You are on page 1of 45

ECI 162

Final Report

Mace Ranch Innovation Center Project Report

Prepared by

Group 2
Group Member: Wenjia Yan / Huicheng Hong
Christopher Wei /Puxuan Cao /Takshun Samuel Li

Table of Contents


1.2 City of Davis and Applicants Demand for the MRIC Site




2.4.1 Accessibility
2.4.2 Public Transit Route
2.4.3 Vehicle and Bike Path 7


3.1.1 GHG Emission 8
3.1.2 Connectivity
3.1.3 Traffic Congestion and Road Safety





4.1.1 Construct Secondary-Use Road 14
4.1.2 Bus Line Extention
4.2.1 Introduction
4.2.2 Analysis Scenarios
4.3.1 Exisiting and Projected VMT 23
4.3.2 Land Use Effects on VMT/GHG
4.3.3 Transportation Alternatives Effect on VMT/GHG Dynamic Ridesharing Services
24 Transit System 24
4.3.4 Technology Effect on VMT/GHG
25 Electric Vehicle
25 Energy Efficiency
4.3.5 Education Effect on VMT/GHG
26 Acknowledging Problem
4.4.1 Solar Panels
4.5.1 On-site Bike Path/Lane 30
4.5.2 Off-site Bike Path/Lane 30
4.5.3 Speed Limit
4.5.4 Streetlights



Chapter 1.
Project Overview
1.1 General Background
The Mace Ranch Innovation Center (MRIC) finally comes to terms with the
increasing demand for establishing a technology park in order to promote the
business growth in Davis. Technology parks can play a significant role in the
development of local economies by providing new job opportunities, attracting the
capital, and increasing local competitiveness. Furthermore, the MRIC will
promote the production and commercialization of innovated technologies by
enhancing the cooperation among research institutions, technology-based
companies, as well as UC Davis.

1.2 City of Davis and Applicants Demand for the MRIC Site

Expectations of MRIC site Applicant

(1) Provide a suitable space to support existing local businesses especially the
startups and high-technology companies;
(2) To ensure the innovation center could support at least over 25 yerars
(3) Enhance the site connection to the City of Davis;
(4) Create more job opportunities and local tax incomes so that promoting the
business growth.

Expectations of City of Davis

(1) Provide expansion capability for the City suitable in location and size for
larger innovation centers with potential to accommodate commercial and
research facilities;
(2) Apply Low Impact Development Principles and ensure minimal
greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts at the project level;
(3) Establish bicycle and pedestrian connectivity and ensure the vehicle
connectivity as well; this also means the project site needs to establish the
comprehensive connection with the City of Davis.

Chapter 2
Existing Site Analysis of Mace Ranch Innovation Center
2.1 Site Location Description
The proposed 229-acre project site which is shown on Figure1-1, is next to Davis
east city limit which is approximately 2.5 miles from downtown Davis. Regional
access to the proposed project site is made available by the Interstate 80/Mace
Boulevard interchange which is located southwest of the project site. The west
boundary of the project site is made up by the Mace Boulevard. The MRIC and
Mace Triangle sites are bisected by County Road 32A, which converts into 2nd
Street, west of Mace Boulevard.

Figure 1-1: Project Site Location

2.2 Existing Land Use of MRIC site

Total area of Mace Ranch Innovation Center is 186.86-acres which is currently
used as agricultural land. As for the Mace Triangle Site, city water storage tank
and Park and Ride lot have occupied 4.36-acres; the vacant land and the
agricultural land that is owned by Ikedas Market, are 4.32 acres; another
agriculture-use land with 7.90 acres large, is also a part of Mace Triangle site.

Detailed information of existing use of Mace Ranch Innovation Site and Mace
Triangle Site is summarized in Table2-1 and Table 2-2 correspondingly.

Table 2-1: Mace Ranch Center Site Existing Land Use

Existing Use
Row corps



Row corps




(85.0 ac)


(25.34 ac)
Table 2-2: Mace Triangle Site Current Land Use
Existing Use
City Water storage
tank, Park and
Ride lot
Ikedas Market and


Public and QuasiPublic/Agriculture(AG)



vacant land








2.3 Existing Surroundings of the Project Site

The north and east borders of MRIC site are surrounded by a permanent agricultural
easement called Mace 391. The 391-acre agricultural land is currently scheduled
for almond tree plantation.
The Alhambra Apartments is the nearest residential area to the project site, located
approximately 725 feet west.. Frances Harper Junior High School is located
approximately 0.28 miles west of the MRIC site.
Mace Triangle is a commercial area that consists of a supermarket and an electronic
store. The Mace Triangle is located on the south-west side of the MRIC site, at the
intersection between Mace Blvd and Second Street. Existing land uses of the
project and its surrounding land settings are shown on Figure 2-1.

Figure 2-1: Existing Land Use of the Project Site and its Surrounding

2.4 Existing Circulation Framework

2.4.1 Accessibility
Existing project site contains three access points and they are shown on Figure 2-2.
The first access point is located at the intersection of Alhambra Drive and Mace Blvd;
the second one is located at the center of southern Mace Blvd, which connects with
County Road 32 A (CR 32A). The last access point is located at the intersection of
County Road 105B (CR 105B) and County Road 102A (CR 102A).

Figure 2-2: Existing Access Points of the Project Site

2.4.2 Public Transit Route

There are two bus stops near the MRIC site which are North Mace Blvd and 2nd street
bus station(NB) and South Mace Blvd and 2nd street bust station(SB) .For north bus
top of the Mace Blvd and 2nd street, Unitrans A Line, P Line and T line will stop there
whereas more bus lines will stop at the south bus stop of the Mace Blvd and 2nd street
which are Unitrans A Line, O Line, Q Line, S line T line and Z line. Detailed route
information of each bus lines which stop at north or south Mace Blvd and 2nd street
bus station is presented in Figure 2-3 and Figure 2-4 respectively.

Figure 2-3: Bus Routes of NB Station

Figure 2-4: Bus Routes of SB Station

2.4.3 Vehicle and Bike Path

Mace Blvd, County Road 32A (CR 32A) and County Road 105B (CR 105B) are three
available paths for vehicles and bikes to enter into the project site. Figure 2-5 shows
the location of three roads as well as the surrounding bike paths of the project site.

Figure 2-5 Bike and Vehicle Circulations of the Project Site

Chapter 3
Possible Issues and Project Objectives and Identification
3.1 Issues Statement
3.1.1 GHG emission
The MRIC is presently used for agricultural purposes. The Mace Triangle constitutes
of a water storage tank, a Park-and-Ride lot, Ikedas Market, fallow agricultural land,
and vacant land. Knowing the land types and corresponding areas, annual GHG
emissions can be calculated by CalEEMod. Current estimation show that
approximately 1,747.45 MTCO2e is produced on the project site per year. Proposed
land setting plan for MRIC site can be found in Table 3-1.

Table 3-1: Summary of Proposed Land Uses Type of MRIC site

Land Use


Research; Office; R&D

1,510,000 sf

Manufacturing; Research

884,000 sf

Ancillary Retail

100,000 sf


160,000sf (150rooms)

Green Space


Landscaped Parking


Transit Plaza

0.6 acres

Total Acres 212 acres

Total square footage 2,654,000

Based on the information above, the amount of unmitigated Operational GHG

Emissions of MRIC site in 2035 is summarized in Table 3-2.

Table 3-2 Unmitigated Operational GHG Emissions of Proposed Project Siteat

Buildout Year (2035)

Solid Waste
Water and Waster water

Annual GHG Emissions (MTCO2e/yr)


Compared current annual GHG emission amount with the amount of proposed project
at buildout year, it can observe that the project will cause more severe environmental
impacts by emitting larger amount of GHG gases

3.1.2 Connectivity
From Figure 2-4 and Figure 2-5, it can indicate that the public transit cannot cover the
entire project site area. The same problem is also existing for the bike path, which
County Road 105B does not provide the bike trail at present. One more to mention
that, form Figure 2-1, it can observe that there is no road existing at the upper limit of
the project site, which cause the reduction in site connectivity.

3.1.3 Traffic Congestion and Road Safety

From continuously tracking the live traffic flow data obtained through Google map,
the conclusion is that the heavy traffic congestion is a significant issue at the
intersection of Mace Blvd and County Road 32A, as well as the intersection of Mace
Blvd and 2nd street. General traffic conditions of the project site surroundings can be
viewed on Figure 3-1. The green color represents the good traffic condition and the
orange color represents the slow traffic flow. As for the red color, it represents the
heavy traffic congestion.


Figure 3-1: General Traffic Conditions of the Project Site Surrounding

After viewing the 2009-2014 collision report (City of Davis, 2014) of the project site
surrounding area, it can conclude the area between the existing access point 1 and
access point 2of the project has higher collision risk potential and the visual data is
presented in Figure 3-2.The red dot represents for the vehicle collision, the green dot
means the collision of the fixed and these two are main types of collision in the
project surrounding area.


Figure3-2: Collision Review of Project site Surroundings

3.2 Team objective of the Mace Ranch Innovation Center Project

Fundamental objectives of our team are summarized in Table 3-1, with the purpose of
solving the existing problems, preventing futures issues, and helping the developer of
the MRIC site and City of Davis achieve their demands. In addition, each
fundamental objective is developed with detailed mean objectives and specific
performance metric. Mover, performance metrics of different alternatives are
presented in Table 3-2.
Table 3-1 Summary of Team Fundamental Objective, Means objective and
Performance Metrics of the
Good connectivity of
project Site

Means Objective
Develop the specific bus
line extension route

Measuring Variables s
Accurate location of new bus stops;
total extension distances

Design and construct a

Location; total distance and total width

complete street
Construct new bike trail

of the road; specific structure

Location, length, width

on surrounding


secondary roads
Good accessibility of

Add Lane for highly

Compare the total delay and level of

project site

congested intersection

services between the existing plus

project conditions and the existing

Reduce GHG Emissions

Achieve sustainability to

Utilize different

Compare results with other existing

proposed mitigation

research/CalEEmod. Utilize surveys for

methods to reduce

public opinion.

Green space allocation

Locations; area of plantation per capita;

ensure the long-term

coverage rate of plantation; comparison


with surrounding environment on

population of wild lives

Safety and Congestion

Install the renewable

Estimated operation hours; efficiency;

energy facility

energy output

Design appropriate

Survey bike traffic and compare results

onsite bike path to

with current City of Davis traffic data

encourage bike use

Design new residential

On-site bike rack usage; employee

housing area
Speed Limit Reduction

discount usage
Comparison of VMT before and after

Decrease Parking area to

speed limits reduction.

Comparison of VMT before and after

reduce the vehicle use

parking area reduction; occupancy of


electric cars; average time of parking

per car; average distance from the park
to destination.

The objectives are listed below are in order of importance, with VMT/GHG reduction
being the most important and congestion control being the least. Each
recommendation is ranked between +++ to --- per objective. + indicates that the
recommendation will improve the site in the objective of concern, - indicates that the
recommendation actually worsen the current situation. Blank represents no impacts

Table 3-2: Performance metrics


Chapter 4

Proposed Alternatives
Many strategies of different aspects can be utilized to achieve our objectives. Our
team encompassed our primary focus on transportation aspect and secondary focus on
energy use.

4.1 Good Connectivity of the Project Site

4.1.1 Construct New Secondary-Use road
As stated before, there is no road existing at the upper limit of the project site which is
reduced the both accessibility and connectivity of the site. Therefore, it is necessary to
propose the alternative to solve this problem. And the alternative of our group is to
construct a new secondary-use road to at the upper limit of the project site. Taking the
reference as the existed plan of the project site, the parameters of designed secondary
road are summarized in Table 4-1 and the configuration of the new road is shown on
Figure 4-1.
Table 4-1: Parameters of the Designed Secondary Road
Street Type






of Car


















Figure 4-1 Configuration of the Designed Secondary Road

As for total distance of the of the new designed road, it should be the same length as
the project sites upper limit which is 1 mile long. Moreover, the west end of the
designed road will connect to \Mace Blvd, and east end of the designed road will
connect to County Road 105. Total distance and spatial location of the new designed
is shown on Figure 4-2.

Figure 4-2: Total Distance and Spatial Location of the Designed Secondary Road

4.2.1 Bus Line Extension

Current public transit route could not cover each surrounded road of the project site,
which will reduce its connectivity. Thus, it is necessary to develop the extension bus
route to ensure the public transit could cover the entire project site.

From Figure 2-3 and Figure 2-4, it can indicate that Q line and P line are two lines
that with the same route but running in the opposite direction. And these two lines are
most two comprehensive public transit lines as well. Therefore, choose P line and Q
line as the extension bus line should be a good choice. It is because these two bus
lines require only one new extension route strategy so this could save the design cost
as well as the construction cost. Moreover, these two bus lines have largest serving
area which also increase the connectivity of the project site.
Based on the discussion above, the proposed extension routes for P line and Q Line
are shown on Figure 4-3, and the extended routes are represented by the blue color.

Figure 4-3: Extending Routes of Unitrans P and Q Lines

4.2 Good Accessibility of Project Site

4.2.1 Introduction
The circulation framework for the proposed MRIC includes three primary roadway
connections and one secondary connection. The primary southern access point is
located at the center of the southern MRIC boundary. It would connect to Country
Road 32A (CR 32A) and would be the major point of entry for all kinds of vehicles
and goods movement traffic. A secondary access point would be located at the
intersection of Country Road 32A (CR 32A) and the existing Park-and-Ride lot.
This secondary access road would provide access to the southwestern section of the

MRIC site. The other two primary access points are located at the intersections
between Mace Boulevard and 2nd street and Alhambra Drive, respectively. The
project site would link to the adjacent neighborhood by extending Alhambra Drive.
In our accessibility study, our group will focus on analyzing the three primary
roadway connections which include:
- Intersection of Mace Boulevard and Alhambra Drive
- Intersection of Mace Boulevard and 2nd Street

Southern Access point of CR 32A

Our group decides to omit the secondary access point as this there is minimal
traffic flow data published for the intersection. Also, the traffic impacts of the
secondary access point are much less significant than the other three primary access
4.2.2 Analysis scenarios
In this traffic analysis, our group mainly focuses on the intersection and segment
analysis. For all three primary access points above, our group performed traffic study
on three main scenarios.

Existing Conditions
Existing Plus Project Conditions
Group proposed conditions
Intersection and roadway traffic forecasts are developed using the current MRIC
Environmental Impact Report (EIR). Our group assesses the traffic impact studies of
the three primary intersections related to the project site using Trafficware Synchro.
The delays and the Level Of Service (LOS) of the intersections will be determined.
The scope of intersection analysis is based on a comparison of the With Project and
Without Project traffic volumes. Traffic volume forecast growth will be based on
existing and existing plus project conditions The LOS analysis will consider the
existing and potential impacts of northbound, southbound, eastbound and westbound
queuing at the three primary intersections.

Mace Boulevard+ Alhambra Drive Intersection Analysis


Below shows the tables of existing and existing plus project conditions of the Mace
Boulevard and Alhambra Drive intersection. We can see most of the approaches have
LOS downgraded after the project implementation. The EB, WB and NB and SB
approaches all fall to LOS F and these conditions are unacceptable. Therefore, our
group try to figure out the change with respect to the no project conditions and see if
we can add an intersection/ divert traffic flow in order to relieve LOS.
After comparing the traffic flow differences in the two cases, we found that the
significant increase in NBR (50 vs 130), WBL (42 vs 398) and SBT (529 vs 1013)
may be the cause of the significant downgrade of LOS.
Table 4-2: Mace Boulevard+ Alhambra Dr intersection without project

Table 4-3: Mace Boulevard+ Alhambra Dr intersection plus project conditions

It is essential to clarify that the WBL is initially a one lane left turn; the NBR is
derived from a through lane and SBT consists of 2 lanes through.
To improve the LOS, our group try to add more lanes to these significantly increased
traffic demand turns and we investigate two major conditions:

Add 1 more lane to the existing conditions


Add 2 more lanes to the existing conditions

The table below demonstrates the effects when one lane is added to the turns. As
shown in the table, the LOS of EB, WB and NB approach are brought up to at least D.
However, the LOS of SBT and the SB approach is still F.

Table 4-4: Mace Boulevard+ Alhambra Dr intersection plus project conditions

add one more lane

Due to the unacceptable LOS of the SB approach, there is a need to add 2 lanes to the
SBT direction in order to bring its LOS to at least D. The table below shows our
groups proposed version of the intersection. One important thing to note is that the
LOS of SBT was brought up to C and the SB approach brought the LOS to C also.

Table 4-5: group proposed version for Mace Boulevard+ Alhambra Dr



Mace Boulevard+ 2nd Street Intersection Analysis

Below showing the tables of existing and existing plus project conditions of the Mace
Boulevard and 2nd street intersection. We can see all of the approaches have LOS
downgraded after the project implementation. However, all the LOS are still above D
or equal to D. There is no critical need to add lane or amend the current road
conditions. However, our group still tried to figure out any significant change with
respect to the no project conditions and see if we can add an intersection/ divert traffic
flow in order improve the LOS again.
After comparing the traffic flow difference in the two cases, we find out that the
significant increase in WBL (0 vs 955), WBT (0 vs 223), NBR (0 vs 156) and SBR
(12 vs 136) may be the main reason of downgrading the LOS. The LOS of WB and
NB approaches significantly downgrade to D from A.
Table 4-6: Mace Boulevard+ 2nd Street intersection existing without project conditions

Table 4-7: Mace Boulevard+ 2nd Street intersection existing with project conditions


It is essential to clarify that the WBL is initially a two-lane left turn; the WBT is
initially a one-lane through; NBR is initially derived from a NBT lane and SBR is
initially a separated lane right turn.
As mentioned before, the downgrade of this intersection is still acceptable (at least
LOS D). Our group regard that only doing the add one lane case is already sufficient
in reducing delay for this intersection. The table below demonstrates the effects when
one lane is added to the circled lanes. As shown in the table, the WBL has LOS
improved from D to C and the WB approach improves from LOS D to LOS C.

Table 4-8: group proposed version of Mace Boulevard + 2nd Street intersection
Southern Access point of CR 32A analysis:
For intersection 9, it is not an intersection before project implementation. Therefore,
there is no analysis of the existing without project scenario for this intersection.
After project implementation, all the approaches after project implementation are still
LOS A and we need not to make any amendments for this intersection. The details are
shown in the below tables.


Our group proposes the number of lanes amendments for the three primary
intersections of the site.
Mace Boulevard + Alhambra Dr. intersection:

Add one more separated lane
Add one more separated lane
Add two more separated lanes

Mace Boulevard + 2nd Street Intersection:


Add one more separated lane
Add one more separated lane
Add one more separated lane
Add one more separated lane

Southern Access point of CR 32A analysis:

No amendments
Conclusion of accessibility analysis:
Although our group has investigated the traffic impacts of on all the primary access
points, it is not comprehensive enough to conclude the traffic impacts of the site.
First, we omit the traffic impacts of the secondary access point. Also, the traffic
impacts of internal intersections are not analyzed. These two factors may have
impacts on the analysis we do above. Further investigations on these two factors are
need to be conducted to achieve a comprehensive analysis on site accessibility.

4.3 VMT/GHG Analysis

4.3.1 Existing & projected VMT
The MRIC site is currently proposed to be mixed-use, incorporating research and
development, manufacturing, and local convenient stores. However, city of Davis
retains the right to add housing facilities further into development. According to city
of Davis Final Environmental Impact Report (FEIR), the projected annual VMT
would reach 45 million when the MRIC site is completed. After researching and
analyzing different VMT mitigation methods, our group hopes to bring down the
projected annual VMT to around 31 million.


4.3.2 Land Use effects on VMT/GHG

Perhaps the most critical factor that will influence MRIC site VMT is its land use. As
previously mentioned before, the final verdict of whether to add housing facilities is
still up in the air. For the purpose of this project, our group assumes housing
implementations will happen on-site.
Mix use: Allowing housing facilities into the mix could be a huge step towards cutting
down VMT, as it provides people whom commute from sac an alternative option. The
addition of housing facilities on-site also encourages people to bike/walk more.
According to research, mixed-use areas typically have 5-15% less vehicle travel in
comparison to areas strictly for R&D. Mix use can also be applied within a building,
such as ground floor being retail with residential housing above. Many suburban areas
in Asia have implemented this type of land use as it provides the best balance between
business and residential needs. According to research, a job/housing ratio of 1 tends to
minimize per capita VMT.


Figure 4-4 Linking Project Lane

Linking project land use is also a type of mix use. Incorporating bike paths and
pedestrian sidewalks onto site green space design can lead to mutual benefits. Green
space enhances the visual experience sidewalk/bike path users get, while sidewalks
and bike path provide green space more accessibility. Furthermore, lowering onsite
speed limit will be required to accommodate for sidewalk users. According to the
survey our group handed out, most pedestrians prefer traffic speed to be under 25mph
if they were to use the sidewalk. As a result of lowering onsite speed limits, we reduce
automobile convenience and VMT onsite. Walking is not the only method that will
benefits from linking project land use. Biking is also a beneficiary from the linkage.
The designed green space provides parks, recreational areas and beautifies the bike
path. Security of the bike path will also increase with abundance of users, as there is
less chance someone could be isolated. Enhancing the bike experience encourages


people to bike more, which leads to lower VMT production. According to research,
bike lanes and sidewalks that have good coverage, quality, and security leads to 2-4
times more usage and 5-15% less automobile drivers.

4.3.3 Transportation Alternatives effect on VMT/GHG Dynamic Ridesharing Service
Ridesharing business is a one of the fastest growing industries in transportation,
because it is affordable and can provide more flexibility than standard transit.
Dynamic Ridesharing Service (DRS) in particular is anticipated to be able to
communicate matches upon request, in advance, or on demand in teal time in as little
as 30 to 90 seconds. According to survey study done in Berkeley, CA and Cambridge,
MA 20-30% of drive-alone commuters to campus could use DRS. Estimated
reduction in VMT could range between 9-27% daily university commute travel.
Although the survey was done under a different environment, the DRS is definitely a
transportation alternative worth testing out to reduce GHG/VMT on the MRIC site. Transit system
The city of Davis has two main busing systems, Unitrans and Yolo Bus. Together the
bus routes covers most of Davis, including the MRIC site. The Yolo buss route
continues to Sacramento and eventually Woodland. Base on the survey our group did,
the major issue people have with transit system is not that transit is slow or expensive,
but because transit frequency is too low. Excluding the popular lines like J and G, on
average the transit comes every 30-40 minutes. For most everyday worker that is a
major problem that may deter he/she from using transit. Our group suggests
scheduling more frequent bus lines when project site is constructed. To optimize bus
usage, our group also suggests buses with bike carrying capacity to cut down VMT.
4.3.4 Technology effect on VMT/GHG Electric Vehicle
While gasoline vehicles remain the majority of vehicles on the road, electric vehicles
are on the rise. With the increase density, smaller more fuel-efficient cars are now
preferred over less fuel-efficient cars. Although electric vehicles can only travel 60 to


125 miles before having to recharge (compared to gasoline vehicles 300 or more
miles), most people will not need to drive that often frequently. Additionally electric
cars produce 2-5 times less CO2e annually compared to gasoline cars. Installing
electric vehicle parking on site would be our groups recommendation, to encourage
electric vehicle usage. Energy Efficiency
The MRIC site is in prime position to utilize solar energy. With no other buildings in
the way, almost all the building rooftop should be installed with a solar panel. Solar
energy will not only be used to cut down GHG production (using solar energy we can
produce 25 times less CO2e per kWh), it will also be helpful with the project sites
goal of creating a self-sustainable complex.
Another way to cut down energy consumption could be done by iteliLIGHT. This
proposed technology introduces remote controllable lighting. By switching off
unneeded lighting and dimming areas not occupied, this technology claims to save up
to 35% electricity and 42% operational cost.

4.3.5 Education effect on VMT/GHG Acknowledging Problem
Understanding the importance of cutting down VMT/GHG is the key to future
success. At the end of the day people are the ones making decisions, there is only so
much one can do with technology and mitigation methods. Incorporating energy
educational courses can go further than any temporary solutions right now.


4.4 Parking Management

Enforcing parking regulations is perhaps the most common way to cut down
GHG/VMT. The two main ways to do so is either provide limited parking space
and/or charge parking fee. The MRIC is set to provide parking on property; however,
the parking areas are there to serve people whom commute from outside Davis. Onsite
housing is already a good start to deter people from owning a vehicle, but to further
cut down on VMT and GHG production, our group propose the use of unbundling
for onsite housing facilities. Unbundling will allow residents on site to rent parking
spaces separate from building space. For example rather than paying $1,000 per
month for an apartment with two parking spaces, renters pay $800 for the apartment
and $100 for each parking space they choose to rent. Using this method, our group
expects the number of vehicle ownership to drop leading to reduction in GHG/VMT
For none residential parking management, we propose enforcing a daily parking fee
on site. According to survey done by [Victoria Transport Policy Institute]. Nearly 35%
of automobile commuters would consider an alternative method of traveling if
parking fees of $1-3 were applied in suburban locations.
Table 4-9: Vehicle Trips Reduced by Daily Parking Fees according to Trip
Reduction Tables, VTPI 2008, based on Comsis 1993; 1993 US Dollars)

The total parking area onsite is expected to be reduced to minimum level in order to
lower VMT. Compare to original design, the total parking area will be decreased from
80.3 acres to 69.7 acres; 13.2% area of parking is removed and used for residential
purpose. In general, most area is not subject to reduction, which includes
manufacturing buildings locations, hotel surrounding parking spaces, and retail
related areas.


The purpose of not giving in parking space of manufacturing building is that the land
use type requires relatively larger vehicles in everyday routine and they are necessary
vehicle traveling. Also the parking areas provide good air circulation for
manufacturing site. The purpose of not sacrificing hotel surround parking spaces is
similar reason: transportations used by most users of hotel are automobile, so the
cutting of its parking area will not lower VMT but potentially undermine efficiency of
hotel operation. In addition, the multiple means of transportation should be satisfied
near the transit plaza. The purpose of not reducing retail related parking area is that
the insufficient parking area will cause vehicles driving around in site, rising VMT
and congestion level.
The parking area in the central part of site will be transformed into the largest
residential apartment. With comprising parking area at North Common, another two
districts of apartment will be built. Together, they will provide over 400 units of
housing for onsite staff, employee, and students if necessary. Every apartment districts
will have its own parking space that will be available for public and onsite parking
using, and it will be very limited in number and vehicle types and sizes. The goal of
having parking in housing area is to have flexibility for transportation of residents.


Figure 4-5 Parking Lot Design

The meanwhile, non-driver is encouraged to reside in those apartments because of
convenience. More details on housing will be discussed at later section.
A great portion of onsite parking lot will be designed for hybrid and electric vehicles.
Recharge equipment will be free to be provided. Those parking lots will be installed
with sensors which provide accurate information on parking availability. When 70%
of occupy rate is not achieved for more than 2 hours, any types of vehicles can use
those designed parking lots. Additionally, compact parking lot will be present in great
number, in order to encourage driving smaller vehicles with less emission. Carpool,
parking meter, and zip-car will be distributed across the project site, too. 40% of
parking for any types of cars is expected. As a result, at least 7,436 of parking space
will be onsite, compared to 8,356 in original plan. The parking spaces are deducted by
11%, which is slightly lower than deduction rate of parking area, but the VMT is
expected to be lower greatly.
Finally, green space will cover parking space as much as possible, in order to
minimize vehicles temperature especially during summer. The area with low
coverage of plantation will be built under roof and installed with solar panels, which
provide electricity for cars and facilities.

4.4.1 Solar Panels

The installation of solar panels will provide clean and renewable energy supply for
facilities onsite. All of panels will be built on parking areas. They act as roofs,
decreasing temperature of cars.
25% of parking area, 20 acres, will be covered and supported by solar panels.
Together, they will provide over 4350 kW h everyday and minimize electricity
demand from power plants, and it is sufficient to support all onsite electric car charges
and most of streetlights.


Figure 4-5 Solar Panels on Top of Parking Lot

4.5 Bike Lane and Bike Path

4.5.1 On-site Bike Lane
On-site bike lane will be directly adjacent to vehicular traffic. The speed limit within
site will be kept low, such that pedestrian and bicyclist safety are prioritized. Zebra
lane dividers will be in place along all bike path to further ensure pedestrian and
bicyclist safety. The goal of on-site bike path is to allow easy access to building units
within site. See comprehensive map for roads and on-site bike path.
Additionally, bike racks will be places at every building for employees convenience.
As the number of employees biking around MRIC increase, bike-fixing stations
become increasingly crucial. Four bike pumps will be placed at selected courtyard
aimed to minimize the distance employees need to walk in case of a flat tire.
Furthermore, a bicycle self-fix station will be placed at Mace Triangle (easily
accessible by all three access points). The self-fix station will include tools such as
bike pump, tire lever, various size wrenches, bike chain cleaner, etc.
The productivity of on-site bike lane can measured the usage on site bike
racks. The usage is fairly easily and non-time consuming to measure and track. To
obtain the usage of bike lanes, one can simply count the number of bikes parked on
site per day during work hours.


4.5.2 Off-site Bike Path/Lane

Off-site bike paths or bike lanes extend from access points of the site to four
different areas of interests within Davis: downtown Davis, apartments within 1-mile
radius, Target shopping plaza, nearest emergency care. Interest areas are selected
based on the likelihood and necessity of accessing.
A designated bike path should be created on Second Street, as it is an
important route for three of the four interest points. Second Street leads directly to
from MRIC site to downtown Davis, passing by Target shopping plaza and an
emergency care along the way.

Figure 4-6: Second Street Bike Path

Background map courtesy of Google Maps


Currently, there are bike lanes on both sides of Second Street. Bicyclists must share
the road with cars going the same direction. Furthermore, pedestrian sidewalks are
only partially constructed on the street. A designated bike path and pedestrian
sidewalk throughout the street will significantly increase the safety factor. To most
effectively utilize current street layout, the road can expand outward on one side to
include the bike path.

Figure 4-7: Second Street Current Street Layout

Figure 4-8: Second Street Proposed Street Layout


An additional bike lane along Mace Blvd should be constructed to allow easy access
to apartment units nearby. Figure below shows the existing apartments complexes
within 1-mile radius. There are currently 413 apartment units available within the

Figure 4-9: Apartment Complexes in 1-Mile Radius

Mace Blvd contains an overpass, making it very difficult and costly to expand the
road to include a designated bike path. Instead, the current bike lanes on both sides
will include zebra lane dividers to separate bike lanes from vehicular traffic and
increase factor of safety.


Figure 4-10: Single Direction Current Mace Blvd Bike Path

Figure 4-11: Single Direction Proposed Mace Blvd Bike Path

Effectiveness of off-site bike path can be measured by conducting field traffic data
collection. Some field survey have previously done by the City of Davis, and is made
available on the City website. The survey data near the project site were collected
between 2011 and 2013 by physically counting the number of cars and bicycles


passing through each streets and intersections. After the project build out, traffic data
can be collected for Mace Blvd and Second Street in the same manner. By comparing
the number of bicyclists prior to and after the project, one can deduce the
effectiveness of the bike path and bike lane designs.

4.5.3 Speed Limit

Currently, the speed limit of the at Mace Blvd/Second St/Co Rd 32A
intersection is 35 mph to 40 mph. At build-out, the speed limit will be adjusted to 25
mph for all directions to follow the California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV)
regulations. California DMV requires the speed limit of a business or residential
district to be 25 mph. Mace Ranch Innovation Center falls into the category of a
business district, as its main purpose is to to provide research facilities and light
industrial manufacturing. Country Road 30 and 105 (other access points) will also
follow the speed limit of 25 mph. It is also recommended for City of Davis to
decrease the speed limit on Second Street and Mace Blvd (beyond the intersection
itself) to 25 mph as well at build-out. Second Street and Mace Blvd will serve as
major traffic streets for pedestrians and bicyclists. To ensure their safety and comfort,
those streets should follow the same speed limit as streets in the business district.
Within site (between the entrance and the parking lot), the posted speed limit
will be 15 mph to ensure pedestrian and bicyclist safety. US Department of
Transportation found that at a speed limit of 20 mph, the 5% of pedestrian will suffer
from fatal injuries. At speed limit increases, the severity of injuries will also increase.
The posted speed limit will be set at 15 mph to reduce the injuries as well as
discourage driving.
4.5.4 Street Lights
A well-lit street is crucial to the bicyclist and pedestrian safety during evening and
night hours. Currently, no streetlights are in place for Mace Triangle or project site
itself. Based on the existing streetlight patterns in City of Davis, one streetlight need
to be in place every 100 ft. along any streets in use. The streets apply to MRIC are
Mace Blvd, Mace Triangle section of Mace Blvd and CR 32A, CR 105, CR 30, CR
104A, CR 30B, and any roads within the site. Parking lots will also follow the same
light distribution. For intersections, each corner of the intersection will have a


minimum of one streetlight. In a four-way intersection (whether it be four-way stop or

signalized), a minimum of eight streetlights will be placed. More streetlights can be
placed if deemed necessary.

4.6 Housing
The 2015 Housing Survey done by UC Davis estimates the vacancy rate in
City of Davis to be 0.2% -- an incredibly low number considering the national
average is 7%. The survey represents 143 apartment complexes in Davis. It does not
take into consideration of privately owned houses, which the national censes does.
Despite the differences in the surveys themselves, 0.2% vacancy rate still presents an
issue for the MRIC project. MRIC project is estimated to create 5,900 jobs within
Davis. Currently, Davis is a student-oriented community. It is very likely that the
working professionals MRIC aims to bring in do not currently reside in Davis. Other
proximate communities include Woodland (13 miles from Davis) and West
Sacramento (10 miles from Davis). While both cities offer bike routes connecting to
the City of Davis, daily bike trip of over 20 miles is not realistic for most. The
currently Environmental Impact Report (EIR) introduced many viable solutions to
encourage biking, including bike racks at offices, bike path connecting the site to
other areas in Davis. Those solutions will not be effective if employees cannot access
the worksite via biking.
In collaboration with the strategy to limit parking spaces, the project site is
dedicating 13.1 acres to housing. At full occupancy, the housing area will provide
housing for a minimum of 1,043 residents (assuming no-room sharing). Majority of
units will be single bedroom units, catering towards working professionals. Table 4.10
summarizes the units and floor areas available within MRIC site.
Table 4-10: Housing Floor Plan
Floor Plan

Area (sq. ft.)

Units Available

Potential Residents

3 bed, 2 bath

per unit




2 bed, 1 bath
1 bed, 1 bath




Area allocation and floor plan are designed based on existing Davis apartment
To attract working professionals, the residential units will also offer the following
Table 4-11. Proposed Housing Benefits and Amenities
Gym/Swimming Pool
Social Center
Washer and Dryer within each unit
Roommate Matching Program
10% Employee Discount

Area (sq. ft.)


Many Davis apartments commonly offer workout and community leisure areas. To
remain competitive, the MRIC apartments will offer sizeable communal gym,
swimming pool, and social center. For residents convenience, the apartment will also
offer washer and dryer in every unit. The apartments will also offer a housematematching program for new employees considering living in 2 or 3 bedroom
apartments. The housemate-matching program will include a survey with questions
regarding sleeping and working schedule, cleanliness preference, etc. After pairing
based on survey results, the program will send out contact information to pair-up
employees. Employees can contact their potential housemate, then accept or decline
the pairing. Lease can be signed on a monthly or annual basis. Additionally, any
employees choosing to participate in the housing plan will receive a 10% employee
discount with their employee ID.
The goal of this strategy is to enhance the outcomes of other strategies, by offering
more employees the opportunity to reach their frequent destinations via alternative
means (aside from driving). The effectiveness of this strategy can be easily measured
by two methods. The amount of employees using alternative means can be indirectly
correlated to the utilization of bike racks and the number of parking spots used on site.
The number of employees participating in the housing program can be directly shown
by the number of employee IDs used.


4.7 Open Space

To build the project that synchronizes with of city development, idea of open space is
recognized, which follows the city goals such as protecting open space, managing for
long term, and fostering use of public lands.
The green plantation will cover at least 30% of the project site as in existing plan.
Project site will feature with high level of variety in plantation kinds and aim to build
a complex ecological environment on site. Meanwhile, total amount of plantation will
be limited in concerns of overusing water resources.
Buffer zone and boundary areas will be planted by relative tall tree with high density;
these areas will be divided into sections by plating small plantations. The objective is
to provide shield from outside of project, for example, preventing dust and particulate
matters from agricultural activities. Meanwhile, small plantations between groups of
tall trees improve air circulation for the project site. Specific kinds of plantation will
be selected and planted in these areas to provide potential habitat for local species.

Figure 4-11: Open Space Design

Designated parking areas will be planted with tall trees, providing shades for cars and
lowering area temperature at maximum level. However, since this type of area is such


open and wide, with enough green plantations, wild birds, specifically crows, are
highly possible to be attracted. The example is awkward situation in Russell Blvd and
La Rue Rd that are overpopulated by crows and ravens, causing a number of
problems. Therefore, plantations with awful taste fruit or without fruit are priority to
be considered.
The oval area will provide largest area with open space and green plantation. It will
become main area for various outdoor activities and emergency shelter.


Figure 4-12: Proposed Oval Area

4.8 Comprehensive Map


Figure 4-13. Comprehensive Map of Project Site


Mace Ranch Innovation Center Overall Information Http:// Rep. Web. 31.May.2016
Collision Review 2009-2014 Http:// Rep. Web. 31.May.2016
Traffic Count of City of Davis Http:// Rep. Web. 31.May.2016
Urban street Design Manual of City of San Diego Http:// Rep. Web. 31.May.2016
Housing Vacancies and Homeownership (CPS/HVS)." - Housing Vacancies and
Homeownership. Web. 31 May 2016.
"Injury Facts 2016 Is Your Source for Safety Data." Injury Facts. Web. 31 May 2016.
"Safety Office." Parking Lot Safety. Web. 31 May 2016.
"Literture Review on Vehicle Travel Speeds and Pedestrian Injuries." Literture
Review on Vehicle Travel Speeds and Pedestrian Injuries. Web. 31 May 2016.
Http:// Web.
B. Lee, "Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Measures", 2010. [Online].
Available: [Accessed: 22- Apr- 2016].
"Draft EIR Mace Ranch Innovation Center Project", 2015.
D. Greenwald, "Mace Ranch Innovation Center Archives | Davis Vanguard", Davis
Vanguard, 2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 22- Apr- 2016].

"City of Davis, CA : Project Documents",, 2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 22- Apr- 2016