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Class 1 (Master) Certificate of Competency - Captain Sanga's 2013

Oral Questions

1. Taking over command as a Master


a. Go to company office and meet the technical superintendents to discuss the following:
1. Ships particular
2. Trading areas
3. Company and charterer instructions
4. Voyage instructions and type of charter
5. Special instruction for maintenance and survey
b. As a prudent Master, on arriving at the ship, I will keep a checklist of thing to do upon joining
c.

On the way to the accommodation, I will form an initial impression of the ships general condition and
maintenance by observing the exterior conditions such as draft marks, load line marks, condition of hull, deck,
superstructure, rigging of accommodation ladder, safety net etc and the interior condition such as the
accommodation, bridge, cabin etc

d. Meet the outgoing master and hand over the letter of appointment
e. Go through his handing over notes, ships condition reports, manning level & companys and charterers
instructions
f.

Compare all the statutory and trading certificates with the Survey and Certificates Status Report (Quarterly
listing) and ensure they are valid. Also refer to MPA Shipping Circular No.06 of 2012 to ensure all required
certificates are onboard

g. Go through the filling system and all type of the log books
h. Article of Agreement, last port clearance, Officers COC certificates & STCW certificates, Crews STCW
certificates, health books, CDCs, passports are onboard
i.

Any crew change in this port or the next port

j.

Watch keeping arrangements

k.

Take over all stores, ROB of FO/DO/GO/FW, provisions and bond account. Ensure that the medical store is
as per scale and control drugs are in the Masters safe custody

l.

Check the cash balance on board and ships account and radio account

m. Get the combination number or any keys of the ships safe. Obtain the password to the computer email
system or security system
n. Discuss about port rotation, trading areas, general condition of the ports, present cargo work status, cargo

Prepared by: Tan Lay Ying

Class 1 (Master) Certificate of Competency - Captain Sanga's 2013


Oral Questions

plan, estimated time of completion of cargo, ships stability, departure draft, trim, GM etc
o. Details of cargo gears, anchors, deck machinery, hatches, their condition and maintenance schedule
p. Crew familiarization process, basic trainings, onboard training programs & drills etc
q. Go to bridge with outgoing Master. Familiarize myself with bridge and navigation equipment, their operational
conditions and deficiencies maneuvering characteristic of the vessel in various conditions, passage plans,
charts and publications, GMDSS equipment familiarization and their operations
r.

Check the latest weather reports

s.

Enter the new Masters name in OLB. The change over the command column and the list of documents
onboard in OLB should be signed by both Masters.

t.

Enter new Masters particulars in AOA, sign off/on in Article of Agreement

u. Ensure approved copy of stability booklet is onboard


v. Before sailing, I (Incoming Master) should:
1. Receive familiarization training as per SMS
2. Check life jacket and immersion suit are placed in the Masters cabin
3. Ensure the Muster List & crew list are updated
4. Read the relevant clauses of the charter party or bill of lading
5. Note any charterers voyage instructions. Try to spend some time on the incoming and outgoing
message/ email which will give a picture of what is going on.
6. Consult the Chief Engineer regarding the condition of the machinery, bunker ROB and ensuring that
there are within the safety margins as per SMS
7. Consult the Chief Officer regarding the cargo, stability, ballast, fresh water, stores and maintenance
of the ship
8. Check the passage plan and ensure it is planned from berth to berth and as per SOLAS Chapter V,
Regulation 34 and the company SMS
9. Ensure that all the relevant charts and publications are available on board
10. Check vessels manning is as per the Safe Manning Certificate
11. Check the ISM documents for any outstanding non-conformity (which may have time limit for action)
12. Prepare the Masters Bridge, Port and Security Standing Order

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Class 1 (Master) Certificate of Competency - Captain Sanga's 2013


Oral Questions

13. Satisfy myself that I has personally exercised due diligence in ensuring that the vessel is seaworthy at
the start of the voyage
14. Make a full inspection of the ship as soon as possible and before taking the ship to sea

2. While taking over, you found that a statutory certificate is expiring. What is your action?
As per SOLAS Chapter I, Part B - Regulation 14 (e), if a ship at the time when a certificate expires is not in
a port in which it is to be surveyed, the Administration may extend the period of validity of the certificate
but this extension shall be granted only for the purpose of allowing the ship to complete its voyage to
the port in which it is to be surveyed, and then only in cases where it appears proper and reasonable
to do so. No certificate shall be extended for a period longer than three months, and a ship to which an
extension is granted shall not, on its arrival in the port in which it is to be surveyed, be entitled by virtue of
such extension to leave that port without having a new certificate.

3. You take over command, how you check the passage plan prepared by 2nd officer before signing and
approving.
With the reference of SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation 34, the passage plan shall identify a route which:
a. takes into account any relevant ships' routeing systems
b. ensures sufficient sea room for the safe passage of the ship throughout the voyage (e.g. 5 nm off the
shore during coastal passage, 30 nm off the shore during deep water passage and under keel clearance)
c. anticipates all known navigational hazards and adverse weather conditions (e.g. monsoon season)
d. takes into account the marine environmental protection measures that apply, and avoids, as far as possible,
actions and activities which could cause damage to the environment. (e.g. mark out the MARPOL Special
Areas under Annex I, V & VI (e.g. change over the low sulphur content fuel oil 1.00% m/m prior entering the
ECA) and any No Go Areas by the local government)

4. What publication gives guidance to passage plan?


a. SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation 34 - Safe navigation and avoidance of dangerous situations
b. IMO Resolution A.893 (21) - Guidelines For Voyage Planning
c. IMO MSC.1/Circ.1228 - Revised guidance to the Master for Avoiding Dangerous Situations in Adverse
Weather and Sea Conditions
d. MPA Shipping Circular 16 of 2010 - Importance of Voyage Planning and Avoiding Dangerous Situations in
Adverse Weather & Sea Conditions
e. Routeing Charts
f. Sailing Directions
g. Mariner's Handbook (NP 100)
h. ICS Bridge Procedures Guide
i. Ocean Passages for the World
j. Company's SMS Passage Plan Checklist

Prepared by: Tan Lay Ying

Class 1 (Master) Certificate of Competency - Captain Sanga's 2013


Oral Questions

5. What are the heavy weather effects and how to avoid?


a. As per IMO MSC Circular No. 1228, the heavy weather effects are:
1. Surf riding and Broaching to:
When a ship is situated on the steep forefront of a high wave in following or quartering
sea conditions, the ship can be accelerated to ride on the wave. This is known as surf-riding. In
this situation the so-called broaching-to phenomenon may occur, which endangers the ship
to capsizing as a result of a sudden change of the ships heading and unexpected large heeling.
Occur when angle of encounter 135< <225.
2. Synchronous rolling: Large rolling motions may occur when natural rolling period of a ship coincides with
the encounter wave period. In following and quartering seas, it may happen when the transverse stability of
the ship is marginal and therefore the natural roll period becomes longer.
3. Parametric rolling: It occurs when the encounter period is approximately half of the natural roll period of the
ship. The stability attains a minimum value twice during each roll period. It occurs when the ship has very
marginal intact stability due to which its rolling period becomes very large. May occur in head and bow
seas.
4. Combination of various dangerous phenomenons: The dynamic behavior of ship in following and quartering
seas is very complex. Ship motion is three dimensional and various dangerous phenomena may occur
simultaneously, such as:
additional heeling moments due to deck-edge immersion, water shipping and trapping on deck
cargo shift due to large heeling motions.
This may create extremely dangerous combinations, which may cause ship capsize.
5. Successive high wave attack: When average wave length is larger than 0.8 L and significant wave height is
larger than 0.04 L, a ship may experience successive attack of high waves.
b. How to avoid?
1. Surf riding and Broaching to: Alter the speed/course or both to take the ship outside the dangerous region
2. Synchronous rolling: Alter the speed/course or both to prevent a synchronous rolling motion which will
occur when the encounter wave period is nearly equal to the natural rolling period of ship.
3. Parametric rolling: Change apparent period of waves by alteration of course and speed or change vessels
rolling period by changing the GM by ballasting, deballasting or shifting fluids.
4. Successive high wave attack: Ships speed should be reduced and course should be changed to keep the

Prepared by: Tan Lay Ying

Class 1 (Master) Certificate of Competency - Captain Sanga's 2013


Oral Questions

ship out of the danger zone.

6. What is heave to? How does u do it? As a prudent master, why do you avoid a beam swell?
The vessel is maneuvered so as to ride the sea in the most favorable position. It is most effective when done in
lee of an island. It is important during heavy weather for safety of ship, crew, prevent cargo shift, and prevent loss
of stability and escaping from capsizing moments.

7. How do you defend yourself from deviation from proposed track? How will you cover yourself?
The Master has the overriding authority as per the followings:
a. SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation 34-1 - Master's discretion
The owner, the charterer, the company operating the ship or any other person shall not prevent or restrict the
master from taking or executing any decision which, in the master's professional judgement, is necessary for
safety of life at sea and protection of the marine environment.
b. ISM Code Masters Responsibility and Authority

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Class 1 (Master) Certificate of Competency - Captain Sanga's 2013


Oral Questions

The master has the overriding authority and the responsibility to make decisions with respect to safety and
pollution prevention and to request the Companys assistance as may be necessary.
c. The ISPS Code Masters Discretion for Ship Safety and Security
The master shall not be constrained by the Company, the charterer or any other person from taking or executing
any decision which, in the professional judgment of the master, is necessary to maintain the safety and security of
the ship.
Ensure the entry about the justifiable deviation is made into the Official Logbook.

8. Vessel collided with a fishing vessel, what is your action as a Master?


My main concern will be rescue the people from the fishing vessel.
a. Immediate actions:
1. Take over the con
2. Stop the engine
3. Sound general emergency alarm followed by announcement on the PA system
4. Release the MOB and broadcast distress message if in grave and imminent danger or else
broadcast urgency message
5. Establish communication, take head count, check for casualty (if any)
6. Post extra lookout if necessary
7. Order the rescue team to prepare:
The hospital for receiving causalities and standby stretcher, first aid kits etc
Launch the rescue boat
The LSA ready for immediate use
Rig the accommodation ladder, scrambling nets and lifelines running from bow to stern at
the water level at both sides
Prepare crane and derricks with cargo nets
8. Carry out damage assessment
9. Report the incident with position and time to the following parties:
Owner and charterer

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Class 1 (Master) Certificate of Competency - Captain Sanga's 2013


Oral Questions

P & I club
Underwriter
Class (Emergency Technical Assistance Service)
Coastal state
Next port agent
Make accident report to MPA within 24 hours
10. Make an entry in the OLB. Keep a record of all events. Prepare the following documents:
Deck & Engine log book
Bridge Movement book
Telegraph printer
Used charts
Prepare a statement of facts giving details of incident and subsequent actions

9. Vessel ran aground. What are your immediate actions? What are your legal and commercial actions?
b. Immediate actions:
1. Take over the con
2. Stop the engine
3. Sound general emergency alarm followed by announcement on the PA system
4. Establish communication, take head count, check for casualty (if any)
5. Close all water tight and fire doors
6. Order the emergency team to carry out damage assessment. Check the watertight integrity of hull.
(Breach will be indicated by water found in void spaces or by cargo in water)
7. Visually inspect compartments where possible
8. Switch the E/R from low to high suction and check the status of M/E and other auxiliary machinery
9. Sound the bottom tanks first, followed by the whole sets of tanks, cargo hold bilges and other
compartments on board
10. Refer to the Damage Control Plan to contain the flooding (if any) and the damage control booklet to
access the ships survivability (to make out whether ship is in imminent danger or not)

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Class 1 (Master) Certificate of Competency - Captain Sanga's 2013


Oral Questions

11. Obtain the following information:


check the depth of water around the ship, how has she taken the ground and the nature of
the bottom
tides, currents & weather (wind, state of sea and swell)
any changes in weather forecast
the calculated buoyancy needed to refloat, and draught and trim after refloating
the condition of ship, and the stresses on the hull
12. Use the risk assessment for fire and pollution to ensure all preventive measures are taken
13. Activate SOPEP and take preventive actions in case of any oil pollution and keep FFA ready
14. Get assistance & advice from class(emergency technical assistance service ETAS)
15. On the bridge, the command team shall do the following:
Exhibit appropriate lights, shapes and sound signals
Switch on all the deck lights at night
Broadcast distress message if in grave and imminent danger or else broadcast urgency
message
Maintain VHF watch on Channel 16 and 13
Determine the vessels position
16. Use all available means to refloat the vessel:
Calculate the HOT, range & timing for high and low water and direction of the currents
Reduce the ship draft by deballasting or jettisoning cargo
Trim the ship by ballasting or de-ballasting if the ship is only partially aground
Use own ships power to maneuver the ship
Obtain assistance from port authorities, coast guard, salvage tugs
c.

Subsequent legal and commercial actions:


1.

Report the incident with position and time to the following parties:

Prepared by: Tan Lay Ying

Class 1 (Master) Certificate of Competency - Captain Sanga's 2013


Oral Questions

Owner and charterer


P&I club
Underwriter
Class (Emergency Technical Assistance Service)
Coastal state
Next port agent
Make accident report to MPA within 24 hours
2. Make an entry in the OLB. Keep a record of all events. Prepare the following documents:
Deck & Engine log book
Bridge Movement book
Telegraph printer
Echo sounder graph printout
Used charts
Prepare a statement of facts giving details of incident and subsequent actions
Prepare a note of protest, stating the facts only
3. If it is possible to refloat the vessel, consider deviating to POR

10. If you cannot refloat, what will you do?


If the vessel is not in imminent danger and immediate assistance is not required, I will choose Contractual
Salvage. But if the vessel which is in grave and imminent danger and immediate assistance is required, I will
choose LOF.

11. What information can you get from damage control plan and damage control booklet?
Damage Control Plan: As per the IMO MSC Circular 919 Guidelines for Damage Control Plans, the plan shall
contain the following information:
a. a scale adequate to show clearly the required content of the plan, but not less than a 1:200 scale.
b. the watertight boundaries of the ship
c.

the locations and arrangements of cross-flooding systems, blow-out plugs and any mechanical means

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Class 1 (Master) Certificate of Competency - Captain Sanga's 2013


Oral Questions

to correct list due to flooding, together with the locations of all valves and remote controls, if any
d. the locations of all internal watertight closing appliances including on ro-ro ships, internal ramps or doors
acting as extension of the collision bulkhead and their controls and the locations of their local and remote
controls, position indicators and alarms. The locations of those watertight closing appliances which are not
allowed to be opened during the navigation and of those watertight closing appliances which are allowed to
be opened during navigation, according to SOLAS regulation II-1/15, should be clearly indicated
e. the locations of all doors in the shell of the ship, position indicators, leakage detection and surveillance
devices;
f.

the locations of all weather tight closing appliances in local subdivision boundaries above the bulkhead deck
and on the lowest exposed weather decks, together with locations of controls and position indicators, if
applicable

g. the locations of all bilge and ballast pumps, their control positions and associated valves
h. pipes, ducts or tunnels, if any, through which limited progressive flooding has been accepted by the
Administration.
Damage Control Booklet: The information listed above should be repeated in the booklet and also include the
general instructions for controlling the effects of damage, such as:
a. immediately closing all watertight and weather tight closing appliances
b.

establishing the locations and safety of persons on board, sounding tanks and compartments to
ascertain the extent of damage and repeated soundings to determine rates of flooding

c.

cautionary advice regarding the cause of any list and of liquid transfer operations to lessen list or trim, and the
resulting effects of creating additional free surfaces and of initiating pumping operations to control the ingress
of water.

d. additional details to the information shown on the damage control plan, such as the locations of all sounding
devices, tank vents and overflows which do not extend above the weather deck, pump capacities, piping
diagrams, instructions for operating cross-flooding systems, means of accessing and escaping from watertight
compartments below the bulkhead deck for use by damage control parties, and alerting ship management
and other organizations to stand by and to co-ordinate assistance, if required.

12. What are the masters concerns when vessel is aground?


Apart from grounding, my main concern are the up thrust force as I do not know how the vessel went aground
and this force may tilt the vessel over at any time, risk of fire, pollution, breaking up, excessive listing and
capsizing of the vessel (due to excessive stresses on hull).
13. How will you know that your ship is in immediate danger or not?
First calculate normal stability for present condition, but if there is ingress of water then the ship is definitely
damaged and therefore calculate the damage stability to find out whether ship is in immediate danger or not.

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Class 1 (Master) Certificate of Competency - Captain Sanga's 2013


Oral Questions

14. Following a grounding incident your tanker vessel has received bottom and side damage to the outer
hull. Pollution is evident from the damaged tanks. What action would you expect to take as master of
the vessel?
Assuming that no risk to life is present, the Master's priority would be to direct his attentions to reducing the
pollution effects to the environment:
a.

Order the upper deck scuppers to be sealed and prevent access over side for any oil from damaged tanks
being pressured upwards through air pipes or sounding pipes

b.

Transfer oil from damaged tanks internally, into known structurally sound tanks

c.

Request shuttle tankers or oil barges to attend, to transfer oil externally

d.

Use oil dispersant after obtaining permission from the coastal state administration and request for more
supplies

e.

Order barrier/ boom apparatus to be deployed if available (alternative improvisation use mooring ropes to
encompass the spillage area)

f.

Request for specialist oil pollution equipment (skimmers, special vessels, barges)

g.

Commence cleanup operations soonest

h.

Instigate repairs (or temporary repair) to damaged areas as soon as practical without causing any
additional fire risk

i.

Establish fire patrol in the area, from the onset of the incident. Keep the FFA ready for any emergency.

j.

Make an entry in the OLB stating the incident and what actions were taken.

k.

Contact the Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU) and seek advice as to improving anti-pollution methods

l.

Report the incident to the Owners, Charterers, P & I club, Class, Underwriters, Local Authorities and MPA.
Submit an incident report to MPA.

15. What is the different between Lloyds Open Form (LOF) and Contractual Salvage?
Contractual salvage is charged as per lump sum rate or daily rate. It is normally taken when the vessel is not in
imminent danger and immediate assistance is not required (e.g. vessel is soft ground in a sheltered and nontidal harbor). It turns out to be much cheaper for the owners.
The LOF is based on No cure - No pay basis and salvage award is based on remuneration that will be settled
later, either by agreement, court judgment or arbitration. It is generally taken by vessels which are in grave and
imminent danger and immediate assistance is required.

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Class 1 (Master) Certificate of Competency - Captain Sanga's 2013


Oral Questions

16. Why are you choosing contractual salvage over LOF when it is so simple?
This is because the LOF is sent for arbitration to U.K which could turn out to be a long procedure for claim
settlement, but if the contractual salvage is used, the owners can have mutual understanding with the salvor
and can agree to a lump sum basis.

17. How to settle salvage remuneration?


As per the International Convention on Salvage, 1989 Article 13, the salvage remuneration is based on the
following criteria:
a. the salved value of the vessel and other property
b. the skill and efforts of the salvors in preventing or minimizing damage to the environment
c.

the measure of success obtained by the salvor

d. the nature and degree of the danger


e. the skill and efforts of the salvors in salving the vessel, other property and life
f.

the time used and expenses and losses incurred by the salvors

g. the risk of liability and other risks run by the salvors or their equipment
h. the promptness of the services rendered
i.

the availability and use of vessels or other equipment intended for salvage operations

j.

the state of readiness and efficiency of the salvor's equipment and the value thereof

18. Benefit of LOF?


a. Agreement can be reached via radio or other telecom methods. There is no need for the form to be signed
until the salvage services have been completed
b. The agreement is not likely to be disputed
c.

LOF is basically a no-cure, no-pay agreement

d. English law applies to claims


e. The salvor has a maritime lien in the property salved, even after its sale to another party
f.

Salved property can be quickly released on payment of security to the salvor

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Oral Questions

g. The salvor gets an interim award. (Interim award is a temporary one which is subject to conditions)
h. Disputes are referred to arbitration in London, saving legal cost
i.

Underwriters liability cannot be increased beyond that for total loss (i.e. underwriters will not be liable for
sue and labour costs where a total loss occurs)

j.

Excessive claims by salvors are avoided

19. While waiting for the tugs, suddenly high tide and the ship re-float, state your action?
As the extent of damage and seaworthiness of the vessel are unknown, I will consider proceeding to Port of
Refuge.
a. Inform the owners and the leading underwriter to cancel the towage contract with the tug company
b. Discuss with owners, leading underwriters and class surveyor about the Port of Refuge, Port of Discharging
and Port of Repair
c.

Arrange a class surveyor for underwater survey at Port of Refuge

d. Inform all concerned parties, coast station & the ships in the vicinity
e. Discuss with the owner about the declaration of the General Average. It may necessary to secure bond
from the charterer and cargo owner before delivery of the cargoes
f.

Make an entry in the OLB and send accident report to MPA within 24 hours as per Merchant Shipping Act Section 107

20. Advantage and disadvantage of refloating?


a. Advantage:
1. Reduce the stresses on the hull, exposure to the rising and falling tides effects and exposure to the
deteriorating weather effects
2. Oil is less likely to leak from a ruptured tank when the ship is afloat as she will then lie deeper in the
water as compared to when she is aground if the vessel is loaded condition
b. Disadvantage: If the ship is badly damaged, refloating may be unadvisable due to the risk of further
damage, increase the risk of pollution and possible loss of the ship.

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Class 1 (Master) Certificate of Competency - Captain Sanga's 2013


Oral Questions

21. Progressive flooding?


Progressive flooding is the additional flooding of spaces which were not previously assumed to be damaged.
Such additional flooding may occur through openings or pipes.

22. What is the consideration when choosing port of refuge?


a. The size of the port
b. The available depth of water inside the port
c.

The respective under keel clearance for the vessel to be able to enter and berth

d. Shelter available for the effected vessel


e. Whether the port has the repair facilities capable of rectifying any defects to the ship, including the survey
and dry docking facilities.
f.

Distance to go, charts available for the intended port and the port can be reached safely

g. Is the port authority friendly/ hostile and is free of war, strike and civil commotion
h. Get recommendation from the leading underwriter

23. Port of refuge procedures?


a. Inform all the parties concerned including MPA stating the reason for the deviation and make an OLB entry.
b. Take note the ships position. Get the ROB at the point of deviate until departure from POR. Maintain a
detailed recordkeeping of all the events for claims
c.

Owner to appoint agent at the POR to handle the vessels visit

d. Provide the ETA and other relevant information required for vessels arrival at Port of Refuge to the agent
(e.g. tonnage, flag, P & I Club etc)
e. Upon arrival at the POR, inform all parties that vessel had safely arrived
f.

At the POR, the salvor will require salvage security, which should be arranged by the owner and cargo
owners.

g. Owners will declare General Average


h. Issue Note of Protest as soon as possible but in any case within 24 hours to reserve the right to extend at a
time and place convenient
i.

Where there is Hull & Machinery damage, a class surveyor will inspect the damage and advise the repairs
necessary for the vessel to maintain the class.

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Oral Questions

j.

If cargo damage is suspected or cargo discharge is necessary before repairs can be made, call a hatch
survey before commencing discharge. Employ surveyors recommended by the P & I Club. Cargo owners
should be notified so that they can appoint their own surveyors

k.

Carry out repairs under class surveyors guidance

l.

Upon completion of repairs, the class surveyor will carry out another survey. If in his opinion, the vessel is
seaworthy, he will issue an Interim Certificate of Class and send his report to the classification society and
flag state. If acceptable to the societys committee, the vessel will retain class.

m. Reload cargo (under survey) if voyage being continued


n. Extend protest to include all details of the damage and repairs
o. Enter vessel outwards with the Customs (in accordance to the local regulations, as advised by the agent).
Obtain outwards clearance/ port clearance
p. Continue the voyage

24. The ship needs to be dry docked with cargo on board, state your actions?
a. Ill inform the owners and cargo owner about the situation and request for Hatch Survey before commencing
discharge. Employ surveyors recommended by the P & I Club. Cargo owners should be notified so that they
can appoint their own surveyors.
b. If not possible, Ill try to contact the cargo owners and act as Agent of Necessity to arrange cargo discharge
(under survey) either by trans-shipment or store in a warehouse during the time of repair.

25. Who will pay for all this?


Transfer of cargo to effect repair will be paid under General Average.

26. While doing so you found out two reefer container will not make it to the destination, what is your
action?
I will try to establish contact with the cargo owner to inform about the situation and his intention. If the cargo
owner cannot be reached, I will act as Agent of Necessity to either preserve the goods or sell the goods on
auctions.
Condition as Agent of Necessity:
a. Exceptional Emergency circumstances
b. An actual commercial necessity

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Oral Questions

c.

Impossibility of communication

d. Act in interest of all parties

Powers of Agent of Necessity:


a. Deviate from contract route
b. Jettison cargo to save life or property
c.

Enter into a salvage agreement while ship is in emergency situation

d. Call Port of Refuge due to emergency situation


e. Order for emergency repair
f.

Trans-shipment, store in a warehouse or recondition/ sell damaged cargo (e.g. When the goods in his
possession have started to deteriorate, and he is unable to contact the owner. He takes action to preserve
the goods or even sell the goods on auctions)

g. Raise money for crew disbursement

27. Masters responsibilities as per ISM?


a. Implementing the safety and environmental-protection policy of the Company
b. Motivating the crew in the observation of that policy
c.

Issuing appropriate orders and instructions in a clear and simple manner

d. Verifying that specified requirements are observed


e. Periodically reviewing the SMS and reporting its deficiencies to the shore-based management

28. How as a master will you verify that specified requirements are being observed?
By conducting drills, trainings and safety meetings.

29. What do you understand by motivating the crew for observance of SEP. Give example?
SEP is about safety, health and pollution prevention. The crew can be motivated by conducting drills, trainings
and safety meetings.

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Oral Questions

30. While waiting for tug hired by company, you received weather message that a low pressure is forming
in the vicinity. State what is your action? Dangerous phenomenon during heavy weather how to
handle?
a.

Ascertain the present ship position with respect to the low pressure and calculate if the heavy weather
arrives before the arrival of the tugs.

b.

If so, I will informed the owner, class, flag state, coastal state, P & I Club and relevant authorities about the
situation and request for the salvage by all means so to prevent the ship from getting further to the shore
side.

c.

If the storm is from beam, there is a possibility of the ship capsizing. If no vessel in vicinity for help, I will
ballast the ship to make her heavy so that the ship will not move towards the shore by the heavy swell and
also standby the lifeboat and life raft in case of abandon ship.

d.

For the preparations for heavy weather, I would address the following 4 areas:
1. Stability
Improve the vessel's GM, if possible.
Avoid having a narrow margin of stability.
Ensure adequate stability is maintained.
Remove any free surface moments by pressing up or emptying the tanks.
If the stability condition permits, ballast the vessel down.
Check for the watertight integrity, by taking sounding of all the tanks and bilges.
Close all the watertight doors.
Pump out the swimming pool water if carried.
2. Cargo Safety
Refer to Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing - Chapter 6 (Actions which
may be taken in heavy weather).
Check and tighten all cargo lashings.
Trim cargo ventilation and shut down vents if not required.
3. Navigational Safety

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Update weather reports.


Plot storm position.
Update vessels position and inform shore-side authorities.
Secure Bridge against heavy rolling.
4. Overall Security of the Deck
Inform 'Heads of Departments' such as Galley and Engine Room and the crew to secure all
loose items in their cabins.
Check the securing of gangways, lifeboats, derricks/ cranes, hatch covers, anchors, etc
o

Anchor lashings are checked and doubled if necessary.

Hawse pipe and spurling pipe covers are shipped and secured.

Additional lashings are put on gangways, if necessary.

All derrick heads are secured properly, in their housings.

All derrick guys, preventers, etc, are properly secured.

All sounding pipe covers on the upper deck are inspected to ensure that they have
been screwed down tight.

Reduce manpower working on deck and start heavy weather routine.


Rig lifelines on both sides of the upper deck.
Ensure the deck is clear of surplus gears, free of rags or dirt that could choke the scuppers
and all moveable objects on deck are secured.
All weathertight doors on the upper deck, leading to mast houses, accommodation, etc, are
closed effectively against entry of water.
Slacken down signal lanyards and take down awnings.
Check all LSA equipment readily available.
o

The gripes of lifeboats are tight and that locking pins of davits are in place. It must
not have additional lashings as it will hamper quick launching in an emergency.

All equipment and spares in storerooms, paint lockers, ship's office, etc have to be secured.
Organize meal reliefs, if appropriate.

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Organize watch structure to suit three-man watch system.


Note all preparations in the Official Log Book.

31. Crew found missing prior departure, states your action as a Master?
a. Make an announcement on the PA system
b. Check the Gangway Logbook
c.

Check if anyone else had gone ashore with him and where and when was he last seen

d. Carry out a thorough search onboard


e. Inform agent and ask him to look for the crew at the usual places e.g. seamans club, night clubs, hospital &
police station
f.

Inform Owner, P & I Club, local police and MPA via the agent

g. Make an entry in the Official Log Book (OLB)


h. Ask chief officer and one other crew member to make a list of his belongings
i.

Sign him off from the AOA. (Form 68D)

j.

Fill up the ENG 2A form. Enter Deserted in the cause section

k.

Refer to the Safe Manning Document to check whether the ship can sail without the missing crew member
or not. If not then check if anybody else can be promoted to his rank after taking approval from the owners

l.

If this is not possible, then ask the owner to arrange for suitable replacement or apply for dispensation from
MPA and permission to sail.

32. Crew found sick, states your action as a Master?


a. Conduct a medical assessment of the crew and give the best possible medical treatment onboard
b. Request for radio medical (if required)
c.

If crew member gets serious or not responding to medication consider medical evacuation, prepare the
patent for evacuation

d. Inform the owner, agent, P & I club, RCC and local authorities
e. Collect the patients medical history, medicines given onboard and his PP and attach to the patient
f.

Make an entry in Official Log Book (OLB)

g. Ask the Chief Officer and one other crew member to make a list of his belongings

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h. Sign him off from the AOA. (Form 68D)


i.

Fill up ENG 2A form. Enter Medical Grounds in the cause section

j.

Refer to the Safe Manning Document to check whether the ship can sail without the missing crew member
or not. If not then check if anybody else can be promoted to his rank after taking approval from the owners

k.

If this is not possible, then ask the owner to arrange for suitable replacement or apply for dispensation from
MPA and permission to sail

33. Chief mate reported one crew member not reporting for work; state your action as a Master?
First I will find out whether the crew has reasonable reason for failed to report for work. If without reasonable
reason, he had breached the general disciplinary offences as per the Merchant Shipping Act (Chapter 179),
Part IV Section 80.
Therefore an amount not exceeding $50 fine will be imposed and in the case of a second or subsequent
commission of the offence before the seaman is discharged from the ship, an amount not exceeding $100.

34. What are the general disciplinary offences?


As per the Merchant Shipping Act (Chapter 179), Part IV Section 80, the general disciplinary offences are:
a. to willfully strike any person onboard the ship
b. to wilfully disobey a lawful command
c.

to use insolent or contemptuous language to the master or any seaman

d. without reasonable cause:


1. to fail to be available for duty at a time when he is required by the master, or by a person authorised
by the master, to be so available
2. to fail to report or to remain at his place of duty at a time when he is so required to be at that place
3. while on duty, to be asleep at his place of duty
e. to be under the influence of alcohol or a drug (whether alone or in combination) to such an extent that he
behaves in a disorderly manner or is unfit to be entrusted with his duty or with any duty which he might be
called upon to perform, unless the drug was taken by him for medical purposes and either:
1. he took it on medical advice and complied with any directions given as part of that advice
2. he had no reason to believe that the drug might have the influence it had
f.

without the consent of the master or of any other person authorized to give it, to bring on board the ship or
to have in his possession on board any offensive weapon or offensive instrument

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g. wilfully and without reasonable cause:


1. to damage the ship or any property on board the ship
2. to throw any such property overboard
The fine that may be imposed on a seaman for a disciplinary offence above shall be an amount not exceeding
$50 or, in the case of a second or subsequent commission of the offence before the seaman is discharged from
the ship, an amount not exceeding $100.

35. Procedure for disciplinary offences?


As per the Merchant Shipping Act (Chapter 179), Part IV Section 80, the procedures are as follow:
a. it shall be dealt with within 24 hours from the time it comes to the notice of the master, unless it is not
practicable to deal with it within that time, in which case, it shall be dealt with as soon as practicable
thereafter and the reason for the delay shall be recorded in the official log book.
b. the seaman shall be permitted at the hearing before the master to be accompanied by any person for the
purpose of advising him and that person may speak on behalf of the seaman
c.

the charge shall be entered by the master in the official log book and shall be read and explained to the
seaman by the master, who shall record therein that it has been so read and explained and a copy of the
charge shall be given to the seaman

d. the seaman shall then be asked whether or not he admits the charge and if he admits it, the admission shall
be recorded by the master in the official log book or an entry to the effect that the seaman does not admit
the charge shall be recorded therein
e. the evidence of any witness called by the master shall be heard in the presence of the seaman, who shall
be afforded reasonable opportunity to question the witness on his evidence
f.

The seaman shall be given an opportunity to make a statement in regards of the charges against him and
the same to be recorded in the OLB

g. the seaman shall be permitted to call witnesses to give evidence on his behalf, and any such witness may
be questioned by the master on his evidence
h. After hearing his statement and any evidence, the master shall give his decision (guilty or not guilty and any
fine being imposed) in the presence of the seaman and shall record the same in the OLB. The seaman
should be told about his right to appeal under section 81
i.

If the seaman requests for copies of all entries in the OLB, then it should be provided to him

36. Procedure on discharge?


As per the Merchant Shipping Act (Chapter 179), Part IV Section 54, the procedures are as follow:
a. the seaman should be present when he is being discharged

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b. Fill up his CDC


c.

the seaman should be discharged in presence of Master

d. Master to make entry in OLB and AOA and same to be signed by seaman
Any person who fails to comply with above Regulations shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on
conviction to a fine not exceeding $500.

37. What will happen for deducted money from crew salary?
MPA will decide about it. Fines imposed on the seamen during his service onboard and covered by the
Agreement should be sent by crossed cheque to MPA. The amount must always be in Singapore dollars before
it is sent to the Shipping Division.

38. Bosun comes and complaints about the food, what is your actions?
As per the MLC 2006, Regulation 5.1.5, I have the obligation to resolve the complaint.
a. Master should attempt to resolve the complaint as soon as practicable taking into account the seriousness
of the issues involved or within 3 days.
b. All complaints and decision outcomes should be recorded in the onboard complaint form and a copy of it
provided to the seafarer concerned.
c.

If the complaint cannot be resolved on board, the matter should be referred ashore to the ship-owner, who
should resolve the issue as soon as practicable.

d. In all cases, seafarers have a right to file their complaints directly with the master, the shipowner and where
necessary, to any appropriate competent external authority.

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39. What is your obligation for making investigation?


As per the MLC 2006, Regulation 5.1.5, it is the masters obligation for making investigation.

40. Crew complained to DOM, investigations carried out and found food got no problems? What is the
owner or master protection to such complains should not be misused?
Fine will be imposed on crew if found guilty.

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41. What is a Form U & FRE 13?


a. FORM U: It is a legible copy of the Article of Agreement which is to be made accessible to the ships crew
by posting it on notice board in order for the crew to know the main features of Article of Agreement.
The following are the contents of Form U:
1. Ships name, Port of Register, Registered Tonnage and the number of crew for whom the
accommodation is certified
2. Name of the Master and his COC details
3. Scale of Provision
4. Regulation for maintaining discipline
5. Voyage Limit
6. Short summary of employment of under-aged person
b. FRE 13: It is a declaration of draft made by master after completion of loading with all details of sailing
draft & freeboard and it is posted on the notice board.

42. Emergency drills?


a. As per SOLAS Chapter III, Part B - Regulation No. 19,
1. Every crew member shall participate in at least 1 abandon ship drill and 1 fire drill every month
2. The drills shall take place within 24 h of the ship leaving a port if more than 25% of the crew have
not participated in abandon ship and fire drills on board that particular ship in the previous month
3. When a ship enters service for the first time, after modification of a major character or when a new
crew is engaged, these drills shall be held before sailing
4. Each lifeboat shall be launched and maneuvered in water at least once every 3 months
5. Each rescue boat shall be launched once a month
b. As per SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation No. 26, emergency steering gear drills shall take place at least once
every 3 months
c.

ISPS drill
1. shall be conducted at least once every three month

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2. When more than 25% of the crew has been changed & have not previously participated in any drill
on that ship, within the last 3 months, a drill should be conducted within one week of the crew
change.
3. Security exercises which may include participation of CSO, PFSO and SSO should be carried out
at least once each calendar year with no more than 18 months between the exercises.
43. Does ISM specify which drills to carry out?
No, the ISM Code does not specify which drills to carry but under Emergency Preparedness, it states that
company should establish program for drills and exercises to prepare for emergency actions.

44. You served a small company, advise owner if vessel can load grain in remote port in cold region which
is above 75n latitude, how do you advise him?
a. Check the Charter Party terms on the contract
b. Check the Class Certificate whether the ship has Ice Class Notation or not?
c.

Check the geographical limits and expiry of the Article of Agreement. Study additional clauses and
collective agreement

d. Check Underwriters for Insurance Coverage


e. Inform the MPA and Class
f.

Consult the union if necessary

g. Make a separate Memorandum for crew to sign to proceed to voyage


h. Make OLB entry regarding owners instructions and approval for voyage
i.

Ensure Polar Code is available onboard and comply with the guidelines like equipment, training, SAR and
environmental protection

j.

Ensure that there are sufficient bunkers, stores, spares and provisions on board

k.

Carefully study the voyage order and plan the passage by taking the Polar Code into account

l.

Provide training to the crew based on the Polar Code or company guidelines

m. Instruct the Chief Engineer:


1. Check the heating system for the accommodation, steering gear and bridge windows
2. Check the viscosity of hydraulic oil for all cranes, winches and boat engines
3. Check the Emergency Generator fuel tank

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n. Instruct the C/O:


1. Ensure sufficient warm clothing for the full complement including protection gloves, blanket etc
2. Spare bulb for navigation light
3. Steam hose
4. De-icing compounds
5. Axe and shovel

45. Dry docking with full cargo onboard?


As a Master, my main concerns are:
a. Safety of Crew/ Labor/ Ship and protection of marine environment and protection of owners right.
b. During entering the dock, the vessel must have enough positive stability (especially during the Critical
period) keeping in mind that the up thrust will reduce positive stability and that may lead to slip off from the
block or capsizing
c.

Vessel will be subjected to more stresses than normal dry dock.

d. There will be additional weight of cargo on the vessel and the cargo weight might be unevenly distributed.
e. There will be difficulty in achieving the required draft for entering dry dock.
f.

Before entering the dry dock:


1. Press up the double bottom tanks beneath the holds, minimize Free Surface Effect, adequate
positive stability, upright, and trimmed as per the yard's requirement.
2. Distribute the cargo weight evenly and all cargoes should be properly lashed and secured.
3. Inform yard about cargo plan, cargo characteristics weight distribution.
4. Request the yard for extra keel blocks and side blocks.
5. Keep the vessel ready for dry dock in all respects.
6. Keep the LSA and FFA for immediate use.
7. It would be advisable to pump out enough dock water to expose the damaged area and leave the
vessel partly waterborne. This would reduce the reactions of the vessel on the blocks and reduce
the tendencies of hogging/sagging.

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46. Procedure for dry docking?


a. Prior entering the dry dock:
1. Check the stability of the vessel, especially during critical period.
2. Ensure that the vessel is at required draft, trim and there is no list
3. Reduce the free surface effects to minimum.
4. Anchors stowed and secured.
5. Movable weights to be secured.
6. Gangway/ accommodation ladders to be stowed.
7. Overboard discharges to be shut.
8. All FFA and LSA in state of readiness
9. Proper flags displayed as required.
10. Ship power, fire main, fresh water, telephone connections to be ready.
11. Log switched off and retracted.
12. Echo sounder switched off
13. Prepare the mooring lines. Unused mooring lines should be stowed.
14. Standby for dock master and dock mooring gang.
b. During entering the dry dock:
1. Note down the timing for the following:
When vessel enters dock.
When the gate closed
When pumping out commenced.
When vessel sewed
When pump out completed.
c.

When vessel in the dry dock:


1. Sound all the tanks and bilges. Initial inspection of the hull should be done as soon as possible.

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Check:
The extent of the hull damage if any.
The extent of the rudder and propeller damage
Suitable and efficient shoring arrangements
Suitable and efficient keel blocks
2. If draining of the tanks is required, the bottom plugs should be removed and kept in custody of C/O.
All bridge equipment should be shut down and vessels heading recorded.
3. Ensure that all relevant safety procedures are being followed, permit to work are in use and safety
of dock workers taken into account.
d. Prior re-floating:
1. Keep the vessels departure stability condition as close as possible to the arrival condition.
2. Ensure that the vessel is at required draft, trim and there is no list
3. Reduce the free surface effects to minimum.
4. All bottom plugs to be secured.
5. Anodes fitted.
6. Anchors stowed and secured.
7. Movable weights to be secured.
8. Overboard discharges to be shut.
9. All FFA and LSA in state of readiness
10. All shore connections have been disconnected.
11. Start gyro and check heading.
e. During re-floating:
1. Inform all departments when flooding dock.
2. Check for water tightness.
3. Sound all tanks.
4. Stop pumping out the water at half stage and check the watertight integrity of the vessel

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5. Note down the timing for the following:


When flooding commenced.
When vessel floated.
When the dock gates opened.
When the vessel left dock.
f.

After re-floating:
1. Check operation of all equipments.
2. Check watertight integrity of the vessel
3. General cleaning and washing
4. Normal sailing checklist

47. Your company told you to go to dry dock in 2 month time. How do you go about it?
a. Ensure the intended Dry Dock and the Dry Dock Manager is furnished with the necessary documentation in
order to prepare the dock itself to receive the ship on arrival. The essential details would be the Ship's
General Particulars together with the Docking Plan and up-to-date defect list for the operations once inside
the dock.
b. Sound round all internal tank soundings.
c.

Communicate with the Dry Dock Manager regarding the vessel's draught and trim to suit the dock
construction.

d. Complete any ballast operations to satisfy the docking requirements regarding list and trim.
e. Prepare all necessary documentation which may be required to complete the docking operation and the
expected workload inside the dock.
f.

Calculate that the ship has adequate positive stability to withstand the expected 'P' force that will affect the
vessel when taking the blocks. The GM should be large enough to compensate for a virtual rise in 'G' once
the keel touches the blocks and the vessel enters the critical period.

g. Any free surface in tanks should be removed or reduced to as little as possible, either by emptying the tank
or pressing it up to the full condition.
h. Any repair list should be completed and kept readily available to hand over to the Dry Dock Authorities.
i.

All utilities required should be ordered in ample time to be supplied to the ship on docking.

j.

All store rooms, toilets and ships compartments should be locked for the purpose of security and any loose

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gear should be stowed away before entering the dock.


k.

Rig fenders around the vessel.

l.

Plug and secure all upper deck scuppers to reduce the risk of pollution.

m. Lower all derricks or cranes to the stowed sea going position.


n. Ensure all beams and hatches are in the stowed position to ensure continuity of strength throughout the
vessel's length.
o. If docking with cargo onboard, order extra shores/ blocks to support the additional weight of cargo.
p. Valuable cargo, if onboard, should be given lock-up stow with security in place

48. You received a distress call 50 miles. What will be your actions?
As per SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation No. 33, the master which is in a position to be able to provide assistance
is bound to proceed with all speed to their assistance.
a. Check the distress position and own ships position
b. Check if able to provide assistance without endangering to own ship and crew
c.

Listen to VHF Ch16 or 2182 KHz for 5 minutes

d. If CS or RCC does not acknowledge the call, acknowledge the alert by radiotelephony (Ch.16/ 2182 kHz)
e. Inform CS or RCC
f.

Enter details into the log

g. Reset the system


h. Consult IAMSAR - Volume III for SAR operation. Establish communication as soon as possible and obtain
details of distressed vessel; such as:
1. The ships identity, name & call sign etc
2. Position, course & speed
3. Nature of distress
4. Type of assistance required
i.

Provide the vessel in distress own ships infomation such as:


1. Ship identity
2. Position, course & speed

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3. ETA to the scene


4. Distress vessel bearing and distance from own ship
j.

Contact the RCC and obtain information regarding SAR action plan, the identity and the contact of the OSC

k.

On board preparation for SAR:


1. Post extra look out
2. Proceed at full speed but inform C/E to standby the engine for maneuvering
3. Inform owner/ charterer about the deviation
4. Note down the point of deviation and R.O.B
5. Make an entry in the OLB for justifiable deviation
6. Assign duties to officers. Instruct C/O to prepare:
Prepare the hospital for receiving any casualties. Prepare stretchers, blankets, food,
medicines
Prepare rescue boat for immediate launching. Prepare rescue boat crew and check
communication
Get the LSA ready for immediate use. Lifebuoy, LTA, buoyant life lines etc
Rig the accommodation ladder, scrambling nets and lifelines running from bow to astern at
the water level at both sides
Prepare cranes and derricks with cargo nets for recovery of survivors
Test search light, signaling lamp, torches
7. Instruct the 2nd Officer to:
Plot both vessels positions and establish course to rendezvous at maximum speed and
update ETA
Change over to manual steering
Plot search pattern
Keep continuous radar watch
Track all vessels in the vicinity

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8. Instruct 3rd officer to:


Contact RCC via CRS
Maintain communication and update distress information
Monitor weather report

49. What is your responsibility after taking survivors onboard?


As per IMO MSC Circular No. 167 and SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation No. 33, I shall do everything possible,
within the capabilities and limitations of the ship, to treat the survivors humanely and to meet their immediate
need.
a. Provide food, water and medical care
b. Consult the radio medical advice if required
c.

Keep the RCC informed about conditions, assistance needed, and actions taken or planned for the
survivors

d. Ensure that survivors are not disembarked to a place where their safety would be further jeopardized
e. Inform the MPA, Police Coast Guard, Immigration Authorities and Port Master as per MPA Port Marine
Circular No. 14 of 1998
f.

Make an entry in the OLB

50. Will you violate any regulation if total persons on board including survivors exceed life boat capacity?
No, this is because the life boat capacity is intended for accommodate the ships crew only.

51. You are unable to proceed for rescue; under what circumstances can you do that? What are your
actions?
As per SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation No. 33, if the ship receiving the distress alert is unable to proceed or
considers it unreasonable or unnecessary to proceed for their assistance, the master must enter in the log book
the reason for doing so. The entry must be witnessed by a senior officer member.
The master will be released from this obligation under the following circumstances:
a. On being informed by the persons in distress or by the SAR service or by the master of another ship which

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has reached the persons in distress that assistance is no longer necessary


b. If own ship receiving the distress alert is unable to do so (e.g. disable due to engine breakdown)
c.

In the special circumstances of the case, considers it unreasonable or unnecessary to do so. (The master of
a loaded gas carrier might consider the obligation to assist a tanker on fire unreasonable)

d. The master is in a busy shipping area might consider the obligation to assist a ship 100 miles away is
unnecessary, where he knows that many other ships would be closer to the distress position.
e. The distress vessel has sufficient vessels requisitioned to assist and your vessel is released from obligation
of attending
f.

Action would endanger the Masters own vessel and crew

52. When will a master transmit danger message?


As per SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation No. 31, the master shall transmit danger message when the ship:
a. meets with dangerous ice
b. a dangerous derelict
c.

any other direct danger to navigation

d. tropical storm
e. encounters sub-freezing air temperatures associated with gale force winds causing severe ice accretion
on superstructures
f.

winds of force 10 or above on the Beaufort scale for which no storm warning has been received

53. Information required in danger messages?


As per SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation No. 32, the following information is required in danger messages:
a. Ice, derelicts and other direct dangers to navigation:
1. The kind of ice, derelict or danger observed
2. The position of the ice, derelict or danger when last observed
3. The time and date (UTC) when the danger was last observed
b. TRS:
1. a statement that a tropical cyclone has been encountered

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2. time, date (UTC) and position of ship when the observation was taken
3. corrected barometric pressure
4. barometric tendency (the change in barometric pressure during the past three hours)
5. wind force and direction
6. state of the sea
7. swell period and true direction from which it comes
8. true course and speed of ship
c.

Sub-freezing air temperatures associated with gale force winds causing severe ice accretion on
superstructures:
1. Time and date (UTC)
2. Air temperature
3. Sea temperature
4. Wind force and direction

54. Small ship in distress, stating engine problem, and request you to tow her to nearest port, what will you
do?
There is no statutory obligation to save maritime property in danger of being lost. Any attempt by the master to
save property is a commercial venture and not a statutory obligation. A vessel requiring a tow (e.g. a disabled,
drifting vessel) is not necessarily in distress. The master offering a towage service should, therefore, carefully
consider the following points before contracting to perform a salvage service:
a. Does the charter party give the vessel the liberty to tow?
b. Is there a possibility of missing any cancelling date under a charter party?
c.

Does the nature of the cargo permit a lengthening of the voyage? (Especially in reefers.)

d. Are there sufficient bunkers, fresh water, provision and stores on board for the tow and sufficient reserves
are maintained throughout and after the tow?
e. Is the vessels machinery of adequate power and in good enough condition for towing?
f.

Is the value of the vessel requesting the tow, plus her cargo, of sufficient value to merit a salvage service?

g. Has the salvage terms been agreed?


h. Has the port of destination been agreed?

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i.

Has the owner, charterers, P & I Club and underwriters been notified, so that additional hull insurance can
be arranged if necessary

j.

Ensure proper records of all events are being kept in the OLB

55. Different types of log books?


As per MPA Shipping Circular No. 06 of 2012 (2012 List of Certificates, Documents & Publications)
a. Official Logbook
b. Oil Record Book
c.

Garbage Record Book

d. GMDSS Logbook
e. Deck & Engine Logbook
f.

Cargo Record Book

g. Ballast Water Management Record Book


h. Ozone Depleting Substances Record Book

56. Entries in the OLB?


a. Name of ship, official no., GT & NT
b. Name and address of owner
c.

Name of master, COC no. and issuing authority

d. List of documents handed to next master


e. Date & place where OLB was opened
f.

Date & place where OLB was closed

g. Record of arrival and departure to port and sea


h. Record of drills
i.

Record of inspections

j.

Record of incidents and casualties

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k.

Record of distress message received

l.

If unable to proceed for assistance

m. Inspection of food and water


n. Complaints regarding food and water
o. Record of death
p. Seaman falls ill
q. Disciplinary offence
r.

Fine against disciplinary offence

s.

Record of draft, freeboard and mean freeboard (FRE 13)

57. How you instruct C/O to arrange watch for crew?


He shall take the STCW 2010, MLC 2006 and Companys SMS into consideration, when planning the table of
shipboard working arrangement.
Minimum hours of rest shall not be less than:
a. 10 hours rest in any 24 hour period
b. 77 hours rest in any 7 day period
c.

The hours of rest maybe divided into no more than two periods, one of the which shall be at least 6 hours in
length and the intervals between consecutive periods of rest shall not exceed 14 hours

d. Musters, fire-fighting and lifeboat drills and other drills shall be conducted in a manner that minimizes the
disturbance of rest periods and does not induce fatigue.
e. Reduction of rest hours to 70 hours in any 7-day period is allowed for not more than two consecutive weeks

58. What is rest hours?


Rest hours means time outside hours of work; this term does not include short breaks.

59. How do you deal with safety and health work environment onboard?
I shall take the STCW 2010, MLC 2006, ISM Code, Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seaman

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and Companys SMS into consideration such as:


a. Hours of work and rest
b. Prevention of alcohol abuse (e.g. zero tolerance to alcohol)
c.

Food and catering (e.g. appropriate quality, nutritional value, quantity and variety)

d. Health and safety and accident prevention (e.g. risk assessment, job safety analysis, toolbox talk & training)
e. Onboard medical care (e.g. give prompt and adequate medical care including dental care and occupational
health protection relevant to their duties onboard)
f.

Accommodation inspection (e.g. weekly accommodation inspection to ensure it is clean, decently habitable
and maintained in a good state of repair)

60. You received a TRS warning confirming a bad weather in vicinity, state your actions?
a. Ascertain own ships position with respect to the storm position:
1. Bearing of storm center, by Buys Ballot's law (In Northern Hemisphere face the wind and the low
pressure is on your right and in Southern Hemisphere face the wind and the low pressure is on your
left)
2. Semi circle in which the ship situation
3. Path of the storm

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b. Preparations for TRS, I would address the following 4 areas:


1. Stability
Improve the vessel's GM, if possible.
Avoid having a narrow margin of stability.
Ensure adequate stability is maintained.
Remove any free surface moments by pressing up or emptying the tanks.
If the stability condition permits, ballast the vessel down.
Check for the watertight integrity, by taking sounding of all the tanks and bilges.
Close all the watertight doors.
Pump out the swimming pool water if carried.
2. Cargo Safety
Refer to Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing - Chapter 6 (Actions which
may be taken in heavy weather).
Check and tighten all cargo lashings.
Trim cargo ventilation and shut down vents if not required.
3. Navigational Safety
Possible of re-routing.
Verify vessel's position and investigate safe port options.
Update weather reports.
Plot storm position.
Update vessels position and inform shore-side authorities.
Engage manual steering.
Revised ETA.
Secure Bridge against heavy rolling.

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Reduce speed in ample time to prevent 'pounding'.


Report position to owners, charterers and agents
Reports to nearer coast station and ship in the vicinity if no warning received.
4. Overall Security of the Deck
Inform 'Heads of Departments' such as Galley and Engine Room and the crew to secure all
loose items in their cabins.
Check the securing of gangways, lifeboats, derricks/ cranes, hatch covers, anchors, etc
o

Anchor lashings are checked and doubled if necessary.

Hawse pipe and spurling pipe covers are shipped and secured.

Additional lashings are put on gangways, if necessary.

All derrick heads are secured properly, in their housings.

All derrick guys, preventers, etc, are properly secured.

All sounding pipe covers on the upper deck are inspected to ensure that they have
been screwed down tight.

Reduce manpower working on deck and start heavy weather routine.


Rig lifelines on both sides of the upper deck.
Ensure the deck is clear of surplus gears, free of rags or dirt that could choke the scuppers
and all moveable objects on deck are secured.
All weathertight doors on the upper deck, leading to mast houses, accommodation, etc, are
closed effectively against entry of water.
Slacken down signal lanyards and take down awnings.
Check all LSA equipment readily available.
o

The gripes of lifeboats are tight and that locking pins of davits are in place. It must
not have additional lashings as it will hamper quick launching in an emergency.

All equipment and spares in storerooms, paint lockers, ship's office, etc have to be secured.
Organize meal reliefs, if appropriate.
Organize watch structure to suit three-man watch system.

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Note all preparations in the Official Log Book.


c.

Ship handling:
1. Refer to IMO MSC Circular No. 1228
2. Heave to, while ascertaining the storm position
3. Avoid passing within 75nm of storm centre
4. Prefer to stay outside 200nm
5. Alter to a course to take ship out of storm centre
6. Make frequent checks to ensure that any action taken is having the desired effect

d.

Plotting the TRS Method of plotting the fan diagram


1. Plot the storm centre on the chart
2. Construct a 75nm circle around the position. This represents the absolute no go area
3. Draw the predicted path of the storm, in the direction of the movements
4. Draw tangent to the 75nm circle, at 40 degree angles, on either side of the predicted path. These
represent the extreme limits of probable paths of the storms
5. From the storm position draw arc, equal to predicted movement of the storms in next 24 hours and
48 hours
6. The sector covered by 24 hours arc will be consider as imminent area of danger, while the sector
cover by 24 to 48 hours may be considered as the area of the probable danger
7. The position and the area of the fan shall be updated at every new forecast, at least every 12
hours, and the situation and ship course shall be reviewed.

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61. Stowaway found onboard prior arrival port, state your actions?
As per IMO MSC 312 and MPA Port Marine Circular No. 14 of 2006, the following actions to be taken:
a. to make every effort to determine immediately the port of embarkation, the identity, including the
nationality/citizenship and the right of residence of the stowaway
b. to prepare a statement containing all available information relevant to the stowaway for presentation to the
appropriate authorities, including taking photo of the stowaway.
c. inform the Owners, P & I club, Local Authorities, Port State, MPA and Agent the existence of a stowaway
and any relevant details
d. the area in which the stowaway was found shall be searched thoroughly
e. not to depart from the planned voyage to seek the disembarkation of the stowaway unless
permission to disembark the stowaway has been granted by the public authorities of the State to whose
port the ship deviates, or repatriation has been arranged elsewhere with sufficient documentation
and permission given for disembarkation, or unless there are extenuating safety, security, health or
compassionate reasons
f.

to ensure that the stowaway is presented to the appropriate authorities at the next port of call in accordance
with their requirements

g. to take appropriate measures to ensure the security, general health, welfare and safety of the
stowaway until disembarkation, including providing him/her with adequate provisioning,
accommodation, proper medical attention and sanitary facilities
h. to ensure that stowaways are not made to work on board the ship, except in emergency situations or in

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relation to the stowaway's accommodation on board


i.

to ensure that stowaways are treated humanely, consistent with the basic principles

j.

the stowaways shall not sign in the AOA and enter in any crew list. Instead a Stowaway List shall be
prepared and kept ready for appropriate authorities

k.

Evidences of all the cost incurred in the stowaway case must be gathered to support the owners claim
against the P & I policy

l.

Full details of all events relating to the stowaway incident shall be recorded in the OLB

62. Suppose you are in port and your lifeboat is damaged, what will you do and what port state can do?
a. Inform the Owners/Charterers, P & I Club, Class, Underwriter, Local authorities, MPA and Flag state on this
matter and get advices from them about how to handle this in the most efficient way
b. Normally the ship will not be allowed to sail unless certain criteria can be fulfilled as per the requirement of
the administration:
1. Fixed the damage before the ship sails (depend much on the port stay and whether there is the
repair facilities in place)
2. Sail without lifeboat but supplemented with extra life rafts and obtain exemption from the
administration

63. What is the PSC? What are their powers?


a. It is the inspection of foreign ships present in a nations ports for the purpose of:
1. To verify that the condition of the ship and its equipment is complying with International codes and
conventions.
2. To verify that the ships are manned and operated in compliance with these codes and conventions.
b. The PSC Inspector will as a minimum:
1. Check the certificates and documents
2. Check the overall condition of the ship including deck, engine room, accommodation and hygiene
conditions onboard
c.

Clear grounds means evidence which in the professional judgment of an PSC inspector needs more
detailed inspection
1. Invalid/ expired certificates

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2. Incompetent crew
3. Serious hull or structural deficiency that may affect watertight integrity
4. Crew not familiar with essential shipboard operations
5. Muster list not up to date and crew unfamiliar with their duties
6. Improper/ invalid recordkeeping of the Oil Record Book, Garbage Record Book and etc
7. Unsafe cargo and other operation
8. Emission of false distress alert and no proper cancellation
9. Very unhygienic ship

64. C/O is doing ballast exchange, how you as master ensure he is following proper procedures & taking
into account stability & stresses on the ship?
I shall ensure that IMO MSC Circular No. 1145 had been taken into consideration prior carrying out the ballast
exchange.
a. The operation should take place only when the following conditions is met:
1. In open water
2. Low traffic density
3. An enhanced navigational watch will be maintained including if necessary an additional lookout
forward with adequate communications with the navigation bridge
4. The maneuverability of the vessel will not be unduly impaired by the draft and trim and or propeller
immersion during the transitory period.
5. The general weather and sea state conditions will be suitable and unlikely to deteriorate.
b. Refer to the Ballast Water Management Plan to ensure that approved method is being used.
c.

Ensure that the BWE is being conducted at least 200 nautical miles from the nearest land and where the
depth of water is 200 m. If not possible to achieve this, it must be carried out at least 50 nm from nearest
land and where the depth of water is 200 m.

d. Ensure that a detailed BWE plan has been prepared giving details of:
1. BWE sequences
2. Maximum pumping rates

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3. All manholes and air pipes that have been opened for BWE
4. The printout of stability calculation at each stage
e. An alternative way is to use the ships loadicator to check the condition of stability and stresses in the
current situation
f.

Ensure that there is sufficient time to safely complete the exchange (to satisfy the minimum distance and
water depth criteria)

g. Ensure that the BWE operation is being continuously monitored


h. Details of the BWE have been entered in the Ballast Water logbook

65. Brief description of all the Codes?


a. International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code (IMSBC):
1. It consists of 13 sections and 4 Appendix.
2. Give the instructions regarding general loading, carriage, unloading and trimming procedures. It
also gives instructions for ensuring safety of personnel, methods for determining angle of repose,
test procedures for cargoes that may liquefy, how to make assessment of cargo to accept them for
carriage and stowage factor conversion tables.
3. The appendixes contain Solid Bulk Cargo individual schedule, properties, alphabetical index and
lab test procedures.
b. Safe Loading & Unloading of Bulk Carrier Code (BLU): It contains recommendations for precautions to be
followed during loading and unloading of bulk cargoes. Its main features are:
1. Loading/unloading sequence
2. Ballasting/Deballasting sequence
3. Readiness of fire and safety equipment during loading/unloading
4. Ship/Shore safety Checklists

c.

Timber Code:
1. It is the Code of Safe Practice for Ships Carrying Timber Deck Cargoes
2. It is applicable for all ships of 24m or more in length engaged in carriage of timber deck cargoes
3. It contains 6 chapters and 4 appendixes
4. Give recommendation on safe stowage, securing, stability and shipment of timber deck cargo. Also

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gives advice on personal protection, safety devices and action to be taken during voyage
5. The appendixes give advice on stowage practices, guidelines for under deck stowage and
calculation of stability curves
d. Grain Code:
1. It is the International Code for the Safe Carriage of Grain in Bulk
2. It applies to all ships engaged in carriage of grain in bulk, regardless of size
3. It is divided into 2 parts
4. Part A: Gives the specific requirements regarding DOA, information required regarding ship stability
and grain loading, stability requirements, how to load without DOA and lashing methods
5. Part B: Gives the details about calculation of assumed heeling moments and general assumptions
e. IMDG Code:
1. It has two volumes and one supplement
2. Volume 1: Contains the general provisions, definitions, training, classification, packing and tank
provision, consignment procedures, construction and testing of packing and transport operations
3. Volume 2: Contains DG List and appendices A & B
4. The Supplement: Contains the emergency response procedures (EmS guide), the MFAG, reporting
procedures, safe use of pesticides and the INF code

66. SOLAS in nutshell


The SOLAS is divided into 2 parts. Part 1 has 12 chapters and 1 appendix. Part 2 has 2 annexes.
a. Part 1
1. Chapter I: General provisions
2. Chapter II: Construction Requirements
3. Chapter III: LSA and arrangements
4. Chapter IV: Radiocommunications
5. Chapter V: Safety of navigation
6. Chapter VI: Carriage of cargoes
7. Chapter VII: Carriage of DG

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8. Chapter VIII: Nuclear ships


9. Chapter IX: Management for the safe operation of ships
10. Chapter X: Safety measures for high-speed craft
11. Chapter XI: Special measures to enhance maritime safety & security
12. Chapter XII: Additional safety measures for bulk carriers
13. Appendix: Certificates
b. Part B
1. Annex 1: Certificates and documents required to be carried on board ships
2. Annex 2: List of resolutions adopted by the SOLAS Conferences

67. Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seaman


a. It is concerned with improving health and safety onboard ship
b. It is only mandatory for UK registered vessels to carry this code
c.

It provides guidance on safe working practices for many situations that commonly arise onboard and the
basic principles can be applied to many other work situations that are not specifically covered

d. Total of 5 Sections and 33 Chapters


1. Section 1: Safety Responsibilities/ Shipboard Management
2. Section 2: Personal Health and Safety
3. Section 3: Work Activities
4. Section 4: Specialist Ships
5. Section 5: Appendices

68. IMDG containers are being loaded, what are your concerns as a Master?
a. Ensure the ship hold the DOC (Document of Compliance) for carrying DG
b. Refer to DOC (DG), to check what are the classes of DG that can be loaded in which cargo spaces
c.

As per SOLAS - Chapter VII (Reg 4):


1. The Shipper's Declaration must be provided so as to declare that the consignment is properly

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packaged, marked, labeled or placarded, as appropriate, and in proper condition for carriage.
2. DG manifest as per the classification set out in the IMDG Code, the DG onboard and location must
be provided.
d. A diskette and the hard copy of the proposed stowage plan will be given to vessel.
e. Upload the diskette into the Loadicator to check whether the stowage and segregation requirements are
met or not.
f.

Refer to IMDG Code - Vol 2 (Part 3: DG List) to check for the UN, proper name, class, segregation and
Emergency Schedule etc.

g. The cargo shall be loaded, stowed and secured throughout the voyage as per the Cargo Securing Manual.
h. Naked lights and smoking is prohibited in or near DG areas.
i.

Fire fighting appliances are kept ready to deal with possible fire.

j.

Protective clothing and SCBA sets to be available. Bunkering, hot work, use of radar or radio transmitters to
be stopped, especially if the cargoes are explosive type.

k.

If possible, the operation to be in daylight hours.

l.

At night, adequate lightings to be provided. Ambient temperature in relation to the flash point to be taken
into account.

m. Consult EMS and MFAG in case of any accident involving DG.


n. Once containers are loaded, location of the DG containers to be counterchecked with the bay plan.
o. Loading and discharging of DG must be supervised by a responsible officer.

69. Loading as per International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code (IMSBC)?
a. As per SOLAS - Chapter VI (Reg 2), the shipper shall provide the ship with the following cargo information:
1. Stowage factor, type and quantity
2. Trimming Procedures
3. Likelihood of shifting including angle of repose, if applicable
4. Moisture content and its Transportable Moisture Limit (TML)
5. Any other relevant safety information such as chemical hazards

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6. Voyage details such as destination, draught restriction, port restriction etc


b. The vessel should have approved Stability Booklet and approved Loading Manual
c.

There must be close co-operation between the vessel and terminal

d. Vessel and the terminal representative must prepare and agreed on Loading/Discharging Plan
e. If there is any amendment or deviation from the plan, the terminal representative must be informed
f.

Cargo spaces shall be inspected and prepared for the particular cargo which is to be loaded

g. Bilge wells and strainer plates shall be so arranged to facilitate drainage and to prevent entry of the cargoes
into the bilge system.
h. Bilge lines, sounding pipes and other service lines within the cargo space shall be in good order
i.

High free flow drop of heavy concentrated cargo should be avoided

j.

Ensure that there is no damage to the ship structure during loading

k.

Ventilation systems should be shut down and air conditioning systems placed on recirculation during
loading to minimize dust ingress into the accommodation

l.

Ensure that the cargo is trimmed reasonably level

m. Ensure that the cargo and ballast operations are closely monitored
n. After completion of loading, the cargo hold and its fittings must be inspected thoroughly for damage.
Refer to Appendix 4 for alphabetical index of the cargo. Then refer to the Appendix 1 for individual schedule
of cargo to obtain cargo details like description, characteristics, angle of repose, hazard, stowage and
segregation requirements and ventilation and carriage requirements. The cargo plan will be prepared based
on all these information.

70. Is there and particular circular about Fumigation. Tell me details about it?
Yes, IMO MSC Circular No. 1264 and MPA Port Marine Circular 15 of 2008 are about fumigation.
a. Must be approved by the Director-General of Public Health, National Environment Agency as
required under the Hydrogen Cyanide (Fumigation) Regulations
b. Fumigation of vessels is not permitted during hours of darkness
c.

Prior to commencing any fumigation, the master shall ensure that:


1. all unauthorised personnel are kept clear and away from the risk areas

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2. the vessel is properly moored and the appropriate lights and shapes required under the
COLREG are exhibited (International code flag "V" above the international code flag "E" in a vertical
line, or 2 all-round red lights in a horizontal line)
3. warning notices are posted conspicuously to warn people of the risk areas and at the gangway
d. Prior to commencing any fumigation, the persons undertaking the fumigation shall:
1. provide the master with the details of the fumigation
2. ensure that all persons engaged for the fumigation are knowledgeable and conversant with safe
practices in respect of fumigation on board
e. During fumigation the master and the persons carrying out the fumigation must ensure that :
1. a safety boat is deployed to stand-watch in the vicinity to warn any approaching vessel of
the fumigation and to prohibit unauthorised persons from boarding the vessel
2. the fumigation operation must be supervised by a licensed fumigation operator

71. Testing a Loadicator


a. It must be approved by the administration/ class
b. Carry out the 'Test Condition' test.
1. Load the test conditions into the program one by one. For each condition you must compare the
calculation results of the program with those given by the manufacturer.
2.
c.

If all results correspond with the calculated results, this proved that the Loadicator is giving the
proper data.

Take a visual draft and compare the readings with the Loadicator readings.

72. How to check it without performing any calculations?


As per IMO MSC Circular No. 891, a self-test function was designed to maximize the fault tolerance of the
loadicator, therefore it is able to monitor the correct operation and an alarm will be given for an abnormal
condition.

73. Working Aloft Can you send the cadet? What is the age restriction?
As per the MLC 2006, Regulation 4.3, young seafarers means any person between the ages of 16 years and 18
years shall not be employed in working aloft.

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As per Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seaman Chapter 15 (Safe Systems of Work), personnel
under 18 years of age or with less than 12 months experience at sea, should not work aloft unless accompanied
by an experienced person or otherwise adequately supervised.

74. What is Workplace Safety and Health Act?


a. The Ministry of Manpower implements the Workplace Safety and Health Act to cultivate good safety habits
in all individuals so as to engender a strong safety culture in the workplace.
b. It covers all factories and workplaces of various risk levels and industries and specifies the duties of all
people involved in work place.
c.

Duties of an employer:
1.

Protect the safety and health of workers working under your direct and indirect control

2.

Conducting risk assessments to remove or control risks faced by worker

3.

Maintaining safe work facilities and arrangements

4.

Ensuring safety in machinery, equipment, plant, articles, substances and work

5.

Developing and implementing control measures for dealing with emergencies

6.

Providing workers with adequate instruction, information, training and supervision.

75. How do you implement MARPOL?


a. Ensure the following statutory certificates are valid:
1. International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificate
2. International Pollution Prevention Certificate for the Carriage of Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk
3. International Sewage Pollution Prevention (ISPP) Certificate
4. International Air Pollution Prevention (IAPP) Certificate
5. Engine International Air Pollution Prevention (EIAPP) Certificate
6. International Energy Efficiency Certificate (IEE Certificate)
b. Ensure the entries in the following record books are correct, updated and signed:
1. Oil Record Book

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2. Garage Record Book


3. Ozone Depleting Substances Record Book
c.

Ensure the following documents are correctly updated:


1. Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP) (e.g. Annex 2 - List of national operational
contact points responsible for the receipt, transmission and processing of urgent reports on
incidents involving harmful substances, including oil from ships to coastal states)
2. Garbage Management Plan (e.g. persons in charge of carrying out the plan)
3. Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP)

d. Ensure all equipment are in good working condition, maintenance carried out as per Manufacturers
instruction and available for inspection. (e.g. oil discharge monitoring and control system)
e. All officer shall be familiar with the MARPOL requirements such as:
1. The controls of discharge of oil are as per Regulation No.15 (Non Tanker) and 34 (Tanker) (e.g.
discharging engine room bilges)
2. Disposal of garbage as per Regulation No. 4 and 6
3. MARPOL Annex I, V and VI special areas
4. Bunker Convention and CLC Convention

76. Masters concern on Emission Control Areas (ECA)?


Ensure the sulphur content of the fuel oil used onboard not exceed 1.00% m/m.
As per MARPOL Annex VI, Regulation No. 14, ships operating within an emission control area, the sulphur
content of fuel oil used on board ships shall not exceed the following limits:
1.1.50% m/m prior to 1 July 2010
2.1.00% m/m on and after 1 July 2010
3.0.10% m/m on and after 1 January 2015

77. Masters concern on bulk carrier?


a. Structural damage due to improper distribution of cargo.
b. Loss or reduction of stability during a voyage: Shifting of cargo in heavy weather due to inadequately
trimmed or improperly distributed.
c.

Chemical reactions: Emission of toxic or flammable gases, spontaneous

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combustion or severe corrosive effects.

78. How to load grain cargo?


a. The main hazard for bulk grain is it is liable to shift due to heavy rolling, causing the vessel to list
dangerously and possibly capsize.
b. Ensure the ship holds the DOA (Document of Authorization).
c.

As per SOLAS - Chapter VI (Reg 2), the shipper shall provide the ship with the following cargo information:
1. Stowage factor, type and quantity
2. Trimming procedures
3. Likelihood of shifting including angle of repose
4. Moisture content and its Transportable Moisture Limit (TML)
5. Any other relevant safety information such as chemical hazards
6. Voyage details such as destination, draught restriction, port restriction etc.

d. Prepare a Pre-Stowage plan using the Grain Loading Stability Booklet as reference and the Loadicator to
check the suitability of the proposed stow for stresses and stability.
e. Preparations prior to loading:
1. The cargo hold must be absolutely clean and free from any odor.
2. The bilges should be free and clean, particular attention being given to the strum boxes, to lime or
cement wash to the bilges.
3. The burlap should be laid and nailed down over limber boards so as to prevent grain from entering
the bilges or bilge wells.
4. The ventilation system in good working condition.
f.

Refer to BLU Code - Ship/ Shore Safety Checklist to ensure safe loading operation.

g. Refer to Grain Code for the trimming and securing procedures.

79. What is Scopic Clause?


a. An alternative means of assessing special compensation remuneration.
b. The contractor shall have the option to invoke by written notice to the owner of the vessel, the Scopic
Clause at any time of his choosing regardless of the circumstances and in particular, regardless of whether
or not there is a threat of damage to the environment.

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c.

The assessment of Scopic Clause remuneration shall commence from the time the written notice is given to
the owner of the vessel and services rendered before the said written notices shall not be remunerated
under the Scopic Clause at all but in accordance with Convention Article 13 as incorporated into the Main
Agreement.

d. It is a supplementary to any LOF which incorporates the provisions of Article 14 of the International
Convention on Salvage 1989.
1. If it is incorporated into a LOF contract, the salvor is entitles to invoke the use of such clause in
suitable cases.
2. Whether or not there is recovery or if Article 14 of LOF cannot be invoked.
3. Where there is likely to be salvage involving no recovery or low value recovery and high expenses
involved.
4. Where there is no threat to the environment.

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80. What is New Jason Clause?


a. It is a clause in the Bills of Lading and Charter Party covering goods carried to and from the USA that allows
the shipowner to claim General Average contribution from cargo interest if any accident, damage occurs
with or without negligence of the shipowner or his employee. The cargo owner has to incur any General

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Average sacrifice even the salvage charges. This clause is applied only if the average adjustment is made
in accordance with the USA Law.
b. In the event of accident, danger, damage or disaster before or after the commencement of the voyage,
resulting from any cause whatsoever, whether due to negligence or not, for which, or for the consequence
of which, the Carrier is not responsible, by statute, contract or otherwise, the goods, Shippers, Consignees
or owners of the goods shall contribute with the Carrier in general average to the payment of any sacrifices,
losses or expenses of a general average nature that may be made or incurred and shall pay salvage and
special charges incurred in respect of the goods.

81. What is Sue & Labor Clause?


a. When the policy contain the Sue & Labor Clause, the engagement thereby entered into is deemed to be
supplementary to the contract of insurance, and the assured may recover from the insurer any expenses
properly incurred following to the clause, notwithstanding that the insurer may have paid for a total loss, or
that the subject-matter may have been warranted free from particular average, either wholly or under a
certain percentage.
b. General average losses and contributions and salvage charges are not recoverable under the Sue & Labor
Clause.
c.

Expenses incurred for the purpose of preventing any loss not covered by the policy are not recoverable
under the Sue & Labor Clause.

d. It is the duty of the assured and his agents, in all cases, to take such measures as maybe reasonable for
the purpose of preventing or minimize a loss.

82. What is Particular Average?


a. It is a partial loss of the subject-matter insured caused by a peril insured and is not a general average loss.
b. It is fortuitous or accidental. It does not include damage by ordinary action of wind and waves, gradual
deterioration on account of ordinary use or inherent defect in the hull or machinery is excluded, unless the
policy otherwise provides otherwise.
c.

It does not include damage brought about a voluntary act. E.g. collision, contact (including stranding and
grounding), heavy weather and fire.

d. It cannot be partially shifted to others but will be borne by the persons directly affected. (e.g. insurer)

83. What is General Average?


a. It arises whenever a sacrifice of property or an extraordinary expenditure is reasonably made for the
common safety of the interests concerned in a maritime adventure. E.g. If the master voluntarily sacrifices
the cargo, equipment or funds from the ship to save the voyage, then all parties involved in the venture

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(including all cargo owners) are required to make a proportional contribution to cover the costs incurred.
b. Ships owners claim upon his insurance on ship may concern:
1. General average sacrifice, being damage to the ship voluntarily sustained for the common safety.
2. General average expenditure, incurred by the ship owner.
3. General average contribution. Bring what the ship owner has to pay towards the sacrifices suffered
and expenditures incurred by other parties.

84. Difference between General Average Loss and Particular Average Loss?
a. General average is incurred for the benefit of all interests but the particular average is in connection with
any of the interests.
b. General average is always voluntary and intentional but the particular average is an accidental or fortuitous.
c.

General average is shared by all those who are benefited by the general average act. Particular average is
paid by the insurer.

d. General average may include expenditure and sacrifice along with loss, whereas the particular average
results from a loss or damage.

85. What is Maritime Lien?


a. It is a charge on a ship and its cargo and freight for payment of a liability arising from a maritime adventure.
Procession is not a necessity and the liability will not crease irrespective of any change in ownership.
b. To enforce a lien, a detention order for the ship must be issued by the court if the ship is within the
jurisdiction of the courts of the country.
c.

There are two classes of maritime liens: Contractual Liens and Damage Liens.
1. Contractual Liens arise in respect of payment due under some contract, e.g. salvage.
2. Damage Liens arise principally from collision damage whereby the wrongful act or neglect of the
owner or his servant must be first proved.

86. Masters responsibilities as per ISPS?


a. To provide necessary support and resources to the SSO so as to implement the ISPS efficiently.

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b. The ISPS is fully maintained and there should not be any breach of security.
c.

ISPS drill is conducted at least once every three month.

d. Adequate security related training has been provided to crew.


e. Ensure crew completes the security-awareness training and hold a certificate of proficiency (COP) issued
by an MPA approved training provider in Singapore.
f.

Crew understand their responsibilities for ship security as described in the SSP and have sufficient
knowledge and ability to perform their assigned duties.

g. Regular inspection of the gangway register/ logbook entries so as to ensure it is properly maintained.
h. Report all security incidents.
i.

Security equipment is properly operated, tested, calibrated and maintained.

j.

SSP file to be kept in safe.

87. When to request for Declaration of Security (DOS)?


a. The ship is operating at a higher security level than the port facility or another ship.
b. There is an agreement on DOS between Contracting Governments.
c.

There has been a security threat or a security incident involving the ship or involving the port facility.

d. The ship is at a port which is not required to have and implement an approved port facility security plan.
e. The ship is conducting ship to ship activities with another ship not required to have and implement an
approved ship security plan.

88. Crew were found drunk, state your actions as a Master?


As per Merchant Shipping Act (Chapter 179), Part IV Section 76, if a seaman employed on a ship is, while
onboard the ship, under the influence of drink or a drug to such an extent that his capacity to fulfill his
responsibility for the ship or to carry out his duty is impaired, he shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable
on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2000.

89. As a Master of a container vessel, what would you see as being some of the greatest problems of being
in command?
a. Ship handling with a large container stack on deck, especially in strong wind condition
b. In the winter season, when in high latitudes, where the danger of ice accretion is always present. Added
weight on the container stack could be detrimental to the ships positive stability

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c.

The containers themselves are vulnerable to actions from terrorists or illegal immigrants

90. During abandon ship drill, what is your concern as a Master when lowering the lifeboat?
With the reference of IMO MSC Circular No. 1206,
a. Risk assessment to be carried out prior lowering the lifeboat so that the recognized risks are minimized
b. Weather condition is suitable for such operation
c.

The operation shall be supervised by a competent personnel

d. Ensure that all safety measures and precautions are being observed in accordance with the vessels safety
management system (SMS) and lifeboat instruction manuals
e. Safety briefing to all crew involved shall be conducted prior lowering the lifeboat
f.

The operation must be carried out during daylight hours only and shall not be carried out concurrently with
any other activity

g. Before placing crew onboard, the lifeboat has to be lowered and recovered without persons on board to
ascertain that the arrangement functions correctly. The lifeboat should then be lowered into the water with
only the number of crew on board necessary to operate the lifeboat

91. How do you explain ROR to your junior officer?


a. The minimum CPA, TCPA and UKC to be maintained. Give passing ship a good or wide berth in ample
time.
b. Explain what is opening bearing and closing bearing.
c.

In no circumstances leave the bridge until properly relieved.

d. Notify the master if in doubt.


1. If restricted visibility is encountered or expected.
2. If the traffic condition or movements the other ship is causing concern.
3. On failure or sight land, navigation mark or obtain sounding by the effective time.
4. If difficulty is experienced in maintaining course.
5. On breakdown of the engine, steering gear or any essential navigation equipment.
6. If unexpectedly and or navigation mark is sighted or sounding occurs.

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7. In heavy weather, if doubt the possibility of weather damage.


8. If the ship meets any hazard to navigation such derelicts etc.
e. Check the course steered, position and speed at regular interval, using any navigational aids necessary and
ensure the ship follows the planned course.
f.

Rule 5 Lookout: Ensure proper lookout is maintained at all times by sight and hearing and by all available
means including radar and AIS. In restricted visibility, the radar and ears maybe the only means of detecting
other vessels, the range scale selection should be appropriate and extra lookouts should be posted. The
early detection of a target will help to make an early judgment of the situation, and of the risk of collision.

g. Rule 6 Safe Speed: In under any circumstances the speed should be such that the vessel can take an
effective action to avoid danger, this includes maneuvering to keep out of the way or slowing down or
stopping to allow another vessel to pass clearly.
h. Rule 7 Risk of Collision: If there is any doubt even the slightest, he should assume that such risk exists
and would have to act according to the Rules. In judging such risk, he has to take into consideration the
conditions at that time state of sea, traffic density, visibility etc, All available means to assess the risk like
visual bearings, radar tracking or observations and plot, sound signals, VHF etc.
i.

Take frequent and accurate compass bearings of approaching ships as a means of early detection of risk of
collision and bear in mind that such risk may sometimes exist even when an appreciable bearing change is
evident, particularly when approaching a very large ship. Take early and positive action and subsequently
check that such action is having the desired effect.

92. What is your concern about Magnetic Compass?


If there has been a marked change in deviation, the compass should be readjusted.

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93. How do you carry out adjustment for Magnetic Compass?


a. Preparation for adjustment:
1. Find from the chart, the place to carry out adjustment.
2. Identify target suitable to be used to obtain bearing deviation.
3. Remove all loose iron around the vicinity of the compass.
4. Prepare ship in sea going condition, with derricks and lifeboats stowed. All doors and openings to
be closed position.
5. Ensure that the ship is upright.
6. Check spare correctors are available and binnacle doors can be opened.
b. Compass adjustment using the Analysis Method:
1. Swing the ship and obtain deviations on all eight headings and calculate the coefficients.
Obtain the targets true bearing and variation from the chart
Obtain the Magnetic Compass bearings of the target in all eight headings
Calculate the compass error and deviation
Calculate coefficient A, B, C, D & E
2. Correct coefficient B, C & D accordingly.
3. Swing the ship 360o and obtain deviations for the deviation card.
4. Record positions of correctors.
5. Lock the binnacle compartments and keep spare correctors.

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MARPOL Notes
a. MARPOL Annex I:
1. Ensure the controls of discharge of oil are as per Regulation No.15 (Non Tanker) and 34 (Tanker).
For non-tanker: Discharges inside/ outside special areas:

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the ship is proceeding en route

the oily mixture is processed through an oil filtering equipment

the oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 ppm

the oily mixture does not originate from cargo pump-room bilges on oil tankers

the oily mixture, in case of oil tankers, is not mixed with oil cargo residues

In the Antarctic area, any discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixtures from any ship

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shall be prohibited.
For tanker: Discharges outside special areas:
o

not within a special area

more than 50 nautical miles from the nearest land

proceeding en route

the instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not exceed 30 litres per
nautical mile

the total quantity of oil discharged into the sea does not exceed for tankers
delivered on or before 31 December 1979, 1 / 15,000 of the total quantity of the
particular cargo of which the residue formed a part, and for tankers delivered after
31 December 1979, 1 / 30,000 of the total quantity of the particular cargo of which
the residue formed a part

has an operational oil discharge monitoring and control system and a slop tank
arrangement

Any discharge into the sea from the cargo area of an oil tanker shall be prohibited while in
a special area
2. Special Area:
The Mediterranean Sea
The Baltic Sea
The Black Sea
The Red Sea
The Gulfs area
The Gulf of Aden area
The Antarctic area
The North West European waters (include the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the Celtic Sea, the
English Channel and part of the North East Atlantic)
The Oman area of the Arabian Sea
The Southern South African waters

3. The Oil Record Book Part I shall be completed on each occasion, on a tank-to-tank basis if
appropriate, whenever any of the following machinery space operations takes place in the ship:

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ballasting or cleaning of oil fuel tanks


discharge of dirty ballast or cleaning water from oil fuel tanks
collection and disposal of oil residues (sludge)
discharge overboard or disposal otherwise of bilge water which has accumulated in
machinery spaces
bunkering of fuel or bulk lubricating oil
in an event of accidental or other exceptional discharge of oil not excepted by that
regulation
Any failure of the oil filtering equipment
Each completed operation shall be signed by the officers in charge of the operations
concerned and each completed page shall be signed by the master
It shall be preserved for a period of three years after the last entry has been made.
b. MARPOL Annex V:
1. Disposal of garbage as per Regulation No. 4 and 6. Disposal of plastic is prohibited.
Discharge of garbage outside special areas
o

En route

3 nautical miles from the nearest land for food wastes which have been passed
through a comminuter

12 nautical miles from the nearest land for food wastes that have not been treated

12 nautical miles from the nearest land for cargo residues that cannot be recovered
using commonly available methods for unloading

For animal carcasses, discharge shall occur as far from the nearest land as
possible

When garbage is mixed, the more stringent requirements shall apply

Discharge of garbage within special areas

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En route

Discharge into the sea of food wastes as far as practicable from the nearest land,
but not less than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land. Food wastes shall be
comminuted.

When garbage is mixed, the more stringent requirements shall apply

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2. Special Area:
The Mediterranean Sea
The Baltic Sea
The Black Sea
The Red Sea
The Gulfs area
The North Sea
The Antarctic area
The Wider Caribbean Region
3. Each discharge into the sea or to a reception facility, or a completed incineration, shall be promptly
recorded in the Garbage Record Book and signed by the officer in charge. Each completed page of
the Garbage Record Book shall be signed by the master of the ship.
4. Garbage Record Book shall be preserved for a period of at least two years from the date of the last
entry made in it.

c.

MARPOL Annex VI:


1. Emission Control Areas:
For Nitrogen oxides (NOx ):
o

The North American area

The United States Caribbean sea area

Any other sea area, including any port area, designated by the Organization in
accordance with the criteria and procedures set forth in appendix III to this Annex

For Sulphur oxides (SOx) and particulate matter:


o

The Baltic Sea area

The North American area

The United States Caribbean sea area

Any other sea area, including any port area, designated by the Organization in
accordance with the criteria and procedures set forth in appendix III to this Annex

2. The sulphur content of any fuel oil used on board ships shall not exceed the following limits:

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4.50% m/m prior to 1 January 2012


3.50% m/m on and after 1 January 2012
0.50% m/m on and after 1 January 2020.
3. Ships operating within an emission control area, the sulphur content of fuel oil used on board ships
shall not exceed the following limits:
1.50% m/m prior to 1 July 2010
1.00% m/m on and after 1 July 2010
0.10% m/m on and after 1 January 2015

Important Circulars & Regulations


IMO Resolution A.893 (21): Guidelines for Voyage Planning
IMO MSC Circular No. 919: Guidelines for Damage Control Plans
IMO MSC Circular No. 1228: Revised Guidance to the Master for Avoiding Dangerous Situations in Adverse
Weather and Sea Condition
MPA Shipping Circular No. 16 of 2010: Importance of Voyage Planning and Avoiding Dangerous Situations
in Adverse Weather & Sea Conditions
MPA Shipping Circular No 06 of 2012 (2012 List of Certificates, Documents and Publications Required to
be Carried Onboard Singapore Flag Ships)
MPA Shipping Circular No. 06 of 2013: Update on the Implementation of the MLC 2006 (Onboard complaint
procedure)
MPA Shipping Circular No 08 of 2013 (MLC 2006 - Finalized Requirements for compliance with the MLC)
SOLAS Chapter I Part B, Regulation No. 14: Duration and validity of certificates
SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation No. 31: Danger Messages
SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation No. 32: Information required in danger messages
SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation No. 33: Distress situations: obligations and procedures
SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation No. 34: Safe navigation and avoidance of dangerous situations

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