A Training Report

Submitted to the Rajasthan Technical University, Kota in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF COMPUTER APPICATIONS

Gaurav Chaplot

Submitted by

GUIDED BY: Blessy Head of Comp. Sc. Dept.


om th

Apex Institute of Management & Science, Jaipur
Affiliated to Rajasthan Technical University, Kota

MCA (2007-10) May,2010


Preface Project Profile:1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Company Profile Project Definition Problem Definition According to Roles General Outline of project  Overview of the project  Entities of the project


1. 2. 3. 4.

Software Tools:
About ASP.Net. About JavaScript. About HTML SQL Server 2005

4. 5.

Hardware Platform System Analysis
1. Introduction. 2. Feasibility Study. 3. Problem analysis.

4. Need of a new system.


System Requirement Specification
 Proposed System and Advantages


System Design and Development:
1. Introduction 2. Steps of Design Process 3. Database design of Sections.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

E R Diagram USE CASE Diagram System Testing Future and scope of Application. Conclusion Bibliography


Health Risk assessment is a scientific process of evaluating the adverse effects caused by a substance, activity, lifestyle, or natural phenomenon. Health Risk Assessment (HRA) is an evolving concept defined as a systematic collection of electronic health information about individual patients or populations. It is a record in digital format that is capable of being shared across different health care settings, by being embedded in network-connected enterprise-wide information systems. Such records may include a whole range of data in comprehensive or summary form, including demographics, medical history, medication and allergies, immunization status, laboratory test results, radiology images, and billing information. Whereas the practices of 20th century health care were based largely on paper, there is now a broad consensus that realizing an improved 21st century vision of health care will require intensive use of information technology to acquire, manage, analyze, and disseminate health care information and knowledge. Accordingly, the Administration and Congress have been moving to encourage the adoption, connectivity, and interoperability of health care information technology. Formar President George W. Bush called for nationwide use of electronic medical records by 2014 and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is involved in various aspects of achieving this goal. It is essentially axiomatic that modern health care is an information-and knowledgeintensive enterprise. The information collected in health care includes, among other things, medical records of individual patients (both paper and electronic, spread across many different health care organizations), laboratory test results, information about treatment protocols and drug interactions, and a variety of financial and administrative information.



Fusion Outsourcing Pvt. Ltd. is leading solution provider based in Udaipur, India. FUSION is well-positioned to be a global IT hub because of its intellectual resources and specialized expertise. FUSION offshore services understand the needs of international customers and deliver to high standards of quality and efficiency. With the company’s inception in the year 2004 FUSION has set milestones in its areas of operation. It started up with the idea of providing an offshore support to its foreign clients in the area of process outsourcing. Today FUSION has diversified its areas of operation in various fields which includes:

Software development
Application Management
FUSION's application management services relieve you of the burden of applicationrelated processes that are draining your budget. With our experience in application management services since 2001, we know how to get the best out of your code. Through our application management services, we make your applications productive at 50 - 60% of the cost that you are paying for internal staffing. FUSION then works with you to get you even more savings and benefits over the long-term.

Testing & Validation
FUSION has a proven track record of establishing and running dedicated test labs for their Global 1000 clients. The teams at FUSION use disciplined, mature SEI CMM certified quality processes that have been honed Over 1 Million person hours of project work in the field of onsite/offshore testing, with a clear focus on areas critical to the success of such efforts. FUSION has developed methodologies for end-to-end testing of complex systems, and has adequate exposure to testing of systems using a client’s in-house methods. FUSION provides robust review, testing and change control processes, ensuring cost-effective, fast and quality deliverables through a global delivery model consisting of onsite, near-shore and onsite / offshore execution.

Product Engeneering

Today, saving money is the primary motivation for Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) seeking offshore outsourcing vendor relationships. Some companies, not satisfied with potential savings of 20% to 40%, seek greater savings by opening their own offshore product development and maintenance centers. This practice is particularly prevalent in the high-tech sector, where companies may already have offshore R&D centers, and in the financial services sector, where companies are looking to reduce costs and/or better secure their internal systems. Unfortunately, the management investment and overhead costs associated with opening a high-quality offshore product development center that is intended to support an enterprise IT organization rarely justifies the payoff.

Technology Consulting
FUSION's IT consulting practice is focused on helping clients use information and information technology Our clients are global corporations who are empowered through our value-based, customized, and implementation-oriented approach. When we serve our clients on IT issues, we combine our knowledge and experience in IT with our strengths in strategy, organization, and operations. With a rich pool of resources across the world, deep industry and business process expertise, broad global resources and a proven track record, FUSION can mobilize the right people, skills, and technologies to help clients improve their performance.

Web Services
Website design & development
FUSION's provides professional website design, development and maintenance services. Our skilled web designers and developers accomplish various website projects from brochure sites to multi-functional web portals. FUSION's has a large pool of resources and the required business and technical expertise to develop websites of any complexity. We provide complete front-end and back-end development based on the latest technologies and industry trends.

Web application Development

FUSION's has been working in the field of custom software development since 1999. Our expert team has taken part in dozens of application development projects. We are experienced in developing advanced systems with complex business logic dealing with large amounts of data and transactions. We are able to supply you with an innovative, trustworthy software solution to complement your most complicated business ideas.

Graphic design/Multimedia
FUSION's offers a wide range of professional graphic design services including logo design, corporate identity development, multimedia and flash presentations. We lay solid foundation in web design development. Keeping track of the latest technological innovations we make good use of the most advanced web design tools, thus ensuring the top-notch quality of the end-product and complete satisfaction of our customers. Our step-by-step process guarantees that nothing is overlooked in the final product.

Maintenance & Support
Web applications and websites require maintenance and support as your needs change and grow. FUSION's provides maintenance and support services freeing you from maintaining expensive in-house support staff. We partner with our clients to help their on line business running smoothly and error-free.

KPO Service
Financial Research & Analysis
Web applications and websites require maintenance and support as your needs change and grow. FUSION's provides maintenance and support services freeing you from maintaining expensive in-house support staff. We partner with our clients to help their on line business running smoothly and error-free.

Business consultancy services
FUSION offers business consulting in various areas of business operations by defining, aligning and optimizing our client's business goals and objectives. We take time to understand our client's business, their requirements and needs, and then create

customized solutions that deliver tangible benefits, add value and improve their business processes. Foresight to evaluate new technologies from a practical perspective and focus on key industries has resulted in accumulation of extensive domain knowledge about business processes. This has enabled us to deliver quality and cutting edge solutions to our clients.

BPO Services
Call Center Services
FUSION uses advanced call center services to provide standardized streamlined , uniform services for consumers, making it an effective approach for interacting with their customers. Our offshore strategic call center services can help you attain your business targets! Give your business a cutting edge, with our world-class customer support services.

CATI Services -Computer Aided Telephone Interviewing
Think FUSION for next-generation CATI research solutions. At FUSION outsourcing unique distributed dialer technology can enable efficient call management and compliance management. Get accurate data, with our automated predictive dialer. Our Rapid Dial ensures four times higher productivity, than manual dialing to ours outsourcing partners. Target future customers, and detect customer churn with our 100% voice recording.

E-mail and Chat Support Services
At FUSION, we will answer your customer’s queries promptly, competently and precisely. We helps our outsourcing ventures to balance work between peak periods and off-peak periods, while they focus on their core competencies. FUSION's e-mail based support system will ensure lower call volumes and reduces costs for voice support.

Healthcare Services
Many companies provide complete healthcare services that cater to the healthcare industry as a whole, these companies offers high-quality medical services at costeffective price but FUSION outsourcing Pvt. Ltd. offers a range of Healthcare services that can help you achieve a faultless process giving competitive advantage.

FUSION outsourcing offers the following Healthcare services : Medical Coding  Medical Billing  Account Receivable

Data Management
FUSION understands that timely access to business document ensures the smooth functioning of an organization. Today's fast pace dynamic business environment demands that organizations adopt a document management system that keeps pace with its growth,in the absence of which, administrators and network consultants feel handicapped . FUSION offshore services provides you with the best in industry data management solutions. FUSION outsourcing offers the following data management services:  Data Entry Services  Data Cleansing  Data Conversion Services  Data Mining


Health Risk Assessment (HRA) is an evolving concept defined as a systematic collection of electronic health information about individual patients or populations. It is a record in digital format that is capable of being shared across different health care settings, by being embedded in network-connected enterprise-wide information systems. Such records may include a whole range of data in comprehensive or summary form, including demographics, medical history, medication and allergies, immunization status, laboratory test results, radiology images, and billing information. Doctors and nurses spend hours every day chasing down patient charts and missing information. Hospitals bear enormous costs associated with record filing and overhead, as well as paper copying and printing. As difficult as the challenges of paper-based medicine can be, the prospect of an overnight conversion to fully electronic records can be even more unnerving. The Health Risk Assessment (HRA) Records Management tracks activity and status for a hospital’s paper medical records files, while additionally permitting a hospital to integrate paper-based information with digital records quickly and easily. By uniting paper and electronic records, hospitals gain the benefits of integrated, shared patient information and automated workflow that are inherent with digital data. Purpose of HRA can be understood as a complete record patient encounters that allows to automate and streamline workflow in health care settings and to increase safety through evidence-based decision support, quality management, and outcomes reporting.


Assessment include:
• Increased productivity among clinical staff. With HRA Records Management, paper charts can be tracked and located with ease while digital scanning and storage of paper orders, prescriptions, patient forms, and physician documentation puts information instantly in clinicians’ hands. • Cost savings. Hospitals can see substantial reductions in the costs associated with record filing and overhead, time lost while hunting down files, and paper copying and printing. • More informed clinical decisions. With shared access to complete information, including images and scanned paper documents, from anywhere in the hospital, doctors and nurses can communicate better, make more informed diagnoses, and prescribe more successful treatment plans. • Convenience and familiarity for staff. By allowing doctors, nurses, and administrative staff to retain their comfortable processes, hospitals can foster employee satisfaction and realize higher success in long-term adoption of electronic ordering and documentation. • More complete data for better compliance. To meet accreditation and regulatory requirements, hospitals can ensure an accurate and complete patient record and access reports easily for more efficient responses to audits and information requests. • Better tracking of patient records. Centralized data stored in a single system allows clinicians to make faster, more informed decisions. • Incremental conversion to electronic medical records. Hospitals gain many of the benefits of converting to electronic records and processes without the productivity challenges that can accompany an overnight conversion to a new system. • Improve Quality of care. The implementation of electronic health records can help lessen patient sufferance due to medical errors and the inability of analysts to assess quality. During compilation while hospitalization or ambulant serving of the patient, easing to get access on details is improved with browser capabilities

applied to screen presentations also cross referring to the respective coding concepts ICD, DRG and medical procedures information.

Problem Analysis According to Role

Services to Data Management:1. They need to surf login pages, so option of user name and password is to display. 2. Data Manager can set Grid Page Size in pages of others roles. 3. Data Manager has Permission to set Screen setting by set that which tabs will be appeared in pages for others role. 4. Data Manager can add new records in the Lookups section like new role, family member, physician, medicine etc. and can set that which and how many roles, medicines, family members etc. will be appeared in pages for others role. 5. Data Manager can add new roles with their user name and password.

Service to Data Entry:1. They need to surf login pages, so option of user name and password is to display. 2. Employee can add new patient with patient information like patient name, date of service, location etc. Employee can search for a particular patient by his /her first name or last name. 3. After add new patient, Employee can update Demographic, Insurance, PCP Consultants related information of patient. 4. Employee can add new records in Problem list and recommendation.

Service to Physician:1. They need to surf login pages, so option of user name and password is

to display.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Physician can perform all actions similar to Employee. Physician can take print out of Patient Information. Physician can save patient information in PDF or DOC format. Only physician has authority to perform E Signature for patient report. Employee can't perform this job. It is basic difference between

Employee and Physician services.


ASP.NET is more than the next version of Active Server Pages (ASP); it provides a unified Web development model that includes the services necessary for developers to build enterprise-class Web applications. While ASP.NET is largely syntax compatible with ASP, it also provides a new programming model and infrastructure for more scalable and stable applications that help provide greater protection. You can feel free to augment your existing ASP applications by incrementally adding ASP.NET functionality to them. ASP.NET is a compiled, .NET-based environment; you can author applications in any .NET compatible language, including Visual Basic .NET, C#, and JScript .NET. Additionally, the entire .NET Framework is available to any ASP.NET application. Developers can easily access the benefits of these technologies, which include the managed common language runtime environment, type safety, inheritance, and so on. ASP.NET has been designed to work seamlessly with WYSIWYG HTML editors and other programming tools, including Microsoft Visual Studio .NET. Not only does this make Web development easier, but it also provides all the benefits that these tools have to offer, including a GUI that developers can use to drop server controls onto a Web page and fully integrated debugging support. Developers can use Web Forms or XML Web services when creating an ASP.NET application, or combine these in any way they see fit. Each is supported by the same infrastructure that allows you to use authentication schemes, cache frequently used data, or customize your application's configuration, to name only a few possibilities. • Web Forms allow you to build powerful forms-based Web pages. When building these pages, you can use ASP.NET server controls to create common UI elements, and program them for common tasks. These controls allow you to rapidly build a Web Form out of reusable built-in or custom components, simplifying the code of a page. For more information, see Web Forms Pages.

For information on how to develop ASP.NET server controls, see Developing ASP.NET Server Controls. • An XML Web service provides the means to access server functionality remotely. Using XML Web services, businesses can expose programmatic interfaces to their data or business logic, which in turn can be obtained and manipulated by client and server applications. XML Web services enable the exchange of data in client-server or server-server scenarios, using standards like HTTP and XML messaging to move data across firewalls. XML Web services are not tied to a particular component technology or object-calling convention. As a result, programs written in any language, using any component model, and running on any operating system can access XML Web services. For more information, see XML Web Services Created Using ASP.NET and XML Web Service Clients. Each of these models can take full advantage of all ASP.NET features, as well as the power of the .NET Framework and .NET Framework common language runtime. These features and how you can use them are outlined as follows: • If you have ASP development skills, the new ASP.NET programming model will seem very familiar to you. However, the ASP.NET object model has changed significantly from ASP, making it more structured and objectoriented. Unfortunately this means that ASP.NET is not fully backward compatible; almost all existing ASP pages will have to be modified to some extent in order to run under ASP.NET. In addition, major changes to Visual Basic .NET mean that existing ASP pages written with Visual Basic Scripting Edition typically will not port directly to ASP.NET. In most cases, though, the necessary changes will involve only a few lines of code. For more information, see Migrating from ASP to ASP.NET. • Accessing databases from ASP.NET applications is an often-used technique for displaying data to Web site visitors. ASP.NET makes it easier than ever to access databases for this purpose. It also allows you to manage the database from your code. For more information, see Accessing Data with ASP.NET. • ASP.NET provides a simple model that enables Web developers to write logic that runs at the application level. Developers can write this code in the

Global.asax text file or in a compiled class deployed as an assembly. This logic can include application-level events, but developers can easily extend this model to suit the needs of their Web application. For more information, see ASP.NET Applications. • ASP.NET provides easy-to-use application and session-state facilities that are familiar to ASP developers and are readily compatible with all other .NET Framework APIs. For more information, see ASP.NET State Management. • For advanced developers who want to use APIs as powerful as the ISAPI programming interfaces that were included with previous versions of ASP, ASP.NET offers the IHttpHandler and IHttpModule interfaces. Implementing the IHttpHandler interface gives you a means of interacting with the lowlevel request and response services of the IIS Web server and provides functionality much like ISAPI extensions, but with a simpler programming model. Implementing the IHttpModule interface allows you to include custom events that participate in every request made to your application. For more information, see HTTP Runtime Support. • ASP.NET takes advantage of performance enhancements found in the .NET Framework and common language runtime. Additionally, it has been designed to offer significant performance improvements over ASP and other Web development platforms. All ASP.NET code is compiled, rather than interpreted, which allows early binding, strong typing, and just-in-time (JIT) compilation to native code, to name only a few of its benefits. ASP.NET is also easily factorable, meaning that developers can remove modules (a session module, for instance) that are not relevant to the application they are developing. ASP.NET also provides extensive caching services (both built-in services and caching APIs). ASP.NET also ships with performance counters that developers and system administrators can monitor to test new applications and gather metrics on existing applications. For more information, see ASP.NET Caching Features and ASP.NET Optimization. • Writing custom debug statements to your Web page can help immensely in troubleshooting your application's code. However, they can cause embarrassment if they are not removed. The problem is that removing the

debug statements from your pages when your application is ready to be ported to a production server can require significant effort. ASP.NET offers the Trace Context class, which allows you to write custom debug statements to your pages as you develop them. They appear only when you have enabled tracing for a page or entire application. Enabling tracing also appends details about a request to the page, or, if you so specify, to a custom trace viewer that is stored in the root directory of your application. For more information, see ASP.NET Trace. • The .NET Framework and ASP.NET provide default authorization and authentication schemes for Web applications. You can easily remove, add to, or replace these schemes, depending upon the needs of your application. For more information, see Securing ASP.NET Web Applications. • ASP.NET configuration settings are stored in XML-based files, which are human readable and writable. Each of your applications can have a distinct configuration file and you can extend the configuration scheme to suit your requirements. For more information, see ASP.NET Configuration. • Applications are said to be running side by side when they are installed on the same computer but use different versions of the .NET Framework. To learn how to use different versions of ASP.NET for separate applications on your server, see Side-by-Side Support in ASP.NET. • IIS 6.0 uses a new process model called worker process isolation mode, which is different from the process model used in previous versions of IIS. ASP.NET uses this process model by default when running on Windows Server 2003. For information about how to migrate ASP.NET process model settings to worker process isolation mode, see IIS 6.0 Application Isolation Modes.

The Components of .NET Framework
The .NET Framework is divided into two main components: the .NET Framework Class Library and the Conman language Runtime.

Common Language Runtime
The Common Language Runtime is the execution engine for .NET Framework applications. It provides a number of services, including the following : Code management (loading and execution)
• • • • • • • •

Application memory isolation Verification of type safety Conversion of IL to native code Access to metadata (enhanced type information) Managing memory for managed objects Enforcement of code access security Exception handling, including cross-language exceptions Interoperation between managed code, COM objects, and pre-existing DLLs (unmanaged code and data)

• •

Automation of object layout Support for developer services (profiling, debugging, and so on)

 The Common Type System defines how types are declared, used, and managed in the runtime, and is also an important part of the runtime's support for cross-language integration. The common type system performs the following functions:

Establishes a framework that helps enable cross-language integration, type safety, and high performance code execution.

Provides an object-oriented model that supports the complete implementation of many programming languages.

Defines rules that languages must follow, which helps ensure that objects written in different languages can interact with each other

Assemblies in the Common Language Runtime
Assemblies are the building blocks of .NET Framework applications; they form the fundamental unit of deployment, version control, reuse, activation scoping, and security permissions. An assembly is a collection of types and resources that are built to work together and form a logical unit of functionality. An assembly provides the common language runtime with the information it needs to be aware of type implementations. To the runtime, a type does not exist outside the context of an assembly.

 NET Framework Class Library Overview
The .NET Framework includes classes, interfaces, and value types that expedite and optimize the development process and provide access to system functionality. To facilitate interoperability between languages, the .NET Framework types are CLS-compliant and can therefore be used from any programming language whose compiler conforms to the common language specification (CLS). The .NET Framework types are the foundation on which .NET applications, components, and controls are built. The .NET Framework includes types that perform the following functions:
• • • • •

Represent base data types and exceptions. Encapsulate data structures. Perform I/O. Access information about loaded types. Invoke .NET Framework security checks.

Provide data access, rich client-side GUI, and server-controlled, client-side GUI.


ASP.NET is a request processing engine. It takes an incoming request and passes it through its internal pipeline to an end point where you as a developer can attach code to process that request. This engine is actually completely separated from HTTP or the Web Server. In fact, the HTTP Runtime is a component that you can host in your own applications outside of IIS or any server side application altogether. For example, you can host the ASP.NET runtime in a Windows form The runtime provides a complex yet very elegant mechanism for routing requests through this pipeline. There are a number of interrelated objects, most of which are extensible either via sub classing or through event interfaces at almost every level of the process, so the framework is highly extensible. Through this mechanism it’s possible to hook into very low level interfaces such as the caching, authentication and authorization. You can even filter content by pre or post processing requests or simply route incoming requests that match a specific signature directly to your code or another URL. There are a lot of different ways to accomplish the same thing, but all of the approaches are straightforward to implement, yet provide flexibility in finding the best match for performance and ease of development.

Most applications need data access at one point of time making it a crucial component when working with applications. Data access is making the application interact with a database, where all the data is stored. Different applications have different requirements for database access. VB .NET uses ADO .NET (Active X Data Object) as it's data access and manipulation protocol which also enables us to work with data on the Internet. Let's take a look why ADO .NET came into picture replacing ADO.

The ADO.NET Data Architecture
Data Access in ADO.NET relies on two components: Dataset and Data Provider.


The dataset is a disconnected, in-memory representation of data. It can be considered as a local copy of the relevant portions of the database. The DataSet is persisted in memory and the data in it can be manipulated and updated independent of the database. When the use of this DataSet is finished, changes can be made back to the central database for updating. The data in DataSet can be loaded from any valid data source like Microsoft SQL server database, an Oracle database or from a Microsoft Access database.

Data Provider
The Data Provider is responsible for providing and maintaining the connection to the database. A DataProvider is a set of related components that work together to provide data in an efficient and performance driven manner. The .NET Framework currently comes with two DataProviders: the SQL Data Provider which is designed only to work with Microsoft's SQL Server 7.0 or later and the OleDb DataProvider which allows us to connect to other types of databases like Access and Oracle. Each DataProvider consists of the following component classes:  The Connection object which provides a connection to the database.  The Command object which is used to execute a command.  The DataReader object which provides a forward-only, read only, connected record set  The DataAdapter object which populates a disconnected DataSet with data and performs update

Data access with ADO.NET can be summarized as follows:
A connection object establishes the connection for the application with the database. The command object provides direct execution of the command to the database. If the command returns more than a single value, the command object returns a Data Reader to provide the data. Alternatively, the Data Adapter can be used to fill the Dataset object. The database can be updated using the command object or the Data Adapter.

The tiers are better explained through an example. Say, you want a system to work with voter information data. Now the tiers are supposed to take on the following responsibilities-

1. Presentation
Has the capability to show the data. Also, gives you the UI for operations like insert, edit, delete and look up etc. However, although this part lets you issue the commands for CRUD, this part renders the actual duty to a lower layer called Business Layer.

2. Business Layer
This layer is responsible for applying all business rules on the data. For an example, this layer may reject an insert operation if the age of the voter is less than 18. So, the rules that we want to enforce from a users point of view are confirmed in this layer.

3. Data Layer
This layer is supposed to be just a copy of your persistent storage. So, you want this layer to be reusable across different business layers. And also, this layer is supposed to act as an adapter between your Object Oriented world and the SQL world for the Business Layer. This layer may have methods that actually perform CRUD operations and provides OO interface to the Business Layer.

JavaScript is a programming language that is used to make web pages interactive. It runs on your visitor's computer and so does not require constant downloads from your web site. JavaScript supports all the structured programming syntax etc.). One partial

in C (e.g., if statements, while loops, switch statements,

exception is scoping: C-style block-level scoping is not supported. JavaScript 1.7, however, supports block-level scoping with the let keyword. Like C, JavaScript makes a distinction between expressions and statements.

HTML is a computer language devised to allow website creation. These websites can then be viewed by anyone else connected to the Internet. It is relatively easy to learn, with the basics being accessible to most people in one sitting; and quite powerful in what it allows you to create. It is constantly undergoing revision and evolution to meet the demands and requirements of the growing Internet audience under the direction of the » W3C, the organization charged with designing and maintaining the language. The definition of HTML is Hypertext Markup Language. • Hypertext is the method by which you move around on the web — by clicking on special text called hyperlinks which bring you to the next page. The fact that it is hyper just means it is not linear — i.e. you can go to any place on the Internet whenever you want by clicking on links — there is no set order to do things in. • Markup is what HTML tags do to the text inside them. They mark it as a certain type of text (italicized text, for example). • HTML is a Language, as it has code-words and syntax like any other language.

How HTML Works
HTML consists of a series of short codes typed into a text-file by the site author — these are the tags. The text is then saved as a html file, and viewed through a browser, like Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. This browser reads the file and translates the text into a visible form, hopefully rendering the page as the author had intended. Writing your own HTML entails using tags correctly to create

your vision. You can use anything from a rudimentary text-editor to a powerful graphical editor to create HTML.

SQL Server 2005 Express Edition is the next version of MSDE and is a free, easy-touse, lightweight, and embeddable version of SQL Server 2005. Continue reading to learn more about the benefits of SQL Server Express Edition and to download SQL Server Management Studio. Microsoft makes SQL Server available in multiple editions, with different feature sets and targeting different users. SQL Server Compact Edition (SQL CE) The compact edition is an embedded database engine. Unlike the other editions of SQL Server, the SQL CE engine is based on SQL Mobile (initially designed for use with hand-held devices) and does not share the same binaries. Due to its small size (1MB DLL footprint), it has a markedly reduced feature set compared to the other editions. For example, it supports a subset of the standard data types, does not support stored procedures or Views or multiple-statement batches (among other limitations). It is limited to 4GB maximum database size and cannot be run as a Windows service, Compact Edition must be hosted by the application using it. The 3.5 version includes considerable work that supports ADO.NET Synchronization Services.

SQL Server Developer Edition
SQL Server Developer Edition includes the same features as SQL Server Enterprise Edition, but is limited by the license to be only used as a development and test system, and not as production server. This edition is available to download by students free of charge as a part of Microsoft's DreamSpark program. SQL Server 2005 Embedded Edition (SSEE)

SQL Server 2005 Embedded Edition is a specially configured named instance of the SQL Server Express database engine which can be accessed only by certain Windows Services.

SQL Server Enterprise Edition
SQL Server Enterprise Edition is the full-featured edition of SQL Server, including both the core database engine and add-on services, while including a range of tools for creating and managing a SQL Server cluster.

SQL Server Evaluation Edition
SQL Server Evaluation Edition, also known as the Trial Edition, has all the features of the Enterprise Edition, but is limited to 180 days, after which the tools will continue to run, but the server services will stop. SQL Server Express Edition SQL Server Express Edition is a scaled down, free edition of SQL Server, which includes the core database engine. While there are no limitations on the number of databases or users supported, it is limited to using one processor, 1 GB memory and 4 GB database files. The entire database is stored in a single .mdf file, and thus making it suitable for XCOPY deployment. It is intended as a replacement for MSDE. Two additional editions provide a superset of features not in the original Express Edition. The first is SQL Server Express with Tools, which includes SQL Server Management Studio Basic. SQL Server Express with Advanced Services adds fulltext search capability and reporting services.

Features of SQL SERVER 2005
1. One of SQL's greatest benefits are it is truly a crossplatform language and a cross-product language. 2. and relational databases. 3. database is not so huge. 4. SQL SERVER 2005 provides good security. SQL SERVER 2005 is recommended where It is the common thread that runs throughout client/server application development is the use client/server computing of SQL

Hard ware Required
1. 2. 3. Intel Pentium IV 1 GB RAM 80 GB Hard Disk

1. Existing System: The existing system does not use any computer based system. All the jobs are done manually. The job such as maintaining the information about the various department’s meeting when the following meeting is organized and where it held and when, who are the attendances and what is the final decision of the meeting. Informing all the department member manually which is very time consuming process. Information about the various meeting held in past is to be searched manually that takes time and consume many resources. The existing system had following Drawbacks:
• • • • • •

It was very time consuming Reports were generated manually. The Activities are often prone to errors. The speed of processing of data is very slow. The information required was not readily available. Lots of paper work was there.

2. Need for System
At present, all the operations are carried out manually. Sometimes, information is duplicated, filled incorrectly or missed. A new computerized system is needed to

handle all these data integrity and consistency problems that arise when system is handled manually. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) To improve quality of work and accuracy To improve work speed and accuracy To provide the easy and user friendly environment Get instant and detail information at single terminal The project would help in effective and systematic record keeping that is storing and retrieving of useful data. (f) Project will produce various reports so that management can make decisions on the basis of these reports

3. Proposed System: The proposed system objectives are drawn to avoid the drawbacks of the Meeting scheduler .The proposed system replaces inefficient process and time-consuming task of the current system to be a simple, accurate and effective proposed system. The objective of this project is to create a website of meeting management system and provide services to provide every detail about the meeting that held and to be held in the various departments. This site records all the information about the past meetings for future use. Modules of the project: • Administrator – This module is prepared for the administrator who is

the only user having the authority to add, delete and modify the database. The administrator can avail these facilities only after proper login mechanism built in the system. • Registration – This module is developed for new user can open an

account with the web site to become a registered user. Through this module, personal information of users is gathered to allow them signing into the system. Once their username and password is created they can login into the system through login module. • Login – This module is developed to allow the visitors and

administrators to login into the system.

Through the I/O/Update facility one can easily maintain the records in the file. Moreover, the user will be able to get variety of reports, which is the most important part of this system like any other. A lot of effort and care has been taken in designing format. Most of the time, it is not possible to computerize the manual system completely and some things have to be left out. This leads to some limitations in the development of the system. But utmost care has been taken to satisfy most of the needs. The system deals right from entering the records in the database to generation of the reports. The major advantage is the increase in the speed and efficiency of the work. Much of the tedious jobs in the old system are reduced.

4. Feasibility Study:A Feasibility Study is a test of system proposal regarding to its workability; impact on the organization; an effective use of resources.

Technical Feasibility: This application is technically feasible. Hardware Requirements:        

Processor Pentium Class 512 MB RAM 80 GB HDD Monitor Keyboard Mouse LAN card Modem Internet Connection

For Development Purpose:
 ASP.NET with C#  IIS  SQL Server 2005  Email Accounts  Windows XP

For Work Station:
 Internet Explorer.  Internet Connection  Mail Server  Windows Operating System


The Software Requirements Specifications presents the overall information about the interface, flow of data and constraints for the products. An SRS is a document that completely describes what the proposed software should do without describing how the software will do it. Therefore it describes the complete external behavior of proposed software. An SRS is used to define needs and expectations of the users. It serves as a contract document between customer and developer. It is produced at the culmination of analysis task. The function and performance allocated to software as part of Software Engineering is refunded by:
• • • • •

Establishing a complete introduction General description Information description A detailed functional description, and Other information pertinent to requirement.

This document, that is, software requirements specifications describes the overall requirement that will be satisfied by the final product development. It serves as the foundation for subsequent software engineering activities. It describes the function of computer-based system and the constraints that will govern the development


Software Engineering Paradigm Applied: Project Planning The key to a successful project is in the planning. Creating a project plan is the first thing you should do when undertaking any kind of project. Often project planning is ignored in favor of getting on with the work. However, many people fail to realize the value of a project plan in saving time, money and many problems. Project Planning Objective: • • Coordinate the various interrelated processes of the project. Ensure project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. • • • • Ensure that the project is completed on time and within budget. Ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. Ensure the most effective use of the people involved with the project. Promote effective communication between the projects team members and key members. • Ensure that project risks are identified, analyzed, and responded.

Need and Importance: • • • • Quality delivery Customer satisfaction Structured Managing the manpower

Modules of HRA and Description
Home Page

Description:This page is default login page of the site from here all employees, physicians and data manager will login and proceed.

On this page the login of the HRA and logo section is arrange according to the need of client.

Data Management Home page

Data Management Home page Menu Descriptions:

Home This is a home page specifying the Grid View setting for the pages of others role.

 Screen Permission This page is used by Data Manager to set that which and how many tabs will be appeared on the pages of others role.  Look Ups Look Ups is used to add, delete and edit items in all sections like family member, medications and consults etc which are selected by physicians or employees.  Add Users This page is used to add new role with user name and password.  Change Password This Page is used to change password of Data Manager.  Log Out This is used to log out from current session.

Data Entry Home Page

This is Data Entry home page. From here an employee can search any patient by his/her first name or last name and can add new patient with patient information. An employee can update any patient information by select patient from patient bar at the left side of page alphabetically.

Data Entry Home page Menu

Data Entry Home page Menu

 Demographic  Insurance  PCP/Consults  Personal & Social History  Family History  Advanced Directive  Allergies  Immunization  Surgical History  Hospitalization/SNF Visits  Medications  Chief Complaint  HPI  Review of Systems  Exam/Vitals  Labs  Diagnostics  Functional Assessment  Problem List  Recommendation

Data Entry Home page Menu Descriptions

 Add Users
General DescriptionAdd New is an interface from where an Employee can add new patient with click on Save button after fill up the form.

Technical Description
All Fields Values: Sr.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Field Name Last Name First Name Middle Name DOB SSN MRN Reside At Marital status Gender Address1 Address2 City State Contry Phone Cell Zip Location Date of Service Field Control Text Box Text Box Text Box Text Box Text Box Text Box Drop down List Drop down List Drop down List Text Box Text Box Text Box Drop down List Drop down List Text Box Text Box Text Box Text Box Text Box Field Type In DB varchar(50) varchar(50) varchar(50) datetime int varchar(15) varchar(15) varchar(15) bit varchar(50) char(25) varchar(15) varchar(15) varchar(15) varchar(15) varchar(15) varchar(15) varchar(15) DateTime


Mandatory Fields: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Last Name First Name Location Date of Service DOB Reside At Gender

Size Validation:
1. 2. 3. 4. LastName : 50 Characters FirstName : 50 Characters SSN : 11 Characters (Including dashes [“-”]) MRN : 15 Characters

Other Validations:

SSN (If Entered) : It Should be a specific format like 123-45-6789

Code Description:
On Save Button we validate where the Specific Patient already exist in our system or not. If Exist

Update the information and make a new admission for him Otherwise Insert that patient to Patient table and also make a new admission for him.

Functions we used to get this thing done:
1. btn_save_Click():This function get all fields value in variables by get property for all fields. 2. fun_demo_insert():This function of class file is used to add parameters and call stored procedure for save records in Patient and Patient History tables.

Database Operations: Affected Class:
 csDemoGraphics.cs

Affected Function
 btn_save_Click()  fun_demo_insert()

Used SP’s :
 DE_Demographic_Insert()

Fields Description: Patient Table
MRN FirstName SSN LastName

MiddleName DOB Address1 City Zip Fax CreatedDate CountryId RaceId

GenderId MaritalStatusId Address2 StateId Phone Cell CreatedBy CountyId EthnicityId

Patient History Table
SSN LastName GenderId FirstName MiddleName, DOB ,

MaritalStatusId Address2 StateId Phone Cell CreatedBy CountyId EthnicityId

Address1 City Zip Fax CreatedDate CountryId RaceId ResideAtID

General Description-

Demographic is an interface from where an Employee can update patient's
Demographic related information with click on update button.

Technical Description
All Fields Values:

Sr.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Field Name Last Name First Name Middle Name DOB SSN MRN Reside At Marital status Gender Address1 Address2 City State Contry Phone Cell Zip Location Date of Service

Field Control Text Box Text Box Text Box Text Box Text Box Text Box Drop down List Drop down List Drop down List Text Box Text Box Text Box Drop down List Drop down List Text Box Text Box Text Box Text Box Text Box

Field Type In DB varchar(50) varchar(50) varchar(50) datetime int varchar(15) varchar(15) varchar(15) bit varchar(50) char(25) varchar(15) varchar(15) varchar(15) varchar(15) varchar(15) varchar(15) varchar(15) DateTime

Mandatory Fields:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Last Name First Name Location Date of Service DOB Reside At Gender

Size Validation: 1. 2. 3. 4. LastName : 50 Characters FirstName : 50 Characters SSN : 11 Characters (Including dashes [“-”]) MRN : 15 Characters

Other Validations:
 SSN (If Entered) : It Should be a specific format like 123-45-6789

Code Description
Functions we used to get this thing done:
1. onPadeLoad():This function set all fields value in form fields by set property for all fields.

2. fun_demo_update():This function of class file is used to add parameters and call stored procedure for update records in Patient and Patient History tables.

Database Operations
Affected Class:  csDemoGraphics.cs Affected Function  onPageLoad()  fun_demo_update() Used SP’s :  DE_Dempgraphic_Update()

Fields Description:
Patient Table
MRN FirstName SSN LastName

MiddleName DOB Address1 City Zip Fax CreatedDate CountryId RaceId

GenderId MaritalStatusId Address2 StateId Phone Cell CreatedBy CountyId EthnicityId

Patient History Table
SSN LastName GenderId FirstName, MiddleName DOB

MaritalStatusId Address2 StateId Phone Cell CreatedBy CountyId EthnicityId

Address1 City Zip Fax CreatedDate CountryId RaceId ResideAtID

Family History
General DescriptionFamily History is an interface from where an Employee can add new and update patient's
Family History related information with click on update button.

Technical Description
All Fields Values:

Sr.No 1 2 3 4 5 6

Field Name Family Member Age of Death Chronic Disease 1 Chronic Disease 2 Chronic Disease 3 Chronic Disease 4

Field Control Drop down List Text Box Ajax Control Ajax Control Ajax Control Ajax Control

Field Type In DB varchar(50) varchar(10) varchar(50) varchar(50) varchar(50) varchar(15)


Mandatory Fields:
1. Family Member

Code Description
1. btn_save_Click(): This function get all fields value in variables by get property for all fields.

2. csfamilyinfo.FamilyInfo_Update():This function of class file is used to add parameters and call stored procedure for update records in PatientFamilyInfo table.

Database Operations

Affected Class:


Affected Function
 btn_save_Click()  csfamilyinfo.FamilyInfo_Update()

Used SP’s :

Fields Description:

PatientFamilyInfo Table
FamilyMember AssessmentId CODEID1 CODEID3 ModifiedDate PatientID AgeOfDath CODEID2 CODEID4 ModifiedBy


General DescriptionLabs is an interface from where an Employee can add and update patient's different Labs related information.

Lab CMP Description

Technical Description All Fields Values:
Sr.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Field Name Order Date Order Time Order By ALT(GPT)(0.0-36.0 U/L) ALK PHOS(20.0-125.0 U/L) AST(GOT)(10.0-40.0 U/L) TBI(0.30-1.50 mg/dl) CA(8.3-10.5 mg/dl) GLUCOSE(65.0-99.0 mg/dl) NA(135.0-151.0 mmol/L) CL(98.0-113.0 mmol/L) GLOBULIN(2.2-4.2 g/dL) Field Control DateTime DateTime Drop Down List Text Box Ajax Control Ajax Control Text Box Text Box Text Box Text Box Text Box Text Box Field Type In DB varchar(50) varchar(10) varchar(50) varchar(50) varchar(50) varchar(15) varchar(10) varchar(10) varchar(10) varchar(10) varchar(10) varchar(10)

Validations: Mandatory Fields:
1. 2. Order Date Order By

Code Description
Functions we used to get this thing done:

btn_save_Click():This function set all fields value in variables by set property for all fields.

cslabs.LabInfo_Update() This function of class file is used to add parameters and call stored procedure for update records in PatientLabCMP tables.

Database Operations Affected Class:
 csLabs.cs

Affected Function
  btn_save_Click() cslabs.LabInfo_Update()

Used SP’s :
 DE_Lab_CMP_Insert_Update_Delete()

Fields Description:
PatientLabCMP Table



Physician Home page Menu Descriptions

E Signature
General Description-

E Signature is an interface from where a physician can perform E Signature for a patient report.

Technical Description
All Fields Values:
Sr.No 1 Field Name Signature Field Control Text Box Field Type In DB varchar(50)

Mandatory Fields:
1. Signature

Code Description

1. btn_save_Click(): This function get all fields value in variables by get property for all fields. 2. tblCBC_Return():This function of class file is used to add parameters and call stored procedure for select signature fom Users tables. 3.

If signature is matched from Users table signature, Then this function call stored procedure to set physician name and current(approval) date.

Database Operations
Affected Function
   btn_save_Click() tblCBC_Return() Physician_Approval_insert()

Used SP’s :
  PH_Approve_SignatureReturnOnPhysician() PH_Approve_Insert()

Fields Description: Users Table
UserId UserName RoleId Password

RoleIdentityId PhysicianId ActiveUser CreatedBy ModifiedBy

SIGNATURE InsuranceCompanyId CreatedDate Modifieddate DeletedDate

PatientPhysicianApproval Table
ApprovalId AssessmentId ApprovalDate PatientId UserId CreatedDate

CreatedBy Modifiedby

ModifiedDate DeletedDate

PatientPhysicianApprovalHistory Table
ApprovalHistoryId PatientId UserId ApprovalId AssessmentId ApprovalDate

CreatedDate ModifiedDate DeletedDate

CretedBy ModifiedBy DeletedBy



In software engineering, an entity-relationship model (ERM) is an abstract and conceptual representation of data. Entity-relationship modeling is a
database modeling method, used to produce a type of conceptual schema or semantic data model of a system, often a relational database, and its

requirements in a top-down fashion. Diagrams created by this process are called entity-relationship diagrams, ER diagrams, or ERDs.

USE CASE Diagram


1) Introduction:
System testing of software or hardware is testing conducted on a complete, integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified

requirements. System testing falls within the scope of black box testing, and as such, should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic. As a rule, system testing takes, as its input, all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). The purpose of integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together (called assemblages) or between any of the assemblages and the hardware. System testing is a more limiting type of testing; it seeks to detect defects both within the "inter-assemblages" and also within the system as a whole.


Testing Objective:Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error. A good test case is the one that has a high probability of finding an as-yetundiscovered error. A successful test is one that uncovers an as-yet-undiscovered error.

The objective of testing are: Software quality improvement. Verification and Validation. Software Reliability Estimation. These objectives imply dramatic change in viewpoint. They move counter to the commonly held view that a successful test is one in which no errors are found. Our objective is to design tests that systematically uncover different classes of errors and to do so with minimum amount of time and effort. If testing is conducted successfully (according to the objective stated previously), it will uncover errors in the software. As a secondary benefit, testing demonstrates that software functions appear to be the working according to the specification, that behavioral and performance requirements appear to have been met. In addition, data collected as testing conducted provide a good indication of software reliability and some indication of

software quality as a whole but testing cannot show the absence of errors and defects, it can show only that software errors and defects are present. It is important to keep this (rather gloomy) statement in mind as testing is being conducted.


Types of Testing: They are various types of testing as follows: Black box testing - Internal system design is not considered in this type of testing. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. White box testing - This testing is based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application’s code. Also known as Glass box Testing. Internal software and code working should be known for this type of testing. Tests are based on coverage of code statements, branches, paths, conditions. Unit testing - Testing of individual software components or modules. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers, as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. Incremental integration testing - Bottom up approach for testing i.e continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added; Application functionality and modules should be independent enough to test separately. done by programmers or by testers. Integration testing - Testing of integrated modules to verify combined functionality after integration. Modules are typically code modules, individual applications, client and server applications on a network, etc. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. Functional testing - This type of testing ignores the internal parts and focus on the output is as per requirement or not. Black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application. System testing - Entire system is tested as per the requirements. Black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications, covers all combined parts of a system.

End-to-end testing - Similar to system testing, involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems if appropriate. Sanity testing - Testing to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. If application is crashing for initial use then system is not stable enough for further testing and build or application is assigned to fix. Regression testing - Testing the application as a whole for the modification in any module or functionality. Difficult to cover all the system in regression testing so typically automation tools are used for these testing types. Acceptance testing -Normally this type of testing is done to verify if system meets the customer specified requirements. User or customer do this testing to determine whether to accept application. Load testing - Its a performance testing to check system behavior under load. Testing an application under heavy loads, such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system’s response time degrades or fails. Stress testing - System is stressed beyond its specifications to check how and when it fails. Performed under heavy load like putting large number beyond storage capacity, complex database queries, continuous input to system or database load. Performance testing - Term often used interchangeably with ’stress’ and ‘load’ testing. To check whether system meets performance requirements. Used different performance and load tools to do this. Usability testing - User-friendliness check. Application flow is tested, Can new user understand the application easily, Proper help documented whenever user stuck at any point. Basically system navigation is checked in this testing. Install/uninstall testing - Tested for full, partial, or upgrade install/uninstall processes on different operating systems under different hardware, software environment.

Recovery testing - Testing how well a system recovers from crashes, hardware failures, or other catastrophic problems. Security testing - Can system be penetrated by any hacking way. Testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. Checked if system, database is safe from external attacks. Compatibility testing - Testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network environment and different combination s of above. Comparison testing - Comparison of product strengths and weaknesses with previous versions or other similar products. Alpha testing - In house virtual user environment can be created for this type of testing. Testing is done at the end of development. Still minor design changes may be made as a result of such testing. Beta testing - Testing typically done by end-users or others. Final testing before releasing application for commercial purpose.

Software testing life cycle identifies what test activities to carry out and when (what is the best time) to accomplish those test activities. Even though testing differs between organizations, there is a testing life cycle. Software Testing Life Cycle consists of six (generic) phases:

• • • • • • •

Test Planning, Test Analysis, Test Design, Construction and verification, Testing Cycles, Final Testing and Implementation and Post Implementation.

Software testing has its own life cycle that intersects with every stage of the SDLC. The basic requirements in software testing life cycle is to control/deal with software testing – Manual, Automated and Performance. Test Planning This is the phase where Project Manager has to decide what things need to be tested, do I have the appropriate budget etc. Naturally proper planning at this stage would greatly reduce the risk of low quality software. This planning will be an ongoing process with no end point. Activities at this stage would include preparation of high level test plan-(according to IEEE test plan template The Software Test Plan (STP) is designed to prescribe the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of all testing activities. The plan must identify the items to be tested, the features to be tested, the types of testing to be performed, the personnel responsible for testing, the resources and schedule required to complete testing, and the risks associated with the plan.). Almost all of the activities done during this stage are included in this software test plan and revolve around a test plan.

Test Analysis Once test plan is made and decided upon, next step is to delve little more into the project and decide what types of testing should be carried out at different stages of SDLC, do we need or plan to automate, if yes then when the appropriate time to automate is, what type of specific documentation I need for testing.

Proper and regular meetings should be held between testing teams, project managers, development teams, Business Analysts to check the progress of things which will give a fair idea of the movement of the project and ensure the completeness of the test plan created in the planning phase, which will further help in enhancing the right testing strategy created earlier. We will start creating test case formats and test cases itself. In this stage we need to develop Functional validation matrix based on Business Requirements to ensure that all system requirements are covered by one or more test cases, identify which test cases to automate, begin review of documentation, i.e. Functional Design, Business Requirements, Product Specifications, Product Externals etc. We also have to define areas for Stress and Performance testing. Test Design Test plans and cases which were developed in the analysis phase are revised. Functional validation matrix is also revised and finalized. In this stage risk assessment criteria is developed. If you have thought of automation then you have to select which test cases to automate and begin writing scripts for them. Test data is prepared. Standards for unit testing and pass / fail criteria are defined here. Schedule for testing is revised (if necessary) & finalized and test environment is prepared. Construction and verification In this phase we have to complete all the test plans, test cases, complete the scripting of the automated test cases, Stress and Performance testing plans needs to be completed. We have to support the development team in their unit testing phase. And obviously bug reporting would be done as when the bugs are found. Integration tests are performed and errors (if any) are reported.

Testing Cycles In this phase we have to complete testing cycles until test cases are executed without errors or a predefined condition is reached. Run test cases --> Report Bugs --> revise test cases (if needed) --> add new test cases (if needed) --> bug fixing --> retesting (test cycle 2, test cycle 3….).

Final Testing and Implementation In this we have to execute remaining stress and performance test cases, documentation for testing is completed / updated, provide and complete different matrices for testing. Acceptance, load and recovery testing will also be conducted and the application needs to be verified under production conditions. Post Implementation In this phase, the testing process is evaluated and lessons learnt from that testing process are documented. Line of attack to prevent similar problems in future projects is identified. Create plans to improve the processes. The recording of new errors and enhancements is an ongoing process. Cleaning up of test environment is done and test machines are restored to base lines in this stage.

Testing is usually performed for the following purposes:
To improve quality: As computers and software are used in critical applications, the outcome of a bug can be severe. Bugs can cause huge losses. Bugs in critical systems have caused airplane crashes, allowed space shuttle missions to go awry, halted trading on the stock market, and worse. Bugs can kill. Bugs can cause disasters. The so-called year 2000 (Y2K) bug has given birth to a cottage industry of consultants and programming tools dedicated to making sure the modern world doesn't come to a screeching halt on the first day of the next century. In a computerized embedded world, the quality and reliability of software is a matter of life and death. Quality means the conformance to the specified design requirement. Being correct, the minimum requirement of quality, means performing as required under specified circumstances. Debugging, a narrow view of software testing, is performed heavily to find out design defects by the programmer. The imperfection of human nature makes it almost impossible to make a moderately complex program correct the first time. Finding the problems and get them fixed, is the purpose of debugging in programming phase. For Verification & Validation (V&V): Just as topic Verification and Validation indicated, another important purpose of testing is verification and validation (V&V). Testing can serve as metrics. It is heavily

used as a tool in the V&V process. Testers can make claims based on interpretations of the testing results, which either the product works under certain situations, or it does not work. We can also compare the quality among different products under the same specification, based on results from the same test. We can not test quality directly, but we can test related factors to make quality visible. Quality has three sets of factors -- functionality, engineering, and adaptability. These three sets of factors can be thought of as dimensions in the software quality space. Each dimension may be broken down into its component factors and considerations at successively lower levels of detail. Table 1 illustrates some of the most frequently cited quality considerations.

Functionality (exterior Engineering quality) Correctness Reliability Usability Integrity quality) Efficiency Testability Documentation Structure

(interior Adaptability quality) Flexibility Reusability Maintainability


Table 1. Typical Software Quality Factors [Hetzel88]

Good testing provides measures for all relevant factors. The importance of any particular factor varies from application to application. Any system where human lives are at stake must place extreme emphasis on reliability and integrity. In the typical business system usability and maintainability are the key factors, while for a one-time scientific program neither may be significant. Our testing, to be fully effective, must be geared to measuring each relevant factor and thus forcing quality to become tangible and visible.

Tests with the purpose of validating the product works are named clean tests, or positive tests. The drawbacks are that it can only validate that the software works for the specified test cases. A finite number of tests can not validate that the software works for all situations. On the contrary, only one failed test is sufficient enough to show that the software does not work. Dirty tests, or negative tests, refer to the tests aiming at breaking the software, or showing that it does not work. A piece of software must have sufficient exception handling capabilities to survive a significant level of dirty tests. A testable design is a design that can be easily validated, falsified and maintained. Because testing is a rigorous effort and requires significant time and cost, design for testability is also an important design rule for software development. For reliability estimation : Software reliability has important relations with many aspects of software, including the structure, and the amount of testing it has been subjected to. Based on an operational profile (an estimate of the relative frequency of use of various inputs to the program ), testing can serve as a statistical sampling method to gain failure data for reliability estimation. Software testing is not mature. It still remains an art, because we still cannot make it a science. We are still using the same testing techniques invented 20-30 years ago, some of which are crafted methods or heuristics rather than good engineering methods. Software testing can be costly, but not testing software is even more expensive, especially in places that human lives are at stake. Solving the softwaretesting problem is no easier than solving the Turing halting problem. We can never be sure that a piece of software is correct. We can never be sure that the specifications are correct. No verification system can verify every correct program. We can never be certain that a verification system is correct either.

There are 6 key features for this project. They are: Design of User-Friendly input formats.  Provisions for Data Entry and Validations.  Provision for data retrieval.  Unauthorized persons can not accessible.

 More flexible  More interoperability.



Paper-based records require a significant amount of storage space compared to digital records. In the US, most states require physical records be held for a minimum of seven years. The costs of storage media, such as paper and film, per unit of

information differ dramatically from that of electronic storage media. When paper records are stored in different locations, collating them to a single location for review by a healthcare provider is time consuming and complicated, whereas the process can be simplified with electronic records. This is particularly true in the case of personcentered records, which are impractical to maintain if not electronic (thus difficult to centralize or federate). When paper-based records are required in multiple locations, copying, faxing, and transporting costs are significant compared to duplication and transfer of digital records. Handwritten paper medical records can be associated with poor legibility, which can contribute to medical errors. Pre-printed forms, the standardization of abbreviations, and standards for penmanship were encouraged to improve reliability of paper medical records. Electronic records help with the standardization of forms, terminology and abbreviations, and data input. Digitization of forms facilitates the collection of data for epidemiology and clinical studies. In contrast, HRA (www.imedlogin.com/HRA) can be continuously updated. The ability to exchange records between different HRA systems ("interoperability") would facilitate the co-ordination of healthcare delivery in non-affiliated healthcare facilities. In addition, data from an electronic system can be used anonymously for statistical reporting in matters such as quality improvement, resource management and public health communicable disease surveillance




System Analysis And Design Microsoft SQL Server ASP.NET ASP.NET

:James A.Senn :Mike Chapple :Stephen Walther. :Wrox Publication

www.msdn.microsoft.com/asp.net www.quickstarts.asp.net www.sitepoint.com/article/sql-injection-attacks-safe

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