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AGMA 930- A05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 930- A05

Calculated Bending Load Capacity of


Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur
Gears

AGMA INFORMATION SHEET


(This Information Sheet is NOT an AGMA Standard)

Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External


American
Spur Gears
Gear
AGMA 930--A05
Manufacturers
CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA technical publications are subject to constant improvement,
Association
revision or withdrawal as dictated by experience. Any person who refers to any AGMA
technical publication should be sure that the publication is the latest available from the Association on the subject matter.

[Tables or other self--supporting sections may be referenced. Citations should read: See
AGMA 930--A05, Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External
Spur Gears, published by the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, http://www.agma.org.]
Approved January 19, 2005

ABSTRACT
This information sheet describes a procedure for calculating the load capacity of a pair of powder metallurgy
(P/M) external spur gears based on tooth bending strength. Two types of loading are considered: 1) repeated
loading over many cycles; and 2) occasional peak loading. In a separate annex, it also describes an essentially
reverse procedure for establishing an initial design from specified applied loads. As part of the load capacity
calculations, there is a detailed analysis of gear teeth geometry. These have been extended to include useful
details on other aspects of gear geometry such as the calculations for defining gear tooth profiles, including
various fillets.
Published by

American Gear Manufacturers Association


500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314
Copyright 2005 by American Gear Manufacturers Association
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic
retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America


ISBN: 1--55589--845--9

ii

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 930--A05

Contents
Page

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
Definitions and symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
Fundamental formulas for calculated torque capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
Design strength values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
Combined adjustment factors for strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
Calculation diameter, dc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
Effective face width, Fe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
Geometry factor for bending strength, J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
Combined adjustment factors for loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iv
1
1
3
4
6
7
8
8
9

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Annexes
A
B
C
D
E
F
G

Calculation of spur gear geometry features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Calculation of spur gear factor, Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculation of the stress correction factor, Kf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure for initial design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculation of inverse functions for gear geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test for fillet interference by the tooth of the mating gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculation examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13
27
37
39
44
46
50

Tables
1
2
3

Symbols and definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2


Reliability factors, KR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Manufacturing variation adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

iii

AGMA 930--A05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Foreword
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, in this document are provided for
informational purposes only and are not to be construed as a part of AGMA Information
Sheet 930--A05, Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External
Spur Gears.]
This information sheet was prepared by the AGMA Powder Metallurgy Gearing Committee
as an initial response to the need for a design evaluation procedure for powder metallurgy
(P/M) gears. The committee anticipates that, after appropriate modification and
confirmation based on application experience, this procedure will become part of a standard
gear rating method for P/M gears. As such, it will serve the same function for P/M gears as
the rating procedure in ANSI/AGMA 2001--C95 for wrought metal gears. Toward this end,
the design evaluation procedure described here closely follows ANSI/AGMA 2001--C95,
with changes made for the special properties of P/M materials, gear proportions, and types
of applications. These design considerations have made it possible to introduce some
simplifications in comparison to the above mentioned standard.
The first draft of AGMA 930--A05 was made in June 1996. It was approved by the AGMA
Technical Division Executive Committee in January 2005.
Suggestions for improvement of this document will be welcome. They should be sent to the
American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria,
Virginia 22314.

iv

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 930--A05

PERSONNEL of the AGMA Powder Metallurgy Gearing Committee


Chairman: H. Sanderow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Management & Engineering Technologies
Vice Chairman: Walter D. Badger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Motors Corporation

ACTIVE MEMBERS
T.R. Bednar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T.R. Bobak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. Bobby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
P.A. Crawford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
J.A. Danaher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F. Eberle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S.T. Haye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T.M. Horne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
K. Ko . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I. Laskin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D.D. Osti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E. Reiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
J.T. Rill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R. Rupprecht . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. Serdynski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
G. Wallis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation


mG MiniGears North America
Innovative Sintered Metals
MTD Products, Inc.
QMP America
Hi--Lex Automative Center
Burgess Norton Mfg. Co.
GKN Sinter Metals
Pollak Division of Stoneridge
Consultant
Metal Powder Products Company
Web Gear Services, Ltd.
Black & Decker, Inc.
Metal Powder Products Company
Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation
Dorst America, Inc.

AGMA 930--A05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

(This page is intentionally left blank.)

vi

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

American Gear Manufacturers


Association --

Calculated Bending Load


Capacity of Powder
Metallurgy (P/M)
External Spur Gears

AGMA 930--A05

tooling fall short in testing, it may be possible to use


the same tooling for a design adjusted for greater
face width.
1.1.4 Limitations
Gears made from all materials and by all processes,
including P/M gears, may fail in a variety of modes
other than by tooth bending. This information sheet
does not address design features to resist these
other modes of failure, such as excessive wear and
other forms of tooth surface deterioration.
CAUTION: The calculated load capacity from this procedure is not to be used for comparison with AGMA ratings of wrought metal gears, even though there are
many similarities in the two procedures.

1 Scope

1.2 Types of gears

1.1 General

This calculation procedure is applied to external spur


gears, the type of gear most commonly produced by
the P/M process.

1.1.1 Calculation
This information sheet describes a procedure for
calculating the load capacity of a pair of powder
metallurgy (P/M) gears based on tooth bending
strength. Two types of loading are considered: 1)
repeated loading over many cycles; and 2) occasional peak loading. This procedure is to be used on
prepared gear designs which meet the customary
gear geometry requirements such as adequate
backlash, contact ratio greater than 1.0, and adequate top land. An essentially reverse procedure for
establishing an initial design from specified applied
loads is described in annex D.

1.3 Dimensional limitations

1.1.2 Strength properties

1.4 Gear mesh limitations

Fatigue strength and yield strength properties used


in these calculations may be taken from previous test
experience, but may also be derived from published
data obtained from standard tests of the materials.

Some of the calculations apply only to meshing


conditions expressed as a contact ratio greater than
one and less than two. This translates into the
requirement that there is at least one pair of
contacting teeth transmitting load and no more than
two pairs.

1.1.3 Application
This procedure is intended for use as an initial
evaluation of a proposed design prior to preparation
of test samples. Such test samples might be
machined from P/M blanks or made from P/M tooling
based on the proposed design after it passes this
initial evaluation. Final acceptance of the proposed
design should be based on application testing and
not on these calculations. If samples made from

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

This procedure applies to gears whose dimensions


conform to those commonly produced by the P/M
process for load carrying applications:
-- Finest pitch: 0.4 mm module;
-- Maximum active face width: 15 module, with
a 65 mm maximum;
-- Minimum number of teeth: 7;
-- Maximum outside diameter: 180 mm;
-- Pressure angle: 14.5 to 25.

2 Definitions and symbols


2.1 Definitions
The terms used, wherever applicable, conform to
ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90.

AGMA 930--A05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

2.2 Symbols

symbol is introduced, it is defined and discussed in


detail.

The symbols and terms used throughout this information sheet are in basic agreement with the
symbols and terms given in AGMA 900--G00, Style
Manual for the Preparation of Standards, Information Sheets and Editorial Manuals, and ANSI/AGMA
1012--F90, Gear Nomenclature, Definitions of Terms
with Symbols. In all cases, the first time that each

NOTE: The symbols and definitions used in this information sheet may differ from other AGMA documents.
The user should not assume that familiar symbols can
be used without a careful study of their definitions.

The symbols and terms, along with the clause


numbers where they are first discussed, are listed in
alphabetical order by symbol in table 1.

Table 1 -- Symbols and definitions


Symbol
CA
d
dAG
dAP
dc
E
Fe
Fo
Fx
Fxe1
Fxe2
fqm
fqv
ht
J
Jt
Jy
KB
Kf
Kft
Kfy
KL
KLR
KLy
Kmt
Kmy
Kot
Koy
KR
Ks
KT
Kts
Ktw
Kv
Ky

Terms
Operating center distance
Gear pitch diameter
Operating pitch diameter of gear
Operating pitch diameter of pinion
Calculation diameter
Modulus of elasticity
Effective face width
Overlapping face width
Each face width extension, not larger than m
Effective face width extension at one end
Effective face width extension at other end
Factor relating to axis misalignment adjustment
Factor relating to manufacturing variations adjustment
Whole depth of gear teeth
Geometry factor for bending strength
Geometry factor for bending strength under repeated loading
Geometry factor for bending strength under occasional peak loading
Rim thickness factor
Stress concentration factor used in calculating bending geometry factor,
J
Stress correction factor for repeated loading
Stress correction factor for occasional overloads
Life factor
Load reversal factor
Life factor at 0.5 104 cycles
Load distribution factor for repeated loading
Load distribution factor for occasional overloads
Overload factor for repeated loads
Overload factor for occasional overloads
Reliability factor
Size factor
Temperature factor
Combined adjustment factor for bending fatigue strength
Combined adjustment factor for repeated tooth loading
Dynamic factor
Yield strength factor

Units
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
N/mm2
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
-- --- -mm
-- --- --- --- --- ------------------

-----------------

Reference
Eq 24
Eq 37
Eq 25
Eq 24
Eq 1
Eq 38
Eq 1
Eq 26
Eq 27
Eq 26
Eq 26
Eq 36
Eq 37
Eq 32
Eq 28
Eq 1
Eq 2
Eq 31
8.2
Eq 29
Eq 30
Eq 12
Eq 12
Eq 13
Eq 31
Eq 40
Eq 31
Eq 40
Eq 12
Eq 12
Eq 12
Eq 1
Eq 1
Eq 31
Eq 21
(continued)

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 930--A05

Table 1 (concluded)
Symbol
Kys
Kyw
kut
m
mB
mct
mcy
mw
NG
NP
n
nu
qm
qv
Sb
SF
st
stG
stT
stTG
suG
suM
suT
suTG
sy
syG
syM
syT
syTG
Tt
Ty
tR
VqT
vt
Y

Terms
Combined adjustment factor for yield strength
Combined adjustment factor for occasional peak loading
Conversion factor for ultimate strength to fatigue limit
Module
Backup ratio
Modifying factor due to tooth compliance for repeated loading
Modifying factor due to tooth compliance for occasional overloads
Modifying factor due to tooth surface wear
Number of teeth of gear
Number of teeth of pinion
Number of tooth load cycles
Number of units for which one failure will be tolerated
Adjustment due to axis misalignment
Adjustment due to manufacturing variations
Bearing span
Safety factor for bending strength
Design fatigue strength
Fatigue limit, full reversal, adjusted for G--1 failure rate
G--10 failure rate fatigue limit (published data)
Adjustment in fatigue limit from G--10 to G--1
Ultimate tensile strength, adjusted for G--1
Minimum ultimate strength listed in MPIF Standard 35
Typical ultimate strength (published data)
Reduction in ultimate strength from typical to G--1
Design yield strength
Yield strength, adjusted for G--1
Minimum yield strength listed in MPIF Standard 35
Typical yield strength (published data)
Reduction in yield strength from typical to G--1
Torque load capacity for tooth bending under repeated loading
Torque load capacity under occasional peak loading
Rim thickness
Tooth--to--tooth composite tolerance (or measured variation)
Pitch line velocity
Tooth form factor

3 Fundamental formulas for calculated


torque capacity

Two types of loading have been identified in 1.1.1.


Each has its own formula for calculated torque
capacity, reflecting the corresponding critical material properties and other factors. To find the load
capacity of a gear under the combined types of
loading, calculate the two torque values from the

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

Units
-- --- --- -mm
-- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- -mm
-- -N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
Nm
Nm
mm
mm
m/s
-- --

Reference
Eq 2
Eq 2
Eq 5
Eq 1
Eq 32
Eq 35
Eq 41
Eq 35
Eq 24
Eq 24
Eq 14
Eq 20
Eq 35
Eq 35
Eq 36
Eq 31
Eq 1
Eq 3
Eq 3
Eq 3
Eq 9
Eq 10
Eq 5
Eq 9
Eq 2
Eq 6
Eq 7
Eq 6
Eq 6
Eq 1
Eq 2
Eq 32
Eq 39
Eq 39
Eq 28

formulas and use the lower calculated value. To find


the overall load capacity of a pair of non--identical
gears, or of all the gears in the drive train, the
calculated load capacity torque for each gear must
be converted to a power value. This is done by
multiplying the torque value for each gear by the
corresponding gear speed, generally expressed as
radians per unit time interval. The lowest of all these
power values becomes the calculated power capacity of the complete gear pair or drive train.

AGMA 930--A05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

4.1.1 Previous test experience

3.1 Tooth bending under repeated loading


Tt =

s t K ts d c F e J t m
2000 K tw

(1)

where
Tt

is torque load capacity for tooth bending under repeated loading, Nm;

st

is design fatigue strength, N/mm2 (see


4.1.2.1);

Kts

is combined adjustment factor for bending


fatigue strength (see 5.1);

dc

is calculation diameter, mm (see clause 6);

Fe

is effective face width, mm (see clause 7);

Jt

is geometry factor for bending strength under repeated loading (see clause 8);

is module, mm;

If there has been previous successful experience in


the laboratory or field testing of gears from the same
material of similar density and processing, it may be
possible to perform reverse calculations to arrive at
an acceptable design fatigue strength. The value
derived from this procedure may be overly conservative unless the test program included a range of load
conditions that bracketed the line between successful operation and failure by repeated bending.
4.1.2 Derived from published data
When suitable gear test data is not available,
published data based on standard material testing
methods can be used, but only after adjustments are
made to adapt the fatigue strength values to the
design procedures of this information sheet. These
procedures are based on values that correspond to
the following conditions:
a) number of test cycles of 107;

Ktw is combined adjustment factor for repeated


tooth loading (see clause 9).

b) test failure rates projected to less than 1 in a


100, i.e., 1 percent or G--1 failure rate;

3.2 Tooth bending under occasional peak


loading

c) load cycling of zero--to--maximum load (to reflect


typical gear tooth load cycling).

Ty =

4.1.2.1 Data published as typical fatigue limit

s y K ys d c F e J y m
2000 K yw

(2)

where
Ty

is torque load capacity under occasional


peak loading, Nm;

sy

is design yield strength, N/mm2;

Kys is combined adjustment factor for yield


strength;
Kyw is combined adjustment
occasional peak loading;
Jy

factor

for

is geometry factor for bending strength


under occasional peak loading.

4 Design strength values


Design strength values depend not only on the P/M
material composition, and any heat treatment, but
also on the density achieved during compaction or
post--sintering repressing.
4.1 Fatigue strength, st
The value for design fatigue strength can be
obtained from alternate sources.

Such data for P/M materials generally meet condition (a) of 4.1.2, but not conditions (b) and (c). Values
called typical generally refer to test results with
50% of the specimens falling below and 50% above
the published value. This corresponds to a G--50
failure rate, also known as mean fatigue life.
Data published by the Metal Powder Industries
Federation (MPIF) [1] has been determined as the
90% survival stress fatigue limit, using rotating
bending fatigue testing. This fatigue limit data is also
known as the G--10 failure rate fatigue life.
Rotating bending fatigue testing imposes load
cycling of full--reversal loads. The critical location on
the test specimen is subjected to the maximums of
both tensile and compressive stresses.
Adjustments to meet the conditions of 4.1.2(b) and
(c) are expressed in the following equations:
(3)
s tG = s tT s tTG
where
stG

is fatigue limit, full--reversal, adjusted for


G--1 failure rate, N/mm2;

stT

is G--10 failure rate fatigue limit (published


data), N/mm2;

stTG is the adjustment in fatigue limit from G--10


to G--1, N/mm2.

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

The adjustment, stTG, has been estimated for P/M


steels as 14 N/mm2 from a statistical analysis of
recently published data [2].
The design fatigue limit, after adjustments, st, is:
st =

s tG
0.7

(4)

The factor of 0.7 is commonly used to convert from


full--reversal to zero--to--maximum load cycling. For
those gear applications, such as idler or planet
gears, where the gear teeth experience fully reversing loads, this adjustment factor will be corrected
through the appropriate choice of load reversal
factor, see 5.1.2.
4.1.2.2 Data estimated from typical ultimate
tensile strength
When fatigue limit data is not directly available, it can
be estimated from ultimate tensile strength values.
This estimation process is described below.
Convert the typical ultimate tensile strength to the
G--10 failure rate fatigue limit by the following
expression:
s tT = k ut s uT

(5)

kut

4.2.1 Previous test experience


If a gear of the same material and similar density and
processing has been tested for the load causing
permanent deflection or breakage of the teeth, it may
be possible to perform reverse calculations to arrive
at a limiting design yield strength.
4.2.2 Derived from published data
When suitable gear test data is not available,
published data based on standard material testing
methods can be used, but only after an adjustment is
made to adapt the yield strength values to the design
procedures of this information sheet. These procedures are based on values that correspond to the
following condition:
-- test failure rates projected to less than 1 in a
100, i.e., 1% or G--1 failure rate.
4.2.2.1 Derived from typical yield strength
In as--sintered gears, the published data is generally
in the form of a typical yield strength based on 0.2%
offset. This typical yield strength, based on a G--50
failure rate, must be converted to a design yield
strength, based on a G--1 failure rate. This
adjustment may be represented by the following
equation:
s yG = s yT s yTG

where
suT

AGMA 930--A05

(6)

is typical ultimate tensile strength value,


N/mm2;

where

is conversion factor for ultimate strength to


fatigue limit;

syT

For heat treated


microstructure):

syTG is reduction in yield strength from typical to


G--1, N/mm2.

steel

(martensitic

kut = 0.32
For as--sintered steel (pearlite and ferrite microstructure):
kut = 0.39
For as--sintered
microstructure):

steel

(ferrite

only

kut = 0.43
Then convert this estimated G--10 failure rate fatigue
limit, stT, to the design fatigue limit for zero--to
maximum loading using equations 3 and 4.

syG is yield strength, adjusted for G--1, N/mm2;


is typical yield strength (published data),
N/mm2;

The adjustment, syTG, is best determined from test


observations. An alternative method is to refer to
MPIF Standard 35, where this step is accomplished
for as--sintered materials by the listing of minimum
strength values. For these materials:
s yG = s yM

(7)

where
syM is minimum yield strength listed in MPIF
Standard 35, N/mm2.
The design yield strength is then set equal to this
adjusted yield strength:
s y = s yG
(8)

4.2 Yield strength, sy

4.2.2.2 Derived from typical ultimate strength

The value of design yield strength can be obtained


from one of two sources.

In heat treated materials, typical yield strengths are


approximately the same as typical ultimate

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AGMA 930--A05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

strengths. Design yield strength, sy, may be derived


from typical ultimate strength by first converting the
typical value for a G--50 failure rate to a design value
with a G--1 failure rate, as in 4.2.2.1.
s uG = s uT s uTG

(9)

suG is typical ultimate strength adjusted to the


G--1 failure rate, N/mm2.
is typical ultimate strength (published data),
N/mm2;

suTG is reduction in ultimate strength from typical


to G--1, N/mm2.
The adjustment, suTG, is best determined from test
observations. An alternative method is to refer to
MPIF Standard 35, where this step is accomplished
for heat treated materials by the listing of minimum
strength values. For these materials:
s uG = s uM

(10)

where
suM is minimum ultimate strength listed in
MPIF Standard 35, N/mm2.
The design yield strength is then set equal to this
adjusted ultimate strength:
s y = s uG
(11)

5 Combined adjustment factors for strength


This factor is a combination of factors relating to the
strength of the P/M gear material under the operating
conditions. Use of such a combined factor helps
simplify the fundamental formulas in clause 3. As an
added advantage, this combined factor may be used
without detailed analysis for subsequent gear designs with similar operating conditions.
5.1
Combined factor for bending fatigue
strength, Kts
K ts =

K L K LR
Ks KT KR

where
KL

is life factor;

KLR is load reversal factor;

The life factor is the ratio of the bending fatigue


strength at the required number of tooth load cycles,
n, to the strength at 107 cycles. It can be estimated
from the following equations:
For 0 < n < (0.5 104),

where

suT

5.1.1 Life factor, KL

Ks

is size factor;

KT

is temperature factor;

KR

is reliability factor.

(12)

K L = K Ly =

0.9 s y
st

(13)

For (0.5 104) n (1 107),

K L = 1 + 2.121 K Ly 1

0.303 K Ly 1 log n

(14)

For n > (1 107),


KL = 1, for ferrous materials only
(15)
(for non--ferrous material, consult test data)
where
n

is number of tooth load cycles;

KLy is life factor at 0.5 104 cycles, found from


equation 13 with strength values from
4.1.2.1 or 4.1.2.2 and 4.2.2.1 or 4.2.2.2.
5.1.2 Load reversal factor, KLR
In 4.1.2.1, the factor of 0.7 was introduced to adjust
the fatigue strength values for the difference in cyclic
loading in material testing from the typical cyclic
loading of gear teeth. In material testing, the load is
fully reversed while in most gear applications the
load is zero--to--maximum in one direction only. The
KLR factor reverses this adjustment for those less
typical gear applications in which the gear tooth
loading is bidirectional, as follows:
KLR = 1.0 if load is unidirectional

(16)

KLR = 0.7 if load is bidirectional, as


in idler or planet gears

(17)

5.1.3 Size factor, Ks


In some wrought materials, the stock from which the
gear is machined may have non--uniform material
properties which are related to size. However, with
P/M materials, the properties of the powder mix are
independent of the size of the finished gear. The size
of the P/M gear may influence processing, which in
turn may affect the strength properties at the gear
teeth, but only through change to other material
characteristics such as density and hardness. In that
case, the size effects will be reflected directly in the
fatigue strength value, st, as described in 4.1.
Therefore, for P/M gears, size factor, Ks, is:
(18)
Ks = 1

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5.1.4 Temperature factor, KT


This factor reflects any loss of strength properties at
high operating temperatures. This applies to
hardened gears for which a temperature over 177C
may cause some tempering.
For gear blank temperatures below the level at which
strength is affected:
KT = 1

to stresses developed during occasional peak


loading.
For unhardened materials:
Ky = 1.00

(22)

For hardened materials:


Ky = 0.75

(23)

(19)

For gear blank temperatures above the level at


which strength is affected, KT is increased to reflect
the loss in strength. For very low gear blank
temperatures in impact prone applications, KT may
be increased to reflect any reduction in impact
properties.
5.1.5 Reliability factor, KR
This factor accounts for the effect of the typical
statistical distribution of failures found in fatigue
testing of materials. Its value is based on the
frequency of failures that can be tolerated in the gear
application, expressed as no more than one failure in
some number of units, nu. KR may be estimated from
the following equation:
K R = 0.5 + 0.25 log n u

(20)

where
nu

AGMA 930--A05

is number of units for which one failure will


be tolerated.

Some values from this equation, along with equivalent G values, are given in table 2.

5.2.2 Stress correction factor, Kf


This factor is used in the calculation of J, the
geometry factor for bending strength (see clause 8).
It reflects the increase in local stresses due to sharp
changes in geometry at or near the critical section.
These increased stresses directly affect the bending
strength under repeated loading. Under occasional
loads, however, local yielding may take place and
the stress concentration has little or no significant
effect on load capacity. In the AGMA gear rating
calculation, this difference is treated by re-introducing the stress correction factor as a beneficial adjustment to the yield strength. In the
calculation procedures of this document, a different
and more direct approach is used, and such an
adjustment is not needed and is not included in the
above combined factor for yield strength. As
described in clause 8 and annex C, the J factor for
each type of loading is calculated with a stress
correction factor which is appropriately modified to
reflect the differences.

5.2 Combined factor for yield strength, Kys


K ys =

Ky
Ks KT

(21)

where
Ky

is yield strength factor;

Ks

is size factor (see 5.1.3);

KT

is temperature factor (see 5.1.4).

5.2.1 Yield strength factor, Ky


This factor reflects the difference between the
response of hardened versus unhardened materials

6 Calculation diameter, dc
The calculation diameter, as used in equations 1 and
2, must agree with the diameter value used in
calculating the Y factor, see annex B. For spur gears,
it is the same as the operating pitch diameter of the
gear for which the torque capacity is to be calculated.
Its value depends on the relative numbers of teeth
and the operating center distance and may be, but is
not necessarily, equal to the standard pitch diameter,
as follows:

Table 2 -- Reliability factors, KR


Requirement of application:
No more than 1 failure in:

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nu units
10,000
1,000
100

Equivalent G--value
G--0.01
G--0.10
G--1.00

KR
1.50
1.25
1.00

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where

For the pinion:


d c = d AP =

2 CA
N
1+ G
NP

(24)

Fx

is each face width extension (not larger than


m), mm;

is module, mm.

where
dAP is operating pitch diameter of pinion, mm;
CA

is operating center distance, mm;

NP

is number of teeth of pinion;

NG

is number of teeth of gear.

For the gear:


d c = d AG =

2 CA
N
1+ P
NG

(25)

The geometry factor is a non--dimensional value


which relates the shape of the gear tooth, along with
some associated geometry conditions, to the tensile
bending stress induced by a unit load applied on the
tooth flank. For spur gears, there are two elements
which go into its calculation:
J= Y
Kf

(28)

where

where
dAG is operating pitch diameter of gear, mm.

The effective face width represents the face width


capable of resisting bending loads. If the two mating
gears have the same face widths which are fully
overlapping, then the effective face width of each is
equal to the common face width. If, however, there is
a portion of a face width which extends beyond the
overlapping width, then this extension may contribute to resisting the bending load.
The extensions may be present at one or both ends
of the face width of either of the mating gears.
This may be expressed as equations:
F e = F o + F xe1 + F xe2

(26)

is effective face width, mm;

Fo

is overlapping face width, mm;

Fxe2 is effective face width extension at other


end, mm.
These effective face width extensions may be
estimated as follows:
For each extension:

Fx
Fx
2m

Kf

is stress correction factor (see annex C).

This factor is dependant only on geometry, with the


addition of a coefficient of friction where the tooth
sliding friction force may have a significant effect on
stresses. As part of making this a non--dimensional
factor, the geometry is scaled to a tooth of unit
module. The elements of the factor are:
-- the location along the tooth flank where the tooth
load will have its greatest effect on bending
stress;
-- the proportions of the tooth shape, especially in
the region of the tooth fillet;
-- the diameter used to relate applied torque values
to a tangential force, by tradition the operating
pitch diameter of the gear.

8.2 Stress correction factor, Kf

Fxe1 is effective face width extension at one end,


mm;

F xe = 1

is tooth form factor (see annex B);

The calculation for determining the Y factor is


described in annex B with calculation of some of the
required geometry data described in annex A.

where
Fe

8.1 Tooth form factor, Y

7 Effective face width, Fe

8 Geometry factor for bending strength, J

(27)

This factor is determined by a combination of tooth


geometry, the type of loading, and some property of
the material that determines to what extent it is
sensitive to stress concentration. The calculation is
described in annex C.
Since the type of loading may be a significant factor,
there will generally be two values considered for
each gear. One, Kft, is for repeated loading and the
other, Kfy, is for the occasional overload condition.
This leads to two possible values for the J factor:

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For repeated loading:


Jt = Y
K ft

(29)

where
Kft

is stress correction factor for repeated


loading.

For occasional overloads:


Jy = Y
K fy

(30)

where
Kfy

is stress correction factor for occasional


overloads.

9 Combined adjustment factors for loading


This is a combination of the remaining load capacity
factors, most of which relate to tooth loading under
the operating conditions. The use of such a
combined factor helps simplify the fundamental
formulas in clause 3. As an added advantage, this
combined factor may be used without detailed
analysis for subsequent gear designs with similar
operating conditions.
9.1 Combined adjustment factor for repeated
tooth loading, Ktw
K tw = S F K ot K B K mt K v

(31)

where
SF
Kot
KB
Kmt
Kv

is safety factor for bending strength;


is overload factor for repeated loads;
is rim thickness factor;
is load distribution factor for repeated loading;
is dynamic factor.

9.1.1 Safety factor, SF


A safety factor is commonly introduced into design
calculations to provide greater protection against
possible failure. This protection may be sought
because of concern that some elements of the
design process may have overstated the strength of
the material or may have understated the level of the
loading. Sometimes the added protection against
failure is based on concern for some extremely
severe result of failure.
In selecting a value for safety factor, it is first
necessary to recognize that many of these concerns

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have already been addressed elsewhere in the


calculations. As for material strength, there have
been a whole series of adjustments, such as the
selection of the G--1 values from published data, see
clause 4, and the various factors defined in clause 5.
Similarly for the level of loading, a number of
adjustments have been introduced, as described in
clause 9. Based on concerns for material strength
and loading, unless these adjustments are judged to
be inadequate, the suggested value for the safety
factor would be one.
This first selection may be increased after consideration of the possible results of failure of the gear
under study. If such failure is likely to be followed by
severe economic loss, or even more importantly, by
injury to those associated with the failed equipment,
then the safety factor should reflect the level of the
hazards.
Also to be considered is the level of testing that
precedes final acceptance of the design. Because
the P/M process is used to produce gears for mass
production, there is generally the need and opportunity for extensive testing. This, and the recognition
that P/M processes are highly consistent, indicates
that high safety factors are rarely necessary.
9.1.2 Overload factor for repeated loads, Kot
This factor allows for two types of repeated overloads. One type is the overload that results from
operation of the product beyond its nominal rating. If
the calculated load capacity is going to be compared
to the load associated with the nominal rating, then
this factor should be adjusted to reflect this potential
overload. The other type is the overload resulting
from externally applied dynamic loads. Anything in
the drive train that is not steady in its effect on
transmitted torque or speed may introduce dynamic
torques. For example, non--steady torques are
associated with driving members like internal combustion engines or some types of hydraulic motors.
They are also associated with varying drive train
loads such as reciprocating pumps or intermittent
cutting actions.
The selection of the appropriate value of this factor
may be based on a thorough dynamic analysis of the
drive train with all its inertia, compliance and
damping effects. Most often, however, it will be
selected in accordance with past experience with
similar products and with the application of
engineering judgement.

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

9.1.3 Rim thickness factor, KB


The calculation of bending strength at the tooth fillet,
as in annex B, presupposes that the material in the
adjacent areas is adequate to support the stressed
regions. If the rim thickness under the root circle is
too small to provide this support, or is itself under
stress from transmitting torque from the gear web or
spokes, then a rim thickness factor is needed to
compensate for these rim shortcomings.
The P/M gear is rarely designed with a narrow web
and extended rim, as is the common practice in
machined or cast wide--face gears. For the typical
P/M gear, therefore, the rim thickness factor is set to
one. There is a practice of introducing holes into the
otherwise solid web of P/M gears to reduce weight
and compaction area. If these holes are placed too
close to the root circle of the gear teeth, a condition
similar to a thin rim results. The rim thickness factor
may then be calculated as follows:
Backup ratio, mB
t
mB = R
ht

(32)

is rim thickness, mm;


is whole depth of gear teeth, mm.

For mB 1.2
(33)

For mB <1.2
K B = 1.2916 3.682 log m B

-- misalignment of the gear axes due to manufacturing variations in the geometry of the housing,
bearings, shafts, and any other support features;
-- manufacturing variations in the geometry of the
tooth surfaces, such as axial runout (wobble) or
non--uniform tooth thickness across the face
width.
The effect of these items on non--uniform load
distribution increases with the face width of the
mating gears. In the case of gear axis misalignment,
the size of the face width in relation to the bearing
span is often significant. In the case of tooth surface
geometry, the manufacturing variations tend to
increase as face width becomes larger in relation to
gear diameter.
The common items that tend to improve load
distribution are:

-- local tooth surface wear, especially in the early


cycles of repeated loading.

Rim thickness factor, KB

KB = 1

The common contributing items are:

-- local tooth compliance in the form of bending or


twisting of the tooth, combined with contact surface
deformations;

where
tR
ht

distribution factor is estimated by considering the


various items which contribute to, or partially offset,
the effect on tooth bending strength.

(34)

The load distribution factor for repeated loads can be


related to these items by the following equation:
K mt = 1 + (q m + q v)m ct m w
where

9.1.4 Load distribution factor for repeated loads,


Kmt

qm
qv

This factor accounts for any lack of complete and


uniform contact along the axial length of the mating
gear teeth. Such limited contact interferes with a
uniform distribution of the transmitted load. The load
tends to concentrate where contact is best, which
raises the bending stress at the corresponding
positions along the base of the tooth. Adjacent
portions of the tooth help to support these concentrated loads and, to some extent, limit the rise in local
stress.

mct
mw

It is generally impractical to precisely evaluate the


exact nature of the non--uniform load distribution, its
effect on local bending stress, and the resulting loss
in load capacity. Instead, a value for the load

10

(35)

is adjustment due to axis misalignment;


is adjustment due to manufacturing
variations;
is modifying factor due to tooth compliance;
is modifying factor due to tooth surface
wear.

Procedures for selecting approximate values for


these factors are described below. They qualitatively consider many of the elements that can influence
the effect of non--uniform load distribution. The
quantitative values are only estimates which may be
used until more appropriate values are developed by
analytical or experimental methods.
9.1.4.1 Axis misalignment adjustment, qm
This factor recognizes that the extent of axis
misalignment will be influenced by the expected

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AGMA 930--A05

accuracy of the housing, the type of bearings, and


the mounting of the gear with respect to bearing
locations. It also recognizes that with misalignment
determined by these conditions, its contribution to
non--uniform load distribution will increase with face
width.

Table 3 -- Manufacturing variation adjustment

q m = f qm

Fo
Sb

(36)

where

Typical AGMA
accuracy grade1)
Q5
Q6
Q7
Q8
Q9
Q10

fqv
1.0
0.75
0.6
0.4
0.3
0.2

NOTE:
1) See AGMA 2000--A88.

Fo

is overlapping face width, mm;

Sb

is bearing span, mm;

fqm

is factor relating to axis misalignment


adjustment:
For machined metal housing with rolling
element bearings:

9.1.4.3 Tooth compliance modifying factor, mct


This factor takes into account the compliance of the
material, as indicated by its modulus of elasticity, and
the degree of loading, as indicated by the design
stress.

fqm = 0.1
For machined metal housing with straddle
mounted sleeve bearings:

sE

m ct = 1 5

0.5

(38)

where

fqm = 0.2
For machined metal housing with overhung
mounted sleeve bearings:

st
E

is design fatigue limit, N/mm2 (see 4.1.2.1);


is modulus of elasticity, N/mm2.

fqm = 0.5

9.1.4.4 Tooth wear modifying factor, mw

For as--cast or molded housing with straddle


mounted sleeve bearings:

This factor considers that wear is affected by the


hardness of the tooth surfaces, with very slow wear
expected from heat treated P/M materials. Also, the
kind of wear which best corrects for non--uniform
contact conditions takes place when each tooth is
contacted by only one tooth on the mating gear. This
contact condition is met only when the gear ratio has
an integer value.

fqm = 0.6
For as--cast or molded housing with overhung mounted sleeve bearings:
fqm= 1.0
9.1.4.2 Manufacturing variations adjustment, qv
This factor considers that P/M process variations
from ideal gear geometry are influenced by gear
proportions. This influence is expressed, for the
sake of simplicity, in terms of the ratio of face width to
pitch diameter. It also recognizes that gear geometry
may be substantially improved by a final finishing
process.
q v = f qv

Fo
d

(37)

where
Fo

is overlapping face width, mm;

is gear pitch diameter, mm;

fqv

is factor relating to manufacturing variations


adjustment (see table 3).

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

For one or both gears in as--sintered


condition and with an integer value for gear
ratio:
mw = 0.6
For one or both gears in as--sintered condition and with a non--integer value for gear
ratio:
mw = 0.8
For both gears in heat treated condition:
mw = 1.0
9.1.5 Dynamic factor, Kv
This factor accounts for the added dynamic tooth
loads that are developed by the meshing action of
the gears. These loads are influenced by:
-- imperfections in the geometry of the gear teeth;
-- speed of the meshing action;

11

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

-- size and mass of the gears.

Kv

In principle, the appropriate value of this factor may


be derived from a thorough dynamic analysis of the
drive train with consideration of all these influences.
In practice, an approximate value may be calculated
from an equation which uses a gear inspection value
as the indicator of imperfect geometry and the
pitchline velocity as the meshing speed indicator.
The gear inspection most commonly used for P/M
gears is the gear rolling check, or double flank test, in
which the test gear is rolled with a master gear. See
AGMA 2000--A88. One measurement made by this
inspection is the tooth--to--tooth composite variation,
an approximate indicator of the degree that the gear
will contribute to exciting dynamic loads. This value,
as expressed by its tolerance, VqT, is part of the
specification of gear quality. If measured values are
available, they may be used in place of the tolerance.
Since meshing conditions are determined by the
geometry of both gears, if the tolerances or measurements differ between the two, the value used in
the following calculations should be the larger.
K v = 1 + 0.0055 V qT v t

0.5

(39)

where
VqT is tooth--to--tooth composite tolerance (or
measured variation), mm;
vt
is pitch line velocity, m/s.
9.2 Combined adjustment factor for occasional
overloads, Kyw
K yw = S F K oy K B K my K v
SF
Koy
KB
Kmy

12

9.2.1 Safety factor, SF


This factor is generally the same as the safety factor
discussed in 9.1.1 for fatigue loading.
9.2.2 Overload factor for occasional overloads,
Koy
This factor should be based on the types of
occasional overloads that may be applied to the
gears. Some considerations are items such as the
inertia and time duration of load in the system under
consideration. These may be different from the
repeated overloads and will generally require a
different factor.
9.2.3 Rim thickness factor, KB
The same factor discussed in 9.1.3 is used here.
9.2.4 Load distribution factor for occasional
overloads, Kmy
The equation used to estimate this factor is:
K my = 1 + (q m + q v)m cy

is safety factor for bending strength;


is overload factor for occasional overloads;
is rim thickness factor;
is load distribution factor for occasional
overloads;

(41)

Note that this equation differs from the equation in


9.1.4 in that the modifying factor due to tooth surface
wear has been omitted. Occasional overloads may
occur before wear has progressed enough to modify
load distribution. The remaining factors are the
same except for mcy, the modifying factor due to
tooth compliance which is here estimated by:

(40)

where

is dynamic factor.

sE

m cy = 1 5

0.5

(42)

where
sy

is design yield strength, N/mm2 (see 4.2).

9.2.5 Dynamic factor, Kv


The same factor discussed in 9.1.5 is used here.

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AGMA 930--A05

Annex A
(informative)
Calculation of spur gear geometry features
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,
Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

A.1 Introduction

A.2.2 Data for each gear

The calculation of the spur gear form factor in annex


B requires data describing a number of gear
geometry features. This annex gives the detailed
calculations for each of these features as listed
below. See A.9 for listing of symbols and terms.

Member designated by final subscript: P = pinion


(driver) and G = gear (driven)

For the individual gear:

-- tooth thickness (at reference diameter), t;

-- effective outside diameter after tip rounding, see


A.3.1;

-- root diameter (for circular--arc fillet), dR;

-- tooth thickness at indicated diameter, see A.4.1;

-- basic rack dedendum (for generated trochoid fillet), bBR

-- generated trochoid fillet points, see A.4.5;

-- number of teeth, N;
-- outside diameter, dO;
-- tip radius, rr;

-- fillet radius (for circular--arc fillet), rf;

-- minimum fillet radius, see A.4.6;

-- basic rack fillet radius (for generated trochoid fillet), rfBR.

-- circular--arc fillet points, see A.5.6.

A.2.3 Gear mesh data

For the gear mesh:

-- effective operating center distance, CA.

-- operating pitch diameters, see A.7.2;

A.3 Tip radius geometry

-- diameters at highest points of single tooth


loading, see A.8.2.

See figure A.1.

In addition, this annex supplies some detailed


calculations for features not required by annex B.
These have been included because they are connected to the required calculations and are useful for
general reference purposes.

tO
tOR
rr

For the individual gear:


-- remaining top land after tip rounding, see A.3.2;
dO

-- points on the involute profile, see A.4.2;


-- bottom land for the circular--arc fillet, see A.5.5.

tOE
dOE
rC

For the gear mesh:


-- profile contact ratio, see A.8.4;
-- form limit clearance (test for tip--fillet
interference), see annex F.

drC

Figure A.1 -- Tip round


A.3.1 Effective outside diameter, dOE

A.2.1 Data common to the mating gears

This is the diameter at which the involute joins in


tangency with the tip round. It is calculated for each
gear in the following steps:

-- module, m;

Step 1. Diameter at center of tip round, drC:

A.2 Input data

-- pressure angle, .

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d rC = d O 2r r

(A.1)

13

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Step 2. Standard pitch diameter, d:


d=Nm

(A.2)

Step 3. Base circle diameter, dB:


d B = d(cos )

(A.3)

Step 4. Pressure angle at center of tip round, rC:


rC = arccos

dB
d rC

(A.4)

Step 5. Pressure angle at effective outside diameter, OE:

OE = arctan tan rC +

2r r
dB

(A.5)

Step 6. Effective outside diameter, dOE


d OE =

dB
cos OE

(A.6)

A.3.2 Remaining top land, tOR


This is the width of the outer tip of the gear that
remains after rounding at each corner. The calculation is needed only as a check on the design of the
gear. It consists of two steps and uses some of the
data found in A.3.1.
Step 1. Tooth thickness half--angle, :
= t
d

If the P/M gear is to replace a gear machined by


another type of tool, such as a gear shaper cutter, the
trochoid described here will be slightly different from
the shape of that machined trochoid. Some gears
are machined with a protuberance feature on the
tool. The protuberance provides an undercut fillet
which can clear the tip of a finishing tool used to
modify the involute flank in a secondary operation.
This analysis does not cover such a feature, even
when it is used on a hob or other rack shaped
generating tool. It has been omitted because the
addition of an undercut condition is rarely needed in
P/M gears.
A.4.1 Basic rack
The calculation uses several data items related to
the basic rack. See figure A.2.
A.4.1.1 Specified basic rack proportions
The following data items define the portion of the
basic rack that helps determine the trochoid fillet:
-- tooth thickness, tBR;

(A.7)

-- dedendum, bBR;
-- fillet radius, rfBR.

Step 2. Remaining top land, tOR


t OR = d O + (inv ) tan OE + rC
(A.8)
If the calculated remaining top land is negative, the
two tip radii intersect inside of the selected outside
diameter. To correct this design flaw, one or more of
the following design changes are needed:
-- reduce the tip radius;
-- reduce the outside diameter;
-- increase the tooth thickness.
A.4 Generated trochoid fillet points
The trochoid described below is generated by a rack
shaped outline rolling on the standard pitch circle of
the gear. This rack shaped outline, universally called
a basic rack, is often visualized as the outline of an
imaginary rack shaped gear generating tool such as

14

a hob. Although such a tool is not actually used to


manufacture a P/M gear, the corresponding basic
rack may be used to define the P/M gear trochoid
fillet.

These data can be taken from the basic rack


specification. It is customary for standards to specify
basic rack proportions for unit module. The above
items would then be calculated by adjusting the unit
pitch data for the actual module of the gear, m.
If a separate basic rack specification is not available,
values of the first two of these items can be
determined from some of the data in A.2, as follows:
Basic rack tooth thickness, according to common
practice:
t BR = m
2

(A.9)

Basic rack dedendum, based on the specified gear


root diameter:

b BR = 0.5 Nm +

t t BR
dR
tan

(A.10)

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C
L Tooth

AGMA 930--A05

C
L Space
p BR
2

gfBR
Nominal
pitch line
Generating
pitch line

t BR
2
BR

G
Gy

hfBR

yRS

hyfBR

bfBR

bBR

Start of fillet
radius curve

rfBR

H
Figure A.2 -- Generating basic rack
The third data item, basic rack fillet radius, can not be
determined from other data but must be independently specified, as noted in A.2.2. The radius may
be zero, indicating a sharp corner, but is almost
always a greater value, up to one--fourth of the basic
rack dedendum or even larger. However, it may not
exceed the size of the full round radius. A full round
basic rack fillet will produce a full round gear fillet,
leaving no part of a root circle between joined fillets.
This maximum basic rack fillet radius is:
mcos
b BR(sin )
4
r fBRX =
1 (sin )

b fBR = b BR r fBR [1 (sin )]

(A.11)

The above data may be used to calculate additional


items of basic rack geometry, namely:
-- basic rack form dedendum;
-- location of the center of the basic rack fillet radius.
The basic rack form dedendum, bfBR, refers to the
distance from the basic rack nominal pitch line to the
tangent point at the straight line tooth flank and the
fillet radius curve. It is calculated as follows:

(A.12)

The center of the fillet radius is located on the basic


rack by its coordinates, gfBR and hfBR, relative to the
nominal pitch line, as the G--axis, and the tooth
centerline, as the H--axis. See figure A.2. These
coordinates are calculated as follows:
G--axis coordinate:
g fBR =

A.4.1.2 Calculated basic rack data

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Basic rack form dedendum:

t BR
r
+ b BR r fBR(tan ) + fBR
cos
2
(A.13)

H axis coordinate (measured from the G--axis located at the nominal pitch line):
h fBR = b BR r fBR

(A.14)

A.4.2 Rack shift


The generating pitch line on the basic rack, which
rolls on the generating pitch circle on the gear, is
commonly offset from the nominal pitch line on the
basic rack. The rack shift is the offset distance and,
as shown in figure A.2, is positive in the direction
away from the gear center. This distance is
calculated, as follows:

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conditions. At each basic rack position, there is a


straight line connecting three points:

Rack shift:
y RS =

t t BR
2(tan )

(A.15)

Since the generating action that defines the trochoid


is based on the basic rack generating pitch line, the
fillet radius center must now be located relative to
this line, which is labeled as the Gy--axis. See figure
A.2.
Coordinate along the H--axis (measured from the
Gy--axis located at the generating pitchline):
h yfBR = h fBR y RS

(A.16)

The basic rack form dedendum from equation A.12


and the rack shift from equation A.15 are used to test
for undercutting as follows:
there is undercutting if:

bfBR yRS > d sin2


2

there is no undercutting if:

-- point at the center of the rack fillet radius;


-- point on the generated trochoid (also on the rack
fillet radius).
The pitch--point trochoid line, makes the pitch-point polar angle, f, with the rack pitch line. Each
generated point on the trochoid is associated with a
value of this angle.
At the start of the trochoid, figure A.3(a), the trochoid
point is on the root circle, and the same point is at the
root of the rack fillet radius. The pitch--point trochoid
line is also a radial line of the gear. The pitch--point
polar angle for this trochoid point on the root circle is:
fR = 90

bfBR yRS d sin2

(A.17)

A.4.3 Trochoid generating limits


The trochoid extends from its start, point R on the
root circle, to its end, point F where it connects to
the involute profile. This connection is generally a
tangency, but becomes an intersection in the case of
undercutting.
Figure A.3(a) and (b) show the basic rack positioned
to generate the limit points for the first two of these

Basic rack

-- point of contact (pitch point) between the rack


generating pitch line and the gear generating
pitch circle;

For the typical case of tangency to the involute, the


trochoid ends at the point of tangency, or form
diameter point, see figure A.4(b). The pitch point
polar angle for this trochoid point is:
fF =

Generating
pitch line on
basic rack

(A.19)

In the case of undercut gears, the trochoid ends in an


intersection with the involute. The pitch point polar
angle corresponding to this intersection point is
slightly larger than the value of equation A.19.

Basic rack

f = 90

(A.18)

rfBR

Generating
pitch line on
basic rack

f =
Pitch point

rfBR

Generating
circle on gear

Start of trochoid
at root circle
(point R)
(a) Start of trochoid at root circle

End of trochoid
at involute
(point F)
Generating
circle on gear
(b) End of trochoid at involute

Figure A.3 -- Start and end of generated trochoid

16

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AGMA 930--A05

The exact value of this angle and the subsequent


calculation of the exact values of the coordinates of
the intersection point are not essential to the fillet
profile data used in annex B. If the exact coordinates
are desired for a complete detailed tooth outline,
they must be found by an iterative calculation
searching for the intersection of the trochoid curve
and the connected involute. The numerical steps in
such a calculation are beyond the scope of this
document. However, this intersection may be found
graphically after extending the involute curves. This
procedure is supplied in A.6.2.

Intermediate points can be found from equally


spaced intermediate values of the pitch point polar
angle. The following equation gives the value of the
k--th point and applies to the intermediate and the
start and end points:

A.4.4 Fillet point selection

A.4.5 Fillet point coordinates

If the trochoid is to be described by a selected


number of points, nf, then the values of equations
A.18 and A.19 become the first and nf --th values of
this angle, or:

These coordinates can be calculated as follows, see


figure A.4(a), (b) and (c):

f1 = fR = 90

(A.20)

fn = fF =

(A.21)

f =

f1 n f k + fn( k 1 )
nf 1
(A.22)

for (k = 1 to nf)
where
nf is number of points along the fillet.

Step 1. Pitch point polar radius:


f =

h yfBR
sin f

+ r fBR

(A.23)

hyfBR

fR

Pitch point
Y

rfBR

Basic rack

Point on
trochoid
X

Gear center

Generating
circle on
gear

Generating
pitch line on
basic rack

Figure A.4(a) -- Generation of fillet point of spur gear tooth

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hyfBR

fR

Pitch point

d
2

f
2

gfBR

Basic rack

C
L

(vf, f)
See fig A.4(c)

X
Generating
circle on gear

Gear center

Generating
pitch line on
basic rack

Figure A.4(b) -- Generation of fillet point of spur gear tooth

Y
Point on
trochoid

xf

Basic
rack

Gear center
yf

X
vf

Figure A.4(c) -- Generation of fillet point of spur gear tooth

18

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Step 2. Generating roll angle from a pitch point at


tooth centerline to a pitch point at which k--th trochoid
point is generated:

2 g fBR +
f =

h yfBR cos f
sin f

radians (A.24)

cos f
1
NOTE: sin f is used in place of tan f to permit evaluation for f = 90.

Step 3. Polar coordinates of trochoid point relative to


tooth centerline, gear center polar radius and gear
center polar angle:

vf =


d
2

+ f d fsin f

f cos f
f = f arcsin
vf

(A.25)

radians

(A.26)

AGMA 930--A05

Step 4. Rectangular coordinates of trochoid point,


relative to gear tooth centerline as the X--axis with
the origin at the gear center:
x f = v fcos f

(A.27)

y f = v fsin f

(A.28)

A.4.6 Minimum radius along trochoid curve


The shape of the trochoid is such that the radius of
curvature varies from point to point. The value of this
radius at any point is determined by the generating
action of the pitch point polar radius. The minimum
value is used in the stress concentration calculations
of annex C. This minimum value, RfN, corresponds
to this radius at the start of the trochoid, where the
trochoid is tangent to the root circle and the pitch
point polar angle, f, is equal to 90. See figure
A.3(a).
R fN =

h yfBR

0.5 d + h yfBR

+ r fBR

(A.29)

dfc
Space
centerline
dR

sR
fC
f

(xfC, yfC)
F

rf
(xf, yf)
fC
F

dF
X
Tooth centerline
Figure A.5 -- Circular arc fillet

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A.5 Circular--arc in place of trochoid


See figure A.5. It is a common practice in P/M gear
design to introduce a fillet in the form of a single
circular arc. In this practice, the arc will start at a
tangent point on the root circle and generally end at a
tangent point on the involute profile at each side of
the tooth space. A fillet of this form simplifies the
manufacture of the compacting tool. The selection of
the fillet type should consider the following (see
figure A.6):
a) A small radius may increase stress concentration
and reduce tooth bending strength;
b) A large radius may introduce interference with
the tip of the mating gear;
c) A large radius may lead to fillet arcs intersecting
outside of the root circle;
d) For root diameters smaller than the base circle diameter, a small radius may not give tangent
points at both the root circle and the involute profile;
e) For profiles that must be undercut to avoid interference with the tip of the mating tooth, there cannot be tangency to the involute. A more complex
fillet form is preferred if interference, on one
hand, or excessive undercutting, on the other,
are to be avoided.
Circular--arc fillet (shown
shallow for clarity)
Full--fillet radius
Trochoid fillet without undercutting
Trochoid fillet with undercutting

Reduction of the root diameter may help in avoiding


item b).
Calculations for determining the size of this full--fillet
radius for a specified root diameter are given in
A.5.2. If the root diameter is smaller than the base
circle diameter, it is not always possible to fit such a
fillet to the specified conditions. The calculations
indicate if this limiting condition has been reached.
A.5.1 Test for minimum fillet radius
This test is required only if the root diameter is
smaller than the base circle diameter. If the root
diameter is larger, fillet radii approaching zero will
meet the geometry condition of tangency to both the
involute tooth flanks and the root circle.
Minimum fillet radius
r fN =

d2 d2
B

4d R

; but greater than zero


(A.30)

A.5.2 Full--fillet radius


Calculation of the full--fillet radius also serves as a
test for maximum fillet radius. If the originally
specified fillet radius falls between the minimum fillet
radius of A.5.1 and the maximum fillet radius
calculated below, the calculation of fillet features
may proceed. If the original fillet is smaller than the
minimum, it must be increased to that value subject
to the test in A.8.4. If it is larger than the full--fillet
radius fillet, the fillet radius must be reduced to that
maximum.
Step 1. Test for the fit of a full--fillet radius fillet:

BTff =

+ d R (inv )
N dB

(A.31)

If BTff is less than 1, the root diameter is smaller than


the base circle diameter and a full--fillet radius fillet
will not fit the specified gear data.
Step 2. Pressure angle along imaginary involute at
the center of the full--fillet radius fillet, bC:
bC = arc sev BT ff
Figure A.6 -- Fillets
The fillet radius may be selected so that the two fillets
on adjacent teeth form a single continuous arc,
constituting a full--fillet radius fillet. This feature will
dispose of above items a), c) and in some cases d).

20

(A.32)

NOTE: This equation introduces a new trigometric


function, the sevolute function, defined as follows:

sev = sevolute =

1 inv
cos

(A.33)

The arc sev or inverse of this function may be found


from tables of the function [9] or by the calculation
procedure in annex E.

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Step 3. Diameter at the center of the full--fillet radius


fillet, dbC:
d bC =

dB
cos bC

(A.34)

Step 4. Value of the full--fillet radius (maximum fillet


radius), rfX
r fX = 0.5 d bC d R

(A.35)

AGMA 930--A05

A.5.5 Bottom land


The bottom land is the length along the root circle
between the start points of the two symmetrical fillets
positioned in the same tooth space.

s R = d R fC
N

(A.44)

A.5.6 Coordinates of points spaced along fillet

A.5.3 Fillet radius center

Some of these points will be used in calculations


specified in annex B. They may also be used in the
graphic construction of the complete tooth outline.

The coordinates of the center of fillet radius are


found as follows:

Step 1. Polar angle at the form diameter

Step 1. Diameter of gear center circle going through


fillet center
d fC = d R + 2r f

(A.36)

Step 2. Pressure angle along imaginary involute


through fillet center

fC = arccos

dB
d fC

(A.37)

Step 3. Polar radius at fillet center


fC =

(A.38)

Step 4. Polar angle at fillet center (relative to tooth


center line)

2r f
fC = + (inv ) inv fC +
dB

(A.39)

x fC = fCcos fC

(A.40)

y fC = fCsin fC

(A.41)

A.5.4 Form diameter


The form diameter corresponds to the diameter at
which the fillet ends and the true form involute
profile begins.
Step 1. Pressure angle at the form diameter

2r f
dB

(A.42)

Step 2. Form diameter


dF =

fR = fC

dB
cos F

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(A.47)

Step 4. Fillet construction angles at spaced points


along the fillet
fR n f k + fF( k 1 )
nf 1

(A.48)

for k = 1 to nf
where
nf

is the number of points along the fillet.

Step 5. Coordinates of spaced points along fillet

Step 5. Coordinates at fillet center

(A.45)

Step 2. Fillet construction angle at the form diameter


fF = + F F
(A.46)
2
Step 3. Fillet construction angle at the root diameter

f =

d fC
2

F = arctan tan fC

F = + (inv ) inv F

(A.43)

x f = x fC r f cos f

(A.49)

y f = y fC r f sin f

(A.50)

The coordinates at the nf --th point should match


exactly the first point of the involute as calculated
below.
A.6 Involute profile data (see figure A.7)
In A.3, the tip radius geometry is defined with its
value of effective outside diameter, dOE. In A.4 or
A.5, the fillet geometry is defined with its value of
form diameter, dF. (For undercut gears, see A.6.2.) It
is now possible to define the geometry of the involute
profile located between these two diameters, dF and
dOE.
A.6.1 Spaced points on the involute profile
After choosing the number of points, ni, which
includes the start and end points, the following
calculation selects conveniently spaced points and
determines their coordinates on the same axes used
for the tip radius and fillet geometry.

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ds
2
d
2

(xs, ys)

ts
2

s
2

t
2

inv

Base
circle Standard
pitch circle
Figure A.7 -- Tooth profile data
Step 1. Roll angles at the form and effective outside
diameters, which correspond to the start and end
points.

F = tan arccos

dB
dF

d
OE = tan arccos B
d OE

(A.51)

(A.52)

Step 2. Roll angles at the i--th point along the


involute where i = 1 corresponds to the form
diameter point and i = ni to the effective outside point.
i =

F n i i + OE( i 1 )
ni 1

(A.53)

Step 3. Pressure angle at the i--th point


i = arctan i

(A.54)

Step 4. Diameter at the i--th point


di =

dB
cos i

(A.55)

22

di
cos i
2
d
y i = i sin i
2

xi =

(A.57)
(A.58)

NOTE: The coordinates at the i = 1 point should correspond exactly with the coordinates of the j = nj point on
the fillet, except for undercut trochoids, as noted in
A.6.2.

A.6.2 Start point on undercut profiles


As explained in A.4.3, for undercut trochoid fillets,
the diameter at the end of the fillet and the start of the
involute is not readily calculated. However, it can be
determined graphically by finding the intersection of
the two curves with the involute extended toward the
base circle. This is done by making the form
diameter value used in A.6.1, step 1, equal to the
base circle diameter, or
dF dB

(A.59)

This will make

Step 5. Polar (or half--tooth) angle at the i--th point


i = t + (inv ) inv i
d

Step 6. Coordinates of the i--th point

(A.56)

F 0

(A.60)

Other steps in the calculation will follow accordingly.

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A.6.3 Selected point on the involute profile


If a selected point is identified by the diameter at its
location, further information about the involute
profile can be found as follows:

AGMA 930--A05

The circles of each gear passing through this point


are the operating pitch circles. Their diameters can
be calculated as follows:
d AP =

Step 1. Pressure angle at the selected point


dB
ds

s = arccos

(A.61)

where

d AG =

2C A
d
1 + BG
d BP

(A.67)

2C A
d
1 + BP
d BG

(A.68)

A.8 Contact conditions


ds

is
the
selected
(d F d s d OE).

diameter

and

Step 2. Half--tooth thickness angle at the selected


point
s = t + (inv ) inv s
d

(A.62)

Step 3. Circular tooth thickness at the selected point


(A.63)

ts = ds s

The calculation described below applies to gear


pairs operating with contact ratio values greater than
one and smaller than two.
A.8.1 Contact limit points on the line of action
The calculation for each gears diameter at the
highest point of single tooth contact starts with
finding the contact limit points along the line of
action. See figure A.8. These points are:
-- Point 1. Start of contact on a tooth, while contact
continues on the preceding tooth.

Step 4. Coordinates of the selected point


xs =

ds
cos s
2

(A.64)

-- Point 2. Start of single tooth contact, as contact


ceases on the preceding tooth.

ys =

ds
sin s
2

(A.65)

-- Point 3. End of single tooth contact, with nominal


contact starting on the following tooth.

A.7 Operating line of action and pitch circle data


The specified operating center distance, CA, and the
base circle diameters, dBP and dBG, of the two gears
determines these data items.
A.7.1 Operating pressure angle, A
This is the angle of the line of action, the line tangent
to the base circles of the two gears. See figure A.8.

A = arccos

d BP + d BG
2C A

(A.66)

A.7.2 Operating pitch diameters, dAP, dAG


The pitch point is the point along the line of action at
which the tooth sliding reverses direction, changing
from approach to recess action. At this point, there is
no sliding and the tooth contact is instantly pure
rolling.

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-- Point 4. End of contact, with contact continuing


on the following tooth.
These points can be located on each gear with
calculations using the associated roll angles. The
following calculation of these angles uses data
already found in A.3 for the driving and driven gears
and in A.7.
Step 1. Roll angles, AP and AG at the operating
pitch diameter of each gear, which are the same as
the roll angle, A, at the pitch point where the two
operating pitch circles are tangent:
AP = AG = A = tan A

(A.69)

Step 2. Roll angles at effective outside diameters,


OEP, OEG (see step 5, A.3.1, for values of OEP,
OEG):
OEP = tan OEP

(A.70)

OEG = tan OEG

(A.71)

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Base circle
(gear)

GEAR (driven)
dAG
dBG

Operating
pitch circle
(gear)

P
pitch
point

dOEG
Line of
action

dOG

Approach action:
points 1 to P
Recess action:
points P to 4

4
3

2
1

dOP
pB
dOEP

dBP
dAP

Operating
pitch circle
(pinion)

1. Start of contact (load


PINION (driver)
shared with previous pair)
2. Start of single tooth contact
P. Pitch point (no sliding)
3. End of single tooth contact
4. End of contact (load shared
with following pair)

Base circle
(pinion)

Figure A.8 -- Gear mesh conditions


Step 5. Pitch angles, P, G:

Step 3. Roll angles at point 1, 1P, 1G:

1P = A 1 +

N
NG
OEG G
NP
NP

(A.72)

but not smaller than zero.


1G = OEG

(A.73)

but not greater than: A 1 +

NP
NG

4G = A

(A.77)

Step 6. Roll angles at point 2, 2P, 2G:

2G = 4G + G

N
N
1 + P OEP P
NG
NG

but not smaller than zero.

24

NG
NP

G = 2
NG

(A.78)

but not smaller than: 1P

(A.74)

but not greater than: A 1 +

(A.76)

2P = 4P P

Step 4. Roll angles at point 4, 4P, 4G:


4P = OEP

P = 2
NP

(A.79)

but not greater than: 1G


Step 7. Roll angles at point 3, 3P, 3G:
3P = 1P + P

(A.80)

but not greater than: 4P


(A.75)

3G = 1G G

(A.81)

but not smaller than: 4G.

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AGMA 930--A05

A.8.2 Diameters at contact points diP, diG

A.8.4 Profile contact ratio

The diameters at each contact point, with i


representing each of the points 1, 2, 3 and 4, is
calculated as follows:

The profile contact ratio, mp, is not required for the


calculations of annex B. It is included here for
reference because it can be readily calculated from
data in A.8.1:

d iP =

d BP

(A.82)

cosarctan iP

d iG =

d BG

(A.83)

cosarctan iG

The diameters at the highest point of single tooth


contact are:
--

for the pinion, d3P;

--

for the gear, d2G.

Step 1. Approach portion of the profile contact ratio,


mpa:
m pa =

AP 1P
P

(A.84)

Step 2. Recess portion, mpr:


m pr =

4P AP
P

(A.85)

Step 3. Profile contact ratio, mp:


m p = m pa + m pr

A.8.3 Limit diameters


Limit diameter refers to the diameter at the innermost
limit of contact by the mating gear, see figure A.8.
-- for the pinion
dLP = d1P
-- for the gear
dLG = d4G

(A.86)

Generally, the approach and recess portions are


positive values. However, in some special designs,
one of the two may be zero or negative as long as the
other value is large enough to make the total
positive. For most gear designs, the total profile
contact ratio is made greater than some established
minimum value larger than one.
A.9 Symbols and terms

Table A.1 -- Symbols and terms


Symbol
bBR
bfBR
CA
d
dAP, dAG
dB
dbC
dF
dfC
di
dL
dO
dOE
dR
drC
gfBR
hfBR
hyfBR
m
mp

Definition
Basic rack dedendum (for generated trochoid fillet)
Basic rack form dedendum
Effective operating center distance
Standard pitch diameter
Operating pitch diameter, pinion, gear
Base circle diameter
Diameter at center of full--fillet radius fillet
Form diameter
Diameter of gear center circle going through fillet center
Diameter at contact point
Limit diameter
Outside diameter
Effective outside diameter
Root diameter (for circular--arc fillet)
Diameter at center of tip round
Coordinate along G--axis
Coordinate along H--axis (measured from G--axis)
Coordinate along H--axis (measured from Gy--axis)
Module
Profile contact ratio

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Units
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
-- --

Where
first used
A.2.2
A.4.1.2
A.2.3
A.3.1
A.7.2
A.3.1
A.5.2
A.5.4
A.5.3
A.8.2
A.8.3
A.2.2
A.3.1
A.2.2
A.3.1
A.4.1.2
A.4.1.2
A.4.2
A.2.1
A.8.4

25

AGMA 930--A05

Symbol

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

mpa
mpr

Recess portion of profile contact ratio

-- --

A.8.4

Number of teeth

-- --

A.2.2

nf

Number of points along fillet

-- --

A.4.4

ni

Number of spaced points on involute profile

-- --

A.6.1

RfN

Minimum radius along trochoid curve

mm

A.4.6

rf

Fillet radius (for circular--arc fillet)

mm

A.2.2

rfBR

Basic rack fillet radius (for generated trochoid fillet)

mm

A.2.2

rfBRX

Maximum basic rack fillet radius

mm

A.4.1.1

rfN

Minimum fillet radius

mm

A.5.1

rfx

Radius of the full--fillet radius fillet

mm

A.5.2

rr

Tip radius

mm

A.2.2

sR

Bottom land

mm

A.5.5

Tooth thickness (at reference diameter)

mm

A.2.2

tBR

Basic rack tooth thickness

mm

A.4.1.1

tOR

Remaining top land

mm

A.3.2

xfC, yfC

Coordinates at fillet center

mm

A.5.3

yRS

Rack shift

mm

A.4.2

Tooth thickness half--angle

radians

A.3.2

Polar coordinate of trochoid point

radians

A.4.5

Pitch angle

radians

A.8.1

Roll angle at operating pitch diameter

radians

A.8.1

Roll angle at form diameter

radians

A.6.1

Generating roll angle

radians

A.4.5

OE

Roll angle at effective outside diameter

radians

A.6.1

Polar angle at form diameter

radians

A.5.6

Pitch--point polar angle

degrees

A.4.3

fC

Polar angle at fillet center

radians

A.5.3

fF

Pitch--point polar angle at form diameter contact

degrees

A.4.3

fR

Pitch--point polar angle at root diameter contact

degrees

A.4.3

f
f

Polar coordinate of trochoid point

mm

A.4.5

Pitch point polar radius

mm

A.4.5

fC

Polar radius at fillet center

mm

A.5.3

Fillet construction angle at spaced points along fillet

degrees

A.5.6

fF

Fillet construction angle at form diameter

degrees

A.5.6

fR

Fillet construction angle at root diameter

degrees

A.5.6

Pressure angle

degrees

A.2.1

bC

Pressure angle along imaginary involute

degrees

A.5.2

Operating pressure angle

degrees

A.7.1

fC

Pressure angle along imaginary involute through fillet center

degrees

A.5.3

OE

Pressure angle at effective outside diameter

degrees

A.3.1

rC

Pressure angle at center of tip round

radians

A.3.1

Pressure angle at form diameter

radians

A.5.4

26

Units
-- --

Where
first used
A.8.4

Definition
Approach portion of profile contact ratio

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AGMA 930--A05

Annex B
(informative)
Calculation of spur gear factor, Y
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,
Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

B.1 Introduction

Tangential
tooth force, WA

B.1.1 Description
The form factor is a quantity that relates gear tooth
geometry to the capacity of the gear tooth to resist
the bending moment developed by the load applied
to the tooth. It deals only with geometry (mostly tooth
geometry, but also some aspects of gear mesh
geometry) without reference to material properties.
The role of stress concentration, which is influenced
by other factors in addition to tooth geometry, is
treated separately in bending strength calculations,
see clause 8 and annex C.
B.1.2 Definition
The definition given here relates to the definition
used in other AGMA literature. See reference 3.
This permits the comparison of form factor values as
calculated from the procedures described here with
values from the other AGMA sources.
The form factor for a gear tooth of specified outline is
the ratio of a force to a stress. When the gear
geometry is expressed in terms of unit module and
unit face width, this ratio becomes a non--dimensional quantity. The force referenced in this definition is
described below. The stress in the definition is the
bending stress at the critical section of the gear tooth
fillet. This section is located where the bending
stress is determined to be at a maximum.
Torque transmitted by a gear may be represented by
a tangential force acting at a selected radius. It is
common practice to select the radius of the operating
pitch circle. This circle derives from the view of the
gear and its mate as contacting cylinders which roll
without slipping with a speed ratio equal to the gear
ratio. See figures A.8 and B.1.
The tangential force, WA, calculated from the transmitted torque and the radius, 0.5 dA, is used as the
force in the form factor definition. The force acting at
the contact tooth surfaces differs from the force in
location and direction, as discussed below in B.2.3.1
and B.2.6.2.

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

Transmitted
torque, T
WA = 2 T
dA

Operating pitch
diameter, dA

Figure B.1 -- Transmitted torque at operating


pitch diameter
B.1.3 Application
A form factor is calculated for each of the pair of
mating external spur gears. The form factors are
used in the calculation of the corresponding bending
strength geometry factors, see clause 8. These are
then used in the fundamental formulas for calculated
torque capacity, see clause 3.
B.1.4 Alternate methods of determining the form
factor
There are experimental and numerical methods for
determining the relationship between the tooth load
and the maximum stress induced at the tooth fillet.
One of the experimental methods has been photo-elasticity studies which reveal stress patterns and
relative stress levels. Another is the use of strain
gages variously positioned at the gear tooth fillet to
reveal stress levels at each position. The numerical
methods, made practical by computers, consist of
finite element analysis and its analytical variations.
All of these alternate methods determine the combination of the general bending stress and the effect
of stress concentration, without clearly distinguishing between the two. As noted above, the form factor
attempts to evaluate only the influence of gear
geometry on the relationship between the tooth load
and the general bending stress. This relationship is
taken as independent of the type of loading and the
properties of the material. The effect on bending
strength of the highly localized stress concentration
with its high stress gradient is recognized as
dependent on load type (steady or repeated) and
material (degree of ductility, brittleness or porosity).

27

AGMA 930--A05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

As a result, these alternate methods are not readily


adapted to determining the form factor. Instead, they
are sometimes used to determine the stress correction (concentration) factor by subtracting a calculated form factor, like the one described here, from
the measured or computed combined effect. See
figure B.2.

used below uses actual gear geometry data and is


followed by a simple conversion to the traditional
non--dimensional form.
B.2.2 Calculation stages
The calculation process consists of the following
stages:
-- critical load: selection of location along the contacting tooth surface and selection of direction;

Tooth
load

-- critical section: fillet definition and section location;


-- bending moments and stress: calculation for unit
critical load;

Critical
section

Stress
distribution

Tension

Combined stress

-- non--dimensional factor: conversion to non--dimensional using module.

Stress concentration

B.2.3 Critical load, Wc

Bending stress
at fillet
Compression

Figure B.2 -- Combined bending stress with


stress concentration
B.2 Standard calculation procedure
B.2.1 Relationship to AGMA standard gear
rating calculation
The calculation procedure presented in this annex
follows the basic principles used in the AGMA gear
rating procedure. See [3] and [4] in the bibliography.
This AGMA procedure is supplemented here by new
features applicable to typical P/M gear design and
operating conditions. The influence of each of these
conditions is explained below as each new calculation feature is introduced.
Another difference from the AGMA standard form
factor calculation has been introduced for reason of
calculation convenience. The AGMA procedure, as
part of obtaining a non--dimensional form factor,
requires that all related gear geometry data first be
scaled to unit module equivalents. This is a
carry--over from the days that graphical methods
were used for such calculations and this increase in
scale helped in graphical accuracy. The procedure

28

-- form factor ratio: calculation of force--stress ratio


for critical load with adjustment for tangential load
referenced in the form factor definition;

The critical load is the load (on the tooth flank) which
will produce the maximum tensile stress at the root
fillet. The factors which determine this critical load
are the direction of the load relative to the tooth
outline and the location of the load along the tooth
outline . The relationship between the magnitude of
this load, Wc, and the transmitted torque is described
in B.2.6.2 and B.3.6.
B.2.3.1 Load direction
The load direction is determined first by the geometry of the active portion of the tooth flank, here
understood to be an involute curve associated with
the base circle of the gear. Under certain operating
conditions common in P/M gear applications, the
sliding action between the mating gear teeth will
influence the load direction.
B.2.3.1.1 Load force normal to tooth flank
The direction of the load transmitted between gear
teeth is normal to the involute surface of the tooth
flank. If a circle (with its center at the gear axis) is
drawn through the load point, the angle between this
normal and a tangent to this circle is the involute
pressure angle, Wc, at that point. As a normal to the
involute, this direction is also tangent to the gear
base circle. See figure B.3.
This load force direction is assumed in AGMA rating
calculations. It is also used in the first set of
calculations below. See figure B.4.

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B.2.3.1.2 Friction force tangent to tooth flank


The relative motion between mating gear teeth is a
combination of rolling and sliding. The rolling action
is generally assumed to offer negligible resistance to
the relative motion and is ignored as a direct
contributor to the load transmitted between the
teeth.
The sliding action requires further
consideration because it may introduce a significant
friction force.

AGMA 930--A05

these lubrication conditions is not present and a


significant friction force accompanies the normal
tooth force, see figure B.4(b). The role of the friction
forces is described in B.3.
Load, Wc
Wc

Base circle
The AGMA gear rating calculation [3] is properly
used only for those operating conditions in which
some approximation of ideal lubricating conditions
exist.1) These operating conditions include an
adequate supply of clean lubricant at the gear teeth,
an adequate pitch line velocity, and tooth surface
geometry accurate enough to permit a well distributed contact area. When these conditions are met, a
film of lubricant is forced into the tooth contact area at
a pressure which nearly or completely separates the
contacting surfaces. The resulting friction force is
then small enough to be ignored in the gear bending
strength calculations. In many gear applications,
and especially in P/M gears with low material density
and without sealing of the pores, a full complement of
at dOE
(see B.2.3.2.1)

Tangency

dWc
Base
circle
radius, rB

Figure B.3 -- Load normal to involute tooth


flank and tangent to base circle
Friction
force

at HPSTL
(see B.2.3.2.3)

Radial
line
a) No friction, normal force only,
alternate locations

Resultant
force
Normal force
c

c is load point pressure angle


c is load deviation angle

b) With friction, normal and tangent forces, shown with


sliding inwards (typical of driven gear during approach
action)

Figure B.4 -- Gear tooth forces


B.2.3.2 Critical location
With the gear tooth treated as a loaded cantilever
beam, the location of the load producing the
maximum fillet bending stress will tend to be as far as

possible from the fillet. This would locate the critical


load at the outside diameter of the gear. However,
some common mesh geometry conditions help
move the location somewhat further down on the

_______________________
1) The lubrication port ion of the application clause states, The ratings determined by these formulas are only valid when

the gear teeth are operated with a lubricant of proper viscosity for the load, gear tooth surface finish, temperature, and
pitch line velocity.

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29

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

tooth with a corresponding reduction in the resulting


root fillet stresses. See figure B.5.

Compressive
load

Translated
load

Critical
load, Wc

Bending
load

Wc

dWc

Constant
stress
parabola

hfc
Wc
Radial
line
Critical
section

(xfc, yfc)
at critical fillet

wfc

Figure B.5 -- Data for stress calculation


The location is identified by the diameter, dWc, at the
critical load point. The factors which determine this
diameter are discussed below.
B.2.3.2.1 Outer load location limit
The first geometry condition which shifts the critical
load location from the outside diameter is the tip
round which is present on nearly all P/M gears. See
figures A.1 and B.4(a). With this tip round, the outer
load location limit moves to the point on the tooth at
which the involute flank ends and the tip round
begins, corresponding to the effective outside diameter, dOE. The calculation of this diameter is
described in A.3.1.
B.2.3.2.2 Tooth load sharing
With most spur gear designs, there are two mesh
conditions at which two adjacent pairs of teeth are
nominally in simultaneous contact. (A pair consists
of the mating teeth from each of the two meshing
gears.) One such condition corresponds to one pair
of teeth just starting to contact with the preceding
pair still engaged. The second corresponds to the
same pair of teeth nearing the end of contact while
the following pair is already engaged.
NOTE: In some gear designs, identified by contact ratios of one or less, these conditions of partial overlapping of contact between adjacent pairs of teeth is

30

missing. In other designs, identified by contact ratios of


more than two, there are contact intervals at which
three pairs of teeth are engaged, with the remaining interval having two pairs of teeth engaged. The following
remarks do not apply to these conditions, for which the
appropriate analyses are beyond the scope of this
document.

When the typical overlapping contact is present,


there is the potential for the transmitted load to be
shared between the two adjacent meshing pairs. If
the sharing were equal, the critical load location
would not be at the outermost end of the tooth
involute since, at this location, the load itself has
dropped to one--half. The actual nature of such
sharing depends on the accuracy of the involute
profiles and the relative stiffness of each pair of teeth
at that point in their engagement cycle. A detailed
analysis of such conditions is generally too complex
for common gear design procedures. As a simplification, sharing is assumed when both the driver and
driven gears tooth--to--tooth composite variation
meets Q8 or better requirements, or in the case
where lesser accuracy prevents load sharing until
initial wearing takes place.
If such load sharing is not likely (see B.2.3.2.3), then
the critical load location for each gear is at its
effective outside diameter, as noted in B.2.3.2.1, and
the diameter at the critical load location for each gear
is:
d Wc = d OE

(B.1)

B.2.3.2.3 Highest point of single tooth loading


In the typical meshing cycle of a pair of teeth, the
stages of the meshing can be identified by a series of
points and their corresponding diameters on the two
gears, here labelled as the pinion, P, for the driving
gear and the gear, G, for the driven gear, see figure
A.8:
-- point 1, the start of the mesh cycle, with the preceding pair still in mesh; diameters d1P and d1G;
-- point 2, the start of the single pair mesh, with the
preceding pair out of mesh; diameters d2P and
d2G;
-- point 3, the end of the single pair mesh, with the
following pair just starting to mesh; diameters d3P
and d3G;
-- point 4, the end of the mesh cycle; diameters d4P
and d4G.
For the calculation for these diameters, see annex A.
The selection of points (i.e., 1, 2, 3 or 4) used in
calculating the highest point on each tooth at which

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full load is transmitted by only a single pair is


dependent upon the accuracy of the tooth--to--tooth
composite variation (see B.2.3.2.2). If both the driver
and the driven gears tooth--to--tooth composite
variation meets Q8 or better requirements, then the
points used are Point 3 and Point 2 respectively.
Otherwise, Point 4 and Point 1 are respectively used.
Therefore if both driver and driven gears meet or
exceed Q8 tooth--to--tooth composite variation requirements,
d WcP = d 3P

(B.2)

AGMA 930--A05

represented by the tooth. The location of the


translated force, expressed as its distance, xWcC,
from the gear center along the centerline, may be
calculated by:
Step 1. Once the diameter of the critical load point
dWc, is established, the xWc and yWc coordinates
may be found as described by the equations in A.6.3.
In these equations, the point on the involute is
referenced by the subscript s which, for the critical
load point, will be replaced by the subscript Wc.
Step 2. Direction angle of critical tooth force, Wc:
Wc = Wc Wc

and
d WcG = d 2G

(B.3)

If either driver or driven gears do not meet or exceed


Q8 tooth--to--tooth composite variation requirements,
d WcP = d 4P

(B.4)

and
d WcG = d 1G

(B.5)

(B.6)

where
Wc

is pressure angle at critical load point;

Wc

is half tooth thickness angle at critical load


point.

Step 3. Distance from gear center of translated


critical tooth force, xWcC:
x WcC = x Wc y Wctan Wc

(B.7)

B.2.3.3 Translation to tooth centerline

B.2.3.4 Force components

To begin the process of calculating the bending


moment (see figures B.5 and B.6), the critical load is
translated to the tooth centerline. The centerline
serves as the neutral axis of the cantilever beam

The translated critical tooth force can be resolved


into two components, one normal to the tooth center
line and the other radial along the tooth centerline.
See figure B.6.

yWc
Wcy

Wc

Wc

Wc
Wcx

hfc

xWc
xWcC

sBS
st

wfc

sCS

Figure B.6 -- Bending and compressive stress


B.2.3.4.1 Bending component
W = W cos
cy

The force component, Wcy, acts to apply a bending


moment to the tooth, producing a tensile stress at the
tooth fillet on the same side as the critical load.

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Wc

(B.8)

where
Wc

is normal load at critical load point, N.

31

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B.2.3.4.2 Compressive component

B.2.4.2 Bending stress factor, fBS

The force component, Wcx, acts toward the root,


producing a compressive stress in the fillet area.

This factor is the ratio between the bending stress,


sBS, and the original critical tooth load, Wc, for a gear
of unit face width. The calculation is:

W cx = W c sin Wc

(B.9)

B.2.4 Critical fillet section


Each point on the fillet will define a fillet section
normal to the tooth centerline. The bending component of the translated critical tooth load will produce a
bending stress at this fillet section. This stress will
vary with the location of the section and its size. The
section with the greatest bending stress is designated as the critical section.
B.2.4.1 Types of fillet
Determination of the critical section requires the
location of the fillet points relative to the gear tooth
coordinate system. The location of points on two
types of fillet geometries are defined in this annex:
-- rack generated trochoid (see AGMA 908--B89);
-- circular arc.
The generated type of fillet has been omitted
because it is not commonly used in P/M gears.

Step 1. Height of the translated load force above the


fillet section, hf
h f = x WcC x f
Step 2. Width of the fillet section, wf
w f = 2y f

-- angle used to locate points on the fillet, fR;


-- rectangular coordinates of fillet points, xf, yf;
-- angle at the fillet point, f.
B.2.4.1.2 Circular arc
The description of this fillet type is given in A.5. In the
calculation shown, the following data is provided:
-- angle used to locate points on the fillet, fC;
-- rectangular coordinates of fillet points, xf, yf;
-- construction angle at the fillet point, f.
B.2.4.1.3 Fillet section
The coordinates of the fillet points also describe the
fillet section:
-- xf gives the location of the section;
-- yf gives the half--width of the section.

32

(B.11)

Step 3. Bending stress at the fillet section, sBS


Following the basic bending stress equation,
Stress =

Bending Moment
Section Modulus

for a spur gear of unit face width:


s BS = 6 W cy

hf

(B.12)

wf2

Substituting from equation B.8,


s BS = 6 W ccos Wc

hf
wf2

(B.13)

Step 4. Bending stress factor, fBS


f BS =

B.2.4.1.1 Rack generated trochoid


The description of this fillet type is given in A.4. In the
calculation shown, the following data is provided,
see figures A.4(b) and A.4(c):

(B.10)

s BS
h
= 6 cos Wc f2 = 6cos Wc [BT ]
Wc
wf
(B.14)

where
[BT ] =

hf
wf2

(B.15)

B.2.4.3 Maximum bending stress factor, fBSX


The bending stress factor will vary with the fillet
section selected. Its maximum value corresponds to
the maximum value of the bracketed term in
equation B.15. For either type of fillet, this maximum
can be found by a trial--and--error process, as
follows:
Step 1. Select an initial trial value of f (trochoidal
method) or f (full circular fillet), the angle used in the
calculation to locate points on the fillet. This trial
value may be zero, indicating a start at the fillet
tangency on the root circle. A more efficient trial
value is the one associated with a slope angle, f or
f, equal to 30.
Step 2. Calculate the fillet data from this location
angle, particularly the coordinates, xf and yf, and the
corresponding dimensions, hf and wf, used in
determining bending stress.
Step 3. Calculate the bracketed term, BT, in
equation B.15.

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Step 4. Select a slightly larger location angle, repeat


steps 2 and 3, and note the change in the BT value.
This change will be an increase unless the initial trial
value has been too large, in which case the
calculation should be restarted with a lower initial
value.
Step 5. With successively larger location angles,
repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 until change in BT values
reverses sign from positive, representing increasing
BT , to negative, representing decreasing BT values.
Step 6. The maximum value BTX, will lie within the
range of the last three calculations and may be
further identified to the desired accuracy by further
trials within that range.
Step 7. Calculate the maximum bending stress
factor, fBSX, using equation B.14 and BTX, the
maximum bracketed term, BTX, using equation
B.15.
B.2.4.4 Critical section location and size
The data, hfc and wfc, describing the location and size
of the critical section are the corresponding values, hf
and wf, used in the calculation of BTX.
B.2.5 Stress calculation
These stress calculations are based on the critical
tooth load, Wc.

AGMA 930--A05

B.2.6.1 Ratio for the critical tooth force, AWsc


This ratio may be calculated directly from the results
of equation B.18:
W
A Wsc = s c
t
=

1
6cos Wch fc
w fc 2

sin
w Wc
fc

(B.19)

B.2.6.2 Tooth force adjustment


Before such a ratio can be used to calculate the
Y--factor, some adjustment in the tooth force is made.
Since the Y--factor is expressed in terms of a
tangential force acting at the operating pitch circle,
the adjustment involves the ratio of this force, WA, to
the critical tooth force, Wc. The two forces act
tangent to two different circles but must transmit the
same torque. The force ratio is inverse to the ratio of
their diameters. These diameters are the operating
pitch diameter, dA, for the reference force, WA (see
B.1.2 and figure B.1), and the base circle diameter,
dB, for the critical tooth force, Wc. The diameter ratio
is equal to the cosine of the operating pressure
angle, A, which is calculated in A.7.1. Therefore:

B.2.5.1 Bending tensile stress, sBS


The bending tensile stress for the critical tooth load is
calculated from equation B.13:
s BS = 6W ccos Wc

h fc

(B.16)

w fc 2

B.2.5.2 Compressive stress, sCS

s CS = W c

A WsA = A Wsc m cA = A Wsccos A


=

The combined tensile stress is the difference between the bending tensile and the compressive
stresses, see figure B.6:
h fc
w fc

Wc

sin Wc
w fc

(B.18)

B.2.6 Form factor force--stress ratio, AWs


This ratio relates a force acting on the tooth, W, to the
resulting combined tensile stress, st. The particular
value depends on the tooth force selected.

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

cos A
6cos Wc

h fc
w fc

(B.21)
sin Wc
w fc

B.2.7 Non--dimensional Y--factor

B.2.5.3 Combined tensile stress, st

s t = 6W c cos Wc

B.2.6.3 Adjusted force--stress ratio, AWsA

(B.17)

w fc

WA
d
= B = cos A
Wc
dA
(B.20)

With this adjustment:

The compressive stress under the same conditions


is calculated from the radial component of the
translated critical tooth force acting over the critical
fillet section area (with unit gear face width):

sin Wc

Adjustment ratio, m cA =

To convert the ratio, AWsA, into a non--dimensional


Y--factor, all dimensions used to calculate the ratio
must be made non--dimensional. This was already
done with the unit gear face width specified in the
above calculations. However, the dimensions of hfc
and wfc are actual dimensions of the gear tooth. The
module, m, is used to complete the conversion.
Y=

A WsA
m

(B.22)

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

B.3 Calculation procedure with friction forces


When friction forces are considered, the same basic
calculation procedure is followed with some
changes:
-- the critical load direction, relative to the involute
tooth flank, will change;
-- the critical load location may change;
-- the critical load magnitude, and therefore the
tooth force adjustment will change.
To establish the appropriate critical load information,
it may be necessary to start with two trial conditions
and then perform double sets of calculations.

operating pitch circles, see figure A.8. On that figure,


with the pinion driving, approach action takes place
when the contact goes from point 1 to the pitch point.
During approach action, the sliding direction on each
gear tooth is toward its root and the sign in equation
B.23 is plus (+), see figure B.4(b). Recess action
takes place when the contact goes from the pitch
point to point 4. During recess action, the sliding
direction on each gear tooth is toward its tip and the
sign in equation B.23 is minus (--).
In some gear designs, the outside diameters are
chosen so that the pitch point lies outside the range
of contact. In these designs there is no reversal of
the sliding direction and the action is all approach or
all recess, generally the latter.

B.3.1 Coefficient of friction


In all the equations dealing with friction effects, the
simplifying assumption is made that the coefficient of
friction is constant over the tooth meshing cycle.
Values will depend on the material combination
(including relative hardness), degree of lubrication,
tooth flank surface texture, tooth sliding velocity,
tooth contact pressure, and other factors. Values for
coefficient of friction may be determined in standard
tests, but only apply to the conditions specified in
those tests. These may not closely match the
operating conditions of the gear mesh. With typical
gear materials and with some continuing form of
lubrication, the coefficient of friction may fall as low
as 0.10, rarely lower.
Under less favorable
conditions, it may be as high as 0.30, or even higher.
B.3.2 Critical load direction
Without friction, the critical load direction is always
normal to the involute flank and its direction relative
to the tooth centerline is determined by the load
location diameter, as discussed in B.2.3 and its
sub--clauses. With friction, the load deviates from
this normal direction. The amount of deviation is
represented by the load deviation angle, c described in figure B.4(b), which is determined by the
coefficient of friction, m, as follows:
c = arctan m

(B.23)

The direction of the deviation is opposite to the


direction of relative sliding. The sliding direction
generally changes during the meshing cycle, with
the change--over taking place when the teeth are
contacting at the pitch point, or tangent point of the

34

When the sliding action in either of the contacting


teeth is toward the root, the tooth force direction is
such that the bending component is reduced and the
compressive component is increased. These act to
reduce the tensile stress at the tooth fillet. When the
sliding action is toward the tooth tip, the force
components undergo reverse changes and the fillet
tensile stress is increased. Based on this effect
alone, the critical load direction would come from the
recess portion of the meshing cycle and the sign in
equation B.23 would be negative. However, this
choice is not necessarily correct for all meshing
conditions, as explained in B.3.3.
B.3.3 Critical load location
Without the friction effect, the critical load location is
taken as close to the tooth tip as appropriate for the
conditions defined in B.2.3.2. This location produces
the maximum bending moment at the base of the
cantilevered tooth and the maximum tensile stress at
the fillet.
During approach action, friction will reduce the
bending stress level compared to the frictionless
condition. The opposite is true during recess action
where the inclusion of frictional effects will increase
the bending stress as compared to the frictionless
evaluation.
As a result, when doing the analysis with friction, the
selection of the critical load location and the corresponding sign (+ or --) of c to use in equation B.23
is based on the criteria as established in table B.1.

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AGMA 930--A05

Table B.1 -- Selection of critical load location points for Y--factor calculation under friction
conditions

Gear to be
evaluated

Tooth--to-tooth
accuracy
level

Driver

Both driver
and driven
meet or exex
ceed Q8
requirements
Either driver or driven
do not
meet or exceed Q8
requirements

Driven

Critical
load
location to
be
evaluated
(see A.8.1)

Sign of c
in equation B.23
for 2nd
location
evaluation

Test to deType of actermine


type of ac- tion at critical load
tion at critlocation
ical load
location

Effect of
action on
bending
stress

Sign of c
in equation B.23

3P A

Approach

Reduces

NA

3P > A

Recess

Increases

--

NA

4P A

Approach

Reduces

NA

4P > A

Recess

Increases

--

NA

2G > A

Approach

Reduces

2G A

Recess

Increases

--

1G > A

Approach

Reduces

1G A

Recess

Increases

--

2nd
location
to be
evaluated1)

Point 3

Point 4

Both driver
and driven
meet or exex
ceed Q8
requirements
Either driver or driven
do not
meet or exceed Q8
requirements

Pitch point

--

Point 2
NA

Pitch point

--

Point 1
NA

NOTE:
1)

If the evaluation point on the driver happens to be in approach zone, then the secondary calculation is not required for
the driven gear since the recess condition will not be present near the pitch point.

Note that on the driving gear, only one position needs


to be evaluated close to the tooth tip; either Points 3
or 4 depending on the tooth--to--tooth accuracy level
of the gear (see B.2.3.2.3). For the driven gear,
either Points 1 or 2 close to the tooth tip need to be
evaluated depending upon the tooth--to--tooth accuracy level of the gear. In addition, the driven gear
may need a secondary position evaluated, which is
just inside of the operating pitch circle at the start of
recess action where higher friction level dominates.
Both positions (where necessary) need to be used in
separate Y--factor calculations. The position which
results in the lowest Y--factor value will be used in all
subsequent calculations.
B.3.4 Calculation
conditions

of

Y--factor

for

friction

Once the critical load location and direction are


selected, as discussed above, the calculation proce-

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dure is the same up to step 2 of B.2.3.3. Here,


equation B.6, for the direction angle of the critical
tooth force, is changed to the following:
Wc = Wc + c Wc

(B.24)

where
c

is load deviation angle (see B.3.2,


equation B.23), degrees.

The remaining calculations are the same except for


the tooth force adjustment ratio described in B.2.6.2
for non--friction conditions and described in B.3.5 for
friction conditions.
B.3.5 Tooth force adjustment for friction
conditions
In B.2.6.2, a tooth force adjustment is necessary to
allow for the difference between the tooth force value
used in the stress calculations and the force value in
which Y--factors are generally expressed, the former

35

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

acting normal to the tooth surface and the latter


tangent to the operating pitch circle. Under friction
conditions, the tooth force used for stress calculations is no longer normal to the tooth surface and this
difference is reflected in a modified adjustment ratio.
The adjustment ratio, as defined in equation B.20, is
modified to account for friction as follows:
m cA =

cos Wc + c

d
WA
= Wc cos Wc + c
Wc
dA

cos A
=
cos Wc

where
dA

is operating pitch diameter (see A.7.2),


mm;

is operating pressure angle (see A.7.1),


degrees.

B.4 Symbols
(B.25)

See table B.2.

Table B.2 -- Symbols, terms and definitions


Symbol
AWs
dWc
dWcP, dWcG
fBS
fBSX
hf
m
mcA
sBS
sCS
st
WA
Wc
Wcx
Wcy
wf
xWcC
xWc, yWc
Y
Wc
c
Wc
Wc
Wc
m

36

Definition
Form factor force--stress ratio
Diameter at critical load location
Highest point at which full load is transmitted by single pair
Bending stress factor
Maximum bending stress factor
Height of translated load force above fillet section
Module
Tooth force adjustment ratio
Bending tensile stress at fillet section
Compressive stress
Combined tensile stress
Tangential force acting at operating pitch circle
Critical load
Force component parallel to tooth axis
Force component normal to tooth axis
Width of fillet section
Distance from gear center of translated critical tooth force
Coordinates of critical load point
Non--dimensional Y--factor
Half tooth thickness angle
Load deviation angle
Direction angle of critical tooth force
Pressure angle at critical load point
Involute pressure angle
Coefficient of friction

Units
-- -mm
mm
-- --- -mm
mm
-- -N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
N
N
N
N
mm
mm
mm
-- -degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
-- --

Where first
found
B.2.6
B.2.3.2.2
B.2.3.2.3
B.2.4.2
B.2.4.3
B.2.4.2
B.2.7
B.2.6.2
B.2.4.2
B.2.5.2
B.2.5.3
B.2.6.2
B.2.3
B.2.3.4.2
B.2.3.4.1
B.2.4.2
B.2.3.3
B.2.3.3
B.2.7
B.2.3.3
B.3.2
B.2.3.3
B.2.3.3
B.2.3.1.1
B.3.2

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AGMA 930--A05

Annex C
(informative)
Calculation of the stress correction factor, Kf
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,
Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

C.1 Introduction
The stress correction factor, Kf, which considers the
effect of stress concentration at the sharply changing
cross--section of the tooth at its root fillet, is another
component for determining the bending strength
geometry factor, J. The geometry element in stress
concentration is the curvature (radius) at the fillet in
relation to the overall tooth size and shape and the
location of the load. The calculation presented here
for this element is the Dolan and Broghamer method
as used in other AGMA gear rating calculations.
In calculating the influence of stress concentration
on gear tooth bending strength, elements other than
geometry must also be considered. These non--geometry elements are the type of loading (repeated or
occasional) and the material condition (degree of
ductility or brittleness). Together, they can influence
the long term sensitivity of the gear to the initial level
of stress concentration.
These elements are also considered in the AGMA
gear rating calculations. Their treatment here
follows a different format.
C.2 Elastic stress concentration factor, Kfs
This factor is based on the assumption of purely
elastic conditions in the material. The empirical
equation used in the calculation is derived from
photoelasticity experiments.

C.2.2.1 Rack generated trochoid calculation


fillet radius, rfc
The radius of curvature of the trochoid fillet varies
along the curve, starting from a minimum radius at
the point of tangency to the root circle. This minimum
radius, RfN, which is calculated in A.4.6, is used in the
further calculations:
r fc = R fN

(C.1)

C.2.2.2 Circular--arc calculation fillet radius, rfc


With this type of fillet, the arc radius is used:
r fc = r f

(C.2)

C.2.3 Elastic stress concentration factor, Kfs


The empirical equation used for this calculation is:

w
K fs = H + r fc
fc

w fc
h fc

(C.3)

where
H

= 0.331 -- 0.436 ;

= 0.324 -- 0.492 ;

= 0.261 + 0.545 ;

is the specified pressure angle, radians.

C.3 Stress correction factor, Kf


This factor is found by modifying the elastic stress
concentration factor to reflect the influences of
loading and material.
C.3.1 Notch sensitivity index, q
This index has been defined to relate:

C.2.1 Data from form factor calculation


The following data items are used in the Y form
calculation in annex B:
-- nominal pressure angle, ;
-- height of the translated critical force above the
critical tooth section, hfc;
-- width of the critical fillet section, wfc.
C.2.2 Calculation fillet radius, rfc
The fillet radius is determined by the type of fillet.

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a) the actual effect of a notch (sharp change in outline) on the strength of a material; to
b) the effect that might be predicted solely on the
basis of elastic theory.
If the actual effect is represented by the stress
correction factor, Kf, and the elastic theory prediction
by the elastic stress concentration factor, Kfs, then
the notch sensitivity index, q, is defined as follows:
q=

Kf 1
K fs 1

(C.4)

If there is no actual effect from the notch (that is, if


local yielding or other internal mechanism in the

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material eliminates any weakening due to initial


elastic stress concentration), q will equal zero. If, on
the other hand, the full weakening due to stress
concentration is present, q will equal one.

Kft is determined from q repeated data in table C.1.


Kfg is determined from q occasional overload data
in table C.1.

Appropriate values of q can be selected from table


C.1.

Table C.1 -- Notch sensitivity index, q


Type of load

Heat--treated
(brittle)

Repeated

0.5

1.0

Occasional
overload

0.0

0.8

C.3.2 Calculation of stress correction factor, Kf


This calculation is made with the following:
K f = 1 + q K fs 1

38

(C.5)

Type of material
As--sintered
(ductile)

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AGMA 930--A05

Annex D
(informative)
Procedure for initial design
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,
Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

D.1 Introduction
This information sheet is elsewhere devoted to
calculating bending load capacity for a completed
design of a pair of P/M gears. However, there is often
a need for a reverse of this process. For this, the
objective of a specified bending load capacity has
already been established. The required procedure
then consists of finding the design of the pair of P/M
gears which will meet this objective. This annex
describes such a design procedure. Like the other
parts of this information sheet, it is limited to
consideration of tooth bending strength and does not
deal with issues of wear or other potential limits on
gear performance.
The general method for this design procedure
consists of the following:
1) select the appropriate equation from clause 3,
which relates all the elements that determine
tooth bending torque capacity;
2) introduce a value for desired torque;
3) introduce an approximate strength value for the
selected material;
4) introduce estimated values for adjustment and
geometry factors;
5) using appropriate guidelines, establish relationships among the remaining geometric elements
in the equation: calculation diameter, effective
face width, and module;
6) assign preliminary values to these elements, applying appropriate rounding and preferred
values;
7) reevaluate this preliminary design by replacing
estimated values with those calculated by the
various procedures in this information sheet, to
arrive at a calculated load capacity;
8) for small differences between this load capacity
and the original specified load, introduce minor
changes to the design geometry;
9) for major differences between the two load values, use the newly calculated factors in place of
the original estimates and repeat the remainder
of this initial design procedure;

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10)if the initial design dimensions exceed space limits or are otherwise inappropriate, repeat the process with a new material selection or other
changes in the basic selections.
D.1.1 Iterative design process
This design procedure can develop into an iterative
process. Design results from one set of calculations
may lead to changes which call for a new round of
calculations. As noted in step 9, initial simplified
design assumptions, when checked at design
completion, may prove to be significantly inappropriate, thereby requiring revision of some or all of the
design process. Also, as noted in step 10, an initial
design selection, such as the P/M material, may lead
to a design of gears which are simply too large, or
otherwise inappropriate, for the application. This will
require a new design selection and a new set of
design calculations.
D.1.2 Guidance from previous designs
Since the design process will make use of some
initial assumptions, it will be advantageous if these
assumptions can be based on data from previous
designs of P/M gears for similar applications. Where
such guidance is not available, the designer will be
able to use estimates provided in this annex.
However, as new designs are completed, some
results should replace the data calculated here.
Such changes will aid in future work.
D.2 Operating conditions
As with any gear design procedure, it is necessary to
start with information on the operating conditions
and associated performance requirements.
D.2.1 Loads
Two types of loading are considered in this information sheet, repeated loading and occasional peak
loading. When starting with completed gear designs, each has its own load capacity calculation
including separate strength properties for the selected material. It may not be obvious from the start
which load condition will control a new design. The
more common design control is from repeated
loading and this type of loading is given priority in the

39

AGMA 930--A05

procedure described below. Once an initial design is


established based on repeated loading, it may be
checked for occasional peak loading. On the other
hand, if the occasional peak loads are especially
severe or are essentially the only loads, the design
procedure below can be switched over with appropriate changes in material design stress and applicable
factors.
The required load capacity is typically expressed as
a design torque on the gear or output member of the
gear pair, TtdG for repeated loads or TydG for peak
loading. The required design torque on the pinion or
input member of the gear pair, TtdP or TydP, can be
determined from the gear torque value by application of the anticipated gear ratio. See D.3.2. The
relationship between the output and input torque
values is also influenced by the friction in the gear
mesh. For the initial design process, this difference
may be ignored or an estimated value of mesh
inefficiency may be applied to slightly increase the
input torque.
D.2.2 Speeds
Speeds of the gears are typically specified starting
with the speed of the driving member and then, by
applying the anticipated gear ratio, to arrive at the
speed of the driven member. Exact gear ratio may
not be known at the start of the design calculations,
but any error in its estimate is likely to be small and
will have little effect on the design results. Speed
data will be used in estimating one of the factors in
the design process. See D.6.2.3.
D.2.3 Other conditions
A number of other operating conditions play a role in
establishing various design factors. These are
discussed as required for estimating values for each
factor. See D.6.
D.3 Primary selections of design features
A number of selections, some permanent and some
tentative, are needed to continue the design
process.
D.3.1 Type of gears
To conform to the scope of this information sheet, the
spur type of gears has been selected.
D.3.2 Gear ratio
Gear ratio is generally one of the primary specifications for the gear design. The application may

40

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

require an exact value, which may subsequently


impose restrictions on the selection of the exact
numbers of teeth in the two gears. Such restrictions
may carry over to the choice of module. More often,
only an approximate value of gear ratio is needed,
permitting greater freedom in these selections.
Gear ratio, mG, is expressed as the ratio of input
speed to output speed, or as the ratio of the number
of teeth on the output gear to those on the input gear.
For speed reducing drives, gear ratio is greater than
one. For speed increasing drives, gear ratio is less
than one.
D.3.3 Materials
Many considerations enter into the initial selection of
materials. Generally, lower strength materials of
lower cost will be selected when load conditions and
constraints on gear size permit. Prior experience
with similar applications will often provide guidance
as to which materials will best balance strength and
cost and still meet any other material property
requirements.
D.3.4 Gear quality level
This calls for a general understanding of the
anticipated level of gear quality. This will play a role
in establishing one of the design factors. See
D.6.2.3.
D.4 Space constraints
When starting the design process, there are generally some limits on the space available for the set of
gears. The dimensions implied by these limits will be
used to help estimate some of the design factors.
These will not necessarily define the gear sizes in the
completed design.
D.4.1 Diameter limits
Diameter limits may be expressed in a variety of
ways:
1) maximum diameter of larger gear, dOGX for
speed reducing drives or dOPX for speed increasing drives;
2) maximum center distance of mating gears, CAX;
3) maximum overall size of mating gears, MoPG.
The approximate maximum pitch diameters of the
two mating gears, dPX and dGX, can be estimated
from each of these limits, using the gear ratio, mG.

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For the first form of diameter limit.


For the speed reducing drive:
dGX is slightly smaller than dOGX;
d
d PX mGX
G

(D.1)
(D.2)

For the speed increasing drive:


dPX is slightly smaller than dOPX
d GX d PX m G

(D.3)
(D.4)

number of teeth. However, a very low number of


teeth may bring with it some detrimental gear design
features such as reduced bending strength and
reduced contact ratio. It is therefore important to
initially establish a limit on the minimum number of
teeth, NN, found most appropriate for the type of
application. Although the scope of this document
refers to a minimum number of teeth of seven,
practical considerations will often raise this limit.
D.5.2 Finest pitch

For the second form of diameter limit:


2 C AX
d PX
1 + mG

(D.5)

d GX d PX m G

(D.6)

For the third form of diameter limit:


M oPG
(D.7)
2
dPX and dGX are as determined by equations D.5 and
D.6.
C AX is slightly smaller than

D.4.2 Packaging considerations


The overall gear box package will also be limited by
certain design issues. As noted in 1.3, P/M gears
have inherent size limitations for both face width and
diameter. Due to manufacturing constraints, P/M
gears are also limited in the face width--to--diameter
ratio, usually less than 8:1.
The gear box package may also be constrained by
the type of support provided for the gear and shaft
assemblies. The choice of bearings and mounting
approaches may limit the width of the gear box.
Finally the gear box package must fit into an overall
product assembly. Certain designs will favor a
narrow width with larger diameter gears (pancake
designs) as compared to more traditional or wider
gear boxes with smaller diameter gears, such as
planetary drive systems or speed reducers.
D.5 Preliminary geometry restrictions and
guidelines
In addition to size limits, there are other restrictions
and guidelines that may be applied. These are
needed for successful gear designs which are also
compatible with P/M manufacturing processes.
D.5.1 Minimum number of teeth
It is often the objective to introduce the highest
possible ratio in each gear set. This typically leads to
a design of the smaller gear with the fewest possible

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AGMA 930--A05

As part of the general objective of making gear


systems as small as possible, there is often a
preference for using the finest pitch compatible with
tooth bending strength requirements. However,
there may be design and manufacturing issues
which establish a coarser limit on this pitch. Design
issues may include concern for low contact ratio
under some degree of size and center distance
variations. A manufacturing limit may be imposed by
the P/M manufacturing process. The manufacturing
facility will often set its own limit of minimum module,
mx, as the finest pitch to be used in design. The
scope refers to a minimum module value of 0.4 for
the load capacity calculations, but this may be
replaced by a larger value, or coarser pitch, to
comply with these considerations.
D.5.3 Minimum pitch diameter
Another gear design limit may be indirectly imposed
by the diameter of the bore through the gear or of an
adjacent hub. These tend to define a minimum root
diameter and, thereby, somewhat larger minimum
pitch diameter, dPN or dGN. In the case of the bore,
the minimum root diameter must allow sufficient
material in that area. In the case of a hub, P/M
tooling practice will dictate the minimum difference
between hub and adjacent root diameter. The
minimum root diameter may also be determined by
the combination of minimum number of teeth and
finest pitch. See D.5.1 and D.5.2.
D.5.4 Preferred face--pitch ratio
The selection of face width in P/M gear design is
often expressed in terms of a preferred or maximum
face--pitch ratio, mFm. This ratio relates face width, F,
to module, m, as follows:
F
m Fm = m

(D.8)

This ratio expresses an approach to selection of gear


proportions. In this approach, increases in load
capacity should be made by proportional increases

41

AGMA 930--A05

in tooth outline and face width, where tooth outline is


determined by module. This is based in part on an
objective of limiting the overall volume of the gear. A
coarser pitch, when also maintaining the same
number of teeth, often results in a larger diameter
and a larger cross--sectional area. Therefore, an
increase of load capacity by a coarser pitch alone
results in a greater increase in gear volume than if it
is shared by a corresponding increase in face width.
A value for this ratio for use in design may be taken
from other successful gear designs. It generally falls
in the range of 5 to 10, with the smaller value used
with tighter axial space limitations.
D.6 Preliminary estimates of factors for repeated
bending
Equation 3.1, for calculated load capacity for tooth
bending under repeated loading, calls for the
following factors:
1) combined adjustment factor for strength, Kts;
2) geometry factor, Jt;
3) combined adjustment factor for tooth loading,
Ktw.
The simplest way to select these factors for initial
design is by reference to values found in prior load
capacity calculations for similar applications. When
this option is not available, values may be developed
by following the calculation procedures in the
corresponding clauses 5, 8, and 9. Each of these
procedures call for multiple components, most of
which are based on application requirements and do
not require any detailed information on the gear
proportions that have not yet been determined.
Simplified procedures for estimating values of the
remaining factor components are described below.
Values supplied in these descriptions should be
taken as trial values and should be replaced for
subsequent estimating needs as indicated by new
load capacity calculations.
D.6.1 Combined adjustment factor for strength
All components of this factor are independent of gear
proportions (see clause 5).
D.6.2 Geometry factor, Jt
There are two components of geometry factor, as
defined in 8.2:
-- form factor, Y, as found in annex B;
-- stress correction factor, Kf, as found in annex C.

42

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Accurate determination of these factors for each of


the mating gears requires detailed gear geometry
information that is generally not available at the initial
design process. The following simplified estimates
may be used in place of predetermined values.
D.6.2.1 Form factor
Form factor is typically tied to the number of teeth in
the gear. In the pinion, or smaller member of the
mating gears, the number of teeth is often tied to
gear ratio, mG, with a higher ratio (greater than one)
leading to fewer teeth and lower form factor, as
reflected in the following equation for the pinion
(smaller member):
Y P = 0.6
m + 0.4

(D.9)

For the gear (larger member),


Y G = 1.0

(D.10)

The final design of the two gears can be optimized to


closely balance the form factors of the two gears,
and the average of the values from the two equations
may be used for both gears.
D.6.2.2 Stress correction factor
This factor is derived from two components:
-- stress concentration factor, Kft;
-- notch sensitivity index, q.
Stress concentration factor can be estimated, as
follows:
Kft = 1.5 for full round fillets, as introduced in the P/M
tooling;
Kft = 2.0 for rack generated fillets, with near sharp
corners on the generating rack.
The value for notch sensitivity index is based on the
type of loading and material. It may be selected
directly from table C.1.
D.6.2.3 Combined adjustment factor for tooth
loading
Of the various components of this factor, only the
following have some relationship to gear proportions
and require some guidance in making estimates.
Rim thickness factor estimate:
K B = 1.0

(D.11)

Load distribution factor estimate:


K mt = 1.3

(D.12)

Dynamic factor, Kv, may be calculated by equation


39, using estimates of its two variables, gear
accuracy tolerance and pitchline velocity.

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

The value of gear accuracy tolerance, VqT, is chosen


based on the anticipated level of quality. It will
generally range from 79 micrometers for large gears
with no tooth profile finishing, down to 8 micrometers
for small gears with profile finishing.
Pitchline velocity may be estimated from the operating speeds, see D.2.2, and maximum pitch diameters, see D.4.1.
D.7 Calculation of pinion proportions
In the calculation of bending load capacity, the pinion
is generally the critical member of the gear pair. For
matching materials, this results from the pinions
lower geometry factor and the higher number of load
cycles. Therefore, the proportions of the pinion are
considered first in the initial design process.
These proportions will be selected by using equation
1 in which:
-- pinion design torque, TtdP, replaces torque load
capacity;
-- design fatigue strength, st, is derived for the
selected material as described in clause 4;
-- combined adjustment factors and geometry
factor are estimated as described in D.6;
-- remaining factors, calculation diameter, dc, face
width, F, and module, m, all define the gear proportions and are the unknowns in solving the
equation.
Equation 1 may be rewritten with a convenient
grouping of variables:
s t K ts J t
1
= K RS
m dc F
2000 T tdP K tw

(D.13)

The right side factor, KRS, can be evaluated as


described above. Any combination of left side
variables that equals, or is smaller than, the right side
factor, will provide adequate bending strength in an
initial design.
The following will assist in arriving at individual
values for the gear proportion variables.
First, replace face width, F, by a combination of
preferred face--pitch ratio and module, as in D.5.4:
F = m Fm m

(D.14)

Then, rewrite the equation with only module as the


unknown:

m1

= d c m Fm K RS

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

(D.15)

AGMA 930--A05

By successively using two different values for


calculation diameter in this equation, a range of
module is found. The two diameters are minimum
pinion pitch diameter, dPN, of D.5.3 and maximum
pinion pitch diameter, dPX, of D.4.1. If the first value
of module is found to be smaller (or finer pitch) than
the minimum module, mx, of D.5.2, it should be
replaced by the minimum module.
Design module, generally of some standard or
common value, may then be selected from this
range. Using this module in equation D.15, a new
corresponding calculation diameter may be found.
This diameter can then be used, along with the
module value, to establish number of teeth in the
pinion.
d
N=m

(D.16)

A decimal number of teeth needs to be rounded to


the next larger integer, and also be compared to the
minimum number of teeth, NN, described in D.5.1.
An adjusted number of teeth can then be used to find
the corresponding pitch diameter. With these
selected values of module and calculation diameter,
equation D.13 can be used to solve for the minimum
face width, F.
D.8 Calculation of gear proportions
In most applications, material strength and other
bending load capacity factors of the gear are larger
than those of the pinion. In such cases, design
proportions of the gear, such as number of teeth and
pitch diameter, can be found from the pinion design
by applying the gear ratio. If these factors are lower
in the gear, the design procedure of D.7 can be
repeated for the gear to see if changes in module,
pitch diameter, or face width are needed. Such
changes may require corresponding changes to the
pinion design proportions, but without reducing its
bending load capacity.
D.9 Design adjustments
After completing the load capacity calculation for
each of the gears, as described in this information
sheet, it may be found that the initial design falls
short of meeting the required load capacity. For
small differences, an increase in the face width may
be the only adjustment needed. For a greater
increase, a change using a stronger material will
avoid major recalculations. When this is not adequate, a change to a coarser pitch with corresponding diameter increases may be needed to supply the
added load capacity.

43

AGMA 930--A05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Annex E
(informative)
Calculation of inverse functions for gear geometry
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,
Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

E.1 Purpose
Some of the calculations in annex A refer to new
trigonometric functions, namely the involute function, defined in A.3.2 as:
inv = tan (where in radians) (E.1)
and the sevolute function, defined in A.5.2 as:
sev =

cos1 inv

(E.2)

In a variety of gear geometry calculations, it is


necessary to solve for the inverse values of these
functions, that is, given the value of the function, to
find the value of the angle. Such calculations may be
made with the aid of tables available in published
gear literature. However, this process is generally
not suited to calculations made in computer programs. More convenient methods for finding the
inverse values of these functions are described
below.
E.2 Inverse involute function
NOTE: This calculation is not required in any of the
equations in annex A. It is presented here as an aid to
the reader who will encounter the need in other types of
gear geometry calculation.

Many methods for performing this calculation can be


found in the gear literature, with most, but not all,
capable of providing results with the accuracy
needed in modern calculations. The method shown
here will supply the required accuracy. It consists of
a series of approximations which may be extended
to achieve even extreme levels of accuracy. Table
E.1 demonstrates that very few iterations are
needed for most applications.
First approximation, 1:
1 = 1.441 ( I )

13

0.374 I

(E.3)

is the given value of the involute function.

(E.4)

Second approximation, 2:
2 = 1 +

I inv 1

tan 1

(E.5)

For successive approximations, use equation E.5


after replacing 1 by the value of the angle found in
the prior approximation.
Table E.1 lists a range of involute values up to 1.0
and the exact values of the corresponding angles,
in both degrees and radians. Alongside each set of
these values are the errors, in radians, associated
with each of up to four successive approximations.
Note that for angles up to 36, these errors are
negligible after the second approximation, and for
angles up to about 55, are negligible after the third
approximation. In spur gear calculations, it is
unlikely that angles will exceed 45.
E.3 Inverse sevolute function
This calculation is required in equation A.32, in
A.5.2. The method presented here for the inverse
sevolute is similar to that shown above in E.2 for the
inverse involute.
First approximation, 1:
12

(E.6)

where
S

Equation E.3 is suitable for values of the involute


function up to 1.0. This corresponds to values of the

44

1 = 0.2 + 0.6 arctan I

1 = 0.8 ( S 1 ) + 1.4 ( S 1 )

where
I

pressure angle equal to almost 65, an angle which


is unlikely to be exceeded in any calculations for spur
gears. For values of the involute function greater
than 1.0, or if a calculation method that uses a
greater number of iterations is acceptable, replace
equation E.3 with equation E.4.

is the given value of the sevolute function.

NOTE: This equation is suitable for values of the sevolute function up to 1.57. This corresponds to values of
the pressure angle approaching 90. A 45 angle is unlikely to be exceeded in any calculations for spur gears.

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 930--A05

Table E.1 -- Errors in the calculation of the inverse involute function


Involute
value
0.0010000
0.0020000
0.0050000
0.0100000
0.0200000
0.0500000
0.1000000
0.2000000
0.5000000
1.0000000

Exact angle
Degrees
Radians
8.2406242
0.1438260
10.3656916
0.1809154
14.0166548
0.2446368
17.5767722
0.3067725
21.9811018
0.3836426
29.3377203
0.5120398
36.1914219
0.6316595
44.1379468
0.7703525
55.8643701
0.9750172
64.8741619
1.1322677

Error (approximate
First
Second
--0.0001000
0.0000001
--0.0001088
0.0000001
--0.0000992
0.0000000
--0.0000585
0.0000000
0.0000250
0.0000000
0.0001291
0.0000000
--0.0002065
0.0000001
--0.0024506
0.0000121
--0.0182947
0.0007329
--0.0652677
0.0115850

Second approximation, 2:

2 = 1 + S sev 1 1 +

sin 1

(E.7)
For successive approximations, use equation E.7
after replacing 1 by the value of the angle found in
the prior approximation.

-- exact), radians
Third
Fourth
0.0000000
0.0000000
0.0000000
0.0000000
0.0000000
0.0000000
0.0000000
0.0000000
0.0000000
0.0000000
0.0000000
0.0000000
0.0000000
0.0000000
0.0000000
0.0000000
0.0000012
0.0000000
0.0003466
0.0000003

Table E.2 lists a range of sevolute values up to 1.5


and the exact values of the corresponding angles,
in both degrees and radians. Alongside each set of
these values are the errors, in radians, associated
with each of up to three successive approximations.
Note that for angles up to 45, these errors are very
small, possibly negligible after the second approximation and for all angles effectively zero after the
third approximation. In spur gear calculations, it is
unlikely that angles will exceed 45.

Table E.2 -- Errors in the calculation of the inverse sevolute function


Sevolute
value
1.00100000
1.00200000
1.00500000
1.01000000
1.02000000
1.05000000
1.10000000
1.20000000
1.50000000

Exact angle
Degrees
Radians
2.60090125
0.04539429
3.70111645
0.06459667
5.92462045
0.10340413
8.49638966
0.14828997
12.25623610
0.21391167
20.16288171
0.35190867
29.83660174
0.52074694
45.05369301
0.78633528
81.87368867
1.42896544

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

Error (approximate -- exact), radians


First
Second
Third
--0.00032240
0.00000110
0.00000000
--0.00038676
0.00000109
0.00000000
--0.00040918
0.00000073
0.00000000
--0.00028997
0.00000025
0.00000000
0.00007822
0.00000001
0.00000000
0.00114084
0.00000131
0.00000000
0.00197193
0.00000225
0.00000000
--0.00023625
0.00000002
0.00000000
--0.03901594
0.00006502
0.00000000

45

AGMA 930--A05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Annex F
(informative)
Test for fillet interference by the tooth of the mating gear
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,
Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

F.1 Introduction
This annex is provided as an aid to the gear designer,
to be used to determine if interference at the fillet of
one gear by the tip of the tooth of the mating gear
exists.
Annex A provides means for calculating the point by
point shape of the fillet of a gear. This shape may be
a trochoid generated by the fillet of a generating
basic rack or it may be a circular--arc of specified
radius tangent to the root circle and to the involute
tooth flank.
This annex provides means for calculating the
nearby path, point by point, followed by the tip of the
mating gear tooth. Interference is indicated if the
combined graphical plot of the fillet and tip path
shows an overlap between the two curves. Clearance is indicated if there is a gap between the two
curves along their entire corresponding length. If the
fillet is a circular--arc, a calculation method showing
interference or clearance is provided, avoiding the
need for graphical plots.
F.2 Input data for the graphical plots

-- tooth thickness at reference diameter, tMG (only


for calculation of tight mesh center distance).
F.3 Center distance and operating pressure
angle
F.3.1 Tight mesh center distance
The tight mesh center distance can be calculated
from the gear data above. The equations may be
made simpler by means of some preliminary calculations.
Step 1. Pitch (or reference) diameters of the two
gears:
dG = NG m

(F.1)

d MG = N MG m

(F.2)

Step 2. Reference center distance:


d G + d MG
2
Step 3. Circular pitch:
C=

(F.3)

pc = m

(F.4)

Step 4. Pressure angle at tight mesh center


distance:

F.2.1 Data common to the two gears


-- module, m;
-- pressure angle, ;

T = inv 1 (inv) +

-- number of teeth, NG;


-- tooth thickness at reference diameter, tG;
-- coordinates of the point by point data of the fillet,
referenced to an X--axis on the tooth centerline,
xfG, yfG. See A.4.5 or A.5.6.
F.2.3 Data for the mating gear (with MG as the
final subscript)
-- number of teeth, NMG;
-- outside diameter, dOMG;
-- tip radius, rrMG;

46

2C

(F.5)

Step 5. Tight mesh center distance:

-- minimum center distance, CAN.


F.2.2 Data for the gear whose fillet is defined
(with G as the final subscript)

pc tG t MG

CT =

C (cos )

cos T

(F.6)

F.3.2 Specified minimum center distance


The test for tip--fillet interference can be made at any
center distance, keeping in mind that a center
distance smaller than the tight mesh center distance
is not possible. The selected center distance should
reflect the minimum value, CAN, to be encountered in
the assembly of the product. If it has been previously
established that this is the same as the tight mesh
center distance, or if the interference analysis is to be
conservative, then the tight mesh center distance
becomes the specified minimum value, or:
C AN C T

(F.7)

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

F.3.3 Operating pitch diameters


The relative motion between the two gears can be
represented by two tangent cylinders rolling on each
other without slipping. The diameters of these
cylinders are the two operating pitch diameters
which meet the following conditions:
-- as tangent cylinders, the sum of their radii must
match the specified center distance;
-- as cylinders that roll without slipping while maintaining their rolling ratio, the diameters must be in
the same ratio as their numbers of teeth.
These diameters are therefore defined as follows:
d AG =

2 N G C AN

(F.8)

NG + NMG

d AMG =

2 N MG C AN

(F.9)

NG + NMG

F.3.4 Adjustments for minimum center distance


When the minimum center distance is greater than
the tight mesh center distance, the difference is
reflected in the operating pressure angle:

A = arccos C

(cos )
C AN

(F.10)

Furthermore, the two gears will operate with backlash. Dealing with this backlash in the analysis is
avoided by adjusting the tooth thickness value in the
mating gear. This backlash adjusted tooth thickness
is:
t BMG = p c t G + 2 C inv A (inv)
(F.11)
Figure F.1 shows the two gears positioned without
any relative rotation, with the centerline of the mating
gear tooth space in line with the centerline of the
tooth of the gear. It also shows the tip radius of the
mating gear and its points of tangency to the
involute, point OEMG, and to the remaining top land,
point ORMG, also shown in figure F.2. The center of
the tip radius is located on the mating gear by its
radial distance from the gear center, rrCMG, and by its
angular location relative to the adjusted tooth
centerline, rCBMG. These may be calculated as
shown in A.3.1 and A.3.2. Using the new subscripts,
equations A.1, A.3, A.4, A.5, A.7 and A.8 become:
d rCMG = d OMG 2 r rMG

(F.12)

d BMG = d MG (cos )

(F.13)

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AGMA 930--A05

rCMG = arccos

d BMG
d rCMG

OEMG = arctan tan rCMG +


BMG =

t BMG
d MG

(F.14)

2 r rMG
d BMG

(F.15)
(F.16)

Referring to equation A.8 and rearranging terms:


rCBMG = BMG + inv tan OEMG + rCMG

(F.17)
F.4 Path of tip of mating gear
In figure F.2, the gear is represented as fixed in
position while the mating gear is shown in a rotated
position. This arrangement is for convenience, since
the analysis is concerned with relative position only.
The figure also shows the pitch point, PP, the point
where the operating pitch circles of the two gears
come together. A line drawn from this pitch point
through the center of the tip radius, point RCMG,
establishes a point on the tip radius, point RMG. This
point becomes a point on the path of the tip of the
mating gear. This path is a curve made up from a
collection of such points, plotted as if they were fixed
on the gear and located near its fillet. These points
are similarly defined as the mating gear continues its
rotation around the gear.
F.4.1 Limits of the path
The end points of the path are defined by the end
points of the tip round on the mating gear, points
OEMG and ORMG, shown in figure F.2. For each
point, the corresponding path point appears when
the mating gear has rotated until the pitch point is
correspondingly positioned. At this position, a
straight line connects three points:
-- the pitch point, PP;
-- the center of the mating gear tip radius center,
point RCMG; and
-- the selected point on the mating gear tip round,
RMG.
The rotation angle of the mating gear, MG, that
corresponds with each of the points can be determined from this requirement.
F.4.1.1 Limit for point OE
The conditions for this limit are based on the mating
gear contacting the fixed gear at the point OEMG at a
slightly rotated position compared to figure F.2. A
straight line connects the three points as noted
above.

47

AGMA 930--A05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION


Tooth C
L

Point ORMG at
remaining top land
Tip radius, rrMG
Point OEMG at effective
outside diameter
Point RCMG -- Center
of tip round
Tooth CL
(gear)

To mating
gear center

rrCMG
rCBMG

To mating
gear center
Tooth pitch
angle, MG
Space C
L (mating gear)

Circular tooth
thickness (mating
gear), tBMG
Standard pitch
circle (mating gear)

Operating pitch
circle (gear), dAG

Operating pitch circle


(mating gear), dAMG

Figure F.1 -- Gear and mating gear (with tooth thickness increased) in tight mesh at specific center
distance

Pitch point
PP
MG
Rotation angle,
MG

Point
RCMG
Tooth CL
(mating gear)

Tooth CL MG
To mating
gear center

rCBMG

Point
ORMG
G Common centerline rotation
angle (G)

To mating
gear center

MG
2

Point
RMG
Space C
L MG

Point OEMG
Tooth C
L
(gear)

Operating pitch
diameter (gear)
Operating pitch
diameter (mating
gear)

Figure F.2 -- Mating gear rotated around a fixed gear

48

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

The mating gear rotation angle that corresponds to


the limit point OEMG is defined as OEMG such that:
OEMG = OEMG A OEBMG

(F.18)

where
OEBMGis the half tooth thickness angle at the effective outside diameter such that:
OEBMG = BMG + inv inv OEMG

(F.19)

Step 2. Find the x, y coordinates of the pitch point


and mating gear center referenced to the gear axes.
(F.26)
x PPj = 0.5 d AG cos rjG
y PPj = 0.5 d AG sin rjG

(F.27)

x CMGj = C AN cos rjG

(F.28)

y CMGj = C AN sin rjG

(F.29)

Step 3. Find the x, y coordinates of the center of the


mating gear tip radius.
x rCMGj = x CMGj 0.5d rCMG

F.4.1.2 Limit for point OR


At this limit condition, the mating gear has been
rotated to a position which places the point ORMG
on the straight line connecting the centers of the two
gears. The rotation angle of the mating gear for this
limit is:
ORMG = rCBMG

AGMA 930--A05

(F.20)

cos rjG + rjMG + rCBMG


y rCMGj = y CMGj 0.5 d rCMG
sin rjG + rjMG + rCBMG

Therefore at the OR point, where j=1


r1MG = ORMG

(F.21)

is the diameter to the tip radius center -see equation A.1.

drCMG

Step 4. Find the x, y coordinates of the point on the


mating gear tip radius.
Distance of center of tip radius from pitch point
rPPj =

x PPj x rCMGj

x rj = x PPj

(F.22)

r1MG ( n j ) + rnMG ( j 1 )
(F.23)
(n 1 )

for (j = 2 to n -- 1)
F.4.3 Calculation of path points projected on the
fixed gear
Step 1. For each rjMG, calculate the corresponding
value of the rotation angle on the gear, rjG, using the
following equation:

rjG = rjMG +

MG
2

N MG
NG

(F.24)

where
MG is the tooth pitch angle at the mating gear.
MG = 360
N MG

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

+ y PPj y rCMGj

rPPj + r rMG
rPPj

x PPj x rCMGj
(F.33)

y rj = y PPj

At all intermediate points,


rjMG =

(F.32)

and at the OE point, where j = n


rnMG = ORMG

(F.31)

where

F.4.2 Path point selection


A convenient complement of path points may be
calculated from these limit values of mating gear
rotation angles with approximately equally spaced
intermediate values. The following equation gives
the value of each rotation angle rjMG for each value j
to the total number of angles, n.

(F.30)

(F.25)

rPPj + r rMG
rPPj

y PPj y rCMGj
(F.34)

F.5 Test for path point interference


As noted in F.1, the test for interference can be made
by graphically plotting these points alongside the
points used to define the gear fillet. If the fillet was
defined by a circular--arc of radius rf, with its center at
xfC, yfC as described in A.5.3, a numerical test may
be applied.
For each of the path points from F.4.3, calculate its
distance from the fillet arc center:
z fCj =

x rj x fC + y rj y fC

(F.35)

If any of these distance values is larger than the fillet


radius, rf, interference is present.
If the fillet was defined by a trochoid curve as
described in A.4, the numerical test would be more
complex and is beyond the scope of this document.

49

AGMA 930--A05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Annex G
(informative)
Calculation examples
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,
Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

G.1 Purpose
The calculation examples in this annex serve the
dual purpose of helping to clarify the procedures
explained in this document and providing a test case
for any computer programs prepared for these
procedures. The following sections begin with a flow
diagram illustrating the various steps and their
proper order to determine the load capacity of a P/M
gear. This is followed with a detailed example
problem using a gear mesh assuming friction in the
system. The final example describes the calculations to test for fillet interference.
G.1.1 Sequence of calculations
Due to the multiple steps required in determining the
load capacity, the following sequence outlines these
steps in a preferred order to ensure all elements of
the calculation are considered. The goal is to
calculate all seven factors required for determining
the result of equation 1 or 2.
Before any calculations begin, list all pertinent gear
data as illustrated by the data entries in table G.1.
A -- calculate gear geometry per annex A,
equations A.1 through A.85.
A--1 Tip radius geometry (see G.2.1)
A--2 Generated trochoid fillet points (see
G.2.2)
A--3 Circular--arc in place of trochoid (see
G.2.3)
A--4 Involute profile data (see G.2.4)
A--5 Operating line of action and pitch circle
data (see G.2.5)
A--6 Contact conditions (see G.2.6)
B -- calculate form factor, Y, equations B.1
through B.19.
B--1 Critical load location (see G.3.1)
B--2 Critical fillet section (see G.3.2)
B--3 Maximum bending stress (see G.3.3)
B--4 Non--dimensional Y factor (see G.3.4)
C -- calculate the stress concentration factor, Kf,
equations C.1 through C.5.
C--1 Elastic stress concentration factor (see
G.4.1)

50

C--2 Stress correction factor (see G.4.2)


D -- calculate the design strength, st, equations 3
though 10 (see G.5).
E -- calculate the combined adjustment factor for
strength, Ks, equations 11 through 18 (see G.6).
F -- calculate the operating pitch diameter, dc,
equation 19 (use results from equations A.67
and A.68, see G.7).
G -- calculate the effective face width, Fe, equations 20 through 21 (see G.8).
H -- calculate the geometry factor, J, equations
22 through 24 (use results from step B and step
C above, see G.9).
I -- calculate the combined adjustment factor for
loading, Kw, equations 25 through 33 (see G.10).
J -- determine the module, m, from the gear data
table.
K -- calculate the load capacity using the seven
items determined in steps D, E, F, G, H, I, J
above (see G.11).
G.1.2 Source of example data
The first example uses test gear data provided by the
Center for Powder Metallurgy Technology (CPMT).
CPMT conducted a three year single tooth bending
fatigue test program using P/M gears manufactured
with a variety of materials and processing conditions.
One such set of processing conditions was selected
for this calculation example.
G.2 Annex A -- Calculation of spur gear
geometry features
Gear from gear test program (see table G.1).
G.2.1 Tip radius geometry (see A.3).
G.2.1.1 Effective outside diameter (see A.3.1):
Step 1. Diameter at the center of the tip round, drC
(figure G.1)
d rC = d O 2 r r

(A.1)

= 85.3440 2 (0.7620)
= 83.8200 mm

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 930--A05

Table G.1 -- Gear data


Feature
Number of teeth
Module
Pressure angle
Outside diameter
Root diameter
Tip radius
Arc tooth thickness
Fillet radius
Center distance
Face width
Tooth--to--tooth
Rim thickness
Material
Fatigue limit G--10
Ultimate tensile
strength
Youngs Modulus
Number of load
cycles
(unidirectional)
Number of units for
which one failure will
be tolerated
AGMA Quality

Symbol
N
m

dO
dR
rr
t
rf
CA
F
VqT
tR

Pinion
24
3.1750
20.000
85.3440
69.9262
0.7620
5.7277
1.3513

Gear
40
3.1750
20.000
131.2418
116.5352
0.7620
4.2469
1.6993
12.0000

stT
suT

12.7000
25.4 micrometers
9.9441
FL--4405--125HT
290 N/mm2
930 N/mm2

E
n

135,000 N/mm2
5.0 106

nu

10,000

Mesh

101.7270

Qv

Pinion is mounted in a machined housing with sleeve bearings


Bearing span = 24.00
Pitch line velocity = 7.62 m/sec

Step 2. Standard pitch diameter, d


d=Nm
= (24)(3.1750)
= 76.2000 mm

Step 3. Base circle diameter, dB (figure G.2)


(A.2)

d B = d (cos )

(A.3)

= 76.2000 cos(20.0000)
= 71.6046 mm
rr

d/2
drc

dO

Figure G.1

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dB/2

Figure G.2

51

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

a = r B tan rC

Step 4. Pressure angle at center of tip round, rC


(figure G.3)


dB
d rC

rC = arccos

tan OE =

(A.4)
=

= arccos 71.6046
83.8200

(a + r r )
rB

rB tan rC + rr
rB

r
= tan rC + r r

2r
= tan rC + r
dB

= arccos(0.85427)
= 31.3213 degrees

OE = arctan tan rC +

= 0.5467 radians
rC

2r r
dB

r
cos rC = r B

rC

Step 6. Effective outside diameter, dOE

d
cos rC = B
d rC

rrC

rB

rC = arccos

rC

dB
d rC

d OE =
=

Step 5. Pressure angle at effective outside diameter, OE (figure G.4)

2 rr
dB

cos OE

(A.6)

71.6046
cos(32.2028)

= 84.6222 mm

Figure G.3

OE = arctan tan rC +

dB

= arctan tan(31.3213) +
= arctan (0.62980)
= 32.2028 degrees

(A.5)
2(0.762)
71.6046

G.2.1.2 Remaining top land, tOR (see A.3.2)


Step 1. Tooth thickness half angle,
= t
d
= 5.7277
76.2000
= 0.07517 radians

(A.7)

Step 2. Remaining top land, tOR

OE
a
rC
OE

t OR = d O + (inv ) tan OE + rC
(A.8)
= 85.3440 [0.07517 + inv (20.0000)
tan (32.2028) + 0.5417]
= 0.5913 mm

52

rB

G.2.2 Generated trochoid fillet points (see A.4)

Figure G.4

NOTE: The example gear selected for these calculations has a circular--arc fillet. The following trochoid fillet calculations are used to demonstrate the use of the
formulas in this section and are not used elsewhere in
the example calculations.

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 930--A05

G.2.2.1 Specified basic rack proportions (see


A.4.1.1)

Maximum basic rack fillet radius, rfBRX (figure G.6)

Basic rack tooth thickness, tBR (figure G.5)

r fBRX =

t BR = m
2
(3.1750)
=
2

(A.9)

cos
b BR sin
4
1 sin

3.1750

(A.11)

cos 20.0000
4.1540(sin 20.0000)
4
1 sin 20.0000

= 2.3433 1.4208
0.6580

= 4.9873 mm
Basic rack dedendum, bBR

= 1.4020 mm

t t BR
b Br = 0.5 N m +
dR
tan

(A.10)

G.2.2.2 Calculated basic rack data (see A.4.1.2)


Basic rack form dedendum, bfBR (figure G.7)

= 0.5 24 (3.1750) + 5.7277 4.9873


tan 20.0000

b fBR = b BR r fBR(1 sin )

69.9262

(A.12)

= 4.1540 1.3513 (1 sin(20.0000))


= 4.1540 1.3513 (0.6580)

= 0.5(76.200 + 2.0342 69.9262)


= 4.1540 mm

= 3.2649 mm

t BR
2

b=

t t BR
2 tan

Nominal pitch line


Generating pitch line

bBR

t
2

c=

dR
2

a = d = Nm
2
2

Figure G.5
Nominal
pitch line
Generating
pitch line

Nominal pitch line


b fBR = b BR r fBR r fBR sin
b fBR = b BR r fBR(1 sin )

bfBR
bBR

rfBRX

rfBR

Figure G.6
Figure G.7
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Coordinate along the G--axis, gfBR (figure G.8)


t
r
g fBR = BR + b BR r fBR tan + fBR (A.13)
cos
2

G.2.2.3 Rack shift (see A.4.2 and figure G.10)


t t BR
y RS =
(A.15)
2 tan

= 4.9873 + 4.1540 1.3513 tan20.0000


2
1.3513
+
cos20.0000

= 5.7277 4.9873
2 tan (20.0000)
= 1.0171 mm

= 2.4937 + 1.0201 + 1.4380


= 4.9518 mm

t BR
2

gfBR

Nominal pitch line

t BR
2

Generating pitch line

yRS

t
2

rfBR

b
a

Figure G.10
Figure G.8
t BR
+a+b
2
a = b BR r fBR tan
r
b = fBR
cos
t
r
g fBR = BR + b BR r fBR tan + fBR
cos

2
Coordinate along the H--axis, hfBR (figure G.9)
g fBR =

h fBR = b BR r fBR

Coordinate along H--axis (measured from Gy--axis),


hyfBR (figure G.11)
h yfBR = h fBR y RS
(A.16)
= 2.8027 1.0171
= 1.7856 mm
Nominal pitch line
yRS

Generating pitch line

(A.14)
hfBR hyfBR

= 4.1540 1.3513
= 2.8027 mm
Nominal pitch line

bBR

Figure G.11

hfBR

Test for undercutting:


If

undercutting.

rfBR

If
Figure G.9

54

bfBR yRS > dsin2 ;


bfBR yRS dsin2 ;

undercutting.

there
there

is

is
no

(A.17)

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d sin 2 = 76.2000 (sin(20.0000)) 2


2
2
= 4.4569
bfBR yRS = 3.2649 1.0171

G.2.2.5 Fillet point coordinates (see A.4.5)


Step 1. Pitch point polar radius, f (figure G.12)
f =

= 2.2478
therefore, there is no undercutting.
G.2.2.4 Fillet point selection (see A.4.4)
f =

f1 n f k + fn( k 1 )
nf 1

AGMA 930--A05

h yfBR
sin f

+ r fBR

(A.23)

f1:
(A.22)

f1 =

1.7856 + 1.3513 = 3.1369 mm


sin(90.0000)

f5:

For k = 1 to nf

f15 =

nf = 10
f1 = 90.0000 degrees

(A.20)

fn = = 20.0000 degrees

(A.20)

k = 1:

1.7856 + 1.3513 = 3.4369 mm


sin(58.8889)

f10:
1.7856 + 1.3513 = 6.5720 mm
sin(20.0000)
Step 2. Generating roll angle, f (figure G.13)
f10 =

90.0000(10 1) + 20.0000(1 1)
10 1
= 90.0000 degrees

f1 =

2 g fBR +
f =

k = 5:

h yfBR cos f
sin f

(A.24)

f1:

90.0000(10 5) + 20.0000(5 1)
f5 =
10 1
= 58.8889 degrees

2 4.9518 + 1.7856

k = 10:

f1 =

cos90.0000
sin90.0000

76.2000
= 0.1300 radians
= 7.4466 degrees

90.0000(10 10) + 20.0000(10 1)


f10 =
10 1
= 20.0000 degrees
f

hyfBR

Pitch point
Y
f

rfBR
Point on
trochoid

Basic rack
Generating
pitch line on
basic rack
X

Generating
Gear center circle on gear

Figure G.12

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hyfBR

Pitch point

d
2

d
f

Basic
rack

f
2

gfBR
C
L

X
Generating
pitch line on
basic rack

Generating
circle on gear

Gear
center

Figure G.13
f1:

f5:

2 4.9518 + 1.7856
f5 =

cos58.8889
sin58.8889

v f1 =

76.2000
2

+ 3.1369 2 76.2000

1/2

(3.1369)(sin 90.000)

76.2000
= 0.1583 radians
= 9.0672 degrees

f1 = 7.4466 arcsin

f10:

= 34.9631

3.1369 cos(90.0000)
34.9631

= 7.4466 degrees

2 4.9518 + 1.7856
f3 =

cos20.0000
sin20.0000

76.2000
= 0.2587 radians
= 14.8243 degrees

vf =


d
2

+ 2f d f sin f

cos
f = f arcsin f v f
f
NOTE:

arcsin f

cos f
vf

f5:
v f5 =

76.2000
2

+ 3.4369 2 76.2000

1/2

(3.4369)(sin 58.8889)

Step 3. Polar coordinates of trochoid relative to


tooth centerline and gear center, vf, f (figure G.14)

f5 = 9.0672 arcsin

= 35.2023

3.4369 cos(58.8889)
35.2023

= 6.1756 degrees

12

(A.25)

f10:
v f10 =

(A.26)

76.2000
2

+ 6.5720 2 76.2000

(6.5720)(sin 20.0000)

calculates a value in

degrees. This must be converted to radians or f must


be converted to degrees before using in the formula.

56

f5 = 14.8243 arcsin

1/2

= 36.3802

6.5720 cos20.0000
36.3802

= 5.0507 degrees

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AGMA 930--A05

d
2
a

v 2f = a 2 + b 2

v f = a 2 + b 2

Basic rack

vf

f
Gear
center

b
f

Pitch point

X
Generating
circle on gear

Generating
pitch line on
basic rack

12

a= dx
2
x = f sin f
a = d f sin f
2
b = f cos f
a 2 + b 2 = d f sin f + 2 cos 2 f
2
2
2
d
d
=

d + 2f sin 2 f + 2f cos 2 f
2
2 sin f 2 sin f

vf =


d
2

2
= d d f sin f + 2fsin 2 f + cos 2 f
2
2
= d + 2f d f sin f
2

+ 2f d f sin f

f = f f

f = arcsin f cos v f
f

f = f arcsin f cos v f
f

12

Figure G.14

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Step 4. Rectangular coordinates of trochoid,


xf, yf (figure G.15) (table G.2)

G.2.2.6 Minimum radius along trochoid curve


(see A.4.6)

x f = v f cos f

(A.27)

y f = v f sin f

(A.28)

R fN =
=

f1:

h yfBR

0.5 d + h yfBR

(A.29)

+ r fBR

1.7856 2
+ 1.3513
0.5(76.2) + 1.7856

= 1.4312 mm

x f1 = 34.9631 cos(7.4466) = 34.6682 mm

G.2.3 Circular--arc in place of trochoid (see


A.5)

y f1 = 34.9631 sin(7.4466) = 4.5313 mm

G.2.3.1 Test for minimum fillet radius (see


A.5.1)

f5:
x f5 = 35.2023 cos(6.1756) = 34.9980 mm

r fN =

y f5 = 35.2023 sin(6.1756) = 3.7869 mm

d2 d2
B

(A.30)

4d R
2

= 71.6046 69.9262
4(69.9262)
= 0.8493 mm

f10:
x f10 = 36.3802 cos(5.0507) = 36.2390 mm

G.2.3.2 Full--fillet radius (see A.5.2):

y f10 = 36.3802 sin(5.0507) = 3.2028 mm

Step 1. Test for the fit of a full--fillet radius

BTff =
Y

yf

+ d R inv
N dB

(A.31)

= + 69.9262 0.07517 inv 20


24 71.6046
= 1.01739
[BTff] > 1; Full--fillet radius will work.

Point on
trochoid Basic
rack

xf
Gear center

Step 2. Pressure angle at the center of the full fillet


radius, bC (figure G.16)

vf

bC = arc sev BT ff

(A.32)

= arc sev (1.01739)

Figure G.15

Table G.2
f (deg)

f (rad)

f (deg)

f (rad)

vf

f (rad)

f (deg)

xf

yf

90.0000

1.570796

3.136900

0.129969

7.446647

34.96310

0.129969

7.446647

34.66822

4.531320

82.2222

1.435048

3.153479

0.136370

7.813418

34.97814

0.124169

7.114339

34.70884

4.332036

74.4444

1.299300

3.204792

0.143015

8.194134

35.02314

0.118473

6.788001

34.77764

4.139596

66.6667

1.163553

3.295940

0.150185

8.604941

35.09790

0.112981

6.473354

34.87413

3.956977

58.8889

1.027805

3.436874

0.158252

9.067192

35.20228

0.107784

6.175596

34.99800

3.786917

51.1111

0.892057

3.64534

0.167770

9.612497

35.33678

0.102959

5.899133

35.14965

3.631826

43.3333

0.756309

3.953301

0.179644

10.292830

35.50372

0.098563

5.647224

35.33141

3.493678

35.5556

0.620562

4.422018

0.195538

11.203490

35.71030

0.094624

5.421567

35.55055

3.374018

27.7778

0.484814

5.182699

0.218942

12.544430

35.97804

0.091143

5.222084

35.82871

3.274593

20.0000

0.349066

6.572045

0.258732

14.824260

36.38024

0.088152

5.050726

36.23898

3.202832

58

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Imaginary involute
through fillet center
Base
circle
Root
diameter

bC

AGMA 930--A05

Step 4. Radius of the full--fillet radius (maximum fillet


radius), rfX
r fX = 0.5 d bC d R

(A.35)

= 0.5 (73.0396 69.9262)


= 1.5567 mm
G.2.3.3 Fillet radius center (see A.5.3):
Step 1. Diameter of gear center circle going through
fillet center, dfC (figure G.17)
d fC = d R + 2r f

(A.36)

= 69.9262 + 2(1.3513)
= 72.6288 mm

Figure G.16
First approximation:
1 = 0.8( S 1 ) + 1.4( S 1 )

12

rf

(E.4)

= 0.8(1.01739 1) + 1.4(1.01739 1)

12

= 0.198532 radians = 11.3750 degrees


S is the given value of the sevolute function

1
sin 1

Figure G.17
Step 2. Pressure angle along imaginary involute
through fillet center, fC (figure G.18)

Second approximation:
2 = 1 + S sev 1 1 +

(E.5)

fC = arccos

= 0.198532 + (1.017390 sev 0.198532 rad)

1+

1
inv (0.198532 rad)
cos 0.198532 rad

Step 3. Diameter at the center of the full--fillet radius,


dbC
dB
d bC =
cos bC
71.6046
cos 11.3762

= 73.0396 mm

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

(A.37)

= 9.6336 degrees

6.070233
= 0.198552 radians = 11.3762 degrees

dB
d fC

= arccos 71.6046
72.6288

1
sin 11.3750

= 0.198532 + (1.017390

rf

(A.34)

Step 3. Polar radius at fillet center, fC


d fC
= 72.6288 = 36.3144 mm (A.38)
2
2
Step 4. Polar angle at fillet center (relative to tooth
centerline), fC
fC =

fC = + inv inv fC +

2r f
dB

(A.39)

= 0.07517 + inv (20) inv(9.6336)


+

2(1.3513)
71.6046

= 0.1262 radians = 7.2314 degrees

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G.2.3.6 Coordinates of points spaced along


fillet (see A.5.6)

Imaginary involute
through fillet center
Base
circle

Step 1. Polar angle at the form diameter, F


F = + (inv) inv F

Root
diameter

fC

(A.45)

= 0.07517 + inv 20 inv 7.5194


= 0.0893 radians = 5.1172 degrees
Step 2. Fillet construction angle at the form
diameter, fF
fF = + F F
(A.46)
2
= + 0.0893 0.13124
2
= 1.5289 radians = 87.5977 degrees
Step 3. Fillet construction angle at the root diameter,
fR

Figure G.18

fR = fC = 7.2314 degrees
Step 5. Coordinates at fillet center, xfC, yfC
x fC = fCcos fc

Step 4. Fillet construction angles at spaced points


along the fillet, f
(A.40)
f =

= 36.3144 cos (7.2314) = 36.0256


y fC = fCsin fc

(A.41)

= 36.3144 sin (7.2314) = 4.5711

2 (1.3513)
= arctan tan (9.6336)
71.6046

7.2314(10 1) + 87.5977(1 1)
10 1
= 7.2314 degrees

7.2314(10 5) + 87.5977(5 1)
10 1
= 42.9498 degrees

(A.42)

dB
dF =
= 71.6046 = 72.2257 mm
cos F
cos 7.5194
(A.43)

k = 10:
7.2314(10 10) + 87.5977(10 1)
10 1
= 87.5977 degrees
Step 5. Coordinates of spaced points along fillet, xf,
yf (table G.3)
f1 =

x f = x fC r fcos f

(A.49)

y f = y fC r fsin f

(A.50)

f1:
x f1 = 36.0256 1.3513(cos 7.2314) = 34.6850 mm

G.2.3.5 Bottom land (see A.5.5)

y f1 = 4.5711 1.3513(sin 7.2314) = 4.4010 mm

s R = d R fC
N

(A.44)

= 69.9262 0.1262 = 0.3286 mm


24

60

k = 5:
f5 =

Step 2. Form diameter, dF

(A.48)

f1 =

= 0.13124 radians = 7.5194 degrees

nf 1

k = 1:

Step 1. Pressure angle at the form diameter, F

fR n f k + fF( k 1 )

For k = 1 to nf, nf = 10

G.2.3.4 Form diameter (see A.5.4)

2 r f
F = arctan tan fC
dB

(A.47)

f5:
x f5 = 36.0256 1.3513cos 42.9498 = 35.0365 mm

y f5 = 4.5711 1.3513(sin 42.9498) = 3.6504 mm

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 930--A05

i5:

f10:

0.1320(10 5) + 0.6298(5 1)
10 1
= 0.3532 radians

x f10 = 36.0255 1.3513cos 87.5977 = 35.9689 mm

1 =

y f10 = 4.5711 1.3513(sin 87.5977) = 3.2210 mm

i10:

Table G.3
f
7.2314
16.1610
25.0906
34.0202
42.9498
51.8794
60.8090
69.7385
78.6681
87.5977

f
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

xf
34.6850
34.7276
34.8018
34.9055
35.0365
35.1914
35.3665
35.5576
35.7600
35.9689

yf
4.4010
4.1950
3.9981
3.8151
3.6504
3.5081
3.3915
3.3035
3.2462
3.2210

0.1320(10 10) + 0.6298(10 1)


10 1
= 0.6298 radians

1 =

Step 3. Pressure angle at the i--th Point, i


i = arctan i

(A.54)

i1:
i = arctan (0.1320) = 7.5195 degrees
i5:
5 = arctan (0.3532) = 19.4555 degrees
i10:
10 = arctan (0.6298) = 32.2028 degrees
Step 4. Diameter at the i--th point, di

G.2.4 Involute profile data (see A.6)


G.2.4.1 Spaced points on the involute profile
(see A.6.1)
Step 1. Roll angles at the form and effective outside
diameters, F, OE

F = tan arccos

dB
dF

dB
d OE

= tan arccos 71.6046


84.6222

71.6046 = 75.9407 mm
cos(19.4555)

71.6046 = 84.6222 mm
cos(32.2028)
Step 5. Polar (or half tooth) angle at the i--th point,
i
i = t + inv inv i
d
= 5.7277 + inv (20) inv i
76.2000

(A.56)

= 0.0752 + 0.0149

tan i i radians

Step 2. Roll angles at the i--th point, i

ni 1

di =

di =

= 0.6298 radians

i =

71.6046 = 72.2257 mm
cos(7.5195)

i5:

(A.52)

F n i 1 + OE( i 1 )

di =

(A.55)

i10:

= 0.1320 radians
OE = tan arccos

dB
cos i

i1:

(A.51)

= tan arccos 71.6046


72.2257

di =

= 0.0901 tan i + i
(A.53)

i1:
1 = 0.0901 tan(7.5195) + 0.13124

For i = 1 to ni, ni = 10

= 0.0893 radians = 5.1172 degrees

i1:
0.1320(10 1) + 0.6298(1 1)
1 =
10 1
= 0.1320 radians

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

i5:
5 = 0.0901 tan(19.4555) + 0.33956
= 0.0764 radians = 4.3768 degrees

61

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Step 1. Pressure angle at the selected point, S

i10:
10 = 0.0901 tan(32.2028) + 0.56204

S = arccos

= 0.0223 radians = 1.2785 degrees


Step 6. Coordinates of the i--th point, xi, yi
(table G.4)
di
cos i
2
d
y i = i sin i
2

xi =

(A.57)
(A.58)

i1:

dB
dS

(A.61)

S 1:
S1 = arccos 71.6046 = 7.5196 degrees
72.2257
S 2:
S2 = arccos 71.6046 = 19.4554 degrees
75.9407
S 3:
S3 = arccos 71.6046 = 32.2027 degrees
84.6222
Step 2. Half--tooth thickness angle at the selected
point, S

x 1 = 72.2257 cos 5.1172 = 35.9689 mm


2
y 1 = 72.2257 sin 5.1172 = 3.2210 mm
2

S = t + inv inv S
d

i5:
x 5 = 75.9407 cos 4.3768 = 37.8596 mm
2
75.9407
sin 4.3768 = 2.8977 mm
y5 =
2
i10:

(A.62)

= 5.7277 + inv (20) inv S


76.2000
= 0.0752 + 0.0149

tan S S radians
= 0.0901 tan S + S

x 10 = 84.6222 cos 1.2785 = 42.3006 mm


2
y 10 = 84.6222 sin 1.2785 = 0.9441 mm
2
G.2.4.2 Selected point on the involute profile
(see A.6.3)

S 1:
S1 = 0.0901 tan (7.5196) + 0.13124
= 0.0893 radians = 5.1772 degrees
S 2:
S2 = 0.0901 tan (19.4554) + 0.33956
= 0.0764 radians = 4.3768 degrees

Selected diameters, dS1, dS2, dS3:


d S1 = 72.2257 mm

S 3:

d S2 = 75.9407 mm

S3 = 0.0901 tan (32.2027) + 0.56204


= 0.0223 radians = 1.2785 degrees

d S3 = 84.6222 mm

Table G.4
f
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

62

f (rad)
0.1320
0.1873
0.2426
0.2979
0.3532
0.4086
0.4639
0.5192
0.5745
0.6298

f
7.5195
10.6091
13.6377
16.5905
19.4555
22.2227
24.8850
27.4374
29.8769
32.2028

df
72.2257
72.8499
73.6820
74.7150
75.9407
77.3501
78.9332
80.6798
82.5796
84.6222

f (rad)
0.0893
0.0879
0.0855
0.0817
0.0764
0.0694
0.0605
0.0498
0.0370
0.0223

f (deg)
5.1172
5.0378
4.8972
4.6809
4.3768
3.9749
3.4681
2.8513
2.1218
1.2785

xf
35.9689
36.2842
36.7065
37.2329
37.8596
38.5820
39.3943
40.2900
41.2615
42.3006

yf
3.2210
3.1986
3.1450
3.0486
2.8977
2.6809
2.3874
2.0067
1.5287
0.9441

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Step 3. Circular tooth thickness at the selected


point, tS
t S = d S S

(A.63)

AGMA 930--A05

G.2.5.2 Operating pitch diameters (see A.7.2)


d AP =

S 1:
t S1 = 72.2257 0.0893 = 6.4506 mm

S 2:
t S2 = 75.9407 0.0764 = 5.8010 mm
S 3:
t S3 = 84.6222 0.0223 = 1.8883 mm
Step 4. Coordinates of the selected point, xS, yS
d
x S = S cos S
2
d
y S = S sin S
2
S 1:

(A.64)
(A.65)

x S2 = 75.9407 cos 4.3768 = 37.8596 mm


2
y S2 = 75.9407 sin 4.3768 = 2.8977 mm
2
S 3:
x S3 = 84.6222 cos 1.2785 = 42.3006 mm
2
y S3 = 84.6222 sin 1.2785 = 0.9441 mm
2
G.2.5 Operating line--of--action and pitch circle
data (see A.7)
dG = NG m

(A.2)

= 40 (3.175)
= 127.0000 mm
d BG = d G cos

(A.3)

= 127.0000 cos 20
G.2.5.1 Operating pressure angle (see A.7.1)

(A.68)

2(101.7270)
1 + 71.6046
119.3410

= 127.1588 mm

(A.66)

= arccos 71.6046 + 119.3410


2(101.7270)
= 20.1956 degrees

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

Point 1 = Start of contact at any one tooth


Point 2 = Start of single tooth contact
Point 3 = End of single tooth contact
Point 4 = End of contact of any one tooth
G.2.6.1 Contact limit points on the line of
action (see A.8.1)
Step 1. Roll angles at the operating pitch diameters,
AP and AG
A = AP = AG = tan A

(A.69)

= tan 20.1956 = 0.3678 radians


Step 2. Roll angles at effective outside diameters,
OEP, OEG
OEP = tan OEP = tan 32.2028

(A.70)

= 0.6298 radians
Determine OEG
Step a. Diameter at center of tip round for the
gear, drC
d rC = d O 2 r r

= 119.3410 mm

2(101.7270)
1 + 119.3410
71.6046

= 76.2953
2 CA
d AG =
d
1 + BP
d BG
=

(A.67)

G.2.6 Contact conditions (see A.8)

x S1 = 72.2257 cos 5.1172 = 35.9689 mm


2
y S1 = 72.2257 sin 5.1172 = 3.2210 mm
2
S 2:

d + d BG
A = arccos BP
2 CA

2 CA
d
1 + BG
d BP

(A.1)

= 131.2418 2(0.7620)
= 129.7178 mm
Step b. Pressure angle at center of tip round,
rC
rC = arccos

dB
d rC

(A.4)

= arccos 119.3410 = 23.0732 degrees


129.7178

63

AGMA 930--A05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Step c. Pressure angle at effective outside


diameter, OEG

OEG = arctan tan rC +

2r r
dB

= arctan tan 23.0732 +

(A.5)

2(0.7620)
119.3410

= 23.6896 degrees
OEG = tan OEG

(A.71)

N
NG
OEG G
NP
NP

(A.72)

= 0.2497 radians
But not smaller than zero; Remains the same
(0.2497)
(A.73)

But not greater than:

A 1 +

NP
NG

(A.74)

(A.79)

Step 7. Roll angles at point 3, 3P, 3G


(A.80)

= 0.5115 radians
But not greater than 4P (0.6298); Remains the same
(0.5115)
3G = 1G G = 0.4388 0.1571

(A.81)

= 0.2817 radians
But not smaller than 4G (0.2107); Remains the
same (0.2817)

0.3678 1 + 40 = 0.98083
24
Remains the same (0.6298)

4G = A 1 +

(A.82)

d BG

(A.83)

cosarctan iP
cosarctan iG

Point 1:
71.6046
= 73.8023 mm
cos (arctan 0.2497)
119.3409
d 1G =
= 130.3226 mm
cos(arctan 0.4388)
Point 2:

d BP

d 1P =

But not greater than:

NP
N
OEP P
NG
NG

71.6046
= 76.2992 mm
cos(arctan 0.3680)
119.3409
d 2G =
= 127.1548 mm
cos (arctan 0.3677)
Point 3:
d 2P =

(A.75)

= 0.2107 radians
But not smaller than zero; Remains the same
(0.2107)

71.6046
= 84.6222 mm
cos(arctan 0.6298)
119.3409
d 4G =
= 121.9604 mm
cos(arctan 0.2107)
d 4P =

Step 5. Pitch angles, P, G


P = 2 = 2 = 0.2618 radians
NP
24

71.6046
= 80.4264 mm
cos(arctan 0.5115)
119.3409
d 3G =
= 123.9849 mm
cos(arctan 0.2817)
Point 4:
d 3P =

= 0.3678 1 + 24 0.6298 24
40
40

64

2G = 4G + G = 0.2107 + 0.1571

d iG =

4P = OEP = 0.6298 radians


NG
NP

(A.78)

= 0.3680 radians
But not smaller than 1P (0.2497); Remains the
same (0.3680)

d iP =

Step 4. Roll angles at point 4, 4P, 4G

2P = 4P P = 0.6298 0.2618

G.2.6.2 Diameters at contact points (see A.8.2)

0.3678 1 + 24 = 0.58850
40
Remains the same (0.4388)

A 1 +

Step 6. Roll angles at point 2, 2P, 2G

3P = 1P + P = 0.2497 + 0.2618

= 0.36781 + 40 0.4388 40
24
24

1G = OEG = 0.4388 radians

(A.77)

= 0.3677 radians
But not greater than 1G (0.4388); Remains the
same (0.3677)

= tan 23.6896 = 0.4388 radians


Step 3. Roll angles at point 1, 1P, 1G
1P = A 1 +

G = 2 = 2 = 0.1571 radians
NG
40

(A.76)

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

The diameters of the highest point of single tooth


contact are:
For the pinion, d3P (80.4264)
For the gear, d2G (127.1548)

AGMA 930--A05

Half--tooth thickness angle of dWc; Wc:


Wc = t + inv inv Wc
d
= 5.7277 + inv 20 inv Wc
76.2000

(A.62)

For the pinion, dLP = d1P (73.8023)

= 0.0752 + 0.0149
tan Wc Wc(radians)

For the gear, dLP = d4G (121.9604)

= 0.0901 tan (27.0876) + 0.4728

G.2.6.4 Profile contact ratio (see A.8.4)

= 0.05139 (radians)

G.2.6.3 Limit diameters (see A.8.3)

Step 1. Approach portion of the profile contact ratio,


mpa
m pa =

AP 1P
P

(A.84)

= 0.3678 0.2497 = 0.4514


0.2618
Step 2. Recess portion of the profile contact ratio,
mpr
AP
m pr = 4P
P

(A.85)

= 0.6298 0.3678 = 1.0006


0.2618
Step 3. Profile contact ratio, mp
m p = m pa + m pr

(A.86)

G.3.1 Highest point of single tooth loading


(see B.2.3.2.3)
From table G.1, the tooth--to--tooth quality level of
each gear is Q9 which exceeds the Q8 level per
B.2.3.2.3. Therefore:
d WcP = d 3P

(B.2)

= 80.4264 mm
d WcG = d 2G

(B.3)

= 127.1548 mm
G.3.1.1 Translation to tooth centerline (see
B.2.3.3)
Step 1: Determine coordinate points, xWc, yWc:
Pressure angle at dWc; Wc:

d BP
d Wc

= arccos 71.6046
80.4264
= 0.4728 radians = 27.0876 degrees

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

t Wc = d Wc Wc

(A.63)

= 80.4264 (0.05139)
= 4.1328 mm
Coordinates at dWc; xWc, yWc:
x Wc =

d Wc
cos Wc
2

(A.64)

= 80.4264 cos(2.9442)
2

y Wc =

d Wc
sin Wc
2

(A.65)

= 80.4264 sin(2.9442)
2
= 2.0655 mm
If considering the effects of friction, see G.12.
Step 2: Direction angle of critical tooth force, Wc:
Wc = Wc Wc

(B.6)

= 27.0876 2.9442
= 24.1433 degrees
Step 3: Distance of translated critical tooth force,
xWcC
x WcC = x Wc y Wctan Wc

(B.7)

= 40.1601 2.0655 tan (24.1433)


= 39.2343 mm
G.3.1.2 Force components (see B.2.3.4)

(A.61)

Circular tooth thickness at dWc; tWc:

= 40.1601 mm

= 0.4514 + 1.0006 = 1.4521


G.3 Annex B -- Calculation of spur gear form
factor, Y

Wc = arccos

= 2.9442 degrees

Bending component, Wcy:


W cy = W c cos Wc

(B.8)

= W c cos(24.1433)
= 0.9125 W c

65

AGMA 930--A05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Compressive component, Wcx:

Step 4: Bending stress factor, fBS:

W cx = W c sin Wc

f BS = 6 cos Wc

(B.9)

= W c sin(24.1433)

hf

= 6(cos(24.1433))

= 0.4090 W c

= 5.4752

G.3.2 Critical fillet section (see B.2.4)

(B.14)

w 2f

hf

hf
w 2f

w 2f

G.3.2.1 Bending stress factor, fBS (see B.2.4.2)

G.3.2.2 Maximum bending stress factor (see


B.2.4.3)

Step1: Height of the translated load force above the


fillet section, hf:

Step 1: Select an initial trial value of f:

h f = x WcC x f

(B.10)

Step 2: Calculate fillet data from this location angle,


xf, yf, hf, wf:

= 39.2343 x f
xf

Select f = 30

x f = x fC r f cos f

varies depending on the location in the fillet.


Reference equation A.49 and table G.5 for
values.

= 36.0255 1.3513 (cos 30.0000)


= 34.8553 mm
y f = y fC r f sin f

Step 2: Width of the fillet section, wf:


wf = 2 yf
yf

= 3.8955 mm
h f = x WcC x f

varies depending on the location in the fillet.


Reference equation A.50 and table G.5 for
values.

= 4.3790 mm
wf = 2 yf

= 6 W c (cos(24.1433))
= 5.4752 W c

hf

(B.11)

= 2 (3.8955)

(B.13)

w 2f

(B.10)

= 39.2343 34.8553

Step 3: Bending stress at the fillet section, sBS:


s BS = 6 W ccos Wc

(A.50)

= 4.5711 1.3513 (sin 30.0000)


(B.11)

hf

(A.49)

= 7.7910 mm
Step 3: Calculate the bracketed term, BT:
BT =

hf
w 2f

hf

(B.15)

w 2f

= 4.37902
7.7910

w 2f

= 0.0721
Table G.5

f
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

66

xf
34.6850
34.7276
34.8018
34.9055
35.0365
35.1914
35.3665
35.5576
35.7600
35.9689

yf
4.4011
4.1950
3.9981
3.8151
3.6504
3.5081
3.3915
3.3035
3.2462
3.2210

hf
4.5493
4.5067
4.4325
4.3288
4.1978
4.0429
3.8678
3.6767
3.4743
3.2654

wf
8.8021
8.3901
7.9963
7.6302
7.3009
7.0161
6.7829
6.6069
6.4924
6.4421

sBS
0.3215 Wc
0.3505 Wc
0.3796 Wc
0.4071 Wc
0.4312 Wc
0.4497 Wc
0.4603 Wc
0.4612 Wc
0.4513 Wc
0.4308 Wc

fBS
0.3215
0.3505
0.3796
0.4071
0.4312
0.4497
0.4603
0.4612
0.4513
0.4308

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Step 4: Select a slightly larger location angle and


repeat steps 2 and 3:

AGMA 930--A05

Step 7: Calculate the maximum bending stress


factor, fBSX:
f BSX = 6 cos Wc BTX

f = 35
x f = 36.0255 1.3513 (cos 35.0000)
= 34.9186 mm

(B.14)

= 6 (cos 24.1433) 0.084394


= 0.4621

y f = 4.5711 1.3513 (sin 35.0000)


= 3.7961 mm

G.3.3 Stress calculation (see B.2.5)


Bending tensile stress, sBS:

h f = 39.2343 34.9186

s BS = 6 W c cos Wc

= 4.3157 mm
w f = 2 (3.7961)
= 7.5921 mm

= f BSX W c

h fc

(B.16)

w 2fc

= 0.4621 W c

BT = 4.31572
7.5921
= 0.0749

Compressive stress, sCS:


s CS = W c

Is BT larger than the previous value?

The maximum value of BT is between 65 and 70


degrees.

(B.17)

= W c sin 24.1433
6.6733

Yes.
Step 5: Repeat steps 2--4 with successively larger
angles until BT changes from increasing to
decreasing (table G.6).

sin Wc
w fc

= 0.0613 W c
Combined tensile stress, st:

(B.18)

h
sin Wc
s t = 6 W ccos Wc fc
Wc
w fc
2
w

Step 6: Repeat step 5 with smaller angle increments


between 65 and 70 degrees (table G.7).
The maximum value of BT is at 66.0 degrees. This is
the location of the critical section.

fc

= 6 W ccos 24.1433 3.75842 sin 24.1433 W c


6.6733
6.6733
= 0.4621 W c 0.0613 W c
= 0.4008 W c

Table G.6
f
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70

xf
34.9186
34.9904
35.0700
35.1570
35.2505
35.3499
35.4545
35.5634

yf
3.7961
3.7025
3.6156
3.5360
3.4642
3.4009
3.3465
3.3013

hf
4.3157
4.2439
4.1643
4.0774
3.9838
3.8844
3.7798
3.6709

wf
7.5921
7.4051
7.2313
7.0720
6.9285
6.8018
6.6929
6.6027

BT
0.074872
0.077394
0.079636
0.081526
0.082990
0.083962
0.084381
0.084204

Decreasing?
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes

wf
6.6929
6.6830
6.6733
6.6639

BT
0.084381
0.084391
0.084394
0.084392

Decreasing?
No
No
No
Yes

Table G.7
f
65.0
65.5
66.0
66.5

xf
35.4545
35.4652
35.4759
35.4867

yf
3.3465
3.3415
3.3367
3.3319

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

hf
3.7798
3.7691
3.7584
3.7476

67

AGMA 930--A05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Elastic stress concentration factor, Kfs:

G.3.3.1 Form factor force--stress ratio (see B.2.6)

w
K fs = H + r fc
fc

Ratio for the critical tooth force, AWsc:


W
A Wsc = s c
t
=

Adjustment ratio, mcA:


m cA = cos A

(B.20)

= cos 20.1956
= 0.9385
Adjusted force--stress ratio, AWsA:
A WsA = A Wsc m cA

(B.21)

Notch sensitivity index, q:

= 2.3417

Selected from table C.1:

A WsA
m

(B.22)

Calculation of stress concentration factor, Kft, Kfy:


K ft = 1 + q K fs 1

(C.5)

= 1.8312 for repeated loading

G.4.1 Elastic stress concentration factor (see


C.2)
Calculation fillet radius, rfc:

K fy = 1 + 0.8 (1.8312 1)
= 1.6650 for occasional peak overloading
G.5 Fundamental formulas for calculated
torque capacity
Tooth bending under repeated loading (see
3.1):

Rack generated trochoid calculation fillet radius,


rfc:
(C.1)

= 1.4312 mm (from equation A.29)


NOTE:
The example gear selected for these
calculations has a circular--arc fillet. This value is used
for the demonstration of the use of the formula for a trochoid fillet and is not used elsewhere in the example
calculations.

Circular--arc calculation fillet radius, rfc:

= 1.3513 mm

= 1.0 for repeated loading


= 0.8 for occasional peak overloading

or

G.4 Calculation of stress correction factor, Kf

r fc = r f

0.15226

= 1 + 1 (1.8312 1)

= 0.7375

r fc = R fN

0.45124

= 2.4951 (0.9385)

= 2.3417
3.1750

68

(C.3)

6.6733
3.7584
= 1.8312
H = 0.331 0.436
= 0.331 0.436 (0.34907)
= 0.17881
L = 0.324 0.492
= 0.324 0.492 (0.34907)
= 0.15226
M = 0.261 + 0.545
= 0.261 + 0.545 (0.34907)
= 0.45124
G.4.2 Stress correction factor (see C.3)

G.3.4 Non--dimensional Y--factor (see B.2.7)


Y=

= 2.4951


w fc
h fc

= 0.17881 + 6.6733
1.3513

(B.19)

Wc
0.4008 W c

(C.2)

s t K ts d c F e J t m
(1)
2000 K tw
Tooth bending under occasional peak loading
(see 3.2):
Tt =

Ty =

s y K ys d c F e J y m
2000 K yw

(2)

G.5.1 Design strength values (see clause 4):


Design fatigue limit from published data, st:
s tT = 290 Nmm 2 from MPIF Standard 35
s tG = s tT s tTG
(3)
= 290 14
= 276 Nmm 2

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

s tG
0.7
= 276
0.7
= 394 Nmm 2

st =

(4)

(5)

= 0.32 (930)
(3)

s uG = s uM = 860 Nmm 2

(10)

S y = S uG = 860 Nmm 2

(11)

G.6 Combined adjustment factors for strength


(see clause 5):
(12)
(21)

= 1.090
For n > 1 107:
(15)

NOTE: The above load cycle is used for the demonstration of the use of the formula example and is not
used elsewhere in the example.

Unidirectional loading
(16)

KS = 1

(18)

Temperature factor, KT:


KT = 1

(19)

Reliability factor, KR:


K R = 0.5 + 0.25 log n u
= 0.5 + 0.25 log(10, 000)
= 1.5

(20)

Combined factor for bending fatigue strength:


K L K LR
KS KT KR
(1.090)(1.0)
=
(1)(1)(1.5)

K ts =

(12)

= 0.727
Ky = 0.75 (hardened material)

(23)

Combined factor for yield strength, Kys:


K ys =

For n < 0.5 104:


(13)

= 0.9 860 = 1.96467


394
NOTE: The above load cycle is used for the demonstration of the use of the formula example and is not
used elsewhere in the example calculations other than
for the value of KLy.

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

= 1 + 2.046 0.292 (6.699)

Yield strength factor, Ky:

Life factor, KL:

sy
K L = K Ly = 0.9 s
t

[0.303(1.96467 1)] log5.0 10 6

Size factor, KS:

s uM = 860 Nmm 2 (from MPIF Standard 35)

Ky
K ys =
KS KT

= 1 + [2.121(1.96467 1)]

K LR = 1.0

Yield strength (from ultimate tensile strength), sy,


since the example material is heat treated:

K L K LR
KS KT KR

(14)

Load reversal factor, KLR:


(4)

NOTE: The material selected for these calculations


has available published data. This value is used for the
demonstration of the use of the formula for material
without published fatigue data and is not used elsewhere in the example calculations.

K ts =

KL = 1

= 298 14
= 284 Nmm 2
s
s t = tG
0.7
= 284
0.7
= 406 Nmm 2

0.303 K Ly 1 log n

s tT = 930 Nmm 2 from MPIF Standard 35

= 298 Nmm 2
s tG = s tT s tTG

For n = 5.0 106:


K L = 1 + 2.121 K Ly 1

Design fatigue limit (estimated from ultimate tensile


stress), st:

s tT = k ut s uT

AGMA 930--A05

Ky
KS KT

(21)

= 0.75
(1)(1)
= 0.75
G.7 Calculation diameter (see clause 6)
d C = d AP

(24)

= 76.2953 mm (from equation A.67)

69

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

since m B 1.2, K B = 1

G.8 Effective face width (see clause 7)

Load distribution factor for repeated loading, Kmt:

Effective face width extensions, Fxe1, Fxe2:

F xe1 = 1

Fx
Fx
2m

(27)

K mt = 1 + (q m + q v)m ct m w
qm =

= 1 0.3500
0.3500
(2)(3.175)

= 0.331 mm
Effective face width, Fe:
(26)

= 12.0000 + 0.331 + 0.331


= 12.6620 mm
G.9 Geometry factor for bending strength (see
clause 8)

f qm F o
Sb

(28)

0.2(12.0000)
24.0000
= 0.100
f qv F o
qv =
d
0.3(12.0000)
=
76.2000
= 0.047
m ct

s
= 1 5
E

(30)

K tw = S F K ot K B K mt K V

(31)

K yw = S F K oy K B K my K V

(40)

Safety factor SF:


SF = 1 for this example.

=15

0.5

m w = 1.0

= 1.107
Dynamic factor, Kv:

K v = 1 + 0.0055 V qTv t

Koy = 1 for this example

9.9441
0.5 (85.3440 69.9262)
= 1.290

12

(39)

12

12

= 1.177
Load distribution factor for occasional overloads,
Kmy:

=15

0.5

135860000

(42)
0.5

K my = 1 + (q m + q u) m cy
(32)

0.5 d O d R

= 0.6009

Rim thickness factor, KB:

tR

12

= 1 + 0.0055 25.4 (7.62)

Overload factor for occasional overloading, Koy:

(35)

K mt = 1 + [(0.100 + 0.047)(0.730 1.0)]

Kot = 1 for this example

70

(38)

135394000

Sy
m cy = 1 5
E

Overload factor for repeated loads, Kot:

0.5

K mt = 1 + (q m + q v)m ct m w

= 0.7375
1.6650
= 0.443
G.10 Combined adjustment factors for loading
(see clause 9)

(37)

Load distribution factor for repeated loading, Kmt:

= 0.7375
1.8312
= 0.403
Jy = Y
K fy

tR
ht

(36)

= 0.730

Jt = Y
K ft

mB =

(35)

= (1 0.055) 0.3500
= 0.331 mm
F xe2 = F xe1

F e = F O + F xe1 + F xe2

(33)

(41)

= 1 + [(0.1 + 0.047) 0.6009]


= 1.088
Combined adjustment factor for loading:
K tw = S F K ot K B K mt K V

(31)

= (1) (1) (1) (1.107) (1.177)


= 1.303

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Combined adjustment factor for occasional overloads


K yw = S F K oy K B K my K v

(40)

= (1) (1) (1) (1.088) (1.177)


= 1.281
G.11 Returning to the fundamental formula for
calculating torque capacity

(1)

(394)(0.727)(76.2953)(12.662)(0.403)(3.175)
2000(1.303)

= 135.9 Nm

Tooth bending under occasional overloads


S y K ys d c F e J t m
Ty =
2000 K yw
=

A secondary location will not need to be


evaluated.
NOTE: For this example, we will continue the
calculations for the driver only.

Step 2.
c = arctan 0.25

860 0.7576.295312.6620.4433.175
2000 1.281

= 342.1 Nm

G.12 Calculation of load capacity -- effect of


friction
Using the gear data and load conditions from the
previous example in section G.2, the effect of friction
is now added. The following calculations add the
effect of a coefficient of friction of 0.25.
Step 1. Determination of critical load locations and
sign of c in equation B.23 per table B.1.
For both gears, the minimum tooth--to--tooth
accuracy level is Q9, which exceeds the Q8
requirements. As a result,
For the driver
The critical load location is at point 3.
A = 0.3678 radians from G.2.6.1, step 1,
equation A.69
3P = 0.5115 radians from G.2.6.1, step 7,
equation A.80
Since 3P > A, we have recess action at the
critical point and the sign of c will be negative.

= 14.03624 degrees

Wc = Wc + c Wc

The critical load location is at point 2.


2G = 0.3677 radians from G.2.6.1, step 6,
equation A.79
Since 2G < A, we have recess action at the
critical point and the sign of c will be negative

(B.24)

= 27.0876 14.03624 2.9442


= 10.1072 degrees
Step 3.
x WcC = x Wc y Wc tan Wc

(B.7)

= 40.1601 2.0655 tan (10.1072)


= 39.7919 degrees
W cy = W c cos Wc

(B.8)

= W c cos(10.1072)
= 0.9845 W c
W cx = W c sin Wc

(B.9)

= W c sin(10.1072)
= 0.1755 W c
Calculate the bending stress factor,
h f = x WcC x f

(B.10)

= 39.7919 x f
where xf varies depending on the location on the
fillet.
wf = 2 yf

(B.11)

where yf varies depending on the location on the


fillet.

hf

s BS = 6 W c cos Wc

w 2f

= 6 W c cos 10.1072

For the driven

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

(B.23)

Use equation B.24 instead of B.4 to determine the


direction angle of critical tooth force, Wc.

Tooth bending under repeated loading:


S K dc Fe Jt m
T t = t ts
2000 K tw

AGMA 930--A05

= 5.9070 W c

(B.13)

hf

w 2f

hf

w 2f

f BS = 6 cos Wc [ BT ]

(B.14)

= 6 cos 10.1072 [BT ]


= 5.9070 [BT ]

71

AGMA 930--A05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Calculate the maximum bending stress,


BT =

Step 1. Select an initial trial value of f.


Select f = 30

Step 4. Repeat these calculations for slightly higher


values of the location angle, repeating steps 2 and 3
above. Continue this iterative process with successively larger values of the location angle until the
bracketed term, BT, changes from increasing to
decreasing. The angle where this change occurs is
the location of the critical section. See table G.8.

= 36.0255 1.3513 cos(30.0000)


= 34.8552 mm

(A.50)

= 4.5711 1.3513 (sin 30.0000)


= 3.8955 mm
h f = x WcC x f

(B.10)

The maximum value for BT occurred at 68.79. This


is the location of the critical section. For best
accuracy, select an algorithm which increments f by
0.01 degrees or smaller..

= 39.7919 34.8552
= 4.9367 mm
wf = 2 yf

(B.15)

w 2f

= 0.081328

(A.49)

y f = y fC r f sin f

hf

= 4.9366 2
(7.7910)

Step 2. Calculate fillet data from this location angle,


xf, yf, hf, wf:
x f = x fC r f cos f

(B.11)

= 2 (3.8955)
= 7.7910 mm
The inclusion of the effect of friction has changed the
value for hf.

Step 5. Calculate the maximum bending stress


factor

Step 3. Calculate the bracketed term, BT, from


equation B.14:

f BSX = 6 cos Wc [ BTX ]

(B.14)

= 6 (cos 10.1072) (0.09702137)


= 0.5731

Table G.8
f
30
35
40
50
60
65
67
68
68.3
68.6
68.7
68.8
68.79

72

xf
34.8552
34.9186
34.9903
35.1569
35.3499
35.4544
35.4975
35.5193
35.5259
35.5324
35.5346
35.5368
35.5366

yf
3.8955
3.7960
3.7025
3.5359
3.4008
3.3464
3.3272
3.3182
3.3156
3.3130
3.3121
3.3113
3.3113

hf
4.9367
4.8733
4.8016
4.6350
4.4420
4.3375
4.2944
4.2726
4.2660
4.2595
4.2573
4.2551
4.2553

wf
7.7910
7.5920
7.4050
7.0718
6.8016
6.6928
6.6544
6.6364
6.6312
6.6260
6.6242
6.6226
6.6226

BT
0.081328
0.084549
0.087566
0.092681
0.096019
0.096833
0.096981
0.097012
0.097015
0.097019
0.097021
0.097018
0.097023

Decreasing
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Max BT

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Step 6. Calculate the stresses for the critical tooth


load
Bending tensile stress, sBS from equation B.13
above:
s BS = 6 W c cos Wc

hf

(B.13)

w 2f

(B.17)

= W c sin 10.1072
6.6226

(B.18)

0.15226

6.6226

4.2553

0.45124

Again, using q = 1.0 for repeated loading


= 0.8 for occasional peak overloading

(C.5)

= 1.734
For occasional peak overloading
K fy = 1 + q K fs 1

= 0.5731 W c 0.0265 W c
= 0.5466 W c

(C.5)

= 1 + 0.8 (1.7340 1)

Step 7. Calculate the form factor force--stress ratio


Ratio for the critical tooth force, AWsc
W
A Wsc = s c
t

(B.19)

Jt = Y
K ft

= 0.3412 for repeated loading


Jy = Y
K fy

= 1.8295
Adjustment ratio, mcA

= 1.5872
Calculate the geometry factor following G.9.
(29)

= 0.5917
1.734

Wc
0.5466 W c

cos A
cos Wc

The values for rfc, H, L and M are as in the previous


calculation from G.4.1.

= 1 + 1 (1.7340 1)

s t = s BS s CS

(C.3)

K ft = 1 + q K fs 1

Combined tensile stress, st:

m cA =

For repeated loading

= 0.0265 W c


w fc
h fc

Find the stress concentration factors Kft and Kfy


following the method shown in G.4.2.

Compressive stress, sCS:


sin Wc
w fc

w
K fs = H + r fc
fc

K fs = 0.17881 + 6.6226
1.3513
= 1.7340

= 0.5731 W c

Calculate the elastic stress concentration factor, Kfs

Therefore

= 6W c cos(10.1072) 4.25532
6.6226

s CS = W c

AGMA 930--A05

cos Wc + c

(B.25)

= 0.5917
1.5872
= 0.3728 for occasional peak overloading

= cos 20.1956 cos27.0876 14.03624


cos 27.0876

Calculate torque capacity following G.5.

= 1.0269

Tooth bending under repeated loading:

Adjusted force--stress ratio, AWsA


A WsA = A Wsc m cA

(B.21)

= 1.8295 (1.0269)
= 1.8787
Step 8. Calculate the non--dimensional Y factor
A WsA
m
1.8787
=
3.175

Y=

= 0.5917

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

(B.22)

(30)

Tt =

S t K ts d c F e J t m
2000 K tw

(1)

The only terms affected by friction compared to the


frictionless condition are Jt and Kfs.
(394)(0.727)(76.2953)(12.662)(0.3412)(3.175)
2000 (1.303)
= 115.0 Nm

Tt =

The inclusion of the 0.25 coefficient of friction has


reduced the load capacity of this gear to only 84.6%
of the capacity calculated without the effect of this
friction factor.

73

AGMA 930--A05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

G.13 Test for fillet interference:

T = inv 1 inv +

Gear specifications as defined by table G.1.


Consider the 24 tooth pinion to be the part whose
fillet we are examining in this example. We will use
the test case where the fillet was created as a
circular--arc. Also, for the purpose of this example,
we will increase the outside diameter of the mating
gear (40 tooth) from 131.2418 as shown in table G.1
to 133.3 mm in order to create intentional fillet
interference.
Therefore
d OMG = 133.3 mm
G.13.1 Center distance and operating pressure
angle

= inv 1 inv 20 +

= 3.175

NG

= 24

(F.1)

= 76.2 mm
(F.2)

= (40)(3.175)
= 127.0 mm
Step 2. Reference center distance
C=

d G + d MG
2

(F.3)

C (cos )

cos T

(F.4)

= 9.9746 mm

From table G.1, the operating center distance CA is


101.727 mm. Table G.1 does not specify whether
this center distance is a minimum that the mesh is
likely to encounter. For the purpose of this example,
let us assume it is the minimum center distance.
Since this is greater than the tight mesh center
distance, CT, we will choose to do the evaluation at
this distance.
Therefore,

2 N G C AN

NG + NMG

74

(F.8)

= 76.2953 mm
d AMG =

= 5.7277 mm

= 20

(F.7)

(2)(24)(101.727)
(24 + 40)

Step 4. Pressure angle at tight mesh center distance

tMG = 4.2469 mm

(cos 20)
(cos 20)

G.13.1.2 Select center distance, CAN, to perform


the evaluation

d AG =

Step 3. Circular pitch

tG

(F.6)

G.13.1.3 Find operating pitch diameters

= 101.6 mm

From table G.1

Step 5. Tight mesh center distance

C AN = 101.727 mm

= 76.2 + 127.0
2

pc = m
= (3.175)

2 101.6

= 101.6 mm

= (24)(3.175)
d MG = N MG m

9.9746 5.7277 4.2469

NOTE: In this example, the sum of the thickness of the


teeth for both gears is equal to the circular pitch. Therefore, the pressure angle at the tight mesh center distance is equal to the pressure angle of the mesh, and
the tight mesh center distance happens to be equal to
the reference center distance.

= 101.6

NMG = 40
dG = NG m

(F.5)

= 20 degrees

CT =

From table G.1

2C

= inv 1 0.0149

G.13.1.1 Find tight mesh center distance


Step 1. Pitch diameters of both gears

pc tG tMG

2 N MG C AN

NG + NMG

(F.9)

(2)(40)(101.727)
(24 + 40)

= 127.1588 mm

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

G.13.1.4 Adjustments for center distance

AGMA 930--A05

G.13.1.4.6 Find the pressure angle at the


effective outside diameter of the mating gear

G.13.1.4.1 Find operating pressure angle

A = arccos C

(cos )
C AN

= arccos 101.6

OEMG = arctan tan rCMG +

(cos 20)
101.727

= arctan tan 25.091 +

G.13.1.4.7 Find the half tooth angle for the


backlash adjusted tooth thickness of the mating
gear

Find the backlash adjusted tooth


BMG =

t BMG = p c t G + 2C

inv A (inv )

+ 2 (101.6) [(inv(20.19561) inv(20)]


= 4.2469 + 203.2 [(0.015361) (0.014904)]
= 4.3398 mm

(F.16)

= 0.03417 radians
G.13.1.4.8 Find the angular location relative to
the adjusted tooth centerline

rCBMG

BMG

+ inv tan

OEMG

+ rCMG
(F.17)

From table G.1 for the mating gear.

= 0.03417 + inv(20) tan(25.6882) + 0.43792

r rMG = 0.7620 mm

= 0.00598 radians

G.13.1.4.3 Find the diameter of the center of the


tip round of the mating gear
d rCMG = d OMG 2 r rMG

(F.12)

= 133.3 (2)(0.7620)

= 0.3426 degrees

G.13.2 Path of tip of gear


G.13.2.1 Find the half tooth thickness angle at
the effective outside diameter of the mating gear
OEBMG = BMG + inv inv OEMG (F.19)

= 131.776 mm

= 0.03417 + inv(20) inv(25.6882)

G.13.1.4.4 Find the base circle diameter of


mating gear
d BMG = d MG cos

(F.13)

= 0.016404 radians
= 0.93996 degrees
G.13.2.2 Find the limit point for OE
OEMG = OEMG A OEBMG

= 127.0 cos 20
= 119.3410 mm
G.13.1.4.5 Find the pressure angle at the center
of the tip round for the mating gear

d BMG
d rCMG

t BMG
d MG

= 4.3398
127.0

(F.11)

= 9.9746 5.7277

rCMG = arccos

2(0.762)
119.341

= 25.6882 degrees

= 20.19561 degrees
G.13.1.4.2
thickness

(F.10)

2 r rMG
(F.15)
d BMG

(F.14)

(F.18)

= 25.6882 20.19561 0.93996


= 4.55263 degrees
G.13.2.3 Find the limit point for OR
ORMG = rCBMG

(F.20)

= 0.00598 radians
G.13.2.4 Point path selection

= 0.43792 radians

For this example pick 5 total points on path, j = 1 to 5.


(A greater number may be needed to be studied in a
specific application to ensure that there are no
overlapping conditions.)

= 25.091 degrees

Therefore, n = 5.

= arccos 119.341
131.776

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75

AGMA 930--A05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

General form

At point ORMG
r1MG = ORMG = 0.00598 radians (F.21)

x PPj = 0.5 d AG cos rjG

= 0.3426 degrees

= 0.5 (76.2953) cos rjG

At point OEMG
r5MG = OEMG = 4.55263 degrees

y PPj = 0.5 d AG sin rjG

(F.22)

( n j ) + rnMG( j 1 )

rjMG = r1MG
(n 1 )

x CMGj = C AN cos rjG

(F.28)

= (101.727) cos rjG

(F.23)

y CMGj = C AN sin rjG

For j = 2
0.3426(5 2) + 4.55263(2 1)
(5 1)

= 0.8811 degrees

For other values of j, see table G.9.


G.13.2.5 Find the tooth pitch angle at the mating
gear
MG = 360
N MG

(F.27)

= 0.5 (76.2953) sin rjG

For points j = 2 to 4

r2MG =

(F.26)

(F.29)

= (101.7237) sin rjG


Substitute in for each value of rjG from table G.9.
Results are shown in table G.9.
Step 3. Find the x, y coordinate of the mating gear tip
radius for each point, j.
General form
x rCMGj = x CMGj 0.5d rCMG

(F.25)

(F.30)

cos rjG + rjMG + rCBMG

= 360
40

y rCMGj = y CMGj 0.5d rCMG


sin rjG + rjMG + rCBMG

= 9.0 degrees
G.13.2.6 Calculation of path points projected on
the fixed gear

For j = 1
x rCMGj = (100.9841) 0.5(131.776)

Step 1. General form of the equation.

rjG = rjMG + MG
2

(F.31)

cos(6.92866 + ( 0.3428) + 0.3426)

N MG
NG

(F.24)

= (100.9841) 65.888 cos(6.92846)


= 35.5772 mm

For j = 1

and

r1G = 0.3426 + 9.0 40


2 24

(F.24)

y rCMGj = (12.2717) 0.5(131.776)


sin(6.9286 + ( 0.3428) + 0.3426)

= 6.92865 degrees
For other values of j, see table G.9.

= (12.2717) 65.888 cos(6.92846)

Step 2. Find the x, y coordinates of the pitch point


and mating gear center referenced to the gear axes.

= 4.3236 mm

For other values of j, see table G.9.

Table G.9 -- Summarized table of steps -- results rounded off


rjMG

rjG

xPPj

yPPj

xCMGj

yCMGj

xrCMGj

yrCMGj

rPPj

xrj

yj

zpfCj

Does
interference
exist

--0.3426

6.9287

37.8690

4.6019

100.9841

12.2717

35.5772

4.3236

2.3086

34.8209

4.2315

1.2516

No

0.8811

8.9684

37.6812

5.9468

100.4833

15.8582

35.6351

4.1992

2.6909

35.0557

3.7043

1.3007

No

2.1049

11.0082

37.4457

7.2843

99.8552

19.4247

35.7759

4.0928

3.6019

35.4226

3.4176

1.3016

No

3.3288

13.0480

37.1627

8.6125

99.1006

22.9666

35.9980

4.0114

4.7462

35.8110

3.2727

1.3160

No

4.5526

15.0877

36.8326

9.9297

98.2203

26.4793

36.2992

3.9625

5.9911

36.2314

3.2035

1.3830

Yes

76

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Step 4. Find the x, y coordinates of the point on the


mating gear tip radius for each point j.

x rj = x PPj

y rj = y PPj

x PPj x rCMGj

rPPj + r rMG
rPPj

x PPj x rCMGj
(F.33)

y PPj y rCMGj
(F.34)

For j = 1

rPPj

+ y PPj y rCMGj

(F.32)
rPPj + r rMG
rPPj

y rj = 4.6019 2.3086 + 0.762


2.3086
(4.6019 4.3234)

General form of the equations

rPPJ =

AGMA 930--A05

= 4.2315 mm
For other values of j, see table G.9.
G.13.3 Test for path point interference
As indicated in the problem statement, it is assumed
in this example that the 24 tooth gear has a full round
fillet region instead of a trochoid shaped region.
The coordinate (xfc, yfc) for the fillet radius center has
previously been calculated (see A.40 and A.41) as
(36.0256, 4.5711).
To test for path point interference, we use the
following:
z fCj =

(37.8690 35.5773)2 + (4.6019 4.3234)2

= 2.3086 mm

x rj = 37.8690 2.3086 + 0.762


2.3086
(37.8690 35.5772)
= 34.8209 mm

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

x rj x fC + y rj y fC

(F.35)

For j = 1
z fC1 =

34.8209 36.02562 + 4.2315 4.57112

= 1.2516

Since (zfC1 = 1.2516) < (rf = 1.3513), no fillet


interference exists at the point j = 1.
For other values of j, see table G.9. Notice that
interference does exist at j = 5.

77

AGMA 912--A04

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Bibliography
The following documents are either referenced in the text of AGMA 930--A05, Calculated Bending Load
Capacity of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears, or indicated for additional information.

1.
MPIF Standard 35, Material Standards for
P/M Structural Parts, 1997 edition.

culating Geometry Factors for Spur and Helical


Gears

2.
Sanderow, H.I., Spirko, J.R. and Friedhoff,
T.B., Fatigue Properties of P/M Materials: Relationship of RBF and AF Results to Material--Processing
Parameters, Advances in Powder Metallurgy and
Particulate Materials, 1997, Vol. 2, MPIF, Princeton,
NJ, 1997, pgs. 13--117.

6.
AGMA 2000--A88, Gear Classification and
Inspection Handbook -- Tolerances And Measuring
Methods For Unassembled Spur And Helical Gears
(Including Metric Equivalents)

3.
ANSI/AGMA 2001--D04, Fundamental Rating Factors And Calculation Methods For Involute
Spur And Helical Gear Teeth
4.
AGMA 908--B89, Geometry Factors for Determining the Pitting Resistance and Bending
Strength of Spur, Helical and Herringbone Gear
Teeth.
5.
AGMA 918--A93, A Summary of Numerical
Examples Demonstrating the Procedures for Cal-

78

7.
ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90, Gear Nomenclature, Definitions of Terms with Symbols
8.
AGMA 900--G00, Style Manual for the Preparation of Standards, Information Sheets and
Editorial Manuals
9.
ANSI B92.1--1970, Involute Splines and
Inspection, table 109.
10.
98FTM2, Mesh Friction in Gearing, C.M.
Denny, October 1998.

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