etc.; Skupshtina. [Serbo-Croatian skupstina, f. skupa together, skupiti to assemble.] The national assembly of Yugoslavia; formerly, of Serbia or Montenegro. e.g. 1940 C. Sforza Fifty Years of War & Diplomacy in Balkans iv. 22 In the elections Pashich won a complete victory. In the Skupshtina, an imposing majority was ready to follow him. 1968 F. W. Hondius Yugoslav Community of Nations ii. 74 This Constitution created a precedent by recognizing the concept of popular sovereignty, reflected in a powerful one-chamber Skupština. 455. slatko [Serbo-Croatian, lit. sugared fruit.] (See quots.) e.g. 1941 R. West Black Lamb & Grey Falcon II. 111 The gallery, here walled in though it is open in most monasteries, where the visitors are given slatko, the ceremonial offering of sugar or jam and glasses of cold water. 1961 Times 9 Sept. 11/3 In the hostelry guests are offered slatko, the ceremonial offering of sugar or jam. 456. slava [Serbo-Croatian, lit. honour, renown.] A festival of a family saint in Yugoslavia, a name-day. e.g. 1976 New Yorker 22 Mar. 68/3 He remembers the priest blessing the house on his father's slava, or name day. 457. slivovitz n. [from Serbo-Croatian şljivovica, from sljiva plum] a plum brandy from E Europe. e.g. 1976 New Yorker 22 Mar. 47/1 He sits by the kitchen window of his little flat,_drinking the slivovitz he smuggles into Sweden each September in carefully emptied beer bottles. 1958 P. Kemp No Colours or Crest viii. 172 A flask of excellent Prizren slivovic. 458. Štokavian n. (and a.) Also Shtokavian, Stokavian, stokavian. [f. Serbo-Croat Štokavščina (Štokavski adj.)] A widely spoken dialect of Serbo-Croat on which the literary language is based. Also attrib. or as adj. e.g. 1977 Archivum Linguisticum VIII. 91 In štokavian Serbo-Croat (on which the standard language is based), the rising accent is a disyllabic one. 459. takovite Min. [ad. Serbo-Croat takovít (Z. Maksimovic 1957, in Zapisnici Srpskog Geol. Drustva za 1955 God. 219), f. Tákovo, name of a place in Serbia] A bluish green clay-like mineral that is a rhombohedral hydrated basic aluminate and carbonate of nickel. e.g. 1977 Amer. Mineralogist LXII. 463/1 The formula of the Australian takovite, for which only kaolinite is a significant impurity, is established with greater certainty. 460. tamburitza Also tamboritsa, tamburica, etc. Pl. -n, -s. [Serbo-Croat.] A stringed musical instrument of the Balkans resembling a guitar or mandoline. e.g. 1979 United States 1980/81 (Penguin Travel Guides) 263 This is a Serbian restaurant where you can dine to the tune of tinkling tamburitzas. 461. Ustashi n. pl. (Also taken as sing. with pl. -s.) Also -chi, -ci, -sha, -sa, -se, -si. [a. Serbo-Croatian Ustaše pl., Ustaša sing., insurgent rebel.] (Members of) a party and separatist movement of Croatians; the soldiers and supporters of the autonomous Croatian régime between 1941 and 1944: as sing., a member or supporter of the Croatian separatist movement. Also attrib.

e.g. 1973 Nation Rev. (Melbourne) 24-30 Aug. 1405/1 Frequent statements that the Ustasha exists in Australia and that the croatian community condones terrorist acts. 1980 Listener 28 Feb. 265/3 The Ustashas were Croat Fascist collaborators. 462. uvala Physical Geogr. Also ouvala. [a. Serbo-Croat uvala hollow, depression.] A depression in the ground surface occurring in karstic regions (see quots.). e.g. 1970 R. J. Small Study of Landforms iv. 152 In many areas closely adjoining sotchs have amalgamated, through lateral extension, to give larger depressions comparable with the “uvalas” of the Karst proper. 463. vila Pl. vilas, vile. [Serbo-Croat and Slovenian.] In Slavonic mythology: a fairy, a nymph, a spirit. Cf. wili, willi. e.g. 1922 D. H. Low Kraljevic's Ballads iv. 21 In Serbian song Vilas are represented as jealous and capricious beings but on the whole not unfriendly to mankind. 464. wili, willi Slavonic Mythol. [Ger. or Fr. wili, willi, ad. Serbo-Croat vila nymph, fay. Cf. vila.] (See quot. 1949). Chiefly used in connection with the ballet Giselle. e.g. 1977 N.Y. Rev. Bks. 13 Oct. 44/2 She gazes out of the fascinating portrait that Henri Lehmann painted of her in 1843 like some supernatural being, a willi, a peri, or a refined succub. 465. Yugoslav n. and a. Also Jugo-; Iugo-Slav, Yougo-Slave, Yugo-Slave. [ad. G. Jugoslawe (F. Yougoslave), f. Serbo-Croat jugo-, comb. form of jug south + G. Slawe Slav n.] A. n. a. (A member of) various groups of southern Slavs, comprising the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes; also, since 30 Oct. 1918, a native or inhabitant of the State of Yugoslavia. b. rare. The Slavonic language dominant in Yugoslavia; = Serbo-Croat e.g. 1973 Times 29 Oct. 12/7 The new Electra is Danica Mastilovic, a Yugoslav, making her debut in the house. B. adj. Of, pertaining to, or designating the people or state of Yugoslavia. e.g. 1981 L. Deighton XPD xxviii. 226 The duty officers could be sure of a bottle of Yugoslav riesling. 466. Yugo colloq. abbrev. of Yugoslavian a. and n. e.g. 1963 I. Fleming On H.M. Secret Service xi. 117 “Which one was it, anyway?” “One of the Yugos. Bertil.” 1982 I. I. Magdalen' Search for Anderson i. x. 47 There was something wrong about that Yugo shoot-out. It stank. 467. Yugoslavian a. and n. Also Jugo-. [f. prec. + -ian.] A. adj. = Yugoslav a. B. n. a. A native or inhabitant of Yugoslavia. b. rare. The Serbo-Croat language. e.g. 949 E. Pound Pisan Cantos lxxx. 96 White boy says: do you speak Jugoslavian? 1983 Times 3 Oct. 1/4 The Greek and the Yugoslavian were accustomed to the heat. 468. zadruga Pl. zadrugas, zadruge. Also with capital initial. [Serbo-Croat, = patriarchal commune, association.] A type of patriarchal social unit traditional to (agricultural) Serbians and other southern Slavic peoples, orig. comprising an extended family group which worked the land and lived communally round the main house; the customs and rules associated with this type of unit. e.g. 1943 L. Adamic My Native Land 214 From their Russian homeland the Slavs brought a democratic institution called zadruga, a clan or family cooperative, which some of the tribes tried to extend and adjust to the wider forms of government necessary in their new homelands.

8.1.6 Polish
469. bobac Also boback, bobak. [Pol. bobak.] A burrowing-squirrel found in Poland and adjoining countries, called also Polish Marmot. e.g. 1901 Westm. Gaz. 31 Dec. 5/3 The bobac, the still living marmot of the Siberian steppes. 1968 F. Kertesz Lang. Nuclear Sci. 12 The underground nuclear tests at Los Alamos were designated first by burrowing mammals such as Bobac. 470. britzka, britzska Also britschka, britzschka, britska. [a. Polish bryczka (cz = t) “a light long travelling wagon”, dim. of bryka goods-wagon.] An open carriage with calash top, and space for reclining when used for a journey. e.g. 1848 Thackeray Van. Fair lxii, Lord Bareacre's chariot, britzka and fourgon. 1866 M. E. Braddon Lady's Mile ii. 14 The fashionable world had gone homeward in barouches, landaus, britzskas and phaetons. 471. gmina Pl. gminy. [Polish.] A local division of the Polish administrative organization. e.g. 1959 Chambers's Encycl. XI. 8 For purposes of local government the provinces are divided into districts, which are sub-divided in turn into sub-districts (gminy). 472. hetman Also hettman, attaman. [Polish hetman captain, commander = Boh. hejtman, Little Russ. hetman (Russ. ataman). Believed to be derived from Ger. hauptmann captain, app. through early mod.G. heubtmann and Boh. heitman.] A captain or military commander in Poland and countries formerly united or subject to it; whence subsequently retained as a title among the Cossacks. Under the suzerainty of Poland, 1592-1654, the hetman of the Cossacks' was a semi-independent prince or viceroy. His title and authority were at first continued after the acceptance of Russian suzerainty by the Cossacks in 1654; but the power and privileges of the office were gradually curtailed and abolished. In the late 19th c. the title Hetman (ataman) of all the Cossacks' was an appanage of the Cesarevitch, who was represented by a “hetman by delegation”, for each of the territorial divisions. Subordinate Cossack chiefs had also the title (ataman). e.g. 1894 Daily News 23 Oct. 5/3 The Czar's Body Regiment of Cossacksreceived a congratulatory telegram from the Czar: “I drink with your hetman (the Cezarewitch) the health of the regiment”. Hence hetmanate, hetmanship. 1879 Encycl. Brit. X. 6/1 During the hetmanate it had fortifications of which traces are still extant. 1881 Athenćum 30 July 147/1 Kostomarof has completed an extensive monograph upon the Hetmanship of Mazeppa. 473. horde n. Forms: horda, hord, hordia, hoord, horde. [Ultimately ad. Turk orda, also ord, ordu, urdu camp (see Urdu), whence Russ. ordá horde, clan, crowd, troop, Pol. horda, Ger., Da. horde, Sw. hord, It. orda, Sp., Pr. horda, F. horde (1559 in Hatz.Darm.). The initial h appears in Polish, and thence in the Western European languages. The various forms horda, horde, hord were due to the various channels through which the word came into Eng.] 1. a. A tribe or troop of Tartar or kindred Asiatic nomads, dwelling in tents or wagons, and migrating from place to place for pasturage, or for war or plunder. b. Also applied to other nomadic tribes. Golden Horde, name for a tribe who possessed the khanate of Kiptchak, in Eastern Russia and western and central Asia, from the 13th century till 1480. e.g. 799 W. Tooke View Russian Emp. II. 78 The Kirghises have always been divided into three hordes, the great, the middle and the little hordes. 1863 Kinglake Crimea (1877) I. i. 2 Nations trembled at the coming of the Golden Horde. c. Anthropol. A loosely-knit social group consisting of about five families. e.g. 1939 Geogr. Jrnl. XCIV. 89 Davidson points out that the horde, a unit of about five families, in all some thirty-five persons, was the largest political unit known to the Australians. 2. transf. a. A great company, esp. of the savage, uncivilized, or uncultivated; a gang, troop, crew.

e.g. 1888 H. E. Scudder in Atlantic Monthly Aug. 227/1 This great horde of young readers in America has created a large number of special writers for the young. b. Of animals: A moving swarm or pack. e.g. 1864 Swinburne Atalanta 823 Wolves in a wolfish horde. Hence horde v. intr., to form a horde; to congregate or live as in a horde. 1821 Byron Sardan. v. i. 209 My fathers' house shall never be a cave For wolves to horde and howl in. 474. Kashube Also Kashub, Kaszube. [f. Kashubia (Pol. Kaszuby), a region of Poland west and north-west of Gdansk.] a. A member of the Slavonic people inhabiting Kashubia. b. The Slavonic language spoken in this region. Also attrib. or as adj. So Cassubian, Kashubian, Kashubish, Kassubian ns. and adjs. e.g. 1955 Archivum Linguisticum VII. 133 The accent is free in North Kashubian. 475. kielbasa Also kolbasa, -i. [Pol. kielbasa sausage, Russ. kolbasa sausage.] e.g. 1965 House & Garden Jan. 60 Kielbasa or kolbasi (Polish sausage), a highly seasoned garlicky sausage. It comes fresh, smoked, uncooked and cooked, but usually must be poached before it is eaten. 476. Krakowiak Also -wyak. [Polish, f. Kraków (Eng. Cracow), a city and region in southern Poland.] A kind of light and lively Polish dance. e.g. 1966 New Statesman 1 Apr. 465/2 A yellowing piece of paper testifying that in 1952 its bearer danced the Krakowyak satisfactorily before an audience of experts. 477. kromesky, -eski Also crom-, -esque, -esqui. [ad. Polish kroméczka, little slice.] A croquette made of meat or fish minced, rolled in bacon or calf's udder and fried. e.g. 1951 Good Housek. Home Encycl. 348/2 A coating batter is used for making fritters, kromeskies, etc. 478. Lech, Lekh n.5 and a. Also Lach, L'ach [ad. G. Lech, O.Russ. lyakh; f. O.Pol. *lech.] A. n. A member of an early Slavonic people once inhabiting the region around the upper Oder and Vistula, whose descendants are the Poles; also, the name of a legendary ancestor of this people. B. adj. Of or pertaining to the Lechs or their language. Cf. Lechish n. and a., Lechitic n. and a. e.g. 1929 Ibid. XVIII. 161/2 The nearest relative of Polish is Polabian, with which it forms the Lech group. 479. Litvak Also Litvok. [Yiddish, f. Pol. Litwak Lithuanian.] A Jew from Lithuania or its neighbouring regions. e.g. 1971 B. Malamud Tenants 209 A middle-aged Litvak, a stocky man in mud-spotted trousers. 480. macrolide Pharm. [ad. Polish makrolid (Z. Katula 1958, in Postepy Hig. i Med. Dosiviadczalnej XII. 491): see macroand lactide.] Any of a class of antibiotics containing macrocyclic lactone rings. e.g. 1968 New Scientist 28 Mar. 678/2 Tylosin is a macrolide antibiotic, and organisms resistant to it are often cross-resistant to other macrolides, such as erythromycin, oleandomycin, and spiromycin. 481. Mariavite [Pol. Mariawita, f. L. phr. qui Marić vitam imitantur.] A member of a Polish Christian sect which flourished in the early 20th century; also attrib. e.g. 1957 Oxf. Dict. Chr. Ch. 857/2 Mariavites, a Polish sect, founded in 1906 by J. Kowalski, a priest of Warsaw, and Felicia Kozlowska, a Tertiary sister, on their excommunication from the RC Church. 482. marrowsky Also marouski, Marowsky, morowski, mowrowsky. [Asserted to have been derived from the name of a Polish count, doubtfully identified with Count Joseph Boruwlaski. See N. & Q. 13th Ser. I. 331, 437, 467.]

a. A variety of slang, or a slip in speaking, characterized by transposition of initial letters, syllables, or parts of two words. Also marrowsky language. e.g. 1883 G. A. Sala Living London 491 The vocabulary of Tim Bobbin, Josh Billings, and the “Marowsky” language. b. An instance of this. 1923 in N. & Q. 27 Oct. 331/2 In my childhood an old cousin used to entertain me with what we now call spoonerisms, but which she termed morowskis. Hence marrowskyer, one who uses marrowsky language or makes marrowskies in his speech; marrowskying vbl. n., the intentional or accidental transposition of initial letters, etc. e.g. 1922 O. Jespersen Lang. viii. 150 “Marrowskying” or “Hospital Greek” transfers the initial letters of words, as renty of plain. 483. mazurka Also mizurko, mazourca, mazourka. [a. Polish mazurka woman of the Polish province Mazovia. In Fr. masurka, mazurka, -ourka, -urke, Ger. masurka.] 1. A lively Polish dance resembling the polka; the music is in triple time. e.g. 1885 Mabel Collins Prettiest Woman x, The after-supper-dance is called the White-Mazurka, because it is kept up till the daylight is broad and clear. 2. A piece of music intended to accompany this dance, or composed in its rhythm. 1854 Thackeray Newcomes xxviii, The Austrian brass band plays the most delightful mazurkas and waltzes. 484. metapsychics n. pl. [ad. F. métapsychique (C. Richet 1905, in Proc. Soc. Psychical Research XIX. 2), f. Pol. metapsychika (W. Lutosawski 1902, in Wykady Jagiellonskie II)] A name applied to a science or study of certain phenomena which are beyond the scheme of orthodox psychology. e.g. 1957 Encycl. Brit. XXI. 245/1 A group of investigators are not prepared to accept the explanation in terms of human survival and therefore dislike the term spiritualism, preferring to employ some noncommittal term such as metapsychics or parapsychology. Hence metapsychism; metapsychist, a student of metapsychics. e.g. 1928 Daily Express 27 June 6/4 What a palpitating problem for the psychologists and the metapsychists! 485. Nipkow disc Television. [f. the name of Paul Nipkow (1860-1940), Polish electrical engineer, who invented it in 1884.] A scanning disc used in some early television transmitters and receivers having a line of small apertures near the circumference arranged in a spiral of one complete turn, so that on each revolution of the disc an area is scanned equal in height to the radial distance between the first and last apertures. e.g. 1974 Encycl. Brit. Macropćdia XVIII. 105/2 Until the advent of electronic scanning, all workable television systems depended on some form or variation (e.g., mirror drums, lensed disks, etc.) of the mechanical sequential scanning method exemplified by the Nipkow disk. 486. oberek = obertas [Polish.] A lively Polish dance in triple time, related to the mazurka. e.g. 1976 Times 23 July 11/3 The Mazowsze Song and Dance Company from Poland whirl through oberek and mazurka, polka and Krakowiak. 487. Piast [Polish, after Piast, the name of the good peasant (reputed to have lived in the 9th c.) from whom the Polish kings were said to be descended.] A native Pole of regal or ducal rank; hence, a man of genuine Polish descent. e.g. 1847 Mrs. A. Kerr tr. Ranke's Hist. Servia i. 11 Poland had, under the last Piasts, allied itself more closely to the Western States, in order to obtain protection from a similar subjugation. attrib. 1833 Alison Hist. Europe xvii. (1847) V. 14 The kings of the Piast race made frequent and able efforts to create a gradation of rank in the midst of that democracy.

488. polacca [It., orig. adj. fem. of polacco Polish, ad. Ger. Polack, a. Pol. Polak a Pole, a native of Poland.] A Polish dance, a polonaise; also the music for it. Also applied more widely to other music of a (supposed) Polish character. Also attrib. and in phr. alla polacca. e.g. 1975 Gramophone July 174/2 In the finale with its polacca rhythms, and particularly in the obviously Slavonic episodes_, the Broadwood does increasingly suggest a Hungarian cymbalom. 489. Polack n. (a.) Also Polake, Polaque, -eak, -ach, ( -ak) Pollack, Pullack and with lower-case initial. [a. Pol. Polak a Pole; Ger. Polack, F. Polaque.] A. n. 1. A native or inhabitant of Poland; a Pole; in quot. 1609, the king of Poland. So Polaker Obs. rare. e.g. 1933 S. K. Padover Let Day Perish 140 You cowardly little sneak! It's craven pups like you that make the Polacks trample on us! If we Jews would learn to kill like they do, the---Polacks would grovel at our feet---! 2. A Jew from Poland. e.g. 1909 Cent. Dict. (Suppl.) Polack, a name given to the Jews of the Polish provinces, by their Lithuanian co-religionists. 3. N. Amer. A (usu. disparaging) term for a Polish immigrant or person of Polish descent. e.g. 1976 National Observer (U.S.) 26 June 1/3 The Crusher's a clean-living Polack from Milwaukee who don't truck with no drugs or bad women. B. adj. Polish. Also, of Polish origin or descent. e.g. 1974 L. Deighton Spy Story xix. 199 Any sign of that goddamn Polack sub? 490. Pole, n. Also Poyle, Poole. [a. Ger. Pole, sing. of Polen, in MHG. Polân, pl. Polâne, a. Polish Poljane lit. field-dwellers, f. pole field.] 1. Poland. Obs. e.g. 1671 Fraser Polichronicon (S.H.S.) 491 After the peace he went up to Pole with other Scotsshmen. 2. A native of Poland. Earlier names were (pl.) Polones [from L.] (1555 Eden Decades 278, e.g. 1840 Penny Cycl. XVIII. 324/1 The emperor Nicholas exercised the utmost severity against the Poles. b. A Poland fowl. 1885 Bazaar 30 Mar. 1268/3 Polands. Golden spangled Poles, perfect birds. Hence poless, a female Pole, Polish woman. e.g. 1828 Carlyle Werner Misc. Ess. 1872 I. 102 A young Poless of the highest personal attractions. 491. polka n. [f. prec. n., perh. with reference to Polish Polka a Polish woman: cf. polonaise.] A woman's tight-fitting jacket, usually knitted: more fully polka-jacket. e.g. 1859 Sala Tw. round Clock (1861) 185 Stalls, laden with pretty gimcracks, wax flowers and Berlin and crochet work, prints, and polkas, and women's ware of all sorts. 492. pospolite [Polish posspolite adj. neuter, “general, universal”, as n. = pospolite ruszenie general levy.] The Polish militia, consisting of the nobility and gentry summoned to serve for a limited time. e.g. 1822 Edin. Rev. XXXVII. 493 They continued to regard the Pospolite as the impenetrable bulwark of the Commonwealth. 493. psychophonetics, n. pl. (const. as sing.). Linguistics. Also with hyphen. [f. psycho- + phonetics n. pl. Cf. Pol. psychofonetych (J. B. de Courtenay 1894, in Rozprawy Akad. Umiejebnosci: Wydzia_ Filol. 2nd Ser. V. 129).] That branch of phonetics which deals with the mental correlates of speech-sound production. So psychophonetic a., psychophonetically adv.

1966 M. Pei Gloss. Linguistic Terminol. 225 Psychophonetics, the treatment of a phoneme as the image aimed at in the speaker's mind (Courtenay, Entwistle). 494. pulk, polk [a. F. pulk, a. Pol. polk, Russ. polku a regiment, an army.] A regiment of Cossacks. Also transf. e.g. 1796 Morse Amer. Geog. II. 302 Two pulks of cossacks, each pulk consisting of 500 men. 1848 Thackeray Contrib. to “Punch” Wks. 1886 XXIV. 195 Now charging a pulk of Chartists. 495. rendzina Soil Science. [a. Russ. rendzína, ad. Polish redzina.] A fertile lime-rich soil which occurs typically under grass or open woodland on relatively soft calcareous bedrock (e.g. chalk and some limestones) and has a dark, friable, humus-rich surface layer above a softer pale calcareous layer formed by the breakdown of the underlying rock. Also attrib. e.g. 1976 Interim IV. iii. 14 Chalk rendzinas go straight from the A horizon to the C. 496. schapska Also chapska. [a. Fr. chapska, schapska, ad. Pol. czapka cap.] A flat-topped cavalry helmet. e.g. 1951 J. Masters Nightrunners of Bengal xxiv. 331 A horseman galloped up. He wore a black schapska with a gold bag tied to its side. 497. Sejm Also Seym. [Pol.] In Poland: a general assembly or diet; a parliament; spec. (since 1921) the lower house of the Polish parliament. e.g. 1981 Financial Times 13 Jan. 1/3 It will be discussed at a special Polish Communist Party congress this spring, then go for approval to the Sejm (Parliament). 498. sherryvallies n. pl. U.S. Also shorrevals, sherrivalleys. [The proximate history is obscure, but the word must be an adoption of some one of the many forms of a widely diffused word of oriental origin, signifying a kind of trousers: cf. Arab. sirwal, now commonly sharwal (pl. saraw_l, sharaw_l), whence Sp. zaragüelles pl., Pg. ceroulas pl.), Russian sharavary, Polish szarawary, Gr., late and med.L. sarabara, saraballa, sarabala, saravara, etc. (see Du Cange), Syriac sharbĺlĺ; the ultimate source is by some scholars supposed to be the Persian shalwar (see shalwar) of the same meaning. The Biblical Aramaic sarbal_n pl., which in Dan. iii. 21, 27 is rendered by the like-sounding words in Syr., Gr., and Latin, has been regarded as identical (Eng. Bible 1611 “coats”, margin “mantles”, 1884 Revised “hosen”), but this is very doubtful. Our first quot. might suggest Polish as the probable proximate source for the U.S. word. Gen. C. Lee had been aide-de-camp to the king of Poland.] e.g. 1778 Gen. C. Lee Let. 20 Dec. in Mem. (1792) 430 If you find them to be green breeches patched with leather, and not actually legitimate sherry vallies, such as his Majesty of Poland wears, I will submit in silence to all the scurrility which [etc.]. 1848 Bartlett Dict. Amer., Sherryvallies, pantaloons made of thick velvet or leather, buttoned on the outside of each leg, and generally worn over other pantaloons. They are now chiefly worn by teamsters. Many years ago, when journeys were made on horseback, sherryvallies were indispensable to the traveller. 499. starosty Also 8 starostie, 9 starostee. [ad. G. starostei or F. starostie, f. starost starosta. The Polish word is starostwo.] In the former kingdom of Poland, the domain of a starosta. e.g. 1795 Ann. Reg., Hist. 6 The starosties, the name given to those lands and estates bestowed by the Crown upon individuals, for their public services or expenses. 1840 Penny Cycl. XVIII. 325/2 Starosts without jurisdiction, who were only holders of starostees, or crown estates. 500. szlachta Hist. [Polish.] The aristocratic or land-owning class in Poland before 1945. e.g. 1969 P. Anderson in Cockburn & Blackburn Student Power 264 Bronislaw Malinowski, a Polish aristocrat from the Galician szlachta.

501. Tietze Path. [The name of A. Tietze (1864-1927), Polish surgeon, who described the condition in 1921 (Berlin. klin. Wochenschr. LVIII. 829).] Tietze's disease, syndrome: a condition in which there is painful swelling of one or more costal cartilages without evident cause. e.g. 1945 Canad. Med. Assoc. Jrnl. LIII. 572/2 It is not suggested that these rib changes are necessarily due to Tietze's syndrome. 1977 Daily Colonist (Victoria, B.C.) 20 July 2/1 Tietze's disease can be mistaken for angina. 502. uhlan or ulan n. [via German from Polish ulan, from Turkish lan young man] History. a member of a body of lancers first employed in the Polish army and later in W European armies. e.g. 1889 Baden-Powell Pigsticking xi. 71 In that campaign, Hans Breitmann, serving as a uhlan, observed the number of sows that were about in the Ardennes. attrib. e.g. 1812 Examiner 7 Dec. 781/1 Three Uhlan regiments of Guards. 1887 Sir W. W. Hunter in Skrine Life xviii. (1901) 367 The horses go well, and my Uhlan groom is careful and intelligent. transf. e.g. 1886 Pall Mall G. 6 March 5/2 Those uhlans of commerce who have lately been so urgently calling for the establishment of railway communication with China through Burmah. Hence uhlaner. e.g. 1886 W. J. Tucker E. Europe 265 The cavalry officer, be he of the huszárs, the uhlaners, or of any other mounted body of men, represents in most cases blood and fortune. 503. Ukrainian a. and n. [f. Ukraine, an extensive district in the south of Russia, ad. Polish Ukraina or Russ. Ukraina, specific use of ukraina border, frontier, marches, f. u- at, beside + kra_ edge, brink, etc.] A. adj. Of or pertaining to the Ukraine. B. n. a. A native or inhabitant of the Ukraine. b. The Slavonic language spoken in the Ukraine; formerly also called Malo-Russian, Ruthenian. e.g. 1816 Gentl. Mag. March 212 The so much vaunted liberty of the Ukrainian Kozaks. 1886 Encycl. Brit. XXI. 80/2 In western Russia, printing in Ukrainian is prohibited, and Russification is being carried on among Ukrainians by the same means as those employed in Poland. 504. witzchoura. Obs. [a. F. vitchoura, a. Polish wilczura wolf-skin coat, f. wilk wolf n.] A style of lady's mantle (see quots.) fashionable c 1820-35. Also attrib. e.g. 1835 Court Mag. VI. p. v/1 [The mantle] is of the Witzchoura form, drawn close at the back, with large Turkish sleeves, and a deep falling collar. 1898 M. Loyd tr. Ozanne's Fashion in Paris iii. 54 Witzchouras had not yet [c 1806] come into vogue. 505. yarmulke Also yarmulka; (more rarely) jarmulka, yarmolka, etc. [ad. Yiddish yarmolke, ad. Polish jarmulka cap.] A skull-cap worn by male Orthodox Jews at all times, and by other male Jews on religious occasions e.g. 1984 Times 24 Sept. 4/6 The captain, who wore Israeli army uniform with a red yarmulka fringed with gold on his head. 506. zloty n., pl. -tys or -ty [from Polish: golden, from zlyoto gold; related to Russian zoloto gold] the standard monetary unit of Poland, divided into 100 groszy. e.g. 1923 Times 13 Aug. 14/5 The zloty, or gold franc, the nominal unit of Poland.

8.1.7 Slovak
507. Slovak n. and a. Also Slovac(k. [a. Slovak and Czech Slovák (pl. Slováci), Pol. Slowak, Russ. Slovak, G. Slowake (pl. Slowaken), f. the stem Slov-: see Slovene.] A. n. 1. A person belonging to a Slavonic race dwelling in Slovakia, formerly part of Hungary, now the Slovak Socialist Republic and part of Czechoslovakia. e.g. 1887 Encycl. Brit. XXII. 153/2 For a long time the Slovaks employed Chekh in all their published writings. 2. The language or dialect spoken by this people. 1862 Latham Elem. Comp. Philol. 628 The Slovak, with a minimum amount of literary culture. 1887 Encycl. Brit. XXII. 150/2 Slovenish exhibits an older form of Slavonic than Servian, just as Slovak is earlier than Bohemian. B. adj. Of or belonging to the Slovaks, or their language; Slovakian. e.g. 1905 Contemp. Rev. Apr. 584 The Slovak nation in Hungary numbers more than 2,000,000. Hence Slovakian a. and n.; Slovakish a. and n. (obs.). e.g. 1883 Morfill Slavonic Lit. i. 9 The dialect, Ugro-Slovenish, shows some connexion with Slovakish.

8.1.8 Ukrainian
508. gley Soil Science. Also glei. [Ukrainian, = sticky bluish clay; cogn. w. clay n.] A blue-grey soil or soil layer in which iron and manganese compounds are reduced through being waterlogged; also, such a soil mottled with brownish oxidized patches as a result of periods of relative dryness. Also gley horizon, soil, etc. e.g. 1969 Jrnl. Soil Sci. XX. 207 Failure to distinguish between sulphide-containing and sulphide-free gley soils causes considerable confusion. Hence gleyed ppl. a. , turned into a gley; gleying, gleiing vbl. n. , gleization, the formation of a gley. e.g. 1956 C. D. Pigott in D. L. Linton Sheffield 80 Where water-logging occurs the soils are gleyed and in many places the ground flora is almost exclusively dominated by Allium ursinum. 1971 Nature 1 Jan. 45/1 Marked peatiness of the soil and gleying are only found toward the upper limit of lower Montane forest. 509.gopak Also hopak [Russ. gopák, f. Ukrainian hopák.] A lively Ukrainian dance in 24 time. e.g. 1959 Collins' Mus. Encycl. 324/1 Hopak, a Russian folk-dance in a lively 24 time, occasionally used by Russian composers. 1962 Observer 20 May 21/4, I was brought before her and told to dance a gopak and a lesginka.

8.1.9 SLAVIC, SLAVONIC
510.bismar Sc. dial. Also bismer, -more, bysmer, bissimar. [a. Da. bismer, ON. bismari steelyard; in LG. of Holstein besemer, Sw. besmar; a Slavo-Lithuanic word; in Lettish besmens, besmers, Lith. bezmenas, Russ. bezmen', Pol. bezmian.] 1. A kind of steelyard used in the north-east of Scotland, and in Orkney and Shetland. e.g. 1880 Tylor in Academy 18 Sept. 204/1 A rude kind of steelyard or bismar, to weigh out pounds of cheese with. 2. The fifteen-spined stickle-back:

1805 Barry Hist. Orkney 289 (Jam.) The Fifteen-spined stickleback (gasterosteus spinachia) is here denominated the bismer, from the resemblance it is supposed to bear to the weighing instrument of that name. 511. calash n. [ from French calčche, from German Kalesche, from Czech kolesa wheels] [a. F. calčche, from Slavonic: Boh. kolésa, Pol. kolaska, dim. of kolasa “wheel-carriage”, f. kolo wheel: cf. Russ. kolaska calash, kolesó wheel. In Eng., after many eccentricities, the word settled down as calash; but the Fr. form calčche is frequent in modern writers in reference to the Continent or Canada.] 1. A kind of light carriage with low wheels, having a removable folding hood or top. In Canada, a twowheeled, one-seated vehicle, usually without a cover, with a seat for the driver on the splashboard. Form caleche, etc. e.g. 1866 Thoreau Yankee in Can. i. 10 The Canadians were riding about in caleches. Form calash. e.g. 1849 Sir R. Wilson Life (1862) I. iii. 129 Sleeping in the Calash. 2. The folding hood of such a carriage; also, the hood of a bathing machine, perambulator, etc. e.g. 1856 A. Smith Mr. Ledbury I. xv. 117 The calash of a bathing-machine. 3. A woman's hood made of silk, supported with whalebone or cane hoops, and projecting beyond the face. Formerly in common use. e.g. 1867 Mrs. Gaskell Cranford (1873) 52 Three or four ladies in calashes met at Miss Barker's door. A calash is a covering worn over caps not unlike the heads fastened on old-fashioned gigs. 4. attrib., as in calash-driver, -head, -top. 1822 Edin. Rev. XXXVII. 255/4 His sketch of the calash-driver. 1824 Scott St. Ronan's (1832) 233 [The vehicle] had a calash head. 512. doodle v.2 Chiefly Sc. Also doudle. [a. Ger. dudeln in same sense (of Slavonic origin: cf. Polish dudlió), dudelsack bagpipe: prob. associated with tootle.] trans. To play (the bagpipes). Also doodle-sack, a bagpipe. e.g. 1816 Scott Old Mort. iv, I am wearied wi' doudling the bag o' wind a' day.' 513. gherkin Also ger-, girkin, ( gerckem, gurchen), gurken. [a. early mod.Du. *gurkkijn, *agurkkijn (now gurkje, augurkje), dim. of agurk, augurk (also shortened gurk), cucumber; the proximate source is uncertain (cf. Ger. gurke, earlier also gurchen, Sw. gurka, Da. agurk), but the word must have been indirectly adopted from some Slav. lang.: cf. Slovenish ugorek, angurka, Polish ogurek, ogorek, Czech okurka, Serbian ugorka (the Hungarian ugorka, Lith. agurkas, Lettish gurkjis, are adopted from Slav.); these words have a diminutive suffix, which is replaced by another suffix of like function in the Russian ogurets, Church Slav. ogour_ts_. The primary form is not recorded in Slav., but appears in late Gr. whence It. anguria a kind of cucumber, F. angourie, angurie (Cotgr.), Sp. angúrria (obs.) water-melon: see Anguria. The ultimate origin is unknown. Arabic has ajur cucumber, but Lane regards this as adopted from Gr. The Persian angur is sometimes given as the etymon, but it means a grape.] A young green cucumber, or a cucumber of a small kind, used for pickling. e.g. 1837 Penny Cycl. VIII. 211/2 The best sorts of cucumbers are, for gurkens, the Russian [etc.]. attrib. 1882 Garden 1 Apr. 222/1 Gherkin Cucumber beds. 514. heyduck Forms: heyduque, -duke, -duck, heyduc, heiduc, -duck, haiduk, hayduk. [a. Boh., Pol., Serv., Roman. hajduk, Magyar hajdú pl. hajdúk, in Bulg. hajdutin, mod.Gr. chaidoutes, Turkish haidud robber, brigand.] A term app. meaning originally “robber, marauder, brigand” (a sense still retained in Serbia and adjacent countries), which in Hungary became the name of a special body of foot-soldiers (to whom the rank of nobility and a territory were given in 1605), and in Poland of the liveried personal followers or attendants of the nobles. e.g. 1889 Athenćum 15 June 768/1 One of that extinct species of servants, the heyducs, holds the horse of the fat monarch. 515. hospodar

[a. Romanian hospodár, of Slavonic origin: possibly from Little Russ. hospodár = Russ. gospodár (in South Russia “master of a house”), deriv. of gospód- lord. Another Russian form of the word is gosudár- sovereign, king, lord, sir.] A word meaning “lord”, formerly borne as a title of dignity by the governors appointed by the Ottoman Porte for the provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia. e.g. 1886 Dowden Shelley II. ix. 362 His father, for a time hospodar of Wallachia, had retired into private life. Hence hospodariat, -iate (erron. -iot, hospodorate), the office of a hospodar, the territory governed by a hospodar. e.g. 1833 Fraser's Mag. VII. 196 The hospodariats were sure to become dependencies of Muscovy. 516. knez Also knes, knias. [A Slavonic word: Serbian, Slov. knez, Boh. knez, Sorbian knjez, Russ. knjaz:---Old Slav. kunenz_, prehistoric a. OTeut. *kuning- king. From Slov., also Romanian knęz, Alban. knez, Magyar kenez.] A former title among Slavonic nations = “prince”; sometimes implying sovereignty, as in Montenegro and formerly in the various Danubian Principalities; sometimes merely rank, as in Russia: often rendered in western langs. by “duke”: cf. the title velikie knjaz “great prince”, usually englished “grand duke”. e.g. 1710 Whitworth Acc. Russia (1758) 31 They are divided into three ranks, the Nobility, called Kneas; the Gentry and the Peasants. 1847 Mrs. A. Kerr Hist. Servia 45 After consultation with the Kneses, the tax was imposed proportionably on the respective districts. 517. lasset. Obs. Also laset, lascitt. [a. G. lasset, lassitz, of Slavonic origin; cf. OSl. lasica, Czech lasice, laska, Russian lastka, F. lasquette.] Also lasset-mouse, -weasel, a fur-bearing animal; the ermine or miniver. e.g. 1607 Topsell Four-f. Beasts (1658) 424 There is no difference between the Lascitt mouse and the Lascitt weesill. 1611 Cotgr., Rat de Lasse, the Lasset Mouse; a beast that beares the Furre which we call Mineuar. 518. olen, ollen. Obs. [Russ. o_len' deer, stag = OSlav. jelen_, Pol. jelen, Lith. élnís, OLith. ellenís stag; whence Ger. elen, elend, elendthier, transf. to the elk (Russ. los', Pol. los): see also eland, ellan, ellend.] A red deer, a stag. e.g. 1613 Purchas Pilgrimage iv. xvii. 431 They worship the Sunne, the Ollen and the Losey [elk], and such like. 519. pivo, piva [Slavonic pívo (Russ. pívo, Pol. piwo, etc.), beer.] An Eastern European beer made from barley malt or a similar fermented beverage. e.g. 1976 D. Halliday' Dolly & Nanny Bird xviii. 244 Someone had produced pivo and his minions were shouting and spraying the workshop with beer. 1979 Listener 19 July 71/1 “Another pivo, squire?” 520. Polab Also Polabe. [Slav., cf. Pol. po on, Labe Elbe.] a. A member of a Slavonic people once inhabiting the region around the lower Elbe. b. The West Slavonic language of this people, now extinct. Also attrib. e.g. 1974 Encycl. Brit. Micropćdia VIII. 72/3 By the early 9th century the Polabs were organized into two confederations or principalitie 521. sable n.1 Forms: sabylle, sabulle, sabill, sabel, sabil(le, sabell, sable, cebal. [a. OF. sable, saible sable fur, also quasi-adj. in martre sable (“sable marten”) as the name of the animal and its fur, med.L. sabelum, sabellum sable fur, Icel. safal, safali sable (the animal), sable-fur, Du. sabel sable-fur. The OF. word was prob. adopted from Slavonic: cf. Russian sobol, Polish, Czech sobol (whence G. zobel, Da., Sw. sobel), Lith. sabalas, Hung. czoboly, the sable. See also zibeline, which represents a Romanic derivative from the same Slavonic word. The rare 17th c. form cebal is of obscure origin; it may possibly be a shortening of one of the Rom. forms cited s.v. zibeline.]

1. a. A small carnivorous quadruped, Mustela zibellina, nearly allied to the martens, and native of the arctic and sub-arctic regions of Europe and Asia. Also Russian, Siberian sable. In ME. the animal and its fur are called also martrix sable, martryn sable, after OF. martre sable. The American sable, Mustela Americana, native of the arctic and sub-arctic regions of North America, is now regarded as a geographical variety of the Old World species. The red or Tatar sable is the Siberian mink, Putorius sibiricus. e.g. 1877 Coues Fur Anim. iii. 95 The Sable is principally trapped during the colder months. b. Painting. A brush made of the sable's hair. 1973 F. Taubes Painter's Dict. 207 Sables are standard painting tools for all water-based mediums--watercolor, acrylic, casein, gouache, etc.---which require large, thin passages of fluid color. 2. a. The skin or fur of the sable. e.g. 1893 F. F. Moore Gray Eye or So III. 211 Mrs. Mowbray's set of sables had cost seven hundred guineas. b. Short for sable coat. e.g. 1977 J. Crosby Company of Friends xvi. 105 She eyed the sable some more. In a few more years they would be hanging that coat on the wall-like a painting. 3. A superior quality of Russian iron, so called from being originally stamped with a sable. e.g. 1839 Ure Dict. Arts 462 Those [files] made from the Russian iron, known by the name of old sable, called from its mark ccnd, are excellent. 4. attrib. and Comb. a. simple attrib., as sable-skin; (made of the hairs of the sable) sable-brush, -pencil; (used for taking the sable) sable-trap; (made of the fur of sable) sable-coat, (hence -coated adj.), muff, tippet; sable-trimmed adj. Also objective, as sable-hunter. 1784 J. Belknap in B. Papers (1877) II. 188 We saw abundance of *sable-traps, and one bear-trap. 1922 Joyce Ulysses 457 A *sabletrimmed brick quilted dolman. b. sable-mouse e.g. 1700 W. King Transactioneer 81 Sable-Mice are so fierce and angry that if a stick be held out at them, they will bite it. 522. shabracque, shabrack Also shubrach, (chabrague, shabrag), schabraque, shabraque. [a. G. schabracke, F. schabraque (also chabraque), from some lang. of Eastern Europe: cf. Russ. chaprak, Czech cabrak(a, capraka, sabraka, Magyar csabrág, Turkish capraq.] A saddle-cloth used in European armies. e.g. 1908 Bain Slav. Europe 213 Their shabracks ablaze with precious stones. 523. siskin Also sysken-, sisken. [ad. G. dial. sisschen or zeischen, = older Flem. sijsken, cijsken (Kilian; Du. and Flem. sijsje), Da. sisgen, a dim. form based on MHG. zîsec (also zîse; G. zeisig), MLG. ziseke, sisek (Norw. sisik, sisk, Sw. siska), which are app. of Slavonic origin; cf. Pol. czyzik, czyz, Russ. chizhek', chizh'.] 1. A small song-bird, in some respects closely allied to the goldfinch; also called aberdevine. By older writers sometimes identified with the greenfinch. e.g. 1894-5 Lydekker Roy. Nat. Hist. III. 385 From Japan to the British Isles the common siskin (Chrysomitris spinus) is found in suitable localities. 2. Applied with defining words to various small birds related to or resembling the siskin. e.g. 1884 ---- N. Amer. Birds 354 Chrysomitris pinus, American Siskin. 3. attrib., as siskin finch, group; siskin-green, a light green inclining to yellow; siskin-parrot, a small parrot of the genus Nasiterna (Cent. Dict.). e.g. 1894-5 Lydekker Roy. Nat. Hist. III. 385 A less well-known member of the siskin group is the citril finch (Chrysomitris citrinella). 524. Slovene n. and a. [a. G. Slovene (Slowene), pl. Slovenen, ad. Styrian, etc. Slovenec, pl. Slovenci; the name is a survival of the old native designation of the Slavs, which appears in OSlav. as Slovene, and is supposed to be derived from the stem of slovo word, sloviti to speak.] A. n. 1. A member of the southern Slavonic group of peoples, dwelling in southern Austria and in Slovenia (formerly part of Austria, now a constituent republic of Yugoslavia); formerly also called Wend e.g. 1887 Encycl. Brit. XXII. 147/2 The Slovenes have preserved an old form of the family name. 2. The language of the Slovenes.

e.g. 1980 English World-Wide I. 256 Of the remaining essays not involving English, most are on minority languages, such as_the individual cases of Slovene in Southern Austria. B. adj. Slovenian; Slovenish. 1902 Q. Rev. July 169 The equalisation, in all public offices, of the Czech and Slovene languages with the German. 525. suckeny. Hist. Also sukkenye, surkney, suckeney. [a. OF. soucanie, also sor-, surquanie (earlier soschanie, sousquenie, cf. med.L. soscania) of Slavonic origin (cf. Polish suknia coat), whence also MHG. sukkenîe.] A smock. e.g. 1885 Dillon Fairholt's Costume Eng. II. 387 Sukkenye, a loose frock. 526. tabor, n. Also tabour. [Boh., Polish, Serb. tabor, Magyar tábor, a. Turkish tabor camp (anciently a camp of nomads formed by a circle of wagons or the like).] An encampment. 1877 Daily News 25 Oct. 5/4 At Podgoritza_15 tabors of Nizams and four tabors of troops of the reserve are being concentrated preparatory to offensive operations against Montenegro. 527.satske tchotchke U.S. colloq. [a. Yiddish, f. Slavonic (cf. Russ. tsatska).] A trinket or gewgaw; transf., a pretty girl. Also tsatskeleh [Yiddish -le dim. suff.] , an affectionate diminutive of tsatske. e.g. 1974 N.Y. Times 12 July 31 Décor doesn't add to the glamour of a suit, an owner pointed out. You're not buying the rugs or the lamps or the tsatskes. 528. vampire n. Also vampyre. [a. F. vampire, ad. Magyar vampir, a word of Slavonic origin occurring in the same form in Russ., Pol., Czech, Serb., and Bulg., with such variants as Bulg. vapir, vepir, Ruthen. vepyr, vopyr, opyr, Russ. upir, upyr, Pol. upior; Miklosich suggests north Turkish uber witch, as a possible source. Cf. G. vampir, vampyr, Da., Sw. vampyr, Du. vampir, It., Sp., Pg. vampiro, mod.L. vampyrus.] 1. A preternatural being of a malignant nature (in the original and usual form of the belief, a reanimated corpse), supposed to seek nourishment, or do harm, by sucking the blood of sleeping persons; a man or woman abnormally endowed with similar habits. e.g. 1886 Sat. Rev. 9 Jan. 55 We would welcome a spectre, a ghoul, or even a vampire gladly, rather than meet [Stevenson's] Mr. Edward Hyde. 2. transf. a. A person of a malignant and loathsome character, esp. one who preys ruthlessly upon others; a vile and cruel exactor or extortioner. 1978 Ld. Birkenhead Rudyard Kipling vii. 99 A grim but authentic picture of callow subalterns trotting beside the rickshaw wheels of faded provincial vampires. b. slang. An intolerable bore or tedious person. 1862 B. Taylor Home & Abroad III. ii. 215 In the German language there is no epithet which exactly translates our word “bore”, or its intensification, “vampyre”. c. Applied to a mosquito. 1864 Geikie Life Woods iv. (1874) 58 A sharp prick and the little vampire is drinking your blood. 3. Zool. a. One or other of various bats, chiefly South American, known or popularly believed to be blood-suckers. e.g. 1774 Goldsm. Nat. Hist. (1824) II. 119 An animal not so formidable, but still more mischievous than these, is the American Vampyre. b. The tarantula spider. rare1. e.g. 1843 Marryat M. Violet xliv, The deadly tarantula spider or “vampire” of the prairies. c. The devil-fish. rare1. e.g. 1867 Chronicle 5 Oct. 669 This giant of the Cephaloptera is simply a monstrous Ray; and though SeaDevil and Vampire are assigned to it as trivial names, it is in no way formidable save from its enormous strength and bulk. 4. A double-leaved trap-door, closing by means of springs, used in theatres to effect a sudden disappearance from the stage. e.g. 1881 W. S. Gilbert Foggerty's Fairy i, Where's my vampire?

5. attrib. and Comb., as vampire bookseller, corpse, -fanned adj., legend, spell, etc.; vampire bat, vampire trap, e.g. 1831 Poe Poems 64 Some tomb, which oft hath flung into black And *vampyre-winged pannels back. Hence vampire v. trans., to assail or prey upon after the manner of a vampire; vampiredom, the state of being a vampire (sense 1); the acts of a vampire; vampiric a., vampirine a., vampirish a., of the nature of a vampire. e.g. 1946 Blunden Shelley x. 135 Byron began and dropped a thriller which was becoming vampirine. 1981 N. Tucker Child & Book vii. 198 Religious references to the Virgin Mary behaving in a way that is distinctly vampirish have been glossed over. 529. Vlach Also Vlache. [a. Bulg. vlakh or Serb. vlah, = OSlav. vlakhu Romanian, Italian, Czech vlach Italian, Pol. wloch Italian, woloch Walachian, ORuss. volokh Walachian, Italian; these terms are Slavonic adoptions of the Germanic walh (OHG. walh, walah, MHG. walch; OE. wealh) foreigner, applied especially to Celts and Latins.] A member of the Latin-speaking race occupying portions of south-eastern Europe; a Walachian or Romanian. e.g. 1901 Speaker 21 Sept. 683/2 The alliance would array the scattered Vlachs of Macedonia once more on the Greek side. attrib. 1886 Encycl. Brit. XXI. 16/1 This Vlach or Rouman race occupies a far wider area than that included in the present Roumanian kingdom. Hence Vlachian, a. 1886 Encycl. Brit. XXI. 19/1 The officials bearing for the most part Slavonic titles derived from the practice of the Bulgaro-Vlachian czardom. 1909 Q. Rev. April 681 Not the least interesting constituent of this chaotic population is the Vlachian. 530. voivode Forms: voy-, voiuoda, voivoda. uoiuod, voyvode, voivode. woivode, -wode, woywod. [ad. Bulg. and Serb. vojvoda, Czech. vojevoda, Pol. wojewoda, Russ. voevoda, whence also Rom. voevoda, -vod, mod.L. voivoda.] e.g. 1884 W. Carr Montenegro 22 By repeated efforts the voivode maintains with difficulty a position on the coast. 1868 Daily Tel. 1 Sept., To be prince of its park, lord of its lake, ruler of its river, and woiwode of its woods. attrib. 1888 E. Gerald Land beyond Forest xxxiii. II. 84 Only such Tziganes are supposed to be eligible as are descended from a Woywod family. voivodeship 531. zibeline n. [ from French, from Old Italian zibellino, ultimately of Slavonic origin; ] 1. a sable or the fur of this animal. 2. a thick cloth made of wool or other animal hair, having a long nap and a dull sheen. adj. 3. of, relating to, or resembling a sable e.g. 1844 Hugh Murray Trav. Marco Polo i. 23. 133 The inside is lined with skins of ermine and zibelline.

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................1 2. LOANWORDS FROM SLAVIC LANGUAGES: WHY, WHEN, AND HOW ?............................................................................................................3
2.1 THE 20TH CENTURY..............................................................................................5 2.2 THE PERIOD BEFORE THE 20TH CENTURY.....................................................8 2.3 SUMMARY..............................................................................................................9

3. CORPUS ANALYSIS..........................................................................................10
3.1 A CONCISE OVERVIEW OF SLAVIC (SLAVONIC2) LANGUAGES, AND THEIR APPEARANCE IN THE CORPUS...........................................................10 3.1.1 The South Slavonic branch...............................................................................11 3.1.1.1 Eastern subgroup..........................................................................................11 3.1.1.2 Western subgroup..........................................................................................11 3.1.2 The West Slavonic branch.................................................................................12 3.1.3 The East Slavonic branch..................................................................................13 3.1.4 The languages in the corpus..............................................................................14 3.2 ANALYSIS OF THE CORPUS ACCORDING TO THE DIVISION

TRANSLATIONS................................................................................................15 3.2.1 Frequency of occurrence...................................................................................16 3.2.2 Summary...........................................................................................................19 3.4 ANALYSIS OF THE CORPUS ACCORDING TO MURRAY’S DIVISION OF LOANWORDS INTO CASUAL, ALIEN, DENIZEN AND NATURAL.............20 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 Slavic casuals..................................................................................................21 Slavic aliens.....................................................................................................23 Slavic denizens................................................................................................29 Summary.........................................................................................................34

3.4. SEMANTIC ANALYSIS OF THE CORPUS: CHANGES IN MEANING........35 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 3.4.5 Extension or generalization...........................................................................36 Narrowing or specialization...........................................................................45 Amelioration...................................................................................................54 Pejoration or deterioration.............................................................................55 Summary.........................................................................................................59

4. THE STATUS OF SLOVENE IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.........60 5. CONCLUSION......................................................................................................62 6. NOTES.....................................................................................................................64 7. REFERENCES......................................................................................................66 8. APPENDIX.............................................................................................................68
8.1. CORPUS................................................................................................................68 8.1.1 Introductory remarks.......................................................................................68 8.1.2 Russian..............................................................................................................69 8.1.3 Bohemian & Czech.........................................................................................133 8.1.3.1 Bohemian................................................................................................133 8.1.3.2 Czech.......................................................................................................134 8.1.4 Bulgarian.........................................................................................................138 8.1.5 Croatian, Serbian, Croato – Serbian, Serbo – Croatian................................139 8.1.6 Polish...............................................................................................................145 8.1.7 Slovak..............................................................................................................152 8.1.8 Ukrainian.........................................................................................................152 8.1.9 Slavic, Slavonic................................................................................................152

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