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TEACHING STYLE

Presenters:
Nurul Elliana bt Mohd Zaid
Siti Hajar bt Abdul Halim

Table of Content
Introduction

INTRODUCTION

Style

Teaching style

Anthony Grasha
Grasha (1996) said that teaching style will
affect how teachers present information,
interact with students, supervise coursework
and ultimately students success.
Grashas five teaching style:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Expert
Formal authority
Personal model
Facilitator
Delegator

Style

Functio Pros
n

Cons

Expert

Transmitter
of
information

The information,
knowledge, and
skills such
individuals
possess.

Intimidating to less
experienced students

Formal
authority

Sets
standards

The focus on
clear
expectations and
acceptable ways
of doing things

Lead to rigid,
standardized ways of
managing
students and their
concerns.

Personal
model

Teach by
direct
examples

Emphasis on
direct
observation and
following a role
model

Teachers believe their


approach is the best,
students feel
inadequate if they
cannot live up to such
expectations and

Style

Functio Pros
n

Cons

Facilitator Guides by
asking
questions,
exploring
options

Personal
flexibility, focus
on students'
needs and goals,
& willingness to
explore options
and alternative
actions

Delegato
r

Helps students to May misread


perceive
student's readiness
themselves as
for independent
independent
work. Students
learners
anxiety when
given autonomy

Develop
students
autonomy

Time consuming,
prompt students
towards discovery
rather than
memorization

Linda S. BeharHorenstein

Teaching Behavior Preference Survey (TBPS)

MI

Mosston & Ashworth Teaching


Styles
Muska Mosston formulated The Spectrum of
Teaching Styles (STS), which educators all over
the world currently implement into their
teacher training programs and classroom
lessons on a daily basis (Ashworth, 1995)
The Spectrum is a unified theory about
teaching and learning behavior; and a
comprehensive framework for understanding
the teaching-learning process. (Ashworth,
2008b)
Consist of eleven interconnected styles where

According to the Spectrum theory, teaching


behavior is a chain of decision making (Mosston &
Ashworth, 2008)
Specific styles are developed by gradually shifting
decision-making from the teacher making
maximum decisions (Styles A Command) to the
learner making maximum decisions (Style K
Self-Teaching)
Offer different teaching and learning approaches
that assist in the development of a variety of
educational goals and they help teachers meet
the needs and interests of each student

Teacher
decisio
n

Studen
t
decisio

Mosston &
Ashworth
Teaching
Style

Interaction

Role of
practitioner

Role of
participant

Command
(A)

Practitioner makes decisions


Participant copies and complies with
decisions and instructions

Instructing

Copying

Practice (B)

Practitioner sets up opportunities giving


feedback to participant who is working at
own pace on tasks set
Participants work together, receiving
feedback from each other
Practitioner provides reference points for
feedback

Establishing

Repeating and
improving

Supporting

Performing and
peer assessing

Directing

Self-assessing

Facilitating

Selecting

Reciprocal
(C)

Self-check
(D)

Practitioner sets criteria for success


Participants check own performance
against these
Inclusion (E) Practitioner sets out a variety of
tasks/opportunities
Participants select which task is most
appropriate for their abilities and/or
motivations

Guided
discovery
(F)

Practitioner uses questions and tasks to


gradually direct participants towards a
pre-determined learning target

Questioning

Uncovering

Convergent
discovery
(G)

Practitioner sets or frames problems


Participant attempts to find most
appropriate solutions

Guiding

Finding out

Divergent
discovery
(H)

Practitioner sets or frames problems


Participant attempts to create possible
solutions

Prompting

Creating

Advising

Initiating

Learner
Practitioner decides on area of focus
designed (I) Participants develop within this area,
drawing on practitioners expertise

Learner
initiated (J)

Participant decides on how and what they Mentoring


are aiming for
Practitioner drawn on for support as
needed

Deciding

Self-teach
(K)

Participant engages in development on


their own

Self-determined

N/A

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