AGMA 930-A05

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AGMA 930-A05

AGMA 930-A05

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You are on page 1of 86

Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur

Gears

(This Information Sheet is NOT an AGMA Standard)

American

Spur Gears

Gear

AGMA 930--A05

Manufacturers

CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA technical publications are subject to constant improvement,

Association

revision or withdrawal as dictated by experience. Any person who refers to any AGMA

technical publication should be sure that the publication is the latest available from the Association on the subject matter.

[Tables or other self--supporting sections may be referenced. Citations should read: See

AGMA 930--A05, Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External

Spur Gears, published by the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, http://www.agma.org.]

Approved January 19, 2005

ABSTRACT

This information sheet describes a procedure for calculating the load capacity of a pair of powder metallurgy

(P/M) external spur gears based on tooth bending strength. Two types of loading are considered: 1) repeated

loading over many cycles; and 2) occasional peak loading. In a separate annex, it also describes an essentially

reverse procedure for establishing an initial design from specified applied loads. As part of the load capacity

calculations, there is a detailed analysis of gear teeth geometry. These have been extended to include useful

details on other aspects of gear geometry such as the calculations for defining gear tooth profiles, including

various fillets.

Published by

500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314

Copyright 2005 by American Gear Manufacturers Association

All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic

retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

ISBN: 1--55589--845--9

ii

AGMA 930--A05

Contents

Page

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

Definitions and symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

Fundamental formulas for calculated torque capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Design strength values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

Combined adjustment factors for strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

Calculation diameter, dc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

Effective face width, Fe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

Geometry factor for bending strength, J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

Combined adjustment factors for loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iv

1

1

3

4

6

7

8

8

9

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Annexes

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Calculation of spur gear factor, Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Calculation of the stress correction factor, Kf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Procedure for initial design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Calculation of inverse functions for gear geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Test for fillet interference by the tooth of the mating gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Calculation examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

27

37

39

44

46

50

Tables

1

2

3

Reliability factors, KR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Manufacturing variation adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

iii

AGMA 930--A05

Foreword

[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, in this document are provided for

informational purposes only and are not to be construed as a part of AGMA Information

Sheet 930--A05, Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External

Spur Gears.]

This information sheet was prepared by the AGMA Powder Metallurgy Gearing Committee

as an initial response to the need for a design evaluation procedure for powder metallurgy

(P/M) gears. The committee anticipates that, after appropriate modification and

confirmation based on application experience, this procedure will become part of a standard

gear rating method for P/M gears. As such, it will serve the same function for P/M gears as

the rating procedure in ANSI/AGMA 2001--C95 for wrought metal gears. Toward this end,

the design evaluation procedure described here closely follows ANSI/AGMA 2001--C95,

with changes made for the special properties of P/M materials, gear proportions, and types

of applications. These design considerations have made it possible to introduce some

simplifications in comparison to the above mentioned standard.

The first draft of AGMA 930--A05 was made in June 1996. It was approved by the AGMA

Technical Division Executive Committee in January 2005.

Suggestions for improvement of this document will be welcome. They should be sent to the

American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria,

Virginia 22314.

iv

AGMA 930--A05

Chairman: H. Sanderow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Management & Engineering Technologies

Vice Chairman: Walter D. Badger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Motors Corporation

ACTIVE MEMBERS

T.R. Bednar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

T.R. Bobak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

D. Bobby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

P.A. Crawford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

J.A. Danaher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F. Eberle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

S.T. Haye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

T.M. Horne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

K. Ko . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I. Laskin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

D.D. Osti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

E. Reiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

J.T. Rill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

R. Rupprecht . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

D. Serdynski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

G. Wallis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

mG MiniGears North America

Innovative Sintered Metals

MTD Products, Inc.

QMP America

Hi--Lex Automative Center

Burgess Norton Mfg. Co.

GKN Sinter Metals

Pollak Division of Stoneridge

Consultant

Metal Powder Products Company

Web Gear Services, Ltd.

Black & Decker, Inc.

Metal Powder Products Company

Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation

Dorst America, Inc.

AGMA 930--A05

vi

Association --

Capacity of Powder

Metallurgy (P/M)

External Spur Gears

AGMA 930--A05

the same tooling for a design adjusted for greater

face width.

1.1.4 Limitations

Gears made from all materials and by all processes,

including P/M gears, may fail in a variety of modes

other than by tooth bending. This information sheet

does not address design features to resist these

other modes of failure, such as excessive wear and

other forms of tooth surface deterioration.

CAUTION: The calculated load capacity from this procedure is not to be used for comparison with AGMA ratings of wrought metal gears, even though there are

many similarities in the two procedures.

1 Scope

1.1 General

gears, the type of gear most commonly produced by

the P/M process.

1.1.1 Calculation

This information sheet describes a procedure for

calculating the load capacity of a pair of powder

metallurgy (P/M) gears based on tooth bending

strength. Two types of loading are considered: 1)

repeated loading over many cycles; and 2) occasional peak loading. This procedure is to be used on

prepared gear designs which meet the customary

gear geometry requirements such as adequate

backlash, contact ratio greater than 1.0, and adequate top land. An essentially reverse procedure for

establishing an initial design from specified applied

loads is described in annex D.

in these calculations may be taken from previous test

experience, but may also be derived from published

data obtained from standard tests of the materials.

conditions expressed as a contact ratio greater than

one and less than two. This translates into the

requirement that there is at least one pair of

contacting teeth transmitting load and no more than

two pairs.

1.1.3 Application

This procedure is intended for use as an initial

evaluation of a proposed design prior to preparation

of test samples. Such test samples might be

machined from P/M blanks or made from P/M tooling

based on the proposed design after it passes this

initial evaluation. Final acceptance of the proposed

design should be based on application testing and

not on these calculations. If samples made from

conform to those commonly produced by the P/M

process for load carrying applications:

-- Finest pitch: 0.4 mm module;

-- Maximum active face width: 15 module, with

a 65 mm maximum;

-- Minimum number of teeth: 7;

-- Maximum outside diameter: 180 mm;

-- Pressure angle: 14.5 to 25.

2.1 Definitions

The terms used, wherever applicable, conform to

ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90.

AGMA 930--A05

2.2 Symbols

detail.

The symbols and terms used throughout this information sheet are in basic agreement with the

symbols and terms given in AGMA 900--G00, Style

Manual for the Preparation of Standards, Information Sheets and Editorial Manuals, and ANSI/AGMA

1012--F90, Gear Nomenclature, Definitions of Terms

with Symbols. In all cases, the first time that each

NOTE: The symbols and definitions used in this information sheet may differ from other AGMA documents.

The user should not assume that familiar symbols can

be used without a careful study of their definitions.

numbers where they are first discussed, are listed in

alphabetical order by symbol in table 1.

Symbol

CA

d

dAG

dAP

dc

E

Fe

Fo

Fx

Fxe1

Fxe2

fqm

fqv

ht

J

Jt

Jy

KB

Kf

Kft

Kfy

KL

KLR

KLy

Kmt

Kmy

Kot

Koy

KR

Ks

KT

Kts

Ktw

Kv

Ky

Terms

Operating center distance

Gear pitch diameter

Operating pitch diameter of gear

Operating pitch diameter of pinion

Calculation diameter

Modulus of elasticity

Effective face width

Overlapping face width

Each face width extension, not larger than m

Effective face width extension at one end

Effective face width extension at other end

Factor relating to axis misalignment adjustment

Factor relating to manufacturing variations adjustment

Whole depth of gear teeth

Geometry factor for bending strength

Geometry factor for bending strength under repeated loading

Geometry factor for bending strength under occasional peak loading

Rim thickness factor

Stress concentration factor used in calculating bending geometry factor,

J

Stress correction factor for repeated loading

Stress correction factor for occasional overloads

Life factor

Load reversal factor

Life factor at 0.5 104 cycles

Load distribution factor for repeated loading

Load distribution factor for occasional overloads

Overload factor for repeated loads

Overload factor for occasional overloads

Reliability factor

Size factor

Temperature factor

Combined adjustment factor for bending fatigue strength

Combined adjustment factor for repeated tooth loading

Dynamic factor

Yield strength factor

Units

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

N/mm2

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

-- --- -mm

-- --- --- --- --- ------------------

-----------------

Reference

Eq 24

Eq 37

Eq 25

Eq 24

Eq 1

Eq 38

Eq 1

Eq 26

Eq 27

Eq 26

Eq 26

Eq 36

Eq 37

Eq 32

Eq 28

Eq 1

Eq 2

Eq 31

8.2

Eq 29

Eq 30

Eq 12

Eq 12

Eq 13

Eq 31

Eq 40

Eq 31

Eq 40

Eq 12

Eq 12

Eq 12

Eq 1

Eq 1

Eq 31

Eq 21

(continued)

AGMA 930--A05

Table 1 (concluded)

Symbol

Kys

Kyw

kut

m

mB

mct

mcy

mw

NG

NP

n

nu

qm

qv

Sb

SF

st

stG

stT

stTG

suG

suM

suT

suTG

sy

syG

syM

syT

syTG

Tt

Ty

tR

VqT

vt

Y

Terms

Combined adjustment factor for yield strength

Combined adjustment factor for occasional peak loading

Conversion factor for ultimate strength to fatigue limit

Module

Backup ratio

Modifying factor due to tooth compliance for repeated loading

Modifying factor due to tooth compliance for occasional overloads

Modifying factor due to tooth surface wear

Number of teeth of gear

Number of teeth of pinion

Number of tooth load cycles

Number of units for which one failure will be tolerated

Adjustment due to axis misalignment

Adjustment due to manufacturing variations

Bearing span

Safety factor for bending strength

Design fatigue strength

Fatigue limit, full reversal, adjusted for G--1 failure rate

G--10 failure rate fatigue limit (published data)

Adjustment in fatigue limit from G--10 to G--1

Ultimate tensile strength, adjusted for G--1

Minimum ultimate strength listed in MPIF Standard 35

Typical ultimate strength (published data)

Reduction in ultimate strength from typical to G--1

Design yield strength

Yield strength, adjusted for G--1

Minimum yield strength listed in MPIF Standard 35

Typical yield strength (published data)

Reduction in yield strength from typical to G--1

Torque load capacity for tooth bending under repeated loading

Torque load capacity under occasional peak loading

Rim thickness

Tooth--to--tooth composite tolerance (or measured variation)

Pitch line velocity

Tooth form factor

torque capacity

Each has its own formula for calculated torque

capacity, reflecting the corresponding critical material properties and other factors. To find the load

capacity of a gear under the combined types of

loading, calculate the two torque values from the

Units

-- --- --- -mm

-- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- -mm

-- -N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

Nm

Nm

mm

mm

m/s

-- --

Reference

Eq 2

Eq 2

Eq 5

Eq 1

Eq 32

Eq 35

Eq 41

Eq 35

Eq 24

Eq 24

Eq 14

Eq 20

Eq 35

Eq 35

Eq 36

Eq 31

Eq 1

Eq 3

Eq 3

Eq 3

Eq 9

Eq 10

Eq 5

Eq 9

Eq 2

Eq 6

Eq 7

Eq 6

Eq 6

Eq 1

Eq 2

Eq 32

Eq 39

Eq 39

Eq 28

the overall load capacity of a pair of non--identical

gears, or of all the gears in the drive train, the

calculated load capacity torque for each gear must

be converted to a power value. This is done by

multiplying the torque value for each gear by the

corresponding gear speed, generally expressed as

radians per unit time interval. The lowest of all these

power values becomes the calculated power capacity of the complete gear pair or drive train.

AGMA 930--A05

Tt =

s t K ts d c F e J t m

2000 K tw

(1)

where

Tt

is torque load capacity for tooth bending under repeated loading, Nm;

st

4.1.2.1);

Kts

fatigue strength (see 5.1);

dc

Fe

Jt

is geometry factor for bending strength under repeated loading (see clause 8);

is module, mm;

the laboratory or field testing of gears from the same

material of similar density and processing, it may be

possible to perform reverse calculations to arrive at

an acceptable design fatigue strength. The value

derived from this procedure may be overly conservative unless the test program included a range of load

conditions that bracketed the line between successful operation and failure by repeated bending.

4.1.2 Derived from published data

When suitable gear test data is not available,

published data based on standard material testing

methods can be used, but only after adjustments are

made to adapt the fatigue strength values to the

design procedures of this information sheet. These

procedures are based on values that correspond to

the following conditions:

a) number of test cycles of 107;

tooth loading (see clause 9).

100, i.e., 1 percent or G--1 failure rate;

loading

typical gear tooth load cycling).

Ty =

s y K ys d c F e J y m

2000 K yw

(2)

where

Ty

peak loading, Nm;

sy

strength;

Kyw is combined adjustment

occasional peak loading;

Jy

factor

for

under occasional peak loading.

Design strength values depend not only on the P/M

material composition, and any heat treatment, but

also on the density achieved during compaction or

post--sintering repressing.

4.1 Fatigue strength, st

The value for design fatigue strength can be

obtained from alternate sources.

Such data for P/M materials generally meet condition (a) of 4.1.2, but not conditions (b) and (c). Values

called typical generally refer to test results with

50% of the specimens falling below and 50% above

the published value. This corresponds to a G--50

failure rate, also known as mean fatigue life.

Data published by the Metal Powder Industries

Federation (MPIF) [1] has been determined as the

90% survival stress fatigue limit, using rotating

bending fatigue testing. This fatigue limit data is also

known as the G--10 failure rate fatigue life.

Rotating bending fatigue testing imposes load

cycling of full--reversal loads. The critical location on

the test specimen is subjected to the maximums of

both tensile and compressive stresses.

Adjustments to meet the conditions of 4.1.2(b) and

(c) are expressed in the following equations:

(3)

s tG = s tT s tTG

where

stG

G--1 failure rate, N/mm2;

stT

data), N/mm2;

to G--1, N/mm2.

steels as 14 N/mm2 from a statistical analysis of

recently published data [2].

The design fatigue limit, after adjustments, st, is:

st =

s tG

0.7

(4)

full--reversal to zero--to--maximum load cycling. For

those gear applications, such as idler or planet

gears, where the gear teeth experience fully reversing loads, this adjustment factor will be corrected

through the appropriate choice of load reversal

factor, see 5.1.2.

4.1.2.2 Data estimated from typical ultimate

tensile strength

When fatigue limit data is not directly available, it can

be estimated from ultimate tensile strength values.

This estimation process is described below.

Convert the typical ultimate tensile strength to the

G--10 failure rate fatigue limit by the following

expression:

s tT = k ut s uT

(5)

kut

If a gear of the same material and similar density and

processing has been tested for the load causing

permanent deflection or breakage of the teeth, it may

be possible to perform reverse calculations to arrive

at a limiting design yield strength.

4.2.2 Derived from published data

When suitable gear test data is not available,

published data based on standard material testing

methods can be used, but only after an adjustment is

made to adapt the yield strength values to the design

procedures of this information sheet. These procedures are based on values that correspond to the

following condition:

-- test failure rates projected to less than 1 in a

100, i.e., 1% or G--1 failure rate.

4.2.2.1 Derived from typical yield strength

In as--sintered gears, the published data is generally

in the form of a typical yield strength based on 0.2%

offset. This typical yield strength, based on a G--50

failure rate, must be converted to a design yield

strength, based on a G--1 failure rate. This

adjustment may be represented by the following

equation:

s yG = s yT s yTG

where

suT

AGMA 930--A05

(6)

N/mm2;

where

fatigue limit;

syT

microstructure):

G--1, N/mm2.

steel

(martensitic

kut = 0.32

For as--sintered steel (pearlite and ferrite microstructure):

kut = 0.39

For as--sintered

microstructure):

steel

(ferrite

only

kut = 0.43

Then convert this estimated G--10 failure rate fatigue

limit, stT, to the design fatigue limit for zero--to

maximum loading using equations 3 and 4.

is typical yield strength (published data),

N/mm2;

observations. An alternative method is to refer to

MPIF Standard 35, where this step is accomplished

for as--sintered materials by the listing of minimum

strength values. For these materials:

s yG = s yM

(7)

where

syM is minimum yield strength listed in MPIF

Standard 35, N/mm2.

The design yield strength is then set equal to this

adjusted yield strength:

s y = s yG

(8)

from one of two sources.

approximately the same as typical ultimate

AGMA 930--A05

from typical ultimate strength by first converting the

typical value for a G--50 failure rate to a design value

with a G--1 failure rate, as in 4.2.2.1.

s uG = s uT s uTG

(9)

G--1 failure rate, N/mm2.

is typical ultimate strength (published data),

N/mm2;

to G--1, N/mm2.

The adjustment, suTG, is best determined from test

observations. An alternative method is to refer to

MPIF Standard 35, where this step is accomplished

for heat treated materials by the listing of minimum

strength values. For these materials:

s uG = s uM

(10)

where

suM is minimum ultimate strength listed in

MPIF Standard 35, N/mm2.

The design yield strength is then set equal to this

adjusted ultimate strength:

s y = s uG

(11)

This factor is a combination of factors relating to the

strength of the P/M gear material under the operating

conditions. Use of such a combined factor helps

simplify the fundamental formulas in clause 3. As an

added advantage, this combined factor may be used

without detailed analysis for subsequent gear designs with similar operating conditions.

5.1

Combined factor for bending fatigue

strength, Kts

K ts =

K L K LR

Ks KT KR

where

KL

is life factor;

strength at the required number of tooth load cycles,

n, to the strength at 107 cycles. It can be estimated

from the following equations:

For 0 < n < (0.5 104),

where

suT

Ks

is size factor;

KT

is temperature factor;

KR

is reliability factor.

(12)

K L = K Ly =

0.9 s y

st

(13)

K L = 1 + 2.121 K Ly 1

0.303 K Ly 1 log n

(14)

KL = 1, for ferrous materials only

(15)

(for non--ferrous material, consult test data)

where

n

equation 13 with strength values from

4.1.2.1 or 4.1.2.2 and 4.2.2.1 or 4.2.2.2.

5.1.2 Load reversal factor, KLR

In 4.1.2.1, the factor of 0.7 was introduced to adjust

the fatigue strength values for the difference in cyclic

loading in material testing from the typical cyclic

loading of gear teeth. In material testing, the load is

fully reversed while in most gear applications the

load is zero--to--maximum in one direction only. The

KLR factor reverses this adjustment for those less

typical gear applications in which the gear tooth

loading is bidirectional, as follows:

KLR = 1.0 if load is unidirectional

(16)

in idler or planet gears

(17)

In some wrought materials, the stock from which the

gear is machined may have non--uniform material

properties which are related to size. However, with

P/M materials, the properties of the powder mix are

independent of the size of the finished gear. The size

of the P/M gear may influence processing, which in

turn may affect the strength properties at the gear

teeth, but only through change to other material

characteristics such as density and hardness. In that

case, the size effects will be reflected directly in the

fatigue strength value, st, as described in 4.1.

Therefore, for P/M gears, size factor, Ks, is:

(18)

Ks = 1

This factor reflects any loss of strength properties at

high operating temperatures. This applies to

hardened gears for which a temperature over 177C

may cause some tempering.

For gear blank temperatures below the level at which

strength is affected:

KT = 1

loading.

For unhardened materials:

Ky = 1.00

(22)

Ky = 0.75

(23)

(19)

which strength is affected, KT is increased to reflect

the loss in strength. For very low gear blank

temperatures in impact prone applications, KT may

be increased to reflect any reduction in impact

properties.

5.1.5 Reliability factor, KR

This factor accounts for the effect of the typical

statistical distribution of failures found in fatigue

testing of materials. Its value is based on the

frequency of failures that can be tolerated in the gear

application, expressed as no more than one failure in

some number of units, nu. KR may be estimated from

the following equation:

K R = 0.5 + 0.25 log n u

(20)

where

nu

AGMA 930--A05

be tolerated.

Some values from this equation, along with equivalent G values, are given in table 2.

This factor is used in the calculation of J, the

geometry factor for bending strength (see clause 8).

It reflects the increase in local stresses due to sharp

changes in geometry at or near the critical section.

These increased stresses directly affect the bending

strength under repeated loading. Under occasional

loads, however, local yielding may take place and

the stress concentration has little or no significant

effect on load capacity. In the AGMA gear rating

calculation, this difference is treated by re-introducing the stress correction factor as a beneficial adjustment to the yield strength. In the

calculation procedures of this document, a different

and more direct approach is used, and such an

adjustment is not needed and is not included in the

above combined factor for yield strength. As

described in clause 8 and annex C, the J factor for

each type of loading is calculated with a stress

correction factor which is appropriately modified to

reflect the differences.

K ys =

Ky

Ks KT

(21)

where

Ky

Ks

KT

This factor reflects the difference between the

response of hardened versus unhardened materials

6 Calculation diameter, dc

The calculation diameter, as used in equations 1 and

2, must agree with the diameter value used in

calculating the Y factor, see annex B. For spur gears,

it is the same as the operating pitch diameter of the

gear for which the torque capacity is to be calculated.

Its value depends on the relative numbers of teeth

and the operating center distance and may be, but is

not necessarily, equal to the standard pitch diameter,

as follows:

Requirement of application:

No more than 1 failure in:

nu units

10,000

1,000

100

Equivalent G--value

G--0.01

G--0.10

G--1.00

KR

1.50

1.25

1.00

AGMA 930--A05

where

d c = d AP =

2 CA

N

1+ G

NP

(24)

Fx

m), mm;

is module, mm.

where

dAP is operating pitch diameter of pinion, mm;

CA

NP

NG

d c = d AG =

2 CA

N

1+ P

NG

(25)

which relates the shape of the gear tooth, along with

some associated geometry conditions, to the tensile

bending stress induced by a unit load applied on the

tooth flank. For spur gears, there are two elements

which go into its calculation:

J= Y

Kf

(28)

where

where

dAG is operating pitch diameter of gear, mm.

capable of resisting bending loads. If the two mating

gears have the same face widths which are fully

overlapping, then the effective face width of each is

equal to the common face width. If, however, there is

a portion of a face width which extends beyond the

overlapping width, then this extension may contribute to resisting the bending load.

The extensions may be present at one or both ends

of the face width of either of the mating gears.

This may be expressed as equations:

F e = F o + F xe1 + F xe2

(26)

Fo

end, mm.

These effective face width extensions may be

estimated as follows:

For each extension:

Fx

Fx

2m

Kf

addition of a coefficient of friction where the tooth

sliding friction force may have a significant effect on

stresses. As part of making this a non--dimensional

factor, the geometry is scaled to a tooth of unit

module. The elements of the factor are:

-- the location along the tooth flank where the tooth

load will have its greatest effect on bending

stress;

-- the proportions of the tooth shape, especially in

the region of the tooth fillet;

-- the diameter used to relate applied torque values

to a tangential force, by tradition the operating

pitch diameter of the gear.

mm;

F xe = 1

described in annex B with calculation of some of the

required geometry data described in annex A.

where

Fe

(27)

geometry, the type of loading, and some property of

the material that determines to what extent it is

sensitive to stress concentration. The calculation is

described in annex C.

Since the type of loading may be a significant factor,

there will generally be two values considered for

each gear. One, Kft, is for repeated loading and the

other, Kfy, is for the occasional overload condition.

This leads to two possible values for the J factor:

Jt = Y

K ft

(29)

where

Kft

loading.

Jy = Y

K fy

(30)

where

Kfy

overloads.

This is a combination of the remaining load capacity

factors, most of which relate to tooth loading under

the operating conditions. The use of such a

combined factor helps simplify the fundamental

formulas in clause 3. As an added advantage, this

combined factor may be used without detailed

analysis for subsequent gear designs with similar

operating conditions.

9.1 Combined adjustment factor for repeated

tooth loading, Ktw

K tw = S F K ot K B K mt K v

(31)

where

SF

Kot

KB

Kmt

Kv

is overload factor for repeated loads;

is rim thickness factor;

is load distribution factor for repeated loading;

is dynamic factor.

A safety factor is commonly introduced into design

calculations to provide greater protection against

possible failure. This protection may be sought

because of concern that some elements of the

design process may have overstated the strength of

the material or may have understated the level of the

loading. Sometimes the added protection against

failure is based on concern for some extremely

severe result of failure.

In selecting a value for safety factor, it is first

necessary to recognize that many of these concerns

AGMA 930--A05

calculations. As for material strength, there have

been a whole series of adjustments, such as the

selection of the G--1 values from published data, see

clause 4, and the various factors defined in clause 5.

Similarly for the level of loading, a number of

adjustments have been introduced, as described in

clause 9. Based on concerns for material strength

and loading, unless these adjustments are judged to

be inadequate, the suggested value for the safety

factor would be one.

This first selection may be increased after consideration of the possible results of failure of the gear

under study. If such failure is likely to be followed by

severe economic loss, or even more importantly, by

injury to those associated with the failed equipment,

then the safety factor should reflect the level of the

hazards.

Also to be considered is the level of testing that

precedes final acceptance of the design. Because

the P/M process is used to produce gears for mass

production, there is generally the need and opportunity for extensive testing. This, and the recognition

that P/M processes are highly consistent, indicates

that high safety factors are rarely necessary.

9.1.2 Overload factor for repeated loads, Kot

This factor allows for two types of repeated overloads. One type is the overload that results from

operation of the product beyond its nominal rating. If

the calculated load capacity is going to be compared

to the load associated with the nominal rating, then

this factor should be adjusted to reflect this potential

overload. The other type is the overload resulting

from externally applied dynamic loads. Anything in

the drive train that is not steady in its effect on

transmitted torque or speed may introduce dynamic

torques. For example, non--steady torques are

associated with driving members like internal combustion engines or some types of hydraulic motors.

They are also associated with varying drive train

loads such as reciprocating pumps or intermittent

cutting actions.

The selection of the appropriate value of this factor

may be based on a thorough dynamic analysis of the

drive train with all its inertia, compliance and

damping effects. Most often, however, it will be

selected in accordance with past experience with

similar products and with the application of

engineering judgement.

AGMA 930--A05

The calculation of bending strength at the tooth fillet,

as in annex B, presupposes that the material in the

adjacent areas is adequate to support the stressed

regions. If the rim thickness under the root circle is

too small to provide this support, or is itself under

stress from transmitting torque from the gear web or

spokes, then a rim thickness factor is needed to

compensate for these rim shortcomings.

The P/M gear is rarely designed with a narrow web

and extended rim, as is the common practice in

machined or cast wide--face gears. For the typical

P/M gear, therefore, the rim thickness factor is set to

one. There is a practice of introducing holes into the

otherwise solid web of P/M gears to reduce weight

and compaction area. If these holes are placed too

close to the root circle of the gear teeth, a condition

similar to a thin rim results. The rim thickness factor

may then be calculated as follows:

Backup ratio, mB

t

mB = R

ht

(32)

is whole depth of gear teeth, mm.

For mB 1.2

(33)

For mB <1.2

K B = 1.2916 3.682 log m B

-- misalignment of the gear axes due to manufacturing variations in the geometry of the housing,

bearings, shafts, and any other support features;

-- manufacturing variations in the geometry of the

tooth surfaces, such as axial runout (wobble) or

non--uniform tooth thickness across the face

width.

The effect of these items on non--uniform load

distribution increases with the face width of the

mating gears. In the case of gear axis misalignment,

the size of the face width in relation to the bearing

span is often significant. In the case of tooth surface

geometry, the manufacturing variations tend to

increase as face width becomes larger in relation to

gear diameter.

The common items that tend to improve load

distribution are:

cycles of repeated loading.

KB = 1

twisting of the tooth, combined with contact surface

deformations;

where

tR

ht

various items which contribute to, or partially offset,

the effect on tooth bending strength.

(34)

related to these items by the following equation:

K mt = 1 + (q m + q v)m ct m w

where

Kmt

qm

qv

uniform contact along the axial length of the mating

gear teeth. Such limited contact interferes with a

uniform distribution of the transmitted load. The load

tends to concentrate where contact is best, which

raises the bending stress at the corresponding

positions along the base of the tooth. Adjacent

portions of the tooth help to support these concentrated loads and, to some extent, limit the rise in local

stress.

mct

mw

exact nature of the non--uniform load distribution, its

effect on local bending stress, and the resulting loss

in load capacity. Instead, a value for the load

10

(35)

is adjustment due to manufacturing

variations;

is modifying factor due to tooth compliance;

is modifying factor due to tooth surface

wear.

these factors are described below. They qualitatively consider many of the elements that can influence

the effect of non--uniform load distribution. The

quantitative values are only estimates which may be

used until more appropriate values are developed by

analytical or experimental methods.

9.1.4.1 Axis misalignment adjustment, qm

This factor recognizes that the extent of axis

misalignment will be influenced by the expected

AGMA 930--A05

the mounting of the gear with respect to bearing

locations. It also recognizes that with misalignment

determined by these conditions, its contribution to

non--uniform load distribution will increase with face

width.

q m = f qm

Fo

Sb

(36)

where

Typical AGMA

accuracy grade1)

Q5

Q6

Q7

Q8

Q9

Q10

fqv

1.0

0.75

0.6

0.4

0.3

0.2

NOTE:

1) See AGMA 2000--A88.

Fo

Sb

fqm

adjustment:

For machined metal housing with rolling

element bearings:

This factor takes into account the compliance of the

material, as indicated by its modulus of elasticity, and

the degree of loading, as indicated by the design

stress.

fqm = 0.1

For machined metal housing with straddle

mounted sleeve bearings:

sE

m ct = 1 5

0.5

(38)

where

fqm = 0.2

For machined metal housing with overhung

mounted sleeve bearings:

st

E

is modulus of elasticity, N/mm2.

fqm = 0.5

mounted sleeve bearings:

hardness of the tooth surfaces, with very slow wear

expected from heat treated P/M materials. Also, the

kind of wear which best corrects for non--uniform

contact conditions takes place when each tooth is

contacted by only one tooth on the mating gear. This

contact condition is met only when the gear ratio has

an integer value.

fqm = 0.6

For as--cast or molded housing with overhung mounted sleeve bearings:

fqm= 1.0

9.1.4.2 Manufacturing variations adjustment, qv

This factor considers that P/M process variations

from ideal gear geometry are influenced by gear

proportions. This influence is expressed, for the

sake of simplicity, in terms of the ratio of face width to

pitch diameter. It also recognizes that gear geometry

may be substantially improved by a final finishing

process.

q v = f qv

Fo

d

(37)

where

Fo

fqv

adjustment (see table 3).

condition and with an integer value for gear

ratio:

mw = 0.6

For one or both gears in as--sintered condition and with a non--integer value for gear

ratio:

mw = 0.8

For both gears in heat treated condition:

mw = 1.0

9.1.5 Dynamic factor, Kv

This factor accounts for the added dynamic tooth

loads that are developed by the meshing action of

the gears. These loads are influenced by:

-- imperfections in the geometry of the gear teeth;

-- speed of the meshing action;

11

AGMA 930--A05

Kv

be derived from a thorough dynamic analysis of the

drive train with consideration of all these influences.

In practice, an approximate value may be calculated

from an equation which uses a gear inspection value

as the indicator of imperfect geometry and the

pitchline velocity as the meshing speed indicator.

The gear inspection most commonly used for P/M

gears is the gear rolling check, or double flank test, in

which the test gear is rolled with a master gear. See

AGMA 2000--A88. One measurement made by this

inspection is the tooth--to--tooth composite variation,

an approximate indicator of the degree that the gear

will contribute to exciting dynamic loads. This value,

as expressed by its tolerance, VqT, is part of the

specification of gear quality. If measured values are

available, they may be used in place of the tolerance.

Since meshing conditions are determined by the

geometry of both gears, if the tolerances or measurements differ between the two, the value used in

the following calculations should be the larger.

K v = 1 + 0.0055 V qT v t

0.5

(39)

where

VqT is tooth--to--tooth composite tolerance (or

measured variation), mm;

vt

is pitch line velocity, m/s.

9.2 Combined adjustment factor for occasional

overloads, Kyw

K yw = S F K oy K B K my K v

SF

Koy

KB

Kmy

12

This factor is generally the same as the safety factor

discussed in 9.1.1 for fatigue loading.

9.2.2 Overload factor for occasional overloads,

Koy

This factor should be based on the types of

occasional overloads that may be applied to the

gears. Some considerations are items such as the

inertia and time duration of load in the system under

consideration. These may be different from the

repeated overloads and will generally require a

different factor.

9.2.3 Rim thickness factor, KB

The same factor discussed in 9.1.3 is used here.

9.2.4 Load distribution factor for occasional

overloads, Kmy

The equation used to estimate this factor is:

K my = 1 + (q m + q v)m cy

is overload factor for occasional overloads;

is rim thickness factor;

is load distribution factor for occasional

overloads;

(41)

9.1.4 in that the modifying factor due to tooth surface

wear has been omitted. Occasional overloads may

occur before wear has progressed enough to modify

load distribution. The remaining factors are the

same except for mcy, the modifying factor due to

tooth compliance which is here estimated by:

(40)

where

is dynamic factor.

sE

m cy = 1 5

0.5

(42)

where

sy

The same factor discussed in 9.1.5 is used here.

AGMA 930--A05

Annex A

(informative)

Calculation of spur gear geometry features

[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,

Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

A.1 Introduction

B requires data describing a number of gear

geometry features. This annex gives the detailed

calculations for each of these features as listed

below. See A.9 for listing of symbols and terms.

(driver) and G = gear (driven)

A.3.1;

-- number of teeth, N;

-- outside diameter, dO;

-- tip radius, rr;

loading, see A.8.2.

calculations for features not required by annex B.

These have been included because they are connected to the required calculations and are useful for

general reference purposes.

tO

tOR

rr

-- remaining top land after tip rounding, see A.3.2;

dO

-- bottom land for the circular--arc fillet, see A.5.5.

tOE

dOE

rC

-- profile contact ratio, see A.8.4;

-- form limit clearance (test for tip--fillet

interference), see annex F.

drC

A.3.1 Effective outside diameter, dOE

tangency with the tip round. It is calculated for each

gear in the following steps:

-- module, m;

-- pressure angle, .

d rC = d O 2r r

(A.1)

13

AGMA 930--A05

d=Nm

(A.2)

d B = d(cos )

(A.3)

rC = arccos

dB

d rC

(A.4)

OE = arctan tan rC +

2r r

dB

(A.5)

d OE =

dB

cos OE

(A.6)

This is the width of the outer tip of the gear that

remains after rounding at each corner. The calculation is needed only as a check on the design of the

gear. It consists of two steps and uses some of the

data found in A.3.1.

Step 1. Tooth thickness half--angle, :

= t

d

another type of tool, such as a gear shaper cutter, the

trochoid described here will be slightly different from

the shape of that machined trochoid. Some gears

are machined with a protuberance feature on the

tool. The protuberance provides an undercut fillet

which can clear the tip of a finishing tool used to

modify the involute flank in a secondary operation.

This analysis does not cover such a feature, even

when it is used on a hob or other rack shaped

generating tool. It has been omitted because the

addition of an undercut condition is rarely needed in

P/M gears.

A.4.1 Basic rack

The calculation uses several data items related to

the basic rack. See figure A.2.

A.4.1.1 Specified basic rack proportions

The following data items define the portion of the

basic rack that helps determine the trochoid fillet:

-- tooth thickness, tBR;

(A.7)

-- dedendum, bBR;

-- fillet radius, rfBR.

t OR = d O + (inv ) tan OE + rC

(A.8)

If the calculated remaining top land is negative, the

two tip radii intersect inside of the selected outside

diameter. To correct this design flaw, one or more of

the following design changes are needed:

-- reduce the tip radius;

-- reduce the outside diameter;

-- increase the tooth thickness.

A.4 Generated trochoid fillet points

The trochoid described below is generated by a rack

shaped outline rolling on the standard pitch circle of

the gear. This rack shaped outline, universally called

a basic rack, is often visualized as the outline of an

imaginary rack shaped gear generating tool such as

14

manufacture a P/M gear, the corresponding basic

rack may be used to define the P/M gear trochoid

fillet.

specification. It is customary for standards to specify

basic rack proportions for unit module. The above

items would then be calculated by adjusting the unit

pitch data for the actual module of the gear, m.

If a separate basic rack specification is not available,

values of the first two of these items can be

determined from some of the data in A.2, as follows:

Basic rack tooth thickness, according to common

practice:

t BR = m

2

(A.9)

root diameter:

b BR = 0.5 Nm +

t t BR

dR

tan

(A.10)

C

L Tooth

AGMA 930--A05

C

L Space

p BR

2

gfBR

Nominal

pitch line

Generating

pitch line

t BR

2

BR

G

Gy

hfBR

yRS

hyfBR

bfBR

bBR

Start of fillet

radius curve

rfBR

H

Figure A.2 -- Generating basic rack

The third data item, basic rack fillet radius, can not be

determined from other data but must be independently specified, as noted in A.2.2. The radius may

be zero, indicating a sharp corner, but is almost

always a greater value, up to one--fourth of the basic

rack dedendum or even larger. However, it may not

exceed the size of the full round radius. A full round

basic rack fillet will produce a full round gear fillet,

leaving no part of a root circle between joined fillets.

This maximum basic rack fillet radius is:

mcos

b BR(sin )

4

r fBRX =

1 (sin )

(A.11)

items of basic rack geometry, namely:

-- basic rack form dedendum;

-- location of the center of the basic rack fillet radius.

The basic rack form dedendum, bfBR, refers to the

distance from the basic rack nominal pitch line to the

tangent point at the straight line tooth flank and the

fillet radius curve. It is calculated as follows:

(A.12)

rack by its coordinates, gfBR and hfBR, relative to the

nominal pitch line, as the G--axis, and the tooth

centerline, as the H--axis. See figure A.2. These

coordinates are calculated as follows:

G--axis coordinate:

g fBR =

t BR

r

+ b BR r fBR(tan ) + fBR

cos

2

(A.13)

H axis coordinate (measured from the G--axis located at the nominal pitch line):

h fBR = b BR r fBR

(A.14)

The generating pitch line on the basic rack, which

rolls on the generating pitch circle on the gear, is

commonly offset from the nominal pitch line on the

basic rack. The rack shift is the offset distance and,

as shown in figure A.2, is positive in the direction

away from the gear center. This distance is

calculated, as follows:

15

AGMA 930--A05

straight line connecting three points:

Rack shift:

y RS =

t t BR

2(tan )

(A.15)

is based on the basic rack generating pitch line, the

fillet radius center must now be located relative to

this line, which is labeled as the Gy--axis. See figure

A.2.

Coordinate along the H--axis (measured from the

Gy--axis located at the generating pitchline):

h yfBR = h fBR y RS

(A.16)

and the rack shift from equation A.15 are used to test

for undercutting as follows:

there is undercutting if:

2

-- point on the generated trochoid (also on the rack

fillet radius).

The pitch--point trochoid line, makes the pitch-point polar angle, f, with the rack pitch line. Each

generated point on the trochoid is associated with a

value of this angle.

At the start of the trochoid, figure A.3(a), the trochoid

point is on the root circle, and the same point is at the

root of the rack fillet radius. The pitch--point trochoid

line is also a radial line of the gear. The pitch--point

polar angle for this trochoid point on the root circle is:

fR = 90

(A.17)

The trochoid extends from its start, point R on the

root circle, to its end, point F where it connects to

the involute profile. This connection is generally a

tangency, but becomes an intersection in the case of

undercutting.

Figure A.3(a) and (b) show the basic rack positioned

to generate the limit points for the first two of these

Basic rack

generating pitch line and the gear generating

pitch circle;

trochoid ends at the point of tangency, or form

diameter point, see figure A.4(b). The pitch point

polar angle for this trochoid point is:

fF =

Generating

pitch line on

basic rack

(A.19)

intersection with the involute. The pitch point polar

angle corresponding to this intersection point is

slightly larger than the value of equation A.19.

Basic rack

f = 90

(A.18)

rfBR

Generating

pitch line on

basic rack

f =

Pitch point

rfBR

Generating

circle on gear

Start of trochoid

at root circle

(point R)

(a) Start of trochoid at root circle

End of trochoid

at involute

(point F)

Generating

circle on gear

(b) End of trochoid at involute

16

AGMA 930--A05

calculation of the exact values of the coordinates of

the intersection point are not essential to the fillet

profile data used in annex B. If the exact coordinates

are desired for a complete detailed tooth outline,

they must be found by an iterative calculation

searching for the intersection of the trochoid curve

and the connected involute. The numerical steps in

such a calculation are beyond the scope of this

document. However, this intersection may be found

graphically after extending the involute curves. This

procedure is supplied in A.6.2.

spaced intermediate values of the pitch point polar

angle. The following equation gives the value of the

k--th point and applies to the intermediate and the

start and end points:

number of points, nf, then the values of equations

A.18 and A.19 become the first and nf --th values of

this angle, or:

figure A.4(a), (b) and (c):

f1 = fR = 90

(A.20)

fn = fF =

(A.21)

f =

f1 n f k + fn( k 1 )

nf 1

(A.22)

for (k = 1 to nf)

where

nf is number of points along the fillet.

f =

h yfBR

sin f

+ r fBR

(A.23)

hyfBR

fR

Pitch point

Y

rfBR

Basic rack

Point on

trochoid

X

Gear center

Generating

circle on

gear

Generating

pitch line on

basic rack

17

AGMA 930--A05

hyfBR

fR

Pitch point

d

2

f

2

gfBR

Basic rack

C

L

(vf, f)

See fig A.4(c)

X

Generating

circle on gear

Gear center

Generating

pitch line on

basic rack

Y

Point on

trochoid

xf

Basic

rack

Gear center

yf

X

vf

18

tooth centerline to a pitch point at which k--th trochoid

point is generated:

2 g fBR +

f =

h yfBR cos f

sin f

radians (A.24)

cos f

1

NOTE: sin f is used in place of tan f to permit evaluation for f = 90.

tooth centerline, gear center polar radius and gear

center polar angle:

vf =

d

2

+ f d fsin f

f cos f

f = f arcsin

vf

(A.25)

radians

(A.26)

AGMA 930--A05

relative to gear tooth centerline as the X--axis with

the origin at the gear center:

x f = v fcos f

(A.27)

y f = v fsin f

(A.28)

The shape of the trochoid is such that the radius of

curvature varies from point to point. The value of this

radius at any point is determined by the generating

action of the pitch point polar radius. The minimum

value is used in the stress concentration calculations

of annex C. This minimum value, RfN, corresponds

to this radius at the start of the trochoid, where the

trochoid is tangent to the root circle and the pitch

point polar angle, f, is equal to 90. See figure

A.3(a).

R fN =

h yfBR

0.5 d + h yfBR

+ r fBR

(A.29)

dfc

Space

centerline

dR

sR

fC

f

(xfC, yfC)

F

rf

(xf, yf)

fC

F

dF

X

Tooth centerline

Figure A.5 -- Circular arc fillet

19

AGMA 930--A05

See figure A.5. It is a common practice in P/M gear

design to introduce a fillet in the form of a single

circular arc. In this practice, the arc will start at a

tangent point on the root circle and generally end at a

tangent point on the involute profile at each side of

the tooth space. A fillet of this form simplifies the

manufacture of the compacting tool. The selection of

the fillet type should consider the following (see

figure A.6):

a) A small radius may increase stress concentration

and reduce tooth bending strength;

b) A large radius may introduce interference with

the tip of the mating gear;

c) A large radius may lead to fillet arcs intersecting

outside of the root circle;

d) For root diameters smaller than the base circle diameter, a small radius may not give tangent

points at both the root circle and the involute profile;

e) For profiles that must be undercut to avoid interference with the tip of the mating tooth, there cannot be tangency to the involute. A more complex

fillet form is preferred if interference, on one

hand, or excessive undercutting, on the other,

are to be avoided.

Circular--arc fillet (shown

shallow for clarity)

Full--fillet radius

Trochoid fillet without undercutting

Trochoid fillet with undercutting

item b).

Calculations for determining the size of this full--fillet

radius for a specified root diameter are given in

A.5.2. If the root diameter is smaller than the base

circle diameter, it is not always possible to fit such a

fillet to the specified conditions. The calculations

indicate if this limiting condition has been reached.

A.5.1 Test for minimum fillet radius

This test is required only if the root diameter is

smaller than the base circle diameter. If the root

diameter is larger, fillet radii approaching zero will

meet the geometry condition of tangency to both the

involute tooth flanks and the root circle.

Minimum fillet radius

r fN =

d2 d2

B

4d R

(A.30)

Calculation of the full--fillet radius also serves as a

test for maximum fillet radius. If the originally

specified fillet radius falls between the minimum fillet

radius of A.5.1 and the maximum fillet radius

calculated below, the calculation of fillet features

may proceed. If the original fillet is smaller than the

minimum, it must be increased to that value subject

to the test in A.8.4. If it is larger than the full--fillet

radius fillet, the fillet radius must be reduced to that

maximum.

Step 1. Test for the fit of a full--fillet radius fillet:

BTff =

+ d R (inv )

N dB

(A.31)

the base circle diameter and a full--fillet radius fillet

will not fit the specified gear data.

Step 2. Pressure angle along imaginary involute at

the center of the full--fillet radius fillet, bC:

bC = arc sev BT ff

Figure A.6 -- Fillets

The fillet radius may be selected so that the two fillets

on adjacent teeth form a single continuous arc,

constituting a full--fillet radius fillet. This feature will

dispose of above items a), c) and in some cases d).

20

(A.32)

function, the sevolute function, defined as follows:

sev = sevolute =

1 inv

cos

(A.33)

from tables of the function [9] or by the calculation

procedure in annex E.

fillet, dbC:

d bC =

dB

cos bC

(A.34)

radius), rfX

r fX = 0.5 d bC d R

(A.35)

AGMA 930--A05

The bottom land is the length along the root circle

between the start points of the two symmetrical fillets

positioned in the same tooth space.

s R = d R fC

N

(A.44)

specified in annex B. They may also be used in the

graphic construction of the complete tooth outline.

found as follows:

fillet center

d fC = d R + 2r f

(A.36)

through fillet center

fC = arccos

dB

d fC

(A.37)

fC =

(A.38)

center line)

2r f

fC = + (inv ) inv fC +

dB

(A.39)

x fC = fCcos fC

(A.40)

y fC = fCsin fC

(A.41)

The form diameter corresponds to the diameter at

which the fillet ends and the true form involute

profile begins.

Step 1. Pressure angle at the form diameter

2r f

dB

(A.42)

dF =

fR = fC

dB

cos F

(A.47)

along the fillet

fR n f k + fF( k 1 )

nf 1

(A.48)

for k = 1 to nf

where

nf

(A.45)

fF = + F F

(A.46)

2

Step 3. Fillet construction angle at the root diameter

f =

d fC

2

F = arctan tan fC

F = + (inv ) inv F

(A.43)

x f = x fC r f cos f

(A.49)

y f = y fC r f sin f

(A.50)

exactly the first point of the involute as calculated

below.

A.6 Involute profile data (see figure A.7)

In A.3, the tip radius geometry is defined with its

value of effective outside diameter, dOE. In A.4 or

A.5, the fillet geometry is defined with its value of

form diameter, dF. (For undercut gears, see A.6.2.) It

is now possible to define the geometry of the involute

profile located between these two diameters, dF and

dOE.

A.6.1 Spaced points on the involute profile

After choosing the number of points, ni, which

includes the start and end points, the following

calculation selects conveniently spaced points and

determines their coordinates on the same axes used

for the tip radius and fillet geometry.

21

AGMA 930--A05

ds

2

d

2

(xs, ys)

ts

2

s

2

t

2

inv

Base

circle Standard

pitch circle

Figure A.7 -- Tooth profile data

Step 1. Roll angles at the form and effective outside

diameters, which correspond to the start and end

points.

F = tan arccos

dB

dF

d

OE = tan arccos B

d OE

(A.51)

(A.52)

involute where i = 1 corresponds to the form

diameter point and i = ni to the effective outside point.

i =

F n i i + OE( i 1 )

ni 1

(A.53)

i = arctan i

(A.54)

di =

dB

cos i

(A.55)

22

di

cos i

2

d

y i = i sin i

2

xi =

(A.57)

(A.58)

NOTE: The coordinates at the i = 1 point should correspond exactly with the coordinates of the j = nj point on

the fillet, except for undercut trochoids, as noted in

A.6.2.

As explained in A.4.3, for undercut trochoid fillets,

the diameter at the end of the fillet and the start of the

involute is not readily calculated. However, it can be

determined graphically by finding the intersection of

the two curves with the involute extended toward the

base circle. This is done by making the form

diameter value used in A.6.1, step 1, equal to the

base circle diameter, or

dF dB

(A.59)

i = t + (inv ) inv i

d

(A.56)

F 0

(A.60)

If a selected point is identified by the diameter at its

location, further information about the involute

profile can be found as follows:

AGMA 930--A05

are the operating pitch circles. Their diameters can

be calculated as follows:

d AP =

dB

ds

s = arccos

(A.61)

where

d AG =

2C A

d

1 + BG

d BP

(A.67)

2C A

d

1 + BP

d BG

(A.68)

ds

is

the

selected

(d F d s d OE).

diameter

and

point

s = t + (inv ) inv s

d

(A.62)

(A.63)

ts = ds s

pairs operating with contact ratio values greater than

one and smaller than two.

A.8.1 Contact limit points on the line of action

The calculation for each gears diameter at the

highest point of single tooth contact starts with

finding the contact limit points along the line of

action. See figure A.8. These points are:

-- Point 1. Start of contact on a tooth, while contact

continues on the preceding tooth.

xs =

ds

cos s

2

(A.64)

ceases on the preceding tooth.

ys =

ds

sin s

2

(A.65)

contact starting on the following tooth.

The specified operating center distance, CA, and the

base circle diameters, dBP and dBG, of the two gears

determines these data items.

A.7.1 Operating pressure angle, A

This is the angle of the line of action, the line tangent

to the base circles of the two gears. See figure A.8.

A = arccos

d BP + d BG

2C A

(A.66)

The pitch point is the point along the line of action at

which the tooth sliding reverses direction, changing

from approach to recess action. At this point, there is

no sliding and the tooth contact is instantly pure

rolling.

on the following tooth.

These points can be located on each gear with

calculations using the associated roll angles. The

following calculation of these angles uses data

already found in A.3 for the driving and driven gears

and in A.7.

Step 1. Roll angles, AP and AG at the operating

pitch diameter of each gear, which are the same as

the roll angle, A, at the pitch point where the two

operating pitch circles are tangent:

AP = AG = A = tan A

(A.69)

OEP, OEG (see step 5, A.3.1, for values of OEP,

OEG):

OEP = tan OEP

(A.70)

(A.71)

23

AGMA 930--A05

Base circle

(gear)

GEAR (driven)

dAG

dBG

Operating

pitch circle

(gear)

P

pitch

point

dOEG

Line of

action

dOG

Approach action:

points 1 to P

Recess action:

points P to 4

4

3

2

1

dOP

pB

dOEP

dBP

dAP

Operating

pitch circle

(pinion)

PINION (driver)

shared with previous pair)

2. Start of single tooth contact

P. Pitch point (no sliding)

3. End of single tooth contact

4. End of contact (load shared

with following pair)

Base circle

(pinion)

Step 5. Pitch angles, P, G:

1P = A 1 +

N

NG

OEG G

NP

NP

(A.72)

1G = OEG

(A.73)

NP

NG

4G = A

(A.77)

2G = 4G + G

N

N

1 + P OEP P

NG

NG

24

NG

NP

G = 2

NG

(A.78)

(A.74)

(A.76)

2P = 4P P

4P = OEP

P = 2

NP

(A.79)

Step 7. Roll angles at point 3, 3P, 3G:

3P = 1P + P

(A.80)

(A.75)

3G = 1G G

(A.81)

AGMA 930--A05

representing each of the points 1, 2, 3 and 4, is

calculated as follows:

calculations of annex B. It is included here for

reference because it can be readily calculated from

data in A.8.1:

d iP =

d BP

(A.82)

cosarctan iP

d iG =

d BG

(A.83)

cosarctan iG

contact are:

--

--

mpa:

m pa =

AP 1P

P

(A.84)

m pr =

4P AP

P

(A.85)

m p = m pa + m pr

Limit diameter refers to the diameter at the innermost

limit of contact by the mating gear, see figure A.8.

-- for the pinion

dLP = d1P

-- for the gear

dLG = d4G

(A.86)

positive values. However, in some special designs,

one of the two may be zero or negative as long as the

other value is large enough to make the total

positive. For most gear designs, the total profile

contact ratio is made greater than some established

minimum value larger than one.

A.9 Symbols and terms

Symbol

bBR

bfBR

CA

d

dAP, dAG

dB

dbC

dF

dfC

di

dL

dO

dOE

dR

drC

gfBR

hfBR

hyfBR

m

mp

Definition

Basic rack dedendum (for generated trochoid fillet)

Basic rack form dedendum

Effective operating center distance

Standard pitch diameter

Operating pitch diameter, pinion, gear

Base circle diameter

Diameter at center of full--fillet radius fillet

Form diameter

Diameter of gear center circle going through fillet center

Diameter at contact point

Limit diameter

Outside diameter

Effective outside diameter

Root diameter (for circular--arc fillet)

Diameter at center of tip round

Coordinate along G--axis

Coordinate along H--axis (measured from G--axis)

Coordinate along H--axis (measured from Gy--axis)

Module

Profile contact ratio

Units

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

-- --

Where

first used

A.2.2

A.4.1.2

A.2.3

A.3.1

A.7.2

A.3.1

A.5.2

A.5.4

A.5.3

A.8.2

A.8.3

A.2.2

A.3.1

A.2.2

A.3.1

A.4.1.2

A.4.1.2

A.4.2

A.2.1

A.8.4

25

AGMA 930--A05

Symbol

mpa

mpr

-- --

A.8.4

Number of teeth

-- --

A.2.2

nf

-- --

A.4.4

ni

-- --

A.6.1

RfN

mm

A.4.6

rf

mm

A.2.2

rfBR

mm

A.2.2

rfBRX

mm

A.4.1.1

rfN

mm

A.5.1

rfx

mm

A.5.2

rr

Tip radius

mm

A.2.2

sR

Bottom land

mm

A.5.5

mm

A.2.2

tBR

mm

A.4.1.1

tOR

mm

A.3.2

xfC, yfC

mm

A.5.3

yRS

Rack shift

mm

A.4.2

radians

A.3.2

radians

A.4.5

Pitch angle

radians

A.8.1

radians

A.8.1

radians

A.6.1

radians

A.4.5

OE

radians

A.6.1

radians

A.5.6

degrees

A.4.3

fC

radians

A.5.3

fF

degrees

A.4.3

fR

degrees

A.4.3

f

f

mm

A.4.5

mm

A.4.5

fC

mm

A.5.3

degrees

A.5.6

fF

degrees

A.5.6

fR

degrees

A.5.6

Pressure angle

degrees

A.2.1

bC

degrees

A.5.2

degrees

A.7.1

fC

degrees

A.5.3

OE

degrees

A.3.1

rC

radians

A.3.1

radians

A.5.4

26

Units

-- --

Where

first used

A.8.4

Definition

Approach portion of profile contact ratio

AGMA 930--A05

Annex B

(informative)

Calculation of spur gear factor, Y

[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,

Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

B.1 Introduction

Tangential

tooth force, WA

B.1.1 Description

The form factor is a quantity that relates gear tooth

geometry to the capacity of the gear tooth to resist

the bending moment developed by the load applied

to the tooth. It deals only with geometry (mostly tooth

geometry, but also some aspects of gear mesh

geometry) without reference to material properties.

The role of stress concentration, which is influenced

by other factors in addition to tooth geometry, is

treated separately in bending strength calculations,

see clause 8 and annex C.

B.1.2 Definition

The definition given here relates to the definition

used in other AGMA literature. See reference 3.

This permits the comparison of form factor values as

calculated from the procedures described here with

values from the other AGMA sources.

The form factor for a gear tooth of specified outline is

the ratio of a force to a stress. When the gear

geometry is expressed in terms of unit module and

unit face width, this ratio becomes a non--dimensional quantity. The force referenced in this definition is

described below. The stress in the definition is the

bending stress at the critical section of the gear tooth

fillet. This section is located where the bending

stress is determined to be at a maximum.

Torque transmitted by a gear may be represented by

a tangential force acting at a selected radius. It is

common practice to select the radius of the operating

pitch circle. This circle derives from the view of the

gear and its mate as contacting cylinders which roll

without slipping with a speed ratio equal to the gear

ratio. See figures A.8 and B.1.

The tangential force, WA, calculated from the transmitted torque and the radius, 0.5 dA, is used as the

force in the form factor definition. The force acting at

the contact tooth surfaces differs from the force in

location and direction, as discussed below in B.2.3.1

and B.2.6.2.

Transmitted

torque, T

WA = 2 T

dA

Operating pitch

diameter, dA

pitch diameter

B.1.3 Application

A form factor is calculated for each of the pair of

mating external spur gears. The form factors are

used in the calculation of the corresponding bending

strength geometry factors, see clause 8. These are

then used in the fundamental formulas for calculated

torque capacity, see clause 3.

B.1.4 Alternate methods of determining the form

factor

There are experimental and numerical methods for

determining the relationship between the tooth load

and the maximum stress induced at the tooth fillet.

One of the experimental methods has been photo-elasticity studies which reveal stress patterns and

relative stress levels. Another is the use of strain

gages variously positioned at the gear tooth fillet to

reveal stress levels at each position. The numerical

methods, made practical by computers, consist of

finite element analysis and its analytical variations.

All of these alternate methods determine the combination of the general bending stress and the effect

of stress concentration, without clearly distinguishing between the two. As noted above, the form factor

attempts to evaluate only the influence of gear

geometry on the relationship between the tooth load

and the general bending stress. This relationship is

taken as independent of the type of loading and the

properties of the material. The effect on bending

strength of the highly localized stress concentration

with its high stress gradient is recognized as

dependent on load type (steady or repeated) and

material (degree of ductility, brittleness or porosity).

27

AGMA 930--A05

adapted to determining the form factor. Instead, they

are sometimes used to determine the stress correction (concentration) factor by subtracting a calculated form factor, like the one described here, from

the measured or computed combined effect. See

figure B.2.

followed by a simple conversion to the traditional

non--dimensional form.

B.2.2 Calculation stages

The calculation process consists of the following

stages:

-- critical load: selection of location along the contacting tooth surface and selection of direction;

Tooth

load

-- bending moments and stress: calculation for unit

critical load;

Critical

section

Stress

distribution

Tension

Combined stress

Stress concentration

Bending stress

at fillet

Compression

stress concentration

B.2 Standard calculation procedure

B.2.1 Relationship to AGMA standard gear

rating calculation

The calculation procedure presented in this annex

follows the basic principles used in the AGMA gear

rating procedure. See [3] and [4] in the bibliography.

This AGMA procedure is supplemented here by new

features applicable to typical P/M gear design and

operating conditions. The influence of each of these

conditions is explained below as each new calculation feature is introduced.

Another difference from the AGMA standard form

factor calculation has been introduced for reason of

calculation convenience. The AGMA procedure, as

part of obtaining a non--dimensional form factor,

requires that all related gear geometry data first be

scaled to unit module equivalents. This is a

carry--over from the days that graphical methods

were used for such calculations and this increase in

scale helped in graphical accuracy. The procedure

28

for critical load with adjustment for tangential load

referenced in the form factor definition;

The critical load is the load (on the tooth flank) which

will produce the maximum tensile stress at the root

fillet. The factors which determine this critical load

are the direction of the load relative to the tooth

outline and the location of the load along the tooth

outline . The relationship between the magnitude of

this load, Wc, and the transmitted torque is described

in B.2.6.2 and B.3.6.

B.2.3.1 Load direction

The load direction is determined first by the geometry of the active portion of the tooth flank, here

understood to be an involute curve associated with

the base circle of the gear. Under certain operating

conditions common in P/M gear applications, the

sliding action between the mating gear teeth will

influence the load direction.

B.2.3.1.1 Load force normal to tooth flank

The direction of the load transmitted between gear

teeth is normal to the involute surface of the tooth

flank. If a circle (with its center at the gear axis) is

drawn through the load point, the angle between this

normal and a tangent to this circle is the involute

pressure angle, Wc, at that point. As a normal to the

involute, this direction is also tangent to the gear

base circle. See figure B.3.

This load force direction is assumed in AGMA rating

calculations. It is also used in the first set of

calculations below. See figure B.4.

The relative motion between mating gear teeth is a

combination of rolling and sliding. The rolling action

is generally assumed to offer negligible resistance to

the relative motion and is ignored as a direct

contributor to the load transmitted between the

teeth.

The sliding action requires further

consideration because it may introduce a significant

friction force.

AGMA 930--A05

significant friction force accompanies the normal

tooth force, see figure B.4(b). The role of the friction

forces is described in B.3.

Load, Wc

Wc

Base circle

The AGMA gear rating calculation [3] is properly

used only for those operating conditions in which

some approximation of ideal lubricating conditions

exist.1) These operating conditions include an

adequate supply of clean lubricant at the gear teeth,

an adequate pitch line velocity, and tooth surface

geometry accurate enough to permit a well distributed contact area. When these conditions are met, a

film of lubricant is forced into the tooth contact area at

a pressure which nearly or completely separates the

contacting surfaces. The resulting friction force is

then small enough to be ignored in the gear bending

strength calculations. In many gear applications,

and especially in P/M gears with low material density

and without sealing of the pores, a full complement of

at dOE

(see B.2.3.2.1)

Tangency

dWc

Base

circle

radius, rB

flank and tangent to base circle

Friction

force

at HPSTL

(see B.2.3.2.3)

Radial

line

a) No friction, normal force only,

alternate locations

Resultant

force

Normal force

c

c is load deviation angle

sliding inwards (typical of driven gear during approach

action)

B.2.3.2 Critical location

With the gear tooth treated as a loaded cantilever

beam, the location of the load producing the

maximum fillet bending stress will tend to be as far as

load at the outside diameter of the gear. However,

some common mesh geometry conditions help

move the location somewhat further down on the

_______________________

1) The lubrication port ion of the application clause states, The ratings determined by these formulas are only valid when

the gear teeth are operated with a lubricant of proper viscosity for the load, gear tooth surface finish, temperature, and

pitch line velocity.

29

AGMA 930--A05

root fillet stresses. See figure B.5.

Compressive

load

Translated

load

Critical

load, Wc

Bending

load

Wc

dWc

Constant

stress

parabola

hfc

Wc

Radial

line

Critical

section

(xfc, yfc)

at critical fillet

wfc

The location is identified by the diameter, dWc, at the

critical load point. The factors which determine this

diameter are discussed below.

B.2.3.2.1 Outer load location limit

The first geometry condition which shifts the critical

load location from the outside diameter is the tip

round which is present on nearly all P/M gears. See

figures A.1 and B.4(a). With this tip round, the outer

load location limit moves to the point on the tooth at

which the involute flank ends and the tip round

begins, corresponding to the effective outside diameter, dOE. The calculation of this diameter is

described in A.3.1.

B.2.3.2.2 Tooth load sharing

With most spur gear designs, there are two mesh

conditions at which two adjacent pairs of teeth are

nominally in simultaneous contact. (A pair consists

of the mating teeth from each of the two meshing

gears.) One such condition corresponds to one pair

of teeth just starting to contact with the preceding

pair still engaged. The second corresponds to the

same pair of teeth nearing the end of contact while

the following pair is already engaged.

NOTE: In some gear designs, identified by contact ratios of one or less, these conditions of partial overlapping of contact between adjacent pairs of teeth is

30

more than two, there are contact intervals at which

three pairs of teeth are engaged, with the remaining interval having two pairs of teeth engaged. The following

remarks do not apply to these conditions, for which the

appropriate analyses are beyond the scope of this

document.

there is the potential for the transmitted load to be

shared between the two adjacent meshing pairs. If

the sharing were equal, the critical load location

would not be at the outermost end of the tooth

involute since, at this location, the load itself has

dropped to one--half. The actual nature of such

sharing depends on the accuracy of the involute

profiles and the relative stiffness of each pair of teeth

at that point in their engagement cycle. A detailed

analysis of such conditions is generally too complex

for common gear design procedures. As a simplification, sharing is assumed when both the driver and

driven gears tooth--to--tooth composite variation

meets Q8 or better requirements, or in the case

where lesser accuracy prevents load sharing until

initial wearing takes place.

If such load sharing is not likely (see B.2.3.2.3), then

the critical load location for each gear is at its

effective outside diameter, as noted in B.2.3.2.1, and

the diameter at the critical load location for each gear

is:

d Wc = d OE

(B.1)

In the typical meshing cycle of a pair of teeth, the

stages of the meshing can be identified by a series of

points and their corresponding diameters on the two

gears, here labelled as the pinion, P, for the driving

gear and the gear, G, for the driven gear, see figure

A.8:

-- point 1, the start of the mesh cycle, with the preceding pair still in mesh; diameters d1P and d1G;

-- point 2, the start of the single pair mesh, with the

preceding pair out of mesh; diameters d2P and

d2G;

-- point 3, the end of the single pair mesh, with the

following pair just starting to mesh; diameters d3P

and d3G;

-- point 4, the end of the mesh cycle; diameters d4P

and d4G.

For the calculation for these diameters, see annex A.

The selection of points (i.e., 1, 2, 3 or 4) used in

calculating the highest point on each tooth at which

dependent upon the accuracy of the tooth--to--tooth

composite variation (see B.2.3.2.2). If both the driver

and the driven gears tooth--to--tooth composite

variation meets Q8 or better requirements, then the

points used are Point 3 and Point 2 respectively.

Otherwise, Point 4 and Point 1 are respectively used.

Therefore if both driver and driven gears meet or

exceed Q8 tooth--to--tooth composite variation requirements,

d WcP = d 3P

(B.2)

AGMA 930--A05

translated force, expressed as its distance, xWcC,

from the gear center along the centerline, may be

calculated by:

Step 1. Once the diameter of the critical load point

dWc, is established, the xWc and yWc coordinates

may be found as described by the equations in A.6.3.

In these equations, the point on the involute is

referenced by the subscript s which, for the critical

load point, will be replaced by the subscript Wc.

Step 2. Direction angle of critical tooth force, Wc:

Wc = Wc Wc

and

d WcG = d 2G

(B.3)

Q8 tooth--to--tooth composite variation requirements,

d WcP = d 4P

(B.4)

and

d WcG = d 1G

(B.5)

(B.6)

where

Wc

Wc

point.

critical tooth force, xWcC:

x WcC = x Wc y Wctan Wc

(B.7)

moment (see figures B.5 and B.6), the critical load is

translated to the tooth centerline. The centerline

serves as the neutral axis of the cantilever beam

into two components, one normal to the tooth center

line and the other radial along the tooth centerline.

See figure B.6.

yWc

Wcy

Wc

Wc

Wc

Wcx

hfc

xWc

xWcC

sBS

st

wfc

sCS

B.2.3.4.1 Bending component

W = W cos

cy

moment to the tooth, producing a tensile stress at the

tooth fillet on the same side as the critical load.

Wc

(B.8)

where

Wc

31

AGMA 930--A05

producing a compressive stress in the fillet area.

sBS, and the original critical tooth load, Wc, for a gear

of unit face width. The calculation is:

W cx = W c sin Wc

(B.9)

Each point on the fillet will define a fillet section

normal to the tooth centerline. The bending component of the translated critical tooth load will produce a

bending stress at this fillet section. This stress will

vary with the location of the section and its size. The

section with the greatest bending stress is designated as the critical section.

B.2.4.1 Types of fillet

Determination of the critical section requires the

location of the fillet points relative to the gear tooth

coordinate system. The location of points on two

types of fillet geometries are defined in this annex:

-- rack generated trochoid (see AGMA 908--B89);

-- circular arc.

The generated type of fillet has been omitted

because it is not commonly used in P/M gears.

fillet section, hf

h f = x WcC x f

Step 2. Width of the fillet section, wf

w f = 2y f

-- rectangular coordinates of fillet points, xf, yf;

-- angle at the fillet point, f.

B.2.4.1.2 Circular arc

The description of this fillet type is given in A.5. In the

calculation shown, the following data is provided:

-- angle used to locate points on the fillet, fC;

-- rectangular coordinates of fillet points, xf, yf;

-- construction angle at the fillet point, f.

B.2.4.1.3 Fillet section

The coordinates of the fillet points also describe the

fillet section:

-- xf gives the location of the section;

-- yf gives the half--width of the section.

32

(B.11)

Following the basic bending stress equation,

Stress =

Bending Moment

Section Modulus

s BS = 6 W cy

hf

(B.12)

wf2

s BS = 6 W ccos Wc

hf

wf2

(B.13)

f BS =

The description of this fillet type is given in A.4. In the

calculation shown, the following data is provided,

see figures A.4(b) and A.4(c):

(B.10)

s BS

h

= 6 cos Wc f2 = 6cos Wc [BT ]

Wc

wf

(B.14)

where

[BT ] =

hf

wf2

(B.15)

The bending stress factor will vary with the fillet

section selected. Its maximum value corresponds to

the maximum value of the bracketed term in

equation B.15. For either type of fillet, this maximum

can be found by a trial--and--error process, as

follows:

Step 1. Select an initial trial value of f (trochoidal

method) or f (full circular fillet), the angle used in the

calculation to locate points on the fillet. This trial

value may be zero, indicating a start at the fillet

tangency on the root circle. A more efficient trial

value is the one associated with a slope angle, f or

f, equal to 30.

Step 2. Calculate the fillet data from this location

angle, particularly the coordinates, xf and yf, and the

corresponding dimensions, hf and wf, used in

determining bending stress.

Step 3. Calculate the bracketed term, BT, in

equation B.15.

steps 2 and 3, and note the change in the BT value.

This change will be an increase unless the initial trial

value has been too large, in which case the

calculation should be restarted with a lower initial

value.

Step 5. With successively larger location angles,

repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 until change in BT values

reverses sign from positive, representing increasing

BT , to negative, representing decreasing BT values.

Step 6. The maximum value BTX, will lie within the

range of the last three calculations and may be

further identified to the desired accuracy by further

trials within that range.

Step 7. Calculate the maximum bending stress

factor, fBSX, using equation B.14 and BTX, the

maximum bracketed term, BTX, using equation

B.15.

B.2.4.4 Critical section location and size

The data, hfc and wfc, describing the location and size

of the critical section are the corresponding values, hf

and wf, used in the calculation of BTX.

B.2.5 Stress calculation

These stress calculations are based on the critical

tooth load, Wc.

AGMA 930--A05

This ratio may be calculated directly from the results

of equation B.18:

W

A Wsc = s c

t

=

1

6cos Wch fc

w fc 2

sin

w Wc

fc

(B.19)

Before such a ratio can be used to calculate the

Y--factor, some adjustment in the tooth force is made.

Since the Y--factor is expressed in terms of a

tangential force acting at the operating pitch circle,

the adjustment involves the ratio of this force, WA, to

the critical tooth force, Wc. The two forces act

tangent to two different circles but must transmit the

same torque. The force ratio is inverse to the ratio of

their diameters. These diameters are the operating

pitch diameter, dA, for the reference force, WA (see

B.1.2 and figure B.1), and the base circle diameter,

dB, for the critical tooth force, Wc. The diameter ratio

is equal to the cosine of the operating pressure

angle, A, which is calculated in A.7.1. Therefore:

The bending tensile stress for the critical tooth load is

calculated from equation B.13:

s BS = 6W ccos Wc

h fc

(B.16)

w fc 2

s CS = W c

=

The combined tensile stress is the difference between the bending tensile and the compressive

stresses, see figure B.6:

h fc

w fc

Wc

sin Wc

w fc

(B.18)

This ratio relates a force acting on the tooth, W, to the

resulting combined tensile stress, st. The particular

value depends on the tooth force selected.

cos A

6cos Wc

h fc

w fc

(B.21)

sin Wc

w fc

s t = 6W c cos Wc

(B.17)

w fc

WA

d

= B = cos A

Wc

dA

(B.20)

is calculated from the radial component of the

translated critical tooth force acting over the critical

fillet section area (with unit gear face width):

sin Wc

Adjustment ratio, m cA =

Y--factor, all dimensions used to calculate the ratio

must be made non--dimensional. This was already

done with the unit gear face width specified in the

above calculations. However, the dimensions of hfc

and wfc are actual dimensions of the gear tooth. The

module, m, is used to complete the conversion.

Y=

A WsA

m

(B.22)

33

AGMA 930--A05

When friction forces are considered, the same basic

calculation procedure is followed with some

changes:

-- the critical load direction, relative to the involute

tooth flank, will change;

-- the critical load location may change;

-- the critical load magnitude, and therefore the

tooth force adjustment will change.

To establish the appropriate critical load information,

it may be necessary to start with two trial conditions

and then perform double sets of calculations.

with the pinion driving, approach action takes place

when the contact goes from point 1 to the pitch point.

During approach action, the sliding direction on each

gear tooth is toward its root and the sign in equation

B.23 is plus (+), see figure B.4(b). Recess action

takes place when the contact goes from the pitch

point to point 4. During recess action, the sliding

direction on each gear tooth is toward its tip and the

sign in equation B.23 is minus (--).

In some gear designs, the outside diameters are

chosen so that the pitch point lies outside the range

of contact. In these designs there is no reversal of

the sliding direction and the action is all approach or

all recess, generally the latter.

In all the equations dealing with friction effects, the

simplifying assumption is made that the coefficient of

friction is constant over the tooth meshing cycle.

Values will depend on the material combination

(including relative hardness), degree of lubrication,

tooth flank surface texture, tooth sliding velocity,

tooth contact pressure, and other factors. Values for

coefficient of friction may be determined in standard

tests, but only apply to the conditions specified in

those tests. These may not closely match the

operating conditions of the gear mesh. With typical

gear materials and with some continuing form of

lubrication, the coefficient of friction may fall as low

as 0.10, rarely lower.

Under less favorable

conditions, it may be as high as 0.30, or even higher.

B.3.2 Critical load direction

Without friction, the critical load direction is always

normal to the involute flank and its direction relative

to the tooth centerline is determined by the load

location diameter, as discussed in B.2.3 and its

sub--clauses. With friction, the load deviates from

this normal direction. The amount of deviation is

represented by the load deviation angle, c described in figure B.4(b), which is determined by the

coefficient of friction, m, as follows:

c = arctan m

(B.23)

direction of relative sliding. The sliding direction

generally changes during the meshing cycle, with

the change--over taking place when the teeth are

contacting at the pitch point, or tangent point of the

34

teeth is toward the root, the tooth force direction is

such that the bending component is reduced and the

compressive component is increased. These act to

reduce the tensile stress at the tooth fillet. When the

sliding action is toward the tooth tip, the force

components undergo reverse changes and the fillet

tensile stress is increased. Based on this effect

alone, the critical load direction would come from the

recess portion of the meshing cycle and the sign in

equation B.23 would be negative. However, this

choice is not necessarily correct for all meshing

conditions, as explained in B.3.3.

B.3.3 Critical load location

Without the friction effect, the critical load location is

taken as close to the tooth tip as appropriate for the

conditions defined in B.2.3.2. This location produces

the maximum bending moment at the base of the

cantilevered tooth and the maximum tensile stress at

the fillet.

During approach action, friction will reduce the

bending stress level compared to the frictionless

condition. The opposite is true during recess action

where the inclusion of frictional effects will increase

the bending stress as compared to the frictionless

evaluation.

As a result, when doing the analysis with friction, the

selection of the critical load location and the corresponding sign (+ or --) of c to use in equation B.23

is based on the criteria as established in table B.1.

AGMA 930--A05

Table B.1 -- Selection of critical load location points for Y--factor calculation under friction

conditions

Gear to be

evaluated

Tooth--to-tooth

accuracy

level

Driver

Both driver

and driven

meet or exex

ceed Q8

requirements

Either driver or driven

do not

meet or exceed Q8

requirements

Driven

Critical

load

location to

be

evaluated

(see A.8.1)

Sign of c

in equation B.23

for 2nd

location

evaluation

type of ac- tion at critical load

tion at critlocation

ical load

location

Effect of

action on

bending

stress

Sign of c

in equation B.23

3P A

Approach

Reduces

NA

3P > A

Recess

Increases

--

NA

4P A

Approach

Reduces

NA

4P > A

Recess

Increases

--

NA

2G > A

Approach

Reduces

2G A

Recess

Increases

--

1G > A

Approach

Reduces

1G A

Recess

Increases

--

2nd

location

to be

evaluated1)

Point 3

Point 4

Both driver

and driven

meet or exex

ceed Q8

requirements

Either driver or driven

do not

meet or exceed Q8

requirements

Pitch point

--

Point 2

NA

Pitch point

--

Point 1

NA

NOTE:

1)

If the evaluation point on the driver happens to be in approach zone, then the secondary calculation is not required for

the driven gear since the recess condition will not be present near the pitch point.

to be evaluated close to the tooth tip; either Points 3

or 4 depending on the tooth--to--tooth accuracy level

of the gear (see B.2.3.2.3). For the driven gear,

either Points 1 or 2 close to the tooth tip need to be

evaluated depending upon the tooth--to--tooth accuracy level of the gear. In addition, the driven gear

may need a secondary position evaluated, which is

just inside of the operating pitch circle at the start of

recess action where higher friction level dominates.

Both positions (where necessary) need to be used in

separate Y--factor calculations. The position which

results in the lowest Y--factor value will be used in all

subsequent calculations.

B.3.4 Calculation

conditions

of

Y--factor

for

friction

selected, as discussed above, the calculation proce-

equation B.6, for the direction angle of the critical

tooth force, is changed to the following:

Wc = Wc + c Wc

(B.24)

where

c

equation B.23), degrees.

the tooth force adjustment ratio described in B.2.6.2

for non--friction conditions and described in B.3.5 for

friction conditions.

B.3.5 Tooth force adjustment for friction

conditions

In B.2.6.2, a tooth force adjustment is necessary to

allow for the difference between the tooth force value

used in the stress calculations and the force value in

which Y--factors are generally expressed, the former

35

AGMA 930--A05

tangent to the operating pitch circle. Under friction

conditions, the tooth force used for stress calculations is no longer normal to the tooth surface and this

difference is reflected in a modified adjustment ratio.

The adjustment ratio, as defined in equation B.20, is

modified to account for friction as follows:

m cA =

cos Wc + c

d

WA

= Wc cos Wc + c

Wc

dA

cos A

=

cos Wc

where

dA

mm;

degrees.

B.4 Symbols

(B.25)

Symbol

AWs

dWc

dWcP, dWcG

fBS

fBSX

hf

m

mcA

sBS

sCS

st

WA

Wc

Wcx

Wcy

wf

xWcC

xWc, yWc

Y

Wc

c

Wc

Wc

Wc

m

36

Definition

Form factor force--stress ratio

Diameter at critical load location

Highest point at which full load is transmitted by single pair

Bending stress factor

Maximum bending stress factor

Height of translated load force above fillet section

Module

Tooth force adjustment ratio

Bending tensile stress at fillet section

Compressive stress

Combined tensile stress

Tangential force acting at operating pitch circle

Critical load

Force component parallel to tooth axis

Force component normal to tooth axis

Width of fillet section

Distance from gear center of translated critical tooth force

Coordinates of critical load point

Non--dimensional Y--factor

Half tooth thickness angle

Load deviation angle

Direction angle of critical tooth force

Pressure angle at critical load point

Involute pressure angle

Coefficient of friction

Units

-- -mm

mm

-- --- -mm

mm

-- -N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

N

N

N

N

mm

mm

mm

-- -degrees

degrees

degrees

degrees

degrees

-- --

Where first

found

B.2.6

B.2.3.2.2

B.2.3.2.3

B.2.4.2

B.2.4.3

B.2.4.2

B.2.7

B.2.6.2

B.2.4.2

B.2.5.2

B.2.5.3

B.2.6.2

B.2.3

B.2.3.4.2

B.2.3.4.1

B.2.4.2

B.2.3.3

B.2.3.3

B.2.7

B.2.3.3

B.3.2

B.2.3.3

B.2.3.3

B.2.3.1.1

B.3.2

AGMA 930--A05

Annex C

(informative)

Calculation of the stress correction factor, Kf

[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,

Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

C.1 Introduction

The stress correction factor, Kf, which considers the

effect of stress concentration at the sharply changing

cross--section of the tooth at its root fillet, is another

component for determining the bending strength

geometry factor, J. The geometry element in stress

concentration is the curvature (radius) at the fillet in

relation to the overall tooth size and shape and the

location of the load. The calculation presented here

for this element is the Dolan and Broghamer method

as used in other AGMA gear rating calculations.

In calculating the influence of stress concentration

on gear tooth bending strength, elements other than

geometry must also be considered. These non--geometry elements are the type of loading (repeated or

occasional) and the material condition (degree of

ductility or brittleness). Together, they can influence

the long term sensitivity of the gear to the initial level

of stress concentration.

These elements are also considered in the AGMA

gear rating calculations. Their treatment here

follows a different format.

C.2 Elastic stress concentration factor, Kfs

This factor is based on the assumption of purely

elastic conditions in the material. The empirical

equation used in the calculation is derived from

photoelasticity experiments.

fillet radius, rfc

The radius of curvature of the trochoid fillet varies

along the curve, starting from a minimum radius at

the point of tangency to the root circle. This minimum

radius, RfN, which is calculated in A.4.6, is used in the

further calculations:

r fc = R fN

(C.1)

With this type of fillet, the arc radius is used:

r fc = r f

(C.2)

The empirical equation used for this calculation is:

w

K fs = H + r fc

fc

w fc

h fc

(C.3)

where

H

= 0.331 -- 0.436 ;

= 0.324 -- 0.492 ;

= 0.261 + 0.545 ;

This factor is found by modifying the elastic stress

concentration factor to reflect the influences of

loading and material.

C.3.1 Notch sensitivity index, q

This index has been defined to relate:

The following data items are used in the Y form

calculation in annex B:

-- nominal pressure angle, ;

-- height of the translated critical force above the

critical tooth section, hfc;

-- width of the critical fillet section, wfc.

C.2.2 Calculation fillet radius, rfc

The fillet radius is determined by the type of fillet.

a) the actual effect of a notch (sharp change in outline) on the strength of a material; to

b) the effect that might be predicted solely on the

basis of elastic theory.

If the actual effect is represented by the stress

correction factor, Kf, and the elastic theory prediction

by the elastic stress concentration factor, Kfs, then

the notch sensitivity index, q, is defined as follows:

q=

Kf 1

K fs 1

(C.4)

local yielding or other internal mechanism in the

37

AGMA 930--A05

elastic stress concentration), q will equal zero. If, on

the other hand, the full weakening due to stress

concentration is present, q will equal one.

Kfg is determined from q occasional overload data

in table C.1.

C.1.

Type of load

Heat--treated

(brittle)

Repeated

0.5

1.0

Occasional

overload

0.0

0.8

This calculation is made with the following:

K f = 1 + q K fs 1

38

(C.5)

Type of material

As--sintered

(ductile)

AGMA 930--A05

Annex D

(informative)

Procedure for initial design

[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,

Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

D.1 Introduction

This information sheet is elsewhere devoted to

calculating bending load capacity for a completed

design of a pair of P/M gears. However, there is often

a need for a reverse of this process. For this, the

objective of a specified bending load capacity has

already been established. The required procedure

then consists of finding the design of the pair of P/M

gears which will meet this objective. This annex

describes such a design procedure. Like the other

parts of this information sheet, it is limited to

consideration of tooth bending strength and does not

deal with issues of wear or other potential limits on

gear performance.

The general method for this design procedure

consists of the following:

1) select the appropriate equation from clause 3,

which relates all the elements that determine

tooth bending torque capacity;

2) introduce a value for desired torque;

3) introduce an approximate strength value for the

selected material;

4) introduce estimated values for adjustment and

geometry factors;

5) using appropriate guidelines, establish relationships among the remaining geometric elements

in the equation: calculation diameter, effective

face width, and module;

6) assign preliminary values to these elements, applying appropriate rounding and preferred

values;

7) reevaluate this preliminary design by replacing

estimated values with those calculated by the

various procedures in this information sheet, to

arrive at a calculated load capacity;

8) for small differences between this load capacity

and the original specified load, introduce minor

changes to the design geometry;

9) for major differences between the two load values, use the newly calculated factors in place of

the original estimates and repeat the remainder

of this initial design procedure;

10)if the initial design dimensions exceed space limits or are otherwise inappropriate, repeat the process with a new material selection or other

changes in the basic selections.

D.1.1 Iterative design process

This design procedure can develop into an iterative

process. Design results from one set of calculations

may lead to changes which call for a new round of

calculations. As noted in step 9, initial simplified

design assumptions, when checked at design

completion, may prove to be significantly inappropriate, thereby requiring revision of some or all of the

design process. Also, as noted in step 10, an initial

design selection, such as the P/M material, may lead

to a design of gears which are simply too large, or

otherwise inappropriate, for the application. This will

require a new design selection and a new set of

design calculations.

D.1.2 Guidance from previous designs

Since the design process will make use of some

initial assumptions, it will be advantageous if these

assumptions can be based on data from previous

designs of P/M gears for similar applications. Where

such guidance is not available, the designer will be

able to use estimates provided in this annex.

However, as new designs are completed, some

results should replace the data calculated here.

Such changes will aid in future work.

D.2 Operating conditions

As with any gear design procedure, it is necessary to

start with information on the operating conditions

and associated performance requirements.

D.2.1 Loads

Two types of loading are considered in this information sheet, repeated loading and occasional peak

loading. When starting with completed gear designs, each has its own load capacity calculation

including separate strength properties for the selected material. It may not be obvious from the start

which load condition will control a new design. The

more common design control is from repeated

loading and this type of loading is given priority in the

39

AGMA 930--A05

established based on repeated loading, it may be

checked for occasional peak loading. On the other

hand, if the occasional peak loads are especially

severe or are essentially the only loads, the design

procedure below can be switched over with appropriate changes in material design stress and applicable

factors.

The required load capacity is typically expressed as

a design torque on the gear or output member of the

gear pair, TtdG for repeated loads or TydG for peak

loading. The required design torque on the pinion or

input member of the gear pair, TtdP or TydP, can be

determined from the gear torque value by application of the anticipated gear ratio. See D.3.2. The

relationship between the output and input torque

values is also influenced by the friction in the gear

mesh. For the initial design process, this difference

may be ignored or an estimated value of mesh

inefficiency may be applied to slightly increase the

input torque.

D.2.2 Speeds

Speeds of the gears are typically specified starting

with the speed of the driving member and then, by

applying the anticipated gear ratio, to arrive at the

speed of the driven member. Exact gear ratio may

not be known at the start of the design calculations,

but any error in its estimate is likely to be small and

will have little effect on the design results. Speed

data will be used in estimating one of the factors in

the design process. See D.6.2.3.

D.2.3 Other conditions

A number of other operating conditions play a role in

establishing various design factors. These are

discussed as required for estimating values for each

factor. See D.6.

D.3 Primary selections of design features

A number of selections, some permanent and some

tentative, are needed to continue the design

process.

D.3.1 Type of gears

To conform to the scope of this information sheet, the

spur type of gears has been selected.

D.3.2 Gear ratio

Gear ratio is generally one of the primary specifications for the gear design. The application may

40

impose restrictions on the selection of the exact

numbers of teeth in the two gears. Such restrictions

may carry over to the choice of module. More often,

only an approximate value of gear ratio is needed,

permitting greater freedom in these selections.

Gear ratio, mG, is expressed as the ratio of input

speed to output speed, or as the ratio of the number

of teeth on the output gear to those on the input gear.

For speed reducing drives, gear ratio is greater than

one. For speed increasing drives, gear ratio is less

than one.

D.3.3 Materials

Many considerations enter into the initial selection of

materials. Generally, lower strength materials of

lower cost will be selected when load conditions and

constraints on gear size permit. Prior experience

with similar applications will often provide guidance

as to which materials will best balance strength and

cost and still meet any other material property

requirements.

D.3.4 Gear quality level

This calls for a general understanding of the

anticipated level of gear quality. This will play a role

in establishing one of the design factors. See

D.6.2.3.

D.4 Space constraints

When starting the design process, there are generally some limits on the space available for the set of

gears. The dimensions implied by these limits will be

used to help estimate some of the design factors.

These will not necessarily define the gear sizes in the

completed design.

D.4.1 Diameter limits

Diameter limits may be expressed in a variety of

ways:

1) maximum diameter of larger gear, dOGX for

speed reducing drives or dOPX for speed increasing drives;

2) maximum center distance of mating gears, CAX;

3) maximum overall size of mating gears, MoPG.

The approximate maximum pitch diameters of the

two mating gears, dPX and dGX, can be estimated

from each of these limits, using the gear ratio, mG.

For the speed reducing drive:

dGX is slightly smaller than dOGX;

d

d PX mGX

G

(D.1)

(D.2)

dPX is slightly smaller than dOPX

d GX d PX m G

(D.3)

(D.4)

teeth may bring with it some detrimental gear design

features such as reduced bending strength and

reduced contact ratio. It is therefore important to

initially establish a limit on the minimum number of

teeth, NN, found most appropriate for the type of

application. Although the scope of this document

refers to a minimum number of teeth of seven,

practical considerations will often raise this limit.

D.5.2 Finest pitch

2 C AX

d PX

1 + mG

(D.5)

d GX d PX m G

(D.6)

M oPG

(D.7)

2

dPX and dGX are as determined by equations D.5 and

D.6.

C AX is slightly smaller than

The overall gear box package will also be limited by

certain design issues. As noted in 1.3, P/M gears

have inherent size limitations for both face width and

diameter. Due to manufacturing constraints, P/M

gears are also limited in the face width--to--diameter

ratio, usually less than 8:1.

The gear box package may also be constrained by

the type of support provided for the gear and shaft

assemblies. The choice of bearings and mounting

approaches may limit the width of the gear box.

Finally the gear box package must fit into an overall

product assembly. Certain designs will favor a

narrow width with larger diameter gears (pancake

designs) as compared to more traditional or wider

gear boxes with smaller diameter gears, such as

planetary drive systems or speed reducers.

D.5 Preliminary geometry restrictions and

guidelines

In addition to size limits, there are other restrictions

and guidelines that may be applied. These are

needed for successful gear designs which are also

compatible with P/M manufacturing processes.

D.5.1 Minimum number of teeth

It is often the objective to introduce the highest

possible ratio in each gear set. This typically leads to

a design of the smaller gear with the fewest possible

AGMA 930--A05

systems as small as possible, there is often a

preference for using the finest pitch compatible with

tooth bending strength requirements. However,

there may be design and manufacturing issues

which establish a coarser limit on this pitch. Design

issues may include concern for low contact ratio

under some degree of size and center distance

variations. A manufacturing limit may be imposed by

the P/M manufacturing process. The manufacturing

facility will often set its own limit of minimum module,

mx, as the finest pitch to be used in design. The

scope refers to a minimum module value of 0.4 for

the load capacity calculations, but this may be

replaced by a larger value, or coarser pitch, to

comply with these considerations.

D.5.3 Minimum pitch diameter

Another gear design limit may be indirectly imposed

by the diameter of the bore through the gear or of an

adjacent hub. These tend to define a minimum root

diameter and, thereby, somewhat larger minimum

pitch diameter, dPN or dGN. In the case of the bore,

the minimum root diameter must allow sufficient

material in that area. In the case of a hub, P/M

tooling practice will dictate the minimum difference

between hub and adjacent root diameter. The

minimum root diameter may also be determined by

the combination of minimum number of teeth and

finest pitch. See D.5.1 and D.5.2.

D.5.4 Preferred face--pitch ratio

The selection of face width in P/M gear design is

often expressed in terms of a preferred or maximum

face--pitch ratio, mFm. This ratio relates face width, F,

to module, m, as follows:

F

m Fm = m

(D.8)

proportions. In this approach, increases in load

capacity should be made by proportional increases

41

AGMA 930--A05

determined by module. This is based in part on an

objective of limiting the overall volume of the gear. A

coarser pitch, when also maintaining the same

number of teeth, often results in a larger diameter

and a larger cross--sectional area. Therefore, an

increase of load capacity by a coarser pitch alone

results in a greater increase in gear volume than if it

is shared by a corresponding increase in face width.

A value for this ratio for use in design may be taken

from other successful gear designs. It generally falls

in the range of 5 to 10, with the smaller value used

with tighter axial space limitations.

D.6 Preliminary estimates of factors for repeated

bending

Equation 3.1, for calculated load capacity for tooth

bending under repeated loading, calls for the

following factors:

1) combined adjustment factor for strength, Kts;

2) geometry factor, Jt;

3) combined adjustment factor for tooth loading,

Ktw.

The simplest way to select these factors for initial

design is by reference to values found in prior load

capacity calculations for similar applications. When

this option is not available, values may be developed

by following the calculation procedures in the

corresponding clauses 5, 8, and 9. Each of these

procedures call for multiple components, most of

which are based on application requirements and do

not require any detailed information on the gear

proportions that have not yet been determined.

Simplified procedures for estimating values of the

remaining factor components are described below.

Values supplied in these descriptions should be

taken as trial values and should be replaced for

subsequent estimating needs as indicated by new

load capacity calculations.

D.6.1 Combined adjustment factor for strength

All components of this factor are independent of gear

proportions (see clause 5).

D.6.2 Geometry factor, Jt

There are two components of geometry factor, as

defined in 8.2:

-- form factor, Y, as found in annex B;

-- stress correction factor, Kf, as found in annex C.

42

the mating gears requires detailed gear geometry

information that is generally not available at the initial

design process. The following simplified estimates

may be used in place of predetermined values.

D.6.2.1 Form factor

Form factor is typically tied to the number of teeth in

the gear. In the pinion, or smaller member of the

mating gears, the number of teeth is often tied to

gear ratio, mG, with a higher ratio (greater than one)

leading to fewer teeth and lower form factor, as

reflected in the following equation for the pinion

(smaller member):

Y P = 0.6

m + 0.4

(D.9)

Y G = 1.0

(D.10)

closely balance the form factors of the two gears,

and the average of the values from the two equations

may be used for both gears.

D.6.2.2 Stress correction factor

This factor is derived from two components:

-- stress concentration factor, Kft;

-- notch sensitivity index, q.

Stress concentration factor can be estimated, as

follows:

Kft = 1.5 for full round fillets, as introduced in the P/M

tooling;

Kft = 2.0 for rack generated fillets, with near sharp

corners on the generating rack.

The value for notch sensitivity index is based on the

type of loading and material. It may be selected

directly from table C.1.

D.6.2.3 Combined adjustment factor for tooth

loading

Of the various components of this factor, only the

following have some relationship to gear proportions

and require some guidance in making estimates.

Rim thickness factor estimate:

K B = 1.0

(D.11)

K mt = 1.3

(D.12)

39, using estimates of its two variables, gear

accuracy tolerance and pitchline velocity.

based on the anticipated level of quality. It will

generally range from 79 micrometers for large gears

with no tooth profile finishing, down to 8 micrometers

for small gears with profile finishing.

Pitchline velocity may be estimated from the operating speeds, see D.2.2, and maximum pitch diameters, see D.4.1.

D.7 Calculation of pinion proportions

In the calculation of bending load capacity, the pinion

is generally the critical member of the gear pair. For

matching materials, this results from the pinions

lower geometry factor and the higher number of load

cycles. Therefore, the proportions of the pinion are

considered first in the initial design process.

These proportions will be selected by using equation

1 in which:

-- pinion design torque, TtdP, replaces torque load

capacity;

-- design fatigue strength, st, is derived for the

selected material as described in clause 4;

-- combined adjustment factors and geometry

factor are estimated as described in D.6;

-- remaining factors, calculation diameter, dc, face

width, F, and module, m, all define the gear proportions and are the unknowns in solving the

equation.

Equation 1 may be rewritten with a convenient

grouping of variables:

s t K ts J t

1

= K RS

m dc F

2000 T tdP K tw

(D.13)

described above. Any combination of left side

variables that equals, or is smaller than, the right side

factor, will provide adequate bending strength in an

initial design.

The following will assist in arriving at individual

values for the gear proportion variables.

First, replace face width, F, by a combination of

preferred face--pitch ratio and module, as in D.5.4:

F = m Fm m

(D.14)

unknown:

m1

= d c m Fm K RS

(D.15)

AGMA 930--A05

calculation diameter in this equation, a range of

module is found. The two diameters are minimum

pinion pitch diameter, dPN, of D.5.3 and maximum

pinion pitch diameter, dPX, of D.4.1. If the first value

of module is found to be smaller (or finer pitch) than

the minimum module, mx, of D.5.2, it should be

replaced by the minimum module.

Design module, generally of some standard or

common value, may then be selected from this

range. Using this module in equation D.15, a new

corresponding calculation diameter may be found.

This diameter can then be used, along with the

module value, to establish number of teeth in the

pinion.

d

N=m

(D.16)

the next larger integer, and also be compared to the

minimum number of teeth, NN, described in D.5.1.

An adjusted number of teeth can then be used to find

the corresponding pitch diameter. With these

selected values of module and calculation diameter,

equation D.13 can be used to solve for the minimum

face width, F.

D.8 Calculation of gear proportions

In most applications, material strength and other

bending load capacity factors of the gear are larger

than those of the pinion. In such cases, design

proportions of the gear, such as number of teeth and

pitch diameter, can be found from the pinion design

by applying the gear ratio. If these factors are lower

in the gear, the design procedure of D.7 can be

repeated for the gear to see if changes in module,

pitch diameter, or face width are needed. Such

changes may require corresponding changes to the

pinion design proportions, but without reducing its

bending load capacity.

D.9 Design adjustments

After completing the load capacity calculation for

each of the gears, as described in this information

sheet, it may be found that the initial design falls

short of meeting the required load capacity. For

small differences, an increase in the face width may

be the only adjustment needed. For a greater

increase, a change using a stronger material will

avoid major recalculations. When this is not adequate, a change to a coarser pitch with corresponding diameter increases may be needed to supply the

added load capacity.

43

AGMA 930--A05

Annex E

(informative)

Calculation of inverse functions for gear geometry

[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,

Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

E.1 Purpose

Some of the calculations in annex A refer to new

trigonometric functions, namely the involute function, defined in A.3.2 as:

inv = tan (where in radians) (E.1)

and the sevolute function, defined in A.5.2 as:

sev =

cos1 inv

(E.2)

necessary to solve for the inverse values of these

functions, that is, given the value of the function, to

find the value of the angle. Such calculations may be

made with the aid of tables available in published

gear literature. However, this process is generally

not suited to calculations made in computer programs. More convenient methods for finding the

inverse values of these functions are described

below.

E.2 Inverse involute function

NOTE: This calculation is not required in any of the

equations in annex A. It is presented here as an aid to

the reader who will encounter the need in other types of

gear geometry calculation.

found in the gear literature, with most, but not all,

capable of providing results with the accuracy

needed in modern calculations. The method shown

here will supply the required accuracy. It consists of

a series of approximations which may be extended

to achieve even extreme levels of accuracy. Table

E.1 demonstrates that very few iterations are

needed for most applications.

First approximation, 1:

1 = 1.441 ( I )

13

0.374 I

(E.3)

(E.4)

Second approximation, 2:

2 = 1 +

I inv 1

tan 1

(E.5)

after replacing 1 by the value of the angle found in

the prior approximation.

Table E.1 lists a range of involute values up to 1.0

and the exact values of the corresponding angles,

in both degrees and radians. Alongside each set of

these values are the errors, in radians, associated

with each of up to four successive approximations.

Note that for angles up to 36, these errors are

negligible after the second approximation, and for

angles up to about 55, are negligible after the third

approximation. In spur gear calculations, it is

unlikely that angles will exceed 45.

E.3 Inverse sevolute function

This calculation is required in equation A.32, in

A.5.2. The method presented here for the inverse

sevolute is similar to that shown above in E.2 for the

inverse involute.

First approximation, 1:

12

(E.6)

where

S

function up to 1.0. This corresponds to values of the

44

1 = 0.8 ( S 1 ) + 1.4 ( S 1 )

where

I

is unlikely to be exceeded in any calculations for spur

gears. For values of the involute function greater

than 1.0, or if a calculation method that uses a

greater number of iterations is acceptable, replace

equation E.3 with equation E.4.

NOTE: This equation is suitable for values of the sevolute function up to 1.57. This corresponds to values of

the pressure angle approaching 90. A 45 angle is unlikely to be exceeded in any calculations for spur gears.

AGMA 930--A05

Involute

value

0.0010000

0.0020000

0.0050000

0.0100000

0.0200000

0.0500000

0.1000000

0.2000000

0.5000000

1.0000000

Exact angle

Degrees

Radians

8.2406242

0.1438260

10.3656916

0.1809154

14.0166548

0.2446368

17.5767722

0.3067725

21.9811018

0.3836426

29.3377203

0.5120398

36.1914219

0.6316595

44.1379468

0.7703525

55.8643701

0.9750172

64.8741619

1.1322677

Error (approximate

First

Second

--0.0001000

0.0000001

--0.0001088

0.0000001

--0.0000992

0.0000000

--0.0000585

0.0000000

0.0000250

0.0000000

0.0001291

0.0000000

--0.0002065

0.0000001

--0.0024506

0.0000121

--0.0182947

0.0007329

--0.0652677

0.0115850

Second approximation, 2:

2 = 1 + S sev 1 1 +

sin 1

(E.7)

For successive approximations, use equation E.7

after replacing 1 by the value of the angle found in

the prior approximation.

-- exact), radians

Third

Fourth

0.0000000

0.0000000

0.0000000

0.0000000

0.0000000

0.0000000

0.0000000

0.0000000

0.0000000

0.0000000

0.0000000

0.0000000

0.0000000

0.0000000

0.0000000

0.0000000

0.0000012

0.0000000

0.0003466

0.0000003

and the exact values of the corresponding angles,

in both degrees and radians. Alongside each set of

these values are the errors, in radians, associated

with each of up to three successive approximations.

Note that for angles up to 45, these errors are very

small, possibly negligible after the second approximation and for all angles effectively zero after the

third approximation. In spur gear calculations, it is

unlikely that angles will exceed 45.

Sevolute

value

1.00100000

1.00200000

1.00500000

1.01000000

1.02000000

1.05000000

1.10000000

1.20000000

1.50000000

Exact angle

Degrees

Radians

2.60090125

0.04539429

3.70111645

0.06459667

5.92462045

0.10340413

8.49638966

0.14828997

12.25623610

0.21391167

20.16288171

0.35190867

29.83660174

0.52074694

45.05369301

0.78633528

81.87368867

1.42896544

First

Second

Third

--0.00032240

0.00000110

0.00000000

--0.00038676

0.00000109

0.00000000

--0.00040918

0.00000073

0.00000000

--0.00028997

0.00000025

0.00000000

0.00007822

0.00000001

0.00000000

0.00114084

0.00000131

0.00000000

0.00197193

0.00000225

0.00000000

--0.00023625

0.00000002

0.00000000

--0.03901594

0.00006502

0.00000000

45

AGMA 930--A05

Annex F

(informative)

Test for fillet interference by the tooth of the mating gear

[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,

Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

F.1 Introduction

This annex is provided as an aid to the gear designer,

to be used to determine if interference at the fillet of

one gear by the tip of the tooth of the mating gear

exists.

Annex A provides means for calculating the point by

point shape of the fillet of a gear. This shape may be

a trochoid generated by the fillet of a generating

basic rack or it may be a circular--arc of specified

radius tangent to the root circle and to the involute

tooth flank.

This annex provides means for calculating the

nearby path, point by point, followed by the tip of the

mating gear tooth. Interference is indicated if the

combined graphical plot of the fillet and tip path

shows an overlap between the two curves. Clearance is indicated if there is a gap between the two

curves along their entire corresponding length. If the

fillet is a circular--arc, a calculation method showing

interference or clearance is provided, avoiding the

need for graphical plots.

F.2 Input data for the graphical plots

for calculation of tight mesh center distance).

F.3 Center distance and operating pressure

angle

F.3.1 Tight mesh center distance

The tight mesh center distance can be calculated

from the gear data above. The equations may be

made simpler by means of some preliminary calculations.

Step 1. Pitch (or reference) diameters of the two

gears:

dG = NG m

(F.1)

d MG = N MG m

(F.2)

d G + d MG

2

Step 3. Circular pitch:

C=

(F.3)

pc = m

(F.4)

distance:

-- module, m;

-- pressure angle, ;

T = inv 1 (inv) +

-- tooth thickness at reference diameter, tG;

-- coordinates of the point by point data of the fillet,

referenced to an X--axis on the tooth centerline,

xfG, yfG. See A.4.5 or A.5.6.

F.2.3 Data for the mating gear (with MG as the

final subscript)

-- number of teeth, NMG;

-- outside diameter, dOMG;

-- tip radius, rrMG;

46

2C

(F.5)

F.2.2 Data for the gear whose fillet is defined

(with G as the final subscript)

pc tG t MG

CT =

C (cos )

cos T

(F.6)

The test for tip--fillet interference can be made at any

center distance, keeping in mind that a center

distance smaller than the tight mesh center distance

is not possible. The selected center distance should

reflect the minimum value, CAN, to be encountered in

the assembly of the product. If it has been previously

established that this is the same as the tight mesh

center distance, or if the interference analysis is to be

conservative, then the tight mesh center distance

becomes the specified minimum value, or:

C AN C T

(F.7)

The relative motion between the two gears can be

represented by two tangent cylinders rolling on each

other without slipping. The diameters of these

cylinders are the two operating pitch diameters

which meet the following conditions:

-- as tangent cylinders, the sum of their radii must

match the specified center distance;

-- as cylinders that roll without slipping while maintaining their rolling ratio, the diameters must be in

the same ratio as their numbers of teeth.

These diameters are therefore defined as follows:

d AG =

2 N G C AN

(F.8)

NG + NMG

d AMG =

2 N MG C AN

(F.9)

NG + NMG

When the minimum center distance is greater than

the tight mesh center distance, the difference is

reflected in the operating pressure angle:

A = arccos C

(cos )

C AN

(F.10)

Furthermore, the two gears will operate with backlash. Dealing with this backlash in the analysis is

avoided by adjusting the tooth thickness value in the

mating gear. This backlash adjusted tooth thickness

is:

t BMG = p c t G + 2 C inv A (inv)

(F.11)

Figure F.1 shows the two gears positioned without

any relative rotation, with the centerline of the mating

gear tooth space in line with the centerline of the

tooth of the gear. It also shows the tip radius of the

mating gear and its points of tangency to the

involute, point OEMG, and to the remaining top land,

point ORMG, also shown in figure F.2. The center of

the tip radius is located on the mating gear by its

radial distance from the gear center, rrCMG, and by its

angular location relative to the adjusted tooth

centerline, rCBMG. These may be calculated as

shown in A.3.1 and A.3.2. Using the new subscripts,

equations A.1, A.3, A.4, A.5, A.7 and A.8 become:

d rCMG = d OMG 2 r rMG

(F.12)

d BMG = d MG (cos )

(F.13)

AGMA 930--A05

rCMG = arccos

d BMG

d rCMG

BMG =

t BMG

d MG

(F.14)

2 r rMG

d BMG

(F.15)

(F.16)

rCBMG = BMG + inv tan OEMG + rCMG

(F.17)

F.4 Path of tip of mating gear

In figure F.2, the gear is represented as fixed in

position while the mating gear is shown in a rotated

position. This arrangement is for convenience, since

the analysis is concerned with relative position only.

The figure also shows the pitch point, PP, the point

where the operating pitch circles of the two gears

come together. A line drawn from this pitch point

through the center of the tip radius, point RCMG,

establishes a point on the tip radius, point RMG. This

point becomes a point on the path of the tip of the

mating gear. This path is a curve made up from a

collection of such points, plotted as if they were fixed

on the gear and located near its fillet. These points

are similarly defined as the mating gear continues its

rotation around the gear.

F.4.1 Limits of the path

The end points of the path are defined by the end

points of the tip round on the mating gear, points

OEMG and ORMG, shown in figure F.2. For each

point, the corresponding path point appears when

the mating gear has rotated until the pitch point is

correspondingly positioned. At this position, a

straight line connects three points:

-- the pitch point, PP;

-- the center of the mating gear tip radius center,

point RCMG; and

-- the selected point on the mating gear tip round,

RMG.

The rotation angle of the mating gear, MG, that

corresponds with each of the points can be determined from this requirement.

F.4.1.1 Limit for point OE

The conditions for this limit are based on the mating

gear contacting the fixed gear at the point OEMG at a

slightly rotated position compared to figure F.2. A

straight line connects the three points as noted

above.

47

AGMA 930--A05

Tooth C

L

Point ORMG at

remaining top land

Tip radius, rrMG

Point OEMG at effective

outside diameter

Point RCMG -- Center

of tip round

Tooth CL

(gear)

To mating

gear center

rrCMG

rCBMG

To mating

gear center

Tooth pitch

angle, MG

Space C

L (mating gear)

Circular tooth

thickness (mating

gear), tBMG

Standard pitch

circle (mating gear)

Operating pitch

circle (gear), dAG

(mating gear), dAMG

Figure F.1 -- Gear and mating gear (with tooth thickness increased) in tight mesh at specific center

distance

Pitch point

PP

MG

Rotation angle,

MG

Point

RCMG

Tooth CL

(mating gear)

Tooth CL MG

To mating

gear center

rCBMG

Point

ORMG

G Common centerline rotation

angle (G)

To mating

gear center

MG

2

Point

RMG

Space C

L MG

Point OEMG

Tooth C

L

(gear)

Operating pitch

diameter (gear)

Operating pitch

diameter (mating

gear)

48

the limit point OEMG is defined as OEMG such that:

OEMG = OEMG A OEBMG

(F.18)

where

OEBMGis the half tooth thickness angle at the effective outside diameter such that:

OEBMG = BMG + inv inv OEMG

(F.19)

and mating gear center referenced to the gear axes.

(F.26)

x PPj = 0.5 d AG cos rjG

y PPj = 0.5 d AG sin rjG

(F.27)

(F.28)

(F.29)

mating gear tip radius.

x rCMGj = x CMGj 0.5d rCMG

At this limit condition, the mating gear has been

rotated to a position which places the point ORMG

on the straight line connecting the centers of the two

gears. The rotation angle of the mating gear for this

limit is:

ORMG = rCBMG

AGMA 930--A05

(F.20)

y rCMGj = y CMGj 0.5 d rCMG

sin rjG + rjMG + rCBMG

r1MG = ORMG

(F.21)

drCMG

mating gear tip radius.

Distance of center of tip radius from pitch point

rPPj =

x PPj x rCMGj

x rj = x PPj

(F.22)

r1MG ( n j ) + rnMG ( j 1 )

(F.23)

(n 1 )

for (j = 2 to n -- 1)

F.4.3 Calculation of path points projected on the

fixed gear

Step 1. For each rjMG, calculate the corresponding

value of the rotation angle on the gear, rjG, using the

following equation:

rjG = rjMG +

MG

2

N MG

NG

(F.24)

where

MG is the tooth pitch angle at the mating gear.

MG = 360

N MG

+ y PPj y rCMGj

rPPj + r rMG

rPPj

x PPj x rCMGj

(F.33)

y rj = y PPj

rjMG =

(F.32)

rnMG = ORMG

(F.31)

where

A convenient complement of path points may be

calculated from these limit values of mating gear

rotation angles with approximately equally spaced

intermediate values. The following equation gives

the value of each rotation angle rjMG for each value j

to the total number of angles, n.

(F.30)

(F.25)

rPPj + r rMG

rPPj

y PPj y rCMGj

(F.34)

As noted in F.1, the test for interference can be made

by graphically plotting these points alongside the

points used to define the gear fillet. If the fillet was

defined by a circular--arc of radius rf, with its center at

xfC, yfC as described in A.5.3, a numerical test may

be applied.

For each of the path points from F.4.3, calculate its

distance from the fillet arc center:

z fCj =

x rj x fC + y rj y fC

(F.35)

radius, rf, interference is present.

If the fillet was defined by a trochoid curve as

described in A.4, the numerical test would be more

complex and is beyond the scope of this document.

49

AGMA 930--A05

Annex G

(informative)

Calculation examples

[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,

Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

G.1 Purpose

The calculation examples in this annex serve the

dual purpose of helping to clarify the procedures

explained in this document and providing a test case

for any computer programs prepared for these

procedures. The following sections begin with a flow

diagram illustrating the various steps and their

proper order to determine the load capacity of a P/M

gear. This is followed with a detailed example

problem using a gear mesh assuming friction in the

system. The final example describes the calculations to test for fillet interference.

G.1.1 Sequence of calculations

Due to the multiple steps required in determining the

load capacity, the following sequence outlines these

steps in a preferred order to ensure all elements of

the calculation are considered. The goal is to

calculate all seven factors required for determining

the result of equation 1 or 2.

Before any calculations begin, list all pertinent gear

data as illustrated by the data entries in table G.1.

A -- calculate gear geometry per annex A,

equations A.1 through A.85.

A--1 Tip radius geometry (see G.2.1)

A--2 Generated trochoid fillet points (see

G.2.2)

A--3 Circular--arc in place of trochoid (see

G.2.3)

A--4 Involute profile data (see G.2.4)

A--5 Operating line of action and pitch circle

data (see G.2.5)

A--6 Contact conditions (see G.2.6)

B -- calculate form factor, Y, equations B.1

through B.19.

B--1 Critical load location (see G.3.1)

B--2 Critical fillet section (see G.3.2)

B--3 Maximum bending stress (see G.3.3)

B--4 Non--dimensional Y factor (see G.3.4)

C -- calculate the stress concentration factor, Kf,

equations C.1 through C.5.

C--1 Elastic stress concentration factor (see

G.4.1)

50

D -- calculate the design strength, st, equations 3

though 10 (see G.5).

E -- calculate the combined adjustment factor for

strength, Ks, equations 11 through 18 (see G.6).

F -- calculate the operating pitch diameter, dc,

equation 19 (use results from equations A.67

and A.68, see G.7).

G -- calculate the effective face width, Fe, equations 20 through 21 (see G.8).

H -- calculate the geometry factor, J, equations

22 through 24 (use results from step B and step

C above, see G.9).

I -- calculate the combined adjustment factor for

loading, Kw, equations 25 through 33 (see G.10).

J -- determine the module, m, from the gear data

table.

K -- calculate the load capacity using the seven

items determined in steps D, E, F, G, H, I, J

above (see G.11).

G.1.2 Source of example data

The first example uses test gear data provided by the

Center for Powder Metallurgy Technology (CPMT).

CPMT conducted a three year single tooth bending

fatigue test program using P/M gears manufactured

with a variety of materials and processing conditions.

One such set of processing conditions was selected

for this calculation example.

G.2 Annex A -- Calculation of spur gear

geometry features

Gear from gear test program (see table G.1).

G.2.1 Tip radius geometry (see A.3).

G.2.1.1 Effective outside diameter (see A.3.1):

Step 1. Diameter at the center of the tip round, drC

(figure G.1)

d rC = d O 2 r r

(A.1)

= 85.3440 2 (0.7620)

= 83.8200 mm

AGMA 930--A05

Feature

Number of teeth

Module

Pressure angle

Outside diameter

Root diameter

Tip radius

Arc tooth thickness

Fillet radius

Center distance

Face width

Tooth--to--tooth

Rim thickness

Material

Fatigue limit G--10

Ultimate tensile

strength

Youngs Modulus

Number of load

cycles

(unidirectional)

Number of units for

which one failure will

be tolerated

AGMA Quality

Symbol

N

m

dO

dR

rr

t

rf

CA

F

VqT

tR

Pinion

24

3.1750

20.000

85.3440

69.9262

0.7620

5.7277

1.3513

Gear

40

3.1750

20.000

131.2418

116.5352

0.7620

4.2469

1.6993

12.0000

stT

suT

12.7000

25.4 micrometers

9.9441

FL--4405--125HT

290 N/mm2

930 N/mm2

E

n

135,000 N/mm2

5.0 106

nu

10,000

Mesh

101.7270

Qv

Bearing span = 24.00

Pitch line velocity = 7.62 m/sec

d=Nm

= (24)(3.1750)

= 76.2000 mm

(A.2)

d B = d (cos )

(A.3)

= 76.2000 cos(20.0000)

= 71.6046 mm

rr

d/2

drc

dO

Figure G.1

dB/2

Figure G.2

51

AGMA 930--A05

a = r B tan rC

(figure G.3)

dB

d rC

rC = arccos

tan OE =

(A.4)

=

= arccos 71.6046

83.8200

(a + r r )

rB

rB tan rC + rr

rB

r

= tan rC + r r

2r

= tan rC + r

dB

= arccos(0.85427)

= 31.3213 degrees

OE = arctan tan rC +

= 0.5467 radians

rC

2r r

dB

r

cos rC = r B

rC

d

cos rC = B

d rC

rrC

rB

rC = arccos

rC

dB

d rC

d OE =

=

2 rr

dB

cos OE

(A.6)

71.6046

cos(32.2028)

= 84.6222 mm

Figure G.3

OE = arctan tan rC +

dB

= arctan tan(31.3213) +

= arctan (0.62980)

= 32.2028 degrees

(A.5)

2(0.762)

71.6046

Step 1. Tooth thickness half angle,

= t

d

= 5.7277

76.2000

= 0.07517 radians

(A.7)

OE

a

rC

OE

t OR = d O + (inv ) tan OE + rC

(A.8)

= 85.3440 [0.07517 + inv (20.0000)

tan (32.2028) + 0.5417]

= 0.5913 mm

52

rB

Figure G.4

NOTE: The example gear selected for these calculations has a circular--arc fillet. The following trochoid fillet calculations are used to demonstrate the use of the

formulas in this section and are not used elsewhere in

the example calculations.

AGMA 930--A05

A.4.1.1)

r fBRX =

t BR = m

2

(3.1750)

=

2

(A.9)

cos

b BR sin

4

1 sin

3.1750

(A.11)

cos 20.0000

4.1540(sin 20.0000)

4

1 sin 20.0000

= 2.3433 1.4208

0.6580

= 4.9873 mm

Basic rack dedendum, bBR

= 1.4020 mm

t t BR

b Br = 0.5 N m +

dR

tan

(A.10)

Basic rack form dedendum, bfBR (figure G.7)

tan 20.0000

69.9262

(A.12)

= 4.1540 1.3513 (0.6580)

= 4.1540 mm

= 3.2649 mm

t BR

2

b=

t t BR

2 tan

Generating pitch line

bBR

t

2

c=

dR

2

a = d = Nm

2

2

Figure G.5

Nominal

pitch line

Generating

pitch line

b fBR = b BR r fBR r fBR sin

b fBR = b BR r fBR(1 sin )

bfBR

bBR

rfBRX

rfBR

Figure G.6

Figure G.7

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

53

AGMA 930--A05

t

r

g fBR = BR + b BR r fBR tan + fBR (A.13)

cos

2

t t BR

y RS =

(A.15)

2 tan

2

1.3513

+

cos20.0000

= 5.7277 4.9873

2 tan (20.0000)

= 1.0171 mm

= 4.9518 mm

t BR

2

gfBR

t BR

2

yRS

t

2

rfBR

b

a

Figure G.10

Figure G.8

t BR

+a+b

2

a = b BR r fBR tan

r

b = fBR

cos

t

r

g fBR = BR + b BR r fBR tan + fBR

cos

2

Coordinate along the H--axis, hfBR (figure G.9)

g fBR =

h fBR = b BR r fBR

hyfBR (figure G.11)

h yfBR = h fBR y RS

(A.16)

= 2.8027 1.0171

= 1.7856 mm

Nominal pitch line

yRS

(A.14)

hfBR hyfBR

= 4.1540 1.3513

= 2.8027 mm

Nominal pitch line

bBR

Figure G.11

hfBR

If

undercutting.

rfBR

If

Figure G.9

54

bfBR yRS dsin2 ;

undercutting.

there

there

is

is

no

(A.17)

2

2

= 4.4569

bfBR yRS = 3.2649 1.0171

Step 1. Pitch point polar radius, f (figure G.12)

f =

= 2.2478

therefore, there is no undercutting.

G.2.2.4 Fillet point selection (see A.4.4)

f =

f1 n f k + fn( k 1 )

nf 1

AGMA 930--A05

h yfBR

sin f

+ r fBR

(A.23)

f1:

(A.22)

f1 =

sin(90.0000)

f5:

For k = 1 to nf

f15 =

nf = 10

f1 = 90.0000 degrees

(A.20)

fn = = 20.0000 degrees

(A.20)

k = 1:

sin(58.8889)

f10:

1.7856 + 1.3513 = 6.5720 mm

sin(20.0000)

Step 2. Generating roll angle, f (figure G.13)

f10 =

90.0000(10 1) + 20.0000(1 1)

10 1

= 90.0000 degrees

f1 =

2 g fBR +

f =

k = 5:

h yfBR cos f

sin f

(A.24)

f1:

90.0000(10 5) + 20.0000(5 1)

f5 =

10 1

= 58.8889 degrees

2 4.9518 + 1.7856

k = 10:

f1 =

cos90.0000

sin90.0000

76.2000

= 0.1300 radians

= 7.4466 degrees

f10 =

10 1

= 20.0000 degrees

f

hyfBR

Pitch point

Y

f

rfBR

Point on

trochoid

Basic rack

Generating

pitch line on

basic rack

X

Generating

Gear center circle on gear

Figure G.12

55

AGMA 930--A05

hyfBR

Pitch point

d

2

d

f

Basic

rack

f

2

gfBR

C

L

X

Generating

pitch line on

basic rack

Generating

circle on gear

Gear

center

Figure G.13

f1:

f5:

2 4.9518 + 1.7856

f5 =

cos58.8889

sin58.8889

v f1 =

76.2000

2

+ 3.1369 2 76.2000

1/2

(3.1369)(sin 90.000)

76.2000

= 0.1583 radians

= 9.0672 degrees

f1 = 7.4466 arcsin

f10:

= 34.9631

3.1369 cos(90.0000)

34.9631

= 7.4466 degrees

2 4.9518 + 1.7856

f3 =

cos20.0000

sin20.0000

76.2000

= 0.2587 radians

= 14.8243 degrees

vf =

d

2

+ 2f d f sin f

cos

f = f arcsin f v f

f

NOTE:

arcsin f

cos f

vf

f5:

v f5 =

76.2000

2

+ 3.4369 2 76.2000

1/2

(3.4369)(sin 58.8889)

tooth centerline and gear center, vf, f (figure G.14)

f5 = 9.0672 arcsin

= 35.2023

3.4369 cos(58.8889)

35.2023

= 6.1756 degrees

12

(A.25)

f10:

v f10 =

(A.26)

76.2000

2

+ 6.5720 2 76.2000

(6.5720)(sin 20.0000)

calculates a value in

be converted to degrees before using in the formula.

56

f5 = 14.8243 arcsin

1/2

= 36.3802

6.5720 cos20.0000

36.3802

= 5.0507 degrees

AGMA 930--A05

d

2

a

v 2f = a 2 + b 2

v f = a 2 + b 2

Basic rack

vf

f

Gear

center

b

f

Pitch point

X

Generating

circle on gear

Generating

pitch line on

basic rack

12

a= dx

2

x = f sin f

a = d f sin f

2

b = f cos f

a 2 + b 2 = d f sin f + 2 cos 2 f

2

2

2

d

d

=

d + 2f sin 2 f + 2f cos 2 f

2

2 sin f 2 sin f

vf =

d

2

2

= d d f sin f + 2fsin 2 f + cos 2 f

2

2

= d + 2f d f sin f

2

+ 2f d f sin f

f = f f

f = arcsin f cos v f

f

f = f arcsin f cos v f

f

12

Figure G.14

57

AGMA 930--A05

xf, yf (figure G.15) (table G.2)

(see A.4.6)

x f = v f cos f

(A.27)

y f = v f sin f

(A.28)

R fN =

=

f1:

h yfBR

0.5 d + h yfBR

(A.29)

+ r fBR

1.7856 2

+ 1.3513

0.5(76.2) + 1.7856

= 1.4312 mm

A.5)

A.5.1)

f5:

x f5 = 35.2023 cos(6.1756) = 34.9980 mm

r fN =

d2 d2

B

(A.30)

4d R

2

= 71.6046 69.9262

4(69.9262)

= 0.8493 mm

f10:

x f10 = 36.3802 cos(5.0507) = 36.2390 mm

BTff =

Y

yf

+ d R inv

N dB

(A.31)

24 71.6046

= 1.01739

[BTff] > 1; Full--fillet radius will work.

Point on

trochoid Basic

rack

xf

Gear center

radius, bC (figure G.16)

vf

bC = arc sev BT ff

(A.32)

Figure G.15

Table G.2

f (deg)

f (rad)

f (deg)

f (rad)

vf

f (rad)

f (deg)

xf

yf

90.0000

1.570796

3.136900

0.129969

7.446647

34.96310

0.129969

7.446647

34.66822

4.531320

82.2222

1.435048

3.153479

0.136370

7.813418

34.97814

0.124169

7.114339

34.70884

4.332036

74.4444

1.299300

3.204792

0.143015

8.194134

35.02314

0.118473

6.788001

34.77764

4.139596

66.6667

1.163553

3.295940

0.150185

8.604941

35.09790

0.112981

6.473354

34.87413

3.956977

58.8889

1.027805

3.436874

0.158252

9.067192

35.20228

0.107784

6.175596

34.99800

3.786917

51.1111

0.892057

3.64534

0.167770

9.612497

35.33678

0.102959

5.899133

35.14965

3.631826

43.3333

0.756309

3.953301

0.179644

10.292830

35.50372

0.098563

5.647224

35.33141

3.493678

35.5556

0.620562

4.422018

0.195538

11.203490

35.71030

0.094624

5.421567

35.55055

3.374018

27.7778

0.484814

5.182699

0.218942

12.544430

35.97804

0.091143

5.222084

35.82871

3.274593

20.0000

0.349066

6.572045

0.258732

14.824260

36.38024

0.088152

5.050726

36.23898

3.202832

58

Imaginary involute

through fillet center

Base

circle

Root

diameter

bC

AGMA 930--A05

radius), rfX

r fX = 0.5 d bC d R

(A.35)

= 1.5567 mm

G.2.3.3 Fillet radius center (see A.5.3):

Step 1. Diameter of gear center circle going through

fillet center, dfC (figure G.17)

d fC = d R + 2r f

(A.36)

= 69.9262 + 2(1.3513)

= 72.6288 mm

Figure G.16

First approximation:

1 = 0.8( S 1 ) + 1.4( S 1 )

12

rf

(E.4)

= 0.8(1.01739 1) + 1.4(1.01739 1)

12

S is the given value of the sevolute function

1

sin 1

Figure G.17

Step 2. Pressure angle along imaginary involute

through fillet center, fC (figure G.18)

Second approximation:

2 = 1 + S sev 1 1 +

(E.5)

fC = arccos

1+

1

inv (0.198532 rad)

cos 0.198532 rad

dbC

dB

d bC =

cos bC

71.6046

cos 11.3762

= 73.0396 mm

(A.37)

= 9.6336 degrees

6.070233

= 0.198552 radians = 11.3762 degrees

dB

d fC

= arccos 71.6046

72.6288

1

sin 11.3750

= 0.198532 + (1.017390

rf

(A.34)

d fC

= 72.6288 = 36.3144 mm (A.38)

2

2

Step 4. Polar angle at fillet center (relative to tooth

centerline), fC

fC =

fC = + inv inv fC +

2r f

dB

(A.39)

+

2(1.3513)

71.6046

59

AGMA 930--A05

fillet (see A.5.6)

Imaginary involute

through fillet center

Base

circle

F = + (inv) inv F

Root

diameter

fC

(A.45)

= 0.0893 radians = 5.1172 degrees

Step 2. Fillet construction angle at the form

diameter, fF

fF = + F F

(A.46)

2

= + 0.0893 0.13124

2

= 1.5289 radians = 87.5977 degrees

Step 3. Fillet construction angle at the root diameter,

fR

Figure G.18

fR = fC = 7.2314 degrees

Step 5. Coordinates at fillet center, xfC, yfC

x fC = fCcos fc

along the fillet, f

(A.40)

f =

y fC = fCsin fc

(A.41)

2 (1.3513)

= arctan tan (9.6336)

71.6046

7.2314(10 1) + 87.5977(1 1)

10 1

= 7.2314 degrees

7.2314(10 5) + 87.5977(5 1)

10 1

= 42.9498 degrees

(A.42)

dB

dF =

= 71.6046 = 72.2257 mm

cos F

cos 7.5194

(A.43)

k = 10:

7.2314(10 10) + 87.5977(10 1)

10 1

= 87.5977 degrees

Step 5. Coordinates of spaced points along fillet, xf,

yf (table G.3)

f1 =

x f = x fC r fcos f

(A.49)

y f = y fC r fsin f

(A.50)

f1:

x f1 = 36.0256 1.3513(cos 7.2314) = 34.6850 mm

s R = d R fC

N

(A.44)

24

60

k = 5:

f5 =

(A.48)

f1 =

nf 1

k = 1:

fR n f k + fF( k 1 )

For k = 1 to nf, nf = 10

2 r f

F = arctan tan fC

dB

(A.47)

f5:

x f5 = 36.0256 1.3513cos 42.9498 = 35.0365 mm

AGMA 930--A05

i5:

f10:

0.1320(10 5) + 0.6298(5 1)

10 1

= 0.3532 radians

1 =

i10:

Table G.3

f

7.2314

16.1610

25.0906

34.0202

42.9498

51.8794

60.8090

69.7385

78.6681

87.5977

f

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

xf

34.6850

34.7276

34.8018

34.9055

35.0365

35.1914

35.3665

35.5576

35.7600

35.9689

yf

4.4010

4.1950

3.9981

3.8151

3.6504

3.5081

3.3915

3.3035

3.2462

3.2210

10 1

= 0.6298 radians

1 =

i = arctan i

(A.54)

i1:

i = arctan (0.1320) = 7.5195 degrees

i5:

5 = arctan (0.3532) = 19.4555 degrees

i10:

10 = arctan (0.6298) = 32.2028 degrees

Step 4. Diameter at the i--th point, di

G.2.4.1 Spaced points on the involute profile

(see A.6.1)

Step 1. Roll angles at the form and effective outside

diameters, F, OE

F = tan arccos

dB

dF

dB

d OE

84.6222

71.6046 = 75.9407 mm

cos(19.4555)

71.6046 = 84.6222 mm

cos(32.2028)

Step 5. Polar (or half tooth) angle at the i--th point,

i

i = t + inv inv i

d

= 5.7277 + inv (20) inv i

76.2000

(A.56)

= 0.0752 + 0.0149

tan i i radians

ni 1

di =

di =

= 0.6298 radians

i =

71.6046 = 72.2257 mm

cos(7.5195)

i5:

(A.52)

F n i 1 + OE( i 1 )

di =

(A.55)

i10:

= 0.1320 radians

OE = tan arccos

dB

cos i

i1:

(A.51)

72.2257

di =

= 0.0901 tan i + i

(A.53)

i1:

1 = 0.0901 tan(7.5195) + 0.13124

For i = 1 to ni, ni = 10

i1:

0.1320(10 1) + 0.6298(1 1)

1 =

10 1

= 0.1320 radians

i5:

5 = 0.0901 tan(19.4555) + 0.33956

= 0.0764 radians = 4.3768 degrees

61

AGMA 930--A05

i10:

10 = 0.0901 tan(32.2028) + 0.56204

S = arccos

Step 6. Coordinates of the i--th point, xi, yi

(table G.4)

di

cos i

2

d

y i = i sin i

2

xi =

(A.57)

(A.58)

i1:

dB

dS

(A.61)

S 1:

S1 = arccos 71.6046 = 7.5196 degrees

72.2257

S 2:

S2 = arccos 71.6046 = 19.4554 degrees

75.9407

S 3:

S3 = arccos 71.6046 = 32.2027 degrees

84.6222

Step 2. Half--tooth thickness angle at the selected

point, S

2

y 1 = 72.2257 sin 5.1172 = 3.2210 mm

2

S = t + inv inv S

d

i5:

x 5 = 75.9407 cos 4.3768 = 37.8596 mm

2

75.9407

sin 4.3768 = 2.8977 mm

y5 =

2

i10:

(A.62)

76.2000

= 0.0752 + 0.0149

tan S S radians

= 0.0901 tan S + S

2

y 10 = 84.6222 sin 1.2785 = 0.9441 mm

2

G.2.4.2 Selected point on the involute profile

(see A.6.3)

S 1:

S1 = 0.0901 tan (7.5196) + 0.13124

= 0.0893 radians = 5.1772 degrees

S 2:

S2 = 0.0901 tan (19.4554) + 0.33956

= 0.0764 radians = 4.3768 degrees

d S1 = 72.2257 mm

S 3:

d S2 = 75.9407 mm

= 0.0223 radians = 1.2785 degrees

d S3 = 84.6222 mm

Table G.4

f

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

62

f (rad)

0.1320

0.1873

0.2426

0.2979

0.3532

0.4086

0.4639

0.5192

0.5745

0.6298

f

7.5195

10.6091

13.6377

16.5905

19.4555

22.2227

24.8850

27.4374

29.8769

32.2028

df

72.2257

72.8499

73.6820

74.7150

75.9407

77.3501

78.9332

80.6798

82.5796

84.6222

f (rad)

0.0893

0.0879

0.0855

0.0817

0.0764

0.0694

0.0605

0.0498

0.0370

0.0223

f (deg)

5.1172

5.0378

4.8972

4.6809

4.3768

3.9749

3.4681

2.8513

2.1218

1.2785

xf

35.9689

36.2842

36.7065

37.2329

37.8596

38.5820

39.3943

40.2900

41.2615

42.3006

yf

3.2210

3.1986

3.1450

3.0486

2.8977

2.6809

2.3874

2.0067

1.5287

0.9441

point, tS

t S = d S S

(A.63)

AGMA 930--A05

d AP =

S 1:

t S1 = 72.2257 0.0893 = 6.4506 mm

S 2:

t S2 = 75.9407 0.0764 = 5.8010 mm

S 3:

t S3 = 84.6222 0.0223 = 1.8883 mm

Step 4. Coordinates of the selected point, xS, yS

d

x S = S cos S

2

d

y S = S sin S

2

S 1:

(A.64)

(A.65)

2

y S2 = 75.9407 sin 4.3768 = 2.8977 mm

2

S 3:

x S3 = 84.6222 cos 1.2785 = 42.3006 mm

2

y S3 = 84.6222 sin 1.2785 = 0.9441 mm

2

G.2.5 Operating line--of--action and pitch circle

data (see A.7)

dG = NG m

(A.2)

= 40 (3.175)

= 127.0000 mm

d BG = d G cos

(A.3)

= 127.0000 cos 20

G.2.5.1 Operating pressure angle (see A.7.1)

(A.68)

2(101.7270)

1 + 71.6046

119.3410

= 127.1588 mm

(A.66)

2(101.7270)

= 20.1956 degrees

Point 2 = Start of single tooth contact

Point 3 = End of single tooth contact

Point 4 = End of contact of any one tooth

G.2.6.1 Contact limit points on the line of

action (see A.8.1)

Step 1. Roll angles at the operating pitch diameters,

AP and AG

A = AP = AG = tan A

(A.69)

Step 2. Roll angles at effective outside diameters,

OEP, OEG

OEP = tan OEP = tan 32.2028

(A.70)

= 0.6298 radians

Determine OEG

Step a. Diameter at center of tip round for the

gear, drC

d rC = d O 2 r r

= 119.3410 mm

2(101.7270)

1 + 119.3410

71.6046

= 76.2953

2 CA

d AG =

d

1 + BP

d BG

=

(A.67)

2

y S1 = 72.2257 sin 5.1172 = 3.2210 mm

2

S 2:

d + d BG

A = arccos BP

2 CA

2 CA

d

1 + BG

d BP

(A.1)

= 131.2418 2(0.7620)

= 129.7178 mm

Step b. Pressure angle at center of tip round,

rC

rC = arccos

dB

d rC

(A.4)

129.7178

63

AGMA 930--A05

diameter, OEG

2r r

dB

(A.5)

2(0.7620)

119.3410

= 23.6896 degrees

OEG = tan OEG

(A.71)

N

NG

OEG G

NP

NP

(A.72)

= 0.2497 radians

But not smaller than zero; Remains the same

(0.2497)

(A.73)

A 1 +

NP

NG

(A.74)

(A.79)

(A.80)

= 0.5115 radians

But not greater than 4P (0.6298); Remains the same

(0.5115)

3G = 1G G = 0.4388 0.1571

(A.81)

= 0.2817 radians

But not smaller than 4G (0.2107); Remains the

same (0.2817)

0.3678 1 + 40 = 0.98083

24

Remains the same (0.6298)

4G = A 1 +

(A.82)

d BG

(A.83)

cosarctan iP

cosarctan iG

Point 1:

71.6046

= 73.8023 mm

cos (arctan 0.2497)

119.3409

d 1G =

= 130.3226 mm

cos(arctan 0.4388)

Point 2:

d BP

d 1P =

NP

N

OEP P

NG

NG

71.6046

= 76.2992 mm

cos(arctan 0.3680)

119.3409

d 2G =

= 127.1548 mm

cos (arctan 0.3677)

Point 3:

d 2P =

(A.75)

= 0.2107 radians

But not smaller than zero; Remains the same

(0.2107)

71.6046

= 84.6222 mm

cos(arctan 0.6298)

119.3409

d 4G =

= 121.9604 mm

cos(arctan 0.2107)

d 4P =

P = 2 = 2 = 0.2618 radians

NP

24

71.6046

= 80.4264 mm

cos(arctan 0.5115)

119.3409

d 3G =

= 123.9849 mm

cos(arctan 0.2817)

Point 4:

d 3P =

= 0.3678 1 + 24 0.6298 24

40

40

64

2G = 4G + G = 0.2107 + 0.1571

d iG =

NG

NP

(A.78)

= 0.3680 radians

But not smaller than 1P (0.2497); Remains the

same (0.3680)

d iP =

2P = 4P P = 0.6298 0.2618

0.3678 1 + 24 = 0.58850

40

Remains the same (0.4388)

A 1 +

3P = 1P + P = 0.2497 + 0.2618

= 0.36781 + 40 0.4388 40

24

24

(A.77)

= 0.3677 radians

But not greater than 1G (0.4388); Remains the

same (0.3677)

Step 3. Roll angles at point 1, 1P, 1G

1P = A 1 +

G = 2 = 2 = 0.1571 radians

NG

40

(A.76)

contact are:

For the pinion, d3P (80.4264)

For the gear, d2G (127.1548)

AGMA 930--A05

Wc = t + inv inv Wc

d

= 5.7277 + inv 20 inv Wc

76.2000

(A.62)

= 0.0752 + 0.0149

tan Wc Wc(radians)

= 0.05139 (radians)

mpa

m pa =

AP 1P

P

(A.84)

0.2618

Step 2. Recess portion of the profile contact ratio,

mpr

AP

m pr = 4P

P

(A.85)

0.2618

Step 3. Profile contact ratio, mp

m p = m pa + m pr

(A.86)

(see B.2.3.2.3)

From table G.1, the tooth--to--tooth quality level of

each gear is Q9 which exceeds the Q8 level per

B.2.3.2.3. Therefore:

d WcP = d 3P

(B.2)

= 80.4264 mm

d WcG = d 2G

(B.3)

= 127.1548 mm

G.3.1.1 Translation to tooth centerline (see

B.2.3.3)

Step 1: Determine coordinate points, xWc, yWc:

Pressure angle at dWc; Wc:

d BP

d Wc

= arccos 71.6046

80.4264

= 0.4728 radians = 27.0876 degrees

t Wc = d Wc Wc

(A.63)

= 80.4264 (0.05139)

= 4.1328 mm

Coordinates at dWc; xWc, yWc:

x Wc =

d Wc

cos Wc

2

(A.64)

= 80.4264 cos(2.9442)

2

y Wc =

d Wc

sin Wc

2

(A.65)

= 80.4264 sin(2.9442)

2

= 2.0655 mm

If considering the effects of friction, see G.12.

Step 2: Direction angle of critical tooth force, Wc:

Wc = Wc Wc

(B.6)

= 27.0876 2.9442

= 24.1433 degrees

Step 3: Distance of translated critical tooth force,

xWcC

x WcC = x Wc y Wctan Wc

(B.7)

= 39.2343 mm

G.3.1.2 Force components (see B.2.3.4)

(A.61)

= 40.1601 mm

G.3 Annex B -- Calculation of spur gear form

factor, Y

Wc = arccos

= 2.9442 degrees

W cy = W c cos Wc

(B.8)

= W c cos(24.1433)

= 0.9125 W c

65

AGMA 930--A05

W cx = W c sin Wc

f BS = 6 cos Wc

(B.9)

= W c sin(24.1433)

hf

= 6(cos(24.1433))

= 0.4090 W c

= 5.4752

(B.14)

w 2f

hf

hf

w 2f

w 2f

B.2.4.3)

fillet section, hf:

h f = x WcC x f

(B.10)

xf, yf, hf, wf:

= 39.2343 x f

xf

Select f = 30

x f = x fC r f cos f

Reference equation A.49 and table G.5 for

values.

= 34.8553 mm

y f = y fC r f sin f

wf = 2 yf

yf

= 3.8955 mm

h f = x WcC x f

Reference equation A.50 and table G.5 for

values.

= 4.3790 mm

wf = 2 yf

= 6 W c (cos(24.1433))

= 5.4752 W c

hf

(B.11)

= 2 (3.8955)

(B.13)

w 2f

(B.10)

= 39.2343 34.8553

s BS = 6 W ccos Wc

(A.50)

(B.11)

hf

(A.49)

= 7.7910 mm

Step 3: Calculate the bracketed term, BT:

BT =

hf

w 2f

hf

(B.15)

w 2f

= 4.37902

7.7910

w 2f

= 0.0721

Table G.5

f

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

66

xf

34.6850

34.7276

34.8018

34.9055

35.0365

35.1914

35.3665

35.5576

35.7600

35.9689

yf

4.4011

4.1950

3.9981

3.8151

3.6504

3.5081

3.3915

3.3035

3.2462

3.2210

hf

4.5493

4.5067

4.4325

4.3288

4.1978

4.0429

3.8678

3.6767

3.4743

3.2654

wf

8.8021

8.3901

7.9963

7.6302

7.3009

7.0161

6.7829

6.6069

6.4924

6.4421

sBS

0.3215 Wc

0.3505 Wc

0.3796 Wc

0.4071 Wc

0.4312 Wc

0.4497 Wc

0.4603 Wc

0.4612 Wc

0.4513 Wc

0.4308 Wc

fBS

0.3215

0.3505

0.3796

0.4071

0.4312

0.4497

0.4603

0.4612

0.4513

0.4308

repeat steps 2 and 3:

AGMA 930--A05

factor, fBSX:

f BSX = 6 cos Wc BTX

f = 35

x f = 36.0255 1.3513 (cos 35.0000)

= 34.9186 mm

(B.14)

= 0.4621

= 3.7961 mm

Bending tensile stress, sBS:

h f = 39.2343 34.9186

s BS = 6 W c cos Wc

= 4.3157 mm

w f = 2 (3.7961)

= 7.5921 mm

= f BSX W c

h fc

(B.16)

w 2fc

= 0.4621 W c

BT = 4.31572

7.5921

= 0.0749

s CS = W c

degrees.

(B.17)

= W c sin 24.1433

6.6733

Yes.

Step 5: Repeat steps 2--4 with successively larger

angles until BT changes from increasing to

decreasing (table G.6).

sin Wc

w fc

= 0.0613 W c

Combined tensile stress, st:

(B.18)

h

sin Wc

s t = 6 W ccos Wc fc

Wc

w fc

2

w

between 65 and 70 degrees (table G.7).

The maximum value of BT is at 66.0 degrees. This is

the location of the critical section.

fc

6.6733

6.6733

= 0.4621 W c 0.0613 W c

= 0.4008 W c

Table G.6

f

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

xf

34.9186

34.9904

35.0700

35.1570

35.2505

35.3499

35.4545

35.5634

yf

3.7961

3.7025

3.6156

3.5360

3.4642

3.4009

3.3465

3.3013

hf

4.3157

4.2439

4.1643

4.0774

3.9838

3.8844

3.7798

3.6709

wf

7.5921

7.4051

7.2313

7.0720

6.9285

6.8018

6.6929

6.6027

BT

0.074872

0.077394

0.079636

0.081526

0.082990

0.083962

0.084381

0.084204

Decreasing?

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

wf

6.6929

6.6830

6.6733

6.6639

BT

0.084381

0.084391

0.084394

0.084392

Decreasing?

No

No

No

Yes

Table G.7

f

65.0

65.5

66.0

66.5

xf

35.4545

35.4652

35.4759

35.4867

yf

3.3465

3.3415

3.3367

3.3319

hf

3.7798

3.7691

3.7584

3.7476

67

AGMA 930--A05

w

K fs = H + r fc

fc

W

A Wsc = s c

t

=

m cA = cos A

(B.20)

= cos 20.1956

= 0.9385

Adjusted force--stress ratio, AWsA:

A WsA = A Wsc m cA

(B.21)

= 2.3417

A WsA

m

(B.22)

K ft = 1 + q K fs 1

(C.5)

C.2)

Calculation fillet radius, rfc:

K fy = 1 + 0.8 (1.8312 1)

= 1.6650 for occasional peak overloading

G.5 Fundamental formulas for calculated

torque capacity

Tooth bending under repeated loading (see

3.1):

rfc:

(C.1)

NOTE:

The example gear selected for these

calculations has a circular--arc fillet. This value is used

for the demonstration of the use of the formula for a trochoid fillet and is not used elsewhere in the example

calculations.

= 1.3513 mm

= 0.8 for occasional peak overloading

or

r fc = r f

0.15226

= 1 + 1 (1.8312 1)

= 0.7375

r fc = R fN

0.45124

= 2.4951 (0.9385)

= 2.3417

3.1750

68

(C.3)

6.6733

3.7584

= 1.8312

H = 0.331 0.436

= 0.331 0.436 (0.34907)

= 0.17881

L = 0.324 0.492

= 0.324 0.492 (0.34907)

= 0.15226

M = 0.261 + 0.545

= 0.261 + 0.545 (0.34907)

= 0.45124

G.4.2 Stress correction factor (see C.3)

Y=

= 2.4951

w fc

h fc

= 0.17881 + 6.6733

1.3513

(B.19)

Wc

0.4008 W c

(C.2)

s t K ts d c F e J t m

(1)

2000 K tw

Tooth bending under occasional peak loading

(see 3.2):

Tt =

Ty =

s y K ys d c F e J y m

2000 K yw

(2)

Design fatigue limit from published data, st:

s tT = 290 Nmm 2 from MPIF Standard 35

s tG = s tT s tTG

(3)

= 290 14

= 276 Nmm 2

s tG

0.7

= 276

0.7

= 394 Nmm 2

st =

(4)

(5)

= 0.32 (930)

(3)

s uG = s uM = 860 Nmm 2

(10)

S y = S uG = 860 Nmm 2

(11)

(see clause 5):

(12)

(21)

= 1.090

For n > 1 107:

(15)

NOTE: The above load cycle is used for the demonstration of the use of the formula example and is not

used elsewhere in the example.

Unidirectional loading

(16)

KS = 1

(18)

KT = 1

(19)

K R = 0.5 + 0.25 log n u

= 0.5 + 0.25 log(10, 000)

= 1.5

(20)

K L K LR

KS KT KR

(1.090)(1.0)

=

(1)(1)(1.5)

K ts =

(12)

= 0.727

Ky = 0.75 (hardened material)

(23)

K ys =

(13)

394

NOTE: The above load cycle is used for the demonstration of the use of the formula example and is not

used elsewhere in the example calculations other than

for the value of KLy.

sy

K L = K Ly = 0.9 s

t

Ky

K ys =

KS KT

= 1 + [2.121(1.96467 1)]

K LR = 1.0

since the example material is heat treated:

K L K LR

KS KT KR

(14)

(4)

has available published data. This value is used for the

demonstration of the use of the formula for material

without published fatigue data and is not used elsewhere in the example calculations.

K ts =

KL = 1

= 298 14

= 284 Nmm 2

s

s t = tG

0.7

= 284

0.7

= 406 Nmm 2

0.303 K Ly 1 log n

= 298 Nmm 2

s tG = s tT s tTG

K L = 1 + 2.121 K Ly 1

stress), st:

s tT = k ut s uT

AGMA 930--A05

Ky

KS KT

(21)

= 0.75

(1)(1)

= 0.75

G.7 Calculation diameter (see clause 6)

d C = d AP

(24)

69

AGMA 930--A05

since m B 1.2, K B = 1

F xe1 = 1

Fx

Fx

2m

(27)

K mt = 1 + (q m + q v)m ct m w

qm =

= 1 0.3500

0.3500

(2)(3.175)

= 0.331 mm

Effective face width, Fe:

(26)

= 12.6620 mm

G.9 Geometry factor for bending strength (see

clause 8)

f qm F o

Sb

(28)

0.2(12.0000)

24.0000

= 0.100

f qv F o

qv =

d

0.3(12.0000)

=

76.2000

= 0.047

m ct

s

= 1 5

E

(30)

K tw = S F K ot K B K mt K V

(31)

K yw = S F K oy K B K my K V

(40)

SF = 1 for this example.

=15

0.5

m w = 1.0

= 1.107

Dynamic factor, Kv:

K v = 1 + 0.0055 V qTv t

9.9441

0.5 (85.3440 69.9262)

= 1.290

12

(39)

12

12

= 1.177

Load distribution factor for occasional overloads,

Kmy:

=15

0.5

135860000

(42)

0.5

K my = 1 + (q m + q u) m cy

(32)

0.5 d O d R

= 0.6009

tR

12

(35)

70

(38)

135394000

Sy

m cy = 1 5

E

0.5

K mt = 1 + (q m + q v)m ct m w

= 0.7375

1.6650

= 0.443

G.10 Combined adjustment factors for loading

(see clause 9)

(37)

= 0.7375

1.8312

= 0.403

Jy = Y

K fy

tR

ht

(36)

= 0.730

Jt = Y

K ft

mB =

(35)

= (1 0.055) 0.3500

= 0.331 mm

F xe2 = F xe1

F e = F O + F xe1 + F xe2

(33)

(41)

= 1.088

Combined adjustment factor for loading:

K tw = S F K ot K B K mt K V

(31)

= 1.303

K yw = S F K oy K B K my K v

(40)

= 1.281

G.11 Returning to the fundamental formula for

calculating torque capacity

(1)

(394)(0.727)(76.2953)(12.662)(0.403)(3.175)

2000(1.303)

= 135.9 Nm

S y K ys d c F e J t m

Ty =

2000 K yw

=

evaluated.

NOTE: For this example, we will continue the

calculations for the driver only.

Step 2.

c = arctan 0.25

860 0.7576.295312.6620.4433.175

2000 1.281

= 342.1 Nm

friction

Using the gear data and load conditions from the

previous example in section G.2, the effect of friction

is now added. The following calculations add the

effect of a coefficient of friction of 0.25.

Step 1. Determination of critical load locations and

sign of c in equation B.23 per table B.1.

For both gears, the minimum tooth--to--tooth

accuracy level is Q9, which exceeds the Q8

requirements. As a result,

For the driver

The critical load location is at point 3.

A = 0.3678 radians from G.2.6.1, step 1,

equation A.69

3P = 0.5115 radians from G.2.6.1, step 7,

equation A.80

Since 3P > A, we have recess action at the

critical point and the sign of c will be negative.

= 14.03624 degrees

Wc = Wc + c Wc

2G = 0.3677 radians from G.2.6.1, step 6,

equation A.79

Since 2G < A, we have recess action at the

critical point and the sign of c will be negative

(B.24)

= 10.1072 degrees

Step 3.

x WcC = x Wc y Wc tan Wc

(B.7)

= 39.7919 degrees

W cy = W c cos Wc

(B.8)

= W c cos(10.1072)

= 0.9845 W c

W cx = W c sin Wc

(B.9)

= W c sin(10.1072)

= 0.1755 W c

Calculate the bending stress factor,

h f = x WcC x f

(B.10)

= 39.7919 x f

where xf varies depending on the location on the

fillet.

wf = 2 yf

(B.11)

fillet.

hf

s BS = 6 W c cos Wc

w 2f

= 6 W c cos 10.1072

(B.23)

direction angle of critical tooth force, Wc.

S K dc Fe Jt m

T t = t ts

2000 K tw

AGMA 930--A05

= 5.9070 W c

(B.13)

hf

w 2f

hf

w 2f

f BS = 6 cos Wc [ BT ]

(B.14)

= 5.9070 [BT ]

71

AGMA 930--A05

BT =

Select f = 30

values of the location angle, repeating steps 2 and 3

above. Continue this iterative process with successively larger values of the location angle until the

bracketed term, BT, changes from increasing to

decreasing. The angle where this change occurs is

the location of the critical section. See table G.8.

= 34.8552 mm

(A.50)

= 3.8955 mm

h f = x WcC x f

(B.10)

is the location of the critical section. For best

accuracy, select an algorithm which increments f by

0.01 degrees or smaller..

= 39.7919 34.8552

= 4.9367 mm

wf = 2 yf

(B.15)

w 2f

= 0.081328

(A.49)

y f = y fC r f sin f

hf

= 4.9366 2

(7.7910)

xf, yf, hf, wf:

x f = x fC r f cos f

(B.11)

= 2 (3.8955)

= 7.7910 mm

The inclusion of the effect of friction has changed the

value for hf.

factor

equation B.14:

(B.14)

= 0.5731

Table G.8

f

30

35

40

50

60

65

67

68

68.3

68.6

68.7

68.8

68.79

72

xf

34.8552

34.9186

34.9903

35.1569

35.3499

35.4544

35.4975

35.5193

35.5259

35.5324

35.5346

35.5368

35.5366

yf

3.8955

3.7960

3.7025

3.5359

3.4008

3.3464

3.3272

3.3182

3.3156

3.3130

3.3121

3.3113

3.3113

hf

4.9367

4.8733

4.8016

4.6350

4.4420

4.3375

4.2944

4.2726

4.2660

4.2595

4.2573

4.2551

4.2553

wf

7.7910

7.5920

7.4050

7.0718

6.8016

6.6928

6.6544

6.6364

6.6312

6.6260

6.6242

6.6226

6.6226

BT

0.081328

0.084549

0.087566

0.092681

0.096019

0.096833

0.096981

0.097012

0.097015

0.097019

0.097021

0.097018

0.097023

Decreasing

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Max BT

load

Bending tensile stress, sBS from equation B.13

above:

s BS = 6 W c cos Wc

hf

(B.13)

w 2f

(B.17)

= W c sin 10.1072

6.6226

(B.18)

0.15226

6.6226

4.2553

0.45124

= 0.8 for occasional peak overloading

(C.5)

= 1.734

For occasional peak overloading

K fy = 1 + q K fs 1

= 0.5731 W c 0.0265 W c

= 0.5466 W c

(C.5)

= 1 + 0.8 (1.7340 1)

Ratio for the critical tooth force, AWsc

W

A Wsc = s c

t

(B.19)

Jt = Y

K ft

Jy = Y

K fy

= 1.8295

Adjustment ratio, mcA

= 1.5872

Calculate the geometry factor following G.9.

(29)

= 0.5917

1.734

Wc

0.5466 W c

cos A

cos Wc

calculation from G.4.1.

= 1 + 1 (1.7340 1)

s t = s BS s CS

(C.3)

K ft = 1 + q K fs 1

m cA =

= 0.0265 W c

w fc

h fc

following the method shown in G.4.2.

sin Wc

w fc

w

K fs = H + r fc

fc

K fs = 0.17881 + 6.6226

1.3513

= 1.7340

= 0.5731 W c

Therefore

= 6W c cos(10.1072) 4.25532

6.6226

s CS = W c

AGMA 930--A05

cos Wc + c

(B.25)

= 0.5917

1.5872

= 0.3728 for occasional peak overloading

cos 27.0876

= 1.0269

A WsA = A Wsc m cA

(B.21)

= 1.8295 (1.0269)

= 1.8787

Step 8. Calculate the non--dimensional Y factor

A WsA

m

1.8787

=

3.175

Y=

= 0.5917

(B.22)

(30)

Tt =

S t K ts d c F e J t m

2000 K tw

(1)

frictionless condition are Jt and Kfs.

(394)(0.727)(76.2953)(12.662)(0.3412)(3.175)

2000 (1.303)

= 115.0 Nm

Tt =

reduced the load capacity of this gear to only 84.6%

of the capacity calculated without the effect of this

friction factor.

73

AGMA 930--A05

T = inv 1 inv +

Consider the 24 tooth pinion to be the part whose

fillet we are examining in this example. We will use

the test case where the fillet was created as a

circular--arc. Also, for the purpose of this example,

we will increase the outside diameter of the mating

gear (40 tooth) from 131.2418 as shown in table G.1

to 133.3 mm in order to create intentional fillet

interference.

Therefore

d OMG = 133.3 mm

G.13.1 Center distance and operating pressure

angle

= inv 1 inv 20 +

= 3.175

NG

= 24

(F.1)

= 76.2 mm

(F.2)

= (40)(3.175)

= 127.0 mm

Step 2. Reference center distance

C=

d G + d MG

2

(F.3)

C (cos )

cos T

(F.4)

= 9.9746 mm

101.727 mm. Table G.1 does not specify whether

this center distance is a minimum that the mesh is

likely to encounter. For the purpose of this example,

let us assume it is the minimum center distance.

Since this is greater than the tight mesh center

distance, CT, we will choose to do the evaluation at

this distance.

Therefore,

2 N G C AN

NG + NMG

74

(F.8)

= 76.2953 mm

d AMG =

= 5.7277 mm

= 20

(F.7)

(2)(24)(101.727)

(24 + 40)

tMG = 4.2469 mm

(cos 20)

(cos 20)

the evaluation

d AG =

tG

(F.6)

= 101.6 mm

C AN = 101.727 mm

= 76.2 + 127.0

2

pc = m

= (3.175)

2 101.6

= 101.6 mm

= (24)(3.175)

d MG = N MG m

teeth for both gears is equal to the circular pitch. Therefore, the pressure angle at the tight mesh center distance is equal to the pressure angle of the mesh, and

the tight mesh center distance happens to be equal to

the reference center distance.

= 101.6

NMG = 40

dG = NG m

(F.5)

= 20 degrees

CT =

2C

= inv 1 0.0149

Step 1. Pitch diameters of both gears

pc tG tMG

2 N MG C AN

NG + NMG

(F.9)

(2)(40)(101.727)

(24 + 40)

= 127.1588 mm

AGMA 930--A05

effective outside diameter of the mating gear

A = arccos C

(cos )

C AN

= arccos 101.6

(cos 20)

101.727

backlash adjusted tooth thickness of the mating

gear

BMG =

t BMG = p c t G + 2C

inv A (inv )

= 4.2469 + 203.2 [(0.015361) (0.014904)]

= 4.3398 mm

(F.16)

= 0.03417 radians

G.13.1.4.8 Find the angular location relative to

the adjusted tooth centerline

rCBMG

BMG

+ inv tan

OEMG

+ rCMG

(F.17)

r rMG = 0.7620 mm

= 0.00598 radians

tip round of the mating gear

d rCMG = d OMG 2 r rMG

(F.12)

= 133.3 (2)(0.7620)

= 0.3426 degrees

G.13.2.1 Find the half tooth thickness angle at

the effective outside diameter of the mating gear

OEBMG = BMG + inv inv OEMG (F.19)

= 131.776 mm

mating gear

d BMG = d MG cos

(F.13)

= 0.016404 radians

= 0.93996 degrees

G.13.2.2 Find the limit point for OE

OEMG = OEMG A OEBMG

= 127.0 cos 20

= 119.3410 mm

G.13.1.4.5 Find the pressure angle at the center

of the tip round for the mating gear

d BMG

d rCMG

t BMG

d MG

= 4.3398

127.0

(F.11)

= 9.9746 5.7277

rCMG = arccos

2(0.762)

119.341

= 25.6882 degrees

= 20.19561 degrees

G.13.1.4.2

thickness

(F.10)

2 r rMG

(F.15)

d BMG

(F.14)

(F.18)

= 4.55263 degrees

G.13.2.3 Find the limit point for OR

ORMG = rCBMG

(F.20)

= 0.00598 radians

G.13.2.4 Point path selection

= 0.43792 radians

(A greater number may be needed to be studied in a

specific application to ensure that there are no

overlapping conditions.)

= 25.091 degrees

Therefore, n = 5.

= arccos 119.341

131.776

75

AGMA 930--A05

General form

At point ORMG

r1MG = ORMG = 0.00598 radians (F.21)

= 0.3426 degrees

At point OEMG

r5MG = OEMG = 4.55263 degrees

(F.22)

( n j ) + rnMG( j 1 )

rjMG = r1MG

(n 1 )

(F.28)

(F.23)

For j = 2

0.3426(5 2) + 4.55263(2 1)

(5 1)

= 0.8811 degrees

G.13.2.5 Find the tooth pitch angle at the mating

gear

MG = 360

N MG

(F.27)

For points j = 2 to 4

r2MG =

(F.26)

(F.29)

Substitute in for each value of rjG from table G.9.

Results are shown in table G.9.

Step 3. Find the x, y coordinate of the mating gear tip

radius for each point, j.

General form

x rCMGj = x CMGj 0.5d rCMG

(F.25)

(F.30)

= 360

40

sin rjG + rjMG + rCBMG

= 9.0 degrees

G.13.2.6 Calculation of path points projected on

the fixed gear

For j = 1

x rCMGj = (100.9841) 0.5(131.776)

rjG = rjMG + MG

2

(F.31)

N MG

NG

(F.24)

= 35.5772 mm

For j = 1

and

2 24

(F.24)

sin(6.9286 + ( 0.3428) + 0.3426)

= 6.92865 degrees

For other values of j, see table G.9.

and mating gear center referenced to the gear axes.

= 4.3236 mm

rjMG

rjG

xPPj

yPPj

xCMGj

yCMGj

xrCMGj

yrCMGj

rPPj

xrj

yj

zpfCj

Does

interference

exist

--0.3426

6.9287

37.8690

4.6019

100.9841

12.2717

35.5772

4.3236

2.3086

34.8209

4.2315

1.2516

No

0.8811

8.9684

37.6812

5.9468

100.4833

15.8582

35.6351

4.1992

2.6909

35.0557

3.7043

1.3007

No

2.1049

11.0082

37.4457

7.2843

99.8552

19.4247

35.7759

4.0928

3.6019

35.4226

3.4176

1.3016

No

3.3288

13.0480

37.1627

8.6125

99.1006

22.9666

35.9980

4.0114

4.7462

35.8110

3.2727

1.3160

No

4.5526

15.0877

36.8326

9.9297

98.2203

26.4793

36.2992

3.9625

5.9911

36.2314

3.2035

1.3830

Yes

76

mating gear tip radius for each point j.

x rj = x PPj

y rj = y PPj

x PPj x rCMGj

rPPj + r rMG

rPPj

x PPj x rCMGj

(F.33)

y PPj y rCMGj

(F.34)

For j = 1

rPPj

+ y PPj y rCMGj

(F.32)

rPPj + r rMG

rPPj

2.3086

(4.6019 4.3234)

rPPJ =

AGMA 930--A05

= 4.2315 mm

For other values of j, see table G.9.

G.13.3 Test for path point interference

As indicated in the problem statement, it is assumed

in this example that the 24 tooth gear has a full round

fillet region instead of a trochoid shaped region.

The coordinate (xfc, yfc) for the fillet radius center has

previously been calculated (see A.40 and A.41) as

(36.0256, 4.5711).

To test for path point interference, we use the

following:

z fCj =

= 2.3086 mm

2.3086

(37.8690 35.5772)

= 34.8209 mm

x rj x fC + y rj y fC

(F.35)

For j = 1

z fC1 =

= 1.2516

interference exists at the point j = 1.

For other values of j, see table G.9. Notice that

interference does exist at j = 5.

77

AGMA 912--A04

Bibliography

The following documents are either referenced in the text of AGMA 930--A05, Calculated Bending Load

Capacity of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears, or indicated for additional information.

1.

MPIF Standard 35, Material Standards for

P/M Structural Parts, 1997 edition.

Gears

2.

Sanderow, H.I., Spirko, J.R. and Friedhoff,

T.B., Fatigue Properties of P/M Materials: Relationship of RBF and AF Results to Material--Processing

Parameters, Advances in Powder Metallurgy and

Particulate Materials, 1997, Vol. 2, MPIF, Princeton,

NJ, 1997, pgs. 13--117.

6.

AGMA 2000--A88, Gear Classification and

Inspection Handbook -- Tolerances And Measuring

Methods For Unassembled Spur And Helical Gears

(Including Metric Equivalents)

3.

ANSI/AGMA 2001--D04, Fundamental Rating Factors And Calculation Methods For Involute

Spur And Helical Gear Teeth

4.

AGMA 908--B89, Geometry Factors for Determining the Pitting Resistance and Bending

Strength of Spur, Helical and Herringbone Gear

Teeth.

5.

AGMA 918--A93, A Summary of Numerical

Examples Demonstrating the Procedures for Cal-

78

7.

ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90, Gear Nomenclature, Definitions of Terms with Symbols

8.

AGMA 900--G00, Style Manual for the Preparation of Standards, Information Sheets and

Editorial Manuals

9.

ANSI B92.1--1970, Involute Splines and

Inspection, table 109.

10.

98FTM2, Mesh Friction in Gearing, C.M.

Denny, October 1998.

PUBLISHED BY

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

500 MONTGOMERY STREET, SUITE 350

ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22314

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