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Introduction to

Directional
Drilling
Khalifah Al-Amri
Senior Drilling & Workover
Engineer

Outline

Definition
What Are Directional Wells ?
Directional Well Types
Why Drill Directionally?
Planning A Directional Well Path
How To Drill Directionally?
Horizontal Drilling
Complex Wells

Definition

Directional drilling is the science of


deviating a well bore along a
planned course to a subsurface
target whose location is a given
lateral distance and direction from
the vertical.

What Are Directional


Wells ?

Directional wells are


deviated from vertical
(straight)
Directional wells are
drilled with intentional
control to hit a predetermined target:

inclination (angle)
azimuth (direction).

Think 3-D when directional

Directional Well Types

Vertical Type

S Type

Slant (J) Type

Horizontal Type

Why Drill Directionally?

Sidetracking

Inaccessible Locations

Salt Dome Drilling

Fault Controlling

Why Drill Directionally?

Planning A Directional
Well Path

Kick Off Point


Build Up Rate
Azimuthal
Direction
Inclination Angle
True Vertical Depth
Measured Depth
Horizontal
Displacement

Dir
N

KOP
Inc

TVD

HD

MD EOW

How To Drill
Directionally?

Slide & Rotate Mode


Downhole Motor
Bent Sub

Fixed
Adjustable

Surveying Tool
Media of
Transmission

Horizontal Drilling

Types of Horizontal
Wells:

Long Radius (2-8/100)


Medium Radius (830/100)
Short Radius (3060/100)
Ultra Short Radius (60200/100)

Horizontal Drilling
Applications:
Gas and Water Coning:
Longer horizontal drain hole increases the
exposure of the pay-zone

Horizontal
Wells

Allows a higher production rate at lower


drawdown pressure resulting in less coning
Gas

Vertical
Wells

Oil
Water
Gas Coning

Water
Coning

Horizontal Drilling
Other Major Applications:

Maximum reservoir exposure


Naturally fractured tight reservoirs
Thin dry reservoirs
Less wells needed to develop a field

Complex Wells

Stacked Laterals

Complex Wells

Fishbone Wells

Complex Wells

Stacked Fishbone
Wells

Complex Wells

Multiple-Branch
Multilateral Wells