You are on page 1of 14

Exchange of materials

During marathon races, athletes are advised to drink sports drinks.


Choose the correct words from the list below to complete the sentences.
alcohol

fat

ions protein

starch

sugar water

While running the athletes sweat.


The sports drink replaces the . and lost in sweat.
The drinks are also a source of energy because they contain
2

(3)

The diagram shows an alveolus and a blood capillary.

The alveolus and the blood capillary are gas exchange surfaces.
a

Where in the body would these structures be found?

...................................................................................................................................

ii

(1)

Give two features visible in the diagram that allow efficient gas exchange to take
place.

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

Name the gas that moves from the alveolus into the blood.

...................................................................................................................................

ii

(2)

(1)

Choose the correct word to complete the sentence.


diffusion

osmosis

ventilation

Gases are drawn into the alveolus by the process of

(1)

iii Describe two changes that take place in the body to draw gases into the alveolus.

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

(2)

Substances move in and out of plants.


List A shows some processes.
List B shows descriptions for these processes.
Match each process with its correct description.
List A

List B

active transport

how water is lost through stomata

osmosis

enables root cells to absorb ions


from very dilute soil water

evaporation

transport of sugar through the plant

movement of water from cell to cell

(3)

In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and
using specialist terms where appropriate.
The diagram shows a design for an artificial lung.

Many people with lung disease are confined to a wheelchair or are unable to do much
exercise. Scientists hope that a portable artificial lung, the size of a spectacle case, can be

developed. This device might replace the need for lung transplants and allow patients to live a
normal life.
When scientists design an artificial lung, what features of a normal lung must they copy?
Suggest the advantages of the artificial lung compared with a lung transplant.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
water and ions (either order);
sugar

a i
ii
b i
ii
iii

lung
Any two from: large surface area; thin walls; good blood supply
oxygen
ventilation
Any two from: rib muscles contract; diaphragm contracts/flattens;
ribcage moves out/up

1
2

Active transport enables root cells to absorb ions from very dilute soil water.
Osmosis movement of water from cell to cell.
Evaporation how water is lost through stomata.

Marks awarded for this answer will be determined by the Quality of Written
Communication (QWC) as well as the standard of the scientific response.
There is a clear description of most of the features of a normal lung which
must be copied and at least two advantages of the artificial lung. The answer
shows almost faultless spelling, punctuation and grammar. It is coherent and
in an organised, logical sequence. It contains a range of appropriate or
relevant specialist terms used accurately.
There is a description of at least three features of a normal lung which must
be copied and at least one advantage of the artificial lung. There are some
errors in spelling, punctuation and grammar. The answer has some structure
and organisation. The use of specialist terms has been attempted, but not
always accurately.
There is a description of at least two features of the lung which must be
copied and at least one advantage of the artificial lung. The spelling,
punctuation and grammar are very weak. The answer is poorly organised
with almost no specialist terms and/or their use demonstrating a general lack
of understanding of their meaning.
No relevant content.

56

Examples of biology points made in the response:


large surface area
method of removing carbon dioxide
thin membranes
method of filtering the air going in

2
2

34

12

(6)

ventilation/described
no need for tissue matching
no operation needed
few lungs become available
no need for (immunosuppressant) drugs
reference to ethics involved with transplants.

Transporting materials
1

Platelets are found in the blood plasma. Some sick people need platelets as part of their
treatment.
What is the function of platelets?

...................................................................................................................................

(1)

Some people donate whole blood, but the National Blood Service also needs platelet
donations.
Read the facts about blood donation and platelet donation in the table below.

Blood donation

Platelet donation

Age of donors

17+

17+

Number of possible
donations per year

23

812

Diet before
donating

normal diet

a few days of low fat food, no aspirin or


other blood-thinning drugs

Volume removed

470 cm blood

400600 cm of straw coloured liquid

Time to test blood


before donation

time for confidential


questionnaire plus a few
minutes for a finger-prick test to
find out haemoglobin levels

often a previous blood donor; extra blood


tests take about 8 weeks to check
platelet levels

Usual time to
donate

10 minutes to donate blood plus


resting time; about 1 hour in
total

90 minutes to donate platelets plus


resting time; about 2 hours in total

Time for blood to


get back to normal

about 16 weeks

a few days

Keeping time

depends on treatment blood is


separated into different parts
such as red cells or plasma;
some is frozen

5 days

Number of people
to benefit from a
single donation

blood is often split into


components, including platelets;
37 people may benefit

three adults or up to 12 children

Benefit to person
receiving platelets

may require platelets from


several donors

platelets received from one donor

Use information from the table and your own knowledge to answer the questions.
i

The National Blood Service needs more platelet donors. Why?

...................................................................................................................................

ii

(1)

Give two reasons why doctors prefer platelet donation for seriously ill patients who
require platelets.

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

(2)

iii Give one disadvantage of platelet donation for the National Blood Service.
...................................................................................................................................

(1)

iv Blood platelet donors choose to donate because they know the benefits to patients but
there are disadvantages to donating platelets instead of whole blood. Give two
disadvantages for the donor of platelets.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

Give one advantage to the donor for platelet donation over whole blood donation.

...................................................................................................................................

(2)

(1)

The photograph shows a red blood cell in part of a blood clot. The fibres labelled X are
produced in the early stages of the clotting process.

Suggest how the fibres labelled X help in blood-clot formation.

...................................................................................................................................

(1)

The average diameter of a real red blood cell is 0.008 millimetres.


On the photograph, the diameter of the red blood cell is 100 millimetres.
Use the formula to calculate the magnification of the photograph.
diameter on photograph = real diameter magnification
Magnification = .

(2)

Some blood capillaries have an internal diameter of approximately 0.01 millimetres.


i

Use information given in part b to explain why only one red blood cell at a time can
pass through a capillary.

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

ii

(2)

Explain the advantages of red blood cells passing through a capillary one at a time.

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

a Platelets are needed for blood clotting


b i Platelets only last 5 days. Allow answers relating to more patients.
ii only one donor needed; less risk of infection.
iii It takes 8 weeks to get results of donor blood tests.
iv restricted diet before donating/description;
time spent (to donate platelets)
v blood returns to normal quicker
a hold cells together or prevent flow of cells or trap cells
b 12 500 if correct answer, ignore working/lack of working
100
0.008

ignore any units

c i size RBC approximately same size capillary or,


no room for more than one cell or,
only one can fit or, RBC is too big
allow use of numbers, do not accept capillaries are narrow
ii more oxygen released (to tissues) or,
more oxygen taken up (from lungs)
and any two from:
slows flow or more time available
shorter distance (for exchange) or close to cells/capillary wall
more SA (surface area) exposed

(2)

Keeping internal conditions constant


1

The human body must keep internal conditions constant.


List A shows some conditions.
List B shows some monitoring or control centres.
Match each condition with its correct monitoring or control centre.

List A

(3)

List B

blood glucose level

kidneys

body temperature

pancreas

blood water content

thermoregulatory centre
skin

Choose the correct words from the list below to complete the sentence. (2)

amino

fatty

kidney

lactic

liver

lung

pancreas

Urea is produced in the by the breakdown of acids.

Which two of the following substances are found in the urine of a healthy person? Circle
your answers.

glucose

mineral

ions

proteins

water

A person with kidney disease can be treated by dialysis.


The diagram shows how dialysis works. The circles represent molecules of different
substances.

Choose
the correct
word or
phrase to
complete
each
sentence.

i
blood cells

ii

blood plasma

dialysis fluid

During dialysis, urea moves into the .


blood cells

blood plasma

dialysis fluid

iii Urea moves by the process of .


diffusion

digestion

(1)

transpiration

(1)

During

iv To allow the movement of urea, the dialysis


membrane is . .
impermeable

(1)

partially permeable

thick

The urea can pass through the membrane because the


urea molecules are . .
large

round

(1)

small

For most patients, a kidney transplant is better than continued dialysis treatment.
Underline the correct phrase to complete the sentence.
One major problem with a kidney transplant is that

(1)

drug treatment is needed to suppress the immune system.

hospital visits are needed three times a week.

yearly costs are higher than for dialysis.


AQA, 2002

When a person has a kidney transplant, the donor kidney must be matched to their tissue
type.
Choose the correct words from the list below to complete the sentences.
antibodies

antiseptics

aspirin

protein

immunosuppressants

urea

On the surface of the kidney cells are antigens .

Antigens are made of .

The antigens may be attacked by the persons .

To prevent the attack on the donor kidney the person is


given drugs called .

(3)

When a person gets too cold, the organs cannot function properly. Below 35 C the person
could die. Alcohol causes blood vessels to stay dilated.
A person found collapsed on a cold mountain should not be given an alcoholic drink. Explain
why.

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................... [ H ] (4)

In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and
using specialist terms where appropriate.
A person with type 1 diabetes cannot produce enough of the hormone insulin.
Some diabetics use an insulin pump that is attached to the body. They can increase or
decrease the amount of insulin which is injected, depending on
their lifestyle.
Describe how insulin controls blood glucose levels and explain why a diabetic may need to
change their insulin levels at certain times.

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
1

b liver, amino

3
2

(6)

a mineral ions; water (each extra box ticked cancels 1 mark)


b i blood plasma
ii dialysis fluid
iii diffusion
iv partially permeable
v small
c drug treatment is needed to suppress the immune system

2
1
1
1
1
1
1

protein; antibodies; immunosuppressants

skin blood vessels dilate(d)


more heat lost (through skin)
by radiation
core temperature falls even further

There is a clear and detailed description of the role of insulin and the answer
should show a clear understanding of how at least one lifestyle change can
alter the amount of insulin pumped. The answer shows almost faultless
spelling, punctuation and grammar. It is coherent and in an organised, logical
sequence. It contains a range of appropriate or relevant specialist terms used
accurately.
There is a description of the role of insulin and at least one reference to a
lifestyle change which can alter the amount of insulin pumped. There are
some errors in spelling, punctuation and grammar. The answer has some
structure and organisation. The use of specialist terms has been attempted,
but not always accurately.
There is an attempt to describe the role of insulin or to explain a lifestyle
change which alters the amount of insulin to be pumped but little clarity and
detail. The spelling, punctuation and grammar are very weak. The answer is
poorly organised with almost no specialist terms and/or their use
demonstrating a general lack of understanding of their meaning.
No relevant content.
Examples of biology points made in the response:
Description of role of insulin
when blood sugar/glucose is raised
pancreas secretes (more) insulin
liver and muscles take in glucose
blood sugar levels decrease.
Explanation of why diabetics might change insulin levels
before a large meal increase levels
when undertaking exercise decrease levels.

56

34

12

How humans can affect the environment


1

The diagram shows how the manure from a cow can be recycled.

Choose the correct word to complete the sentences.


i

The gas used for cooking is ..


carbon dioxide

ii

methane

nitrogen

The gas released into the atmosphere is .


carbon dioxide

methane

methane

Name the biological process that occurs in the biogas generator.


(1)

Name the organisms that are active in the biogas generator.

...................................................................................................................................

(1)

nitrogen

...................................................................................................................................

ii

(1)

nitrogen

iii The gas absorbed by the plants is


carbon dioxide

(1)

(1)

The biogas generator is built underground. Suggest two reasons for this.

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

(2)

Humans need food, water and shelter. Large areas of land must be cleared to grow food or to
build houses. Sometimes valleys are flooded in order to store water in reservoirs.
a

Land is usually cleared by cutting trees down. Give two disadvantages to the environment
of removing trees.

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

(2)

The cleared land may be used for rearing cattle or growing rice.
i

Name the two gases which increase in the atmosphere due to these

activities.

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

ii

Choose the correct answer to complete the sentence.

These gases may contribute to ..


global warming
c

(2)

food production

(1)

deforestation

Water in reservoirs can sometimes be polluted by human farming activities. Explain how.

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

(2)

In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and
using specialist terms where appropriate.
Producing food efficiently to feed an increasing human population is a challenge for farmers.
Describe how farmers increase the efficiency of food production.
You should refer to food chains and reducing energy loss in your answer.

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

(6)

a i
ii
iii
b i

methane
carbon dioxide
carbon dioxide
fermentation/anaerobic respiration/anaerobic digestion/anaerobic
decomposition
ii microorganisms/bacteria/decomposing bacteria/correctly named
c Any Two from:
keeps it warm/maintains suitable temperature/ allows manure to drain
down/ reference to unsightly above ground/takes up space on the field
a Increase of carbon dioxide (in atmosphere); decrease in biodiversity
allow impact on soil stability/increased risk of flooding
b i carbon dioxide; methane
ii global warming
c pesticides/herbicides/other named chemical/toxic chemical; may be
washed from the land into the water
There is a clear, detailed answer which includes a description of energy loss
through the food chain and methods of reducing energy loss in farm animals.
The answer shows almost faultless spelling, punctuation and grammar. It is
coherent and in an organised, logical sequence. It contains a range of
appropriate or relevant specialist terms used accurately.
There is a description which includes a description of energy loss through the
food chain and methods of reducing energy loss in farm animals. There are
some errors in spelling, punctuation and grammar. The answer has some
structure and organisation. The use of specialist terms has been attempted,
but not always accurately.
There is a brief description of energy loss through the food chain and an
attempt to describe methods of reducing energy loss in animals, which has
little clarity and detail. The spelling, punctuation and grammar are very weak.
The answer is poorly organised with almost no specialist terms and/or their
use demonstrating a general lack of understanding of their meaning.
No relevant content.
Examples of biology points made in the response:
plants capture solar energy
some energy from plants is not transferred to herbivores
description of why e.g. roots may not be eaten
herbivores do not transfer all the energy into growth
the more stages in a food chain the more energy is lost
growing plant crops is more efficient
farm animals/mammals/chickens move to find food
use energy to maintain temperature/keep warm
farmers restrict animal movements
farmers keep animals warm.
Allow one reference to other methods of food production e.g. mycoprotein if
in context of reducing energy losses.