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DryTypeTransformersintheAsianMarketplace
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DryTypeTransformersintheAsianMarketplace

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RichardL.ProvostDuPontCompany

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Abstract
Associetyexpands,wecreatemorepressuresontheinfrastructurewiththeneedformore
shoppingdistricts,subwaystations,industrialcomplexes,businessdistrictsandhighdensity
residentialareas,wherelargenumbersofpeoplearepresent.This,inturn,requiresmore
complexelectricalnetworksfordistributionofpower,withimprovedsafetyforthepeoplewho
liveandworkintheseareas.ThishasbecomeparticularlyimportanthereinAsia,locationofthe
greatestpopulationdensitiesintheworld.
Theconventionaldistributionofpowerisdeliveredthroughliquidimmerseddistribution
transformers.Forover100years,thesetransformershavebeencomposedofcellulosebased
materialswithmineraloilasthecoolingmedium.Mineraloil,besidesbeinganexcellentcooling
andinsulationmedium,isalsohighlyflammableandpotentiallycombustiblewhenexposedto
flame.Therefore,thereisaneedforsaferdistributionwhenthepopulationisexposedinclose
proximitytothesekindsoftransformers.
Theseincreasingdemandsforsafe,energyefficient,andenvironmentallyfriendlyelectrical
equipmentforthesupplyofenergyforthe21stCenturycanbemetwithtechnologywhichhas
beenprovenreliableforthepastfourdecades.ClassHdrytypetransformersaremoreand
morecommonlyusedforthedistributionofelectricalenergy,inplaceofoilfilledunits.Theyare
abletoperforminsevereambientandclimaticconditions,areresistanttofire,operatequietly,
andarecompactandlowweighttominimizetheuseofspace,whichcanbededicatedto
productiveuse.ThisismostappropriateintheAsianlandscape.
Theincreasinghighenergydemandsoftodayplacehighpressureontransformerstobeableto
performunderheavyloads,especiallyduringpeaktimesandinseverelyhighambient
conditions.TransformersoperatinginClassForClassHorevenhigherthermalconditions,
whichhaveinsulationsystemsofaramidmaterialswithClass220Cratings,allowusersto
benefitfromtheintrinsicoverloadcapabilitywithoutadditionalcostsandwithincreasedlifetime.
Thesefactorshavebeenreflectedbythetechnicalandcommercialtrendsinthedeveloped
countriesfordecades.Ventilateddrytransformers,certifiedwithULRecognizedinsulation
systems,havelongbeenthepreferredsolutionintheNorthAmericanmarket.InEuropethere
isgrowinginterestintheapplicationofthesenoncastedtransformers,whichmeetthevery
strictdemandsofnewstandardsforfire,climateandenvironmentallysafeunits.
Today,aswearejustbeginningthenewcentury,thishasbecomeevenmoreurgentin
developingregionssuchasSouthAmericaandAsia,whereusersarebeginningtorecognize
thesetrendsasthebestsolutionfortheirneeds,especiallyinareaswheretheloadgrowthsare
high.Transformersinstalledforagivenloadbasemaybecomeunusableinjustafewshort
yearsastheloadsgrowatdoubledigitannualrates,unlesstheyhaveinsulationsystemswhich
allowthemincreasedloadingwithoutlossoflife.Andasexperiencewithlowertemperature
solutionsgrows,theinherentlimitationsoftheircapabilitiesforcesuserstolookformore
reliablesolutionswithcertifiedandrecognizedinsulationsystems.ClassHventilated
transformerswitharamidinsulationsystemsaretheprovenchoiceforthefuture.
Introduction
Becauseofthesuperiorsafetyovermineraloilfilledunitsandotherinherentadvantages,dry
typetransformersarebecomingmoreandmorepopularovertheworldforthedistributionof
energytoshoppingcenters,hospitals,productionplants,laboratories,shipsorotherapplications
wheretheneedforahighdegreeofsafetyforpeopleorequipmentisessential.
Ofprimaryimportancearetheirfireresistanceandtheirabilitytooperateindifferent
environments.Growingdemandshaveresultedinnewregulationsandstandardsforobjective
classificationofequipment,suchasIEEEC57.12.56andCENELECNormHD464inEurope.
Drytransformersneedtohavelownoiselevels,needtobecompactandhavelowweightsto
minimizetheuseofspace,whichcanbededicatedtoproductiveactivities.Usersandspecifiers
inmanycountrieshaveturnedtoventilateddrytransformersasthesolutiontotheseneeds.In
Europe,somemanufacturershaveofferedcastresintechnologywithclassBorFinsulation
systems.ManyareasofAsiahaveadoptedthistechnologyfromEurope,includingChinaand
Korea.However,aftermorethantenyearsofexperiencewiththeseunits,theinherent

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23/4/2016

DryTypeTransformersintheAsianMarketplace
limitationsofthisapproacharebecomingofgreaterconcerntousers.Increasinglyheavyloads,
demandsforenvironmentallysafematerials,andlongtermreliabilityhavepointedtothe
shortcomingsoftheselowertemperaturesolutions.Severedemandscanleadtocrackingofthe
largeblocksofresinandacceleratedagingofthematerialsleadtoearlyfailuresinlessthanten
years.
AdvantagesToUsersofDryTypeTransformers
Thereareconsiderableadvantagesofferedbyhightemperatureresistantinsulationmaterialsin
ClassF,ClassH(180C)uptoClassR(220C)transformers.Theseadvantages,alongwithmany
applicationswillbediscussed.
Whenplanningthepurchaseofatransformer,userswillchoosethesuppliercapableof
providingtheoptimumsolutiontotheirneeds.Thisnormallyincludesareliabletransformerwith
therequestedelectricalperformancespecifications,environmentalandflameclass,atthebest
price.Usersusuallydoenotspecifytheinsulationsystembecauseitisconsideredanintegral
partoftheequipmentthemanufacturerwillusetoproducethebestproductfortheirneeds.
However,itisbecomingmoreimportanttodaythattheuser,inordertoobtainthemost
appropriatetransformerfortheirneeds,understandallthealternatives,theirtechnicalmerits,
andhowthosetranslateintoadvantagesanddisadvantagesfortheiroperation.Anincreasingly
importantneedistheabilityoftheequipmenttooperateunderawidevarietyofenvironmental
conditions,andattemperatureswhichoftenexceedtheintendednormaldesignconditions.The
mostcommonproblemsareheavy,sometimesunexpected,loadsandhighambient
temperatureconditions,suchasexistinmanypartsofAsia,includingIndia.
Manufacturerstodayhaveavailabletothemmaterialsresistanttohightemperatures,suchas
aramids,enamels,resinsandvarnishes,allowingproductionofinsulationsystemswithhigh
reliabilityathighoperatingtemperatures.Ifweassumethetransformerhasaninsulation
systembasedonmaterials,suchasaramidpapers,whichhaveathermalindexof220C,this
thenallowsthesystemtooperateathotspottemperaturesupto220C.Suchatransformer
wouldbecapableofoperatingcontinuouslywithanaveragetemperatureriseof150K,atan
ambientof40C,andahotspottoleranceof30C.Inhighambientconditions,manylocal
standardsrequiretheuseof50Cforambient.Therefore,temperaturesrisesof140C,witha30
Chotspotallowance,arestillavailablewiththesesystems.Duetothehightemperature
capabilityoftheinsulationsystem,andareductionincoolingspace,comparedtoanequal
powerlowertemperatureratedtransformer,itwouldbemuchlowerinweightandmore
compact.Infact,thesizeofthetransformercanbereducedabout10%to15%foreach
increaseintemperatureclass.Forexample,a500kVAtransformerofclassR(220C)rating
wouldbeupto15%smallerthanaclassH(180C)transformer,andupto30%smallerthana
comparableclassF(155C)transformer.
However,eventhoughobtainingthemaximumsizeandweightreductionisofinterestinmany
cases,acommonoptionistoapplyaClassR220Cinsulationsystemtoatransformerwhichis
designedtooperateatClassForClassH.Thischoiceallowsuserstohaveaverycompactunit,
whichoffersagreatflexibilityofuse,includinghighoverloadcapability,lowerenergylosses,
andisofenormouspracticalinterestinallpartsoftheworld.Thisisofparticularinterestin
areasofhighloadgrowthandextremeambientclimateconditions.
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