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421-680 Engineering for Sustainable Environments
Prepared By Nilufar Khundakar 346605
Dhaka is known as the ‘City of Pollution’ over the last few year and is suffering every possible urban and environmental possible for the time. Designing sustainable Dhaka for 2030 towards zero emission is a great challenge. The main question comes here- is it possible within this time frame? The paper demonstrates a brief over view of the problems including pollution scenario of Dhaka and some thoughts to overcome it as well as some arguments about Kyoto protocol. The main obstacle Dhaka needs to overcome is the lack of future planning. As it is a very fast expanding capital, without proper planning and management there is no possibility that Dhaka is going to solve the current saviour environmental pollutions and can march towards zero emission.
Table of Contents
Abstract Dhaka-a city of crowed and pollution About Dhaka City Energy Demand Pollution in Dhaka Planning for Sustainable Dhaka 5.1. Electricity 5.2. Transport 5.3. Water 5.4. Waste management 6. Kyoto target and some thinking 7. Life Cycle Diagram for Dhaka 8. Conclusion References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
2 4 5 6 8 11 12 14 15 17 19 21 21 22
1. Dhaka- a city of crowd and pollution
Dhaka is the Capital city of Bangladesh having a population of 7million. Total area of Dhaka is 153.84 square kilometres which means 45501 people is living in per square kilometre of Dhaka at present. With very limited resources and very high urbanisation rate, Dhaka is going to face greatest challenge ever to reach the standard of sustainability and minimum emission. Present urbanisation rate of 6% is giving a projection that Dhaka will be the 5th largest city at 2030 by population with a population growth rate of 4.2%. Sustainability for Dhaka not only involves money but also feasibility and challenges. According to present scenario Bangladesh has Per Capita GDP of $1400, 20.5 TFC recoverable Natural Gas reserve and 482 million tonnes of coal reserve. The demand of electricity is approximately 12000MW and only 5493MW is on generation. Dhaka consumes 41.22% of the total generated electricity. Still at present Dhaka is on 50% load shed policy. Amount of Sulphur dioxide is 64-143ug/m3 and Nitrous oxide is 25-32ug/m3 which is one of the highest among world. 85% supply of water to the city comes from ground water where Arsenic is a big threat. With existing all these problems, sustainable Dhaka at 2020 towards zero emission is real big challenge considering feasibilities and options. Alike most cities of the developing world, Dhaka is also a poorly managed city as limited resources do not give any option for the government to take effective plan for population control, services to people and build infrastructures. Government of Bangladesh has a draft Renewable Energy Policy published at October, 2002 and there is no data about how much renewable energy is generated up to this date and what is the future target for the country. Dhaka as well as the whole country is facing almost all of the urban problems that are imaginable. Inadequacies of urban infrastructure and inefficient environment management system are leading this city to severe environmental pollution and degradation of living standard and health and wealth being.
Image 1: Dhaka City
2. About Dhaka City
Dhaka is situated between 23 42’ and 23 54’ north latitude and 90 20’ and 90 28’ east latitudes. Dhaka is made of the areas of Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) and five adjacent municipal areas i.e. Savar, Narayanganj, Gazipur, Kadamrasul and Tongi. According to United Nation Population Fund (UNFPA) the total population of Dhaka city is now over 12.3 million of which population of DCC is about 8.4 million. According to Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, population of Dhaka Mega City and DCC is about 9.9 million and 5.3 million respectively. The population density of DCC is 19,286 per km2 which is more than double of the mega city average of 7,918 per km2. The city is surrounded by the river Buriganga on the south, Turag river on west, Tongi khal on the north and Balu river on the east (Banglapedia, 2003). Dhaka usually experiences tropical monsoon with an annual average temperature of 25 C and 2000mm of average annual rainfall (DOE and IUCN, Bangla, 2000). The key organizations providing services to the people of the capital are Dhaka City Corporation(DCC), Dhaka Metropolitan Police (DMP), Dhaka Water and Sewerage Authority (DWASA), Dhaka Electricity Supply Authority (DESA), Titas Gas Limited, Bangladesh Telephone and Telegraph Board (BTTB), Rajdhani Unnyan Kortripakkha (RAJUK), Dhaka Electricity Supply Company (DESCO) and Department of Environment (DoE) serving dwellers with specific utilities. All the ministries and the Parliament is also situated in Dhaka. Different authorities are serving for different parts of Dhaka. Dhaka Metropolitan Area (DMA) is larger than the Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) and currently holds 21 police stations. Dhaka Statistical Metropolitan Area (DSMA) is considered as Dhaka Mega City. RAJUK has a Strategic Planning Zone-wise definition of Dhaka City which is known as Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan (DMDP) which consists of 26 zones and 19 of them are in Dhaka Statistical metropolitan Area.
Figure 1: map of Dhaka City
(Map of Dhaka City, Images of Dhaka, accessed May 15, 2010, from < http://yogsutra.com/image/Dhaka-City-Map.gif> )
3. Energy Demand
There is no current data available for the future energy demand of Dhaka city. Government of Bangladesh has a plan to increase the electricity generation of the country to 35000MW by 2030 but there is no background data to understand what the reasons to set up that goal are. There is no data or any study found that calculated the energy demand on future projected population. The current electricity demand is approximately 12000MW and nearly 42% is been used by Dhaka city. So the approximate demand at the year 2020 for Dhaka is 5056MW. Bangladesh has per capita energy consumption of 160.9 kgoe/a (‘Per capita 6
energy consumption’, in Wikipedia, assessed 18 April, 2010, from < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_energy_consumption_per_capita >), which is still very low comparing to developed countries. It gives an option for Dhaka to go for more energy consumption. Still Dhaka should take the approach of Vancouver which has reduced its GHG emission by 11% from their peak on 2000 and now on the track to meet the Kyoto target. (‘Kyoto target of per capita energy’, in Pulse Energy , accessed 18 April, 2010, from < http://www.pulseenergy.com/news/press-releases/vancouver-on-course-to-meet-or-exceedkyoto-targets >) The total generation of electricity in Bangladesh at present can be described as follows: Hydro Steam Gas turbine Combined Cycle Diesel Total 230MW(4.19%) 2638MW(48.03%) 997MW(18.15%) 1359MW(24.74%) 269MW(4.89%) 5493MW(100%)
Electricity consumption pattern of Bangladesh is as follows:
Figure 2: Electricity Consumption pattern of Bangladesh
Electricity consumption in different sectors of the country can be described as:
Figure 3: Sector wise electricity consumption of Bangladesh (“Power generation and distribution in Bangladesh”. Bangladesh Power Development Board. March 15,2010. < http://www.bpdb.gov.bd/distribution.htm)
4. Pollution in Dhaka
Dhaka is called the ‘City of Pollution’ now-a-days. The city is expanding in all directions but the existing capacity of various utilities cannot meet the increasing demands. Air pollution in Dhaka is seriously poisoning life and degrading environment in last few years. The World Health organisation (WHO) says vehicular air pollution is the major source of respiratory distress for the citizens. The amounts of vehicles are increasing 10% per year increasing air pollution and traffic congestion. At present more than 296,000 motor vehicles are running in the streets of Dhaka. The main pollutants of air in Dhaka are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxide particles, lead and unburned carbon particles. About 50 tonnes of lead are emitted to air every year in the atmosphere of Dhaka. The density of lead in the air of Dhaka is 463 monograms per cubic meter of air while it is 383 in Mexico and 360 in Mumbi. (“Air pollution in Dhaka”, Air pollution in Dhaka City, accessed May 15, 2010 from <http://www.scribd.com/doc/10304145/-Air-Pollution-in-Dhaka-City>) The highest lead emitting city is Oroya, Peru which is 2500 monograms per cubic meter of air. (“Air pollution in Dhaka”, Dhaka: Second dirtiest city in the world,accessed May 15, 2010 from < http://maqtanim.wordpress.com/2008/03/08/dhaka-second-dirtiest-city-in-world >) In a report of the Directorate of Environment that the sound intensity even near hospitals, clinics and educational institutions is between 67.19 decibels and 73.15 decibels, whereas the acceptable limit is 45 decibel. Hydraulic horn is the most dangerous one for sound pollution.(“Pollution in Dhaka”, Health hazards in Dhaka city, accessed May 16, 2010 from < http://www.sos-arsenic.net/english/environment/healthhazards.html >) Recently the density of airborne particulate matters (PM) has reached 247 micrograms per cubic meter of air
Image 2: Air Pollution in Dhaka Which is nearly five times higher than the value of 50 PM per mcm set by National Ambient Quality Standard (NAAQS) of Bangladesh. WHO guidelines of 2005 recommends that cities with 70mcm are highly polluted.(“Pollution in Dhaka”, Bad news day for the environment, accessed May 16, 2010 from <http://meanderingmemos.wordpress.com/2010/02/09/badnews-day-for-the-environment >) Dhaka accounts for 15000 deaths due to air pollution annually. Probably the most serious pollution occurring in Dhaka is water pollution. Department of Environment has declared three rivers as ‘biologically dead’ due to no dissolved oxygen and so totally devoid of aquatic life. These three rivers are Buriganga, Turag and Balu which are surrounding Dhaka. (“Pollution in Dhaka”, 3 rivers now biologically dead:DoE, Daily Star, February 8, 2010, accessed May 16,2010, from < http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=125361>) About 6000m poisonous wastes is thrown to the river Buriganga everyday from 158 tanneries in Dhaka city leading the chromium level 60 times higher than permissible limit. 6m polythene bags are used in the city every day and only 20% is recovered. Rest are left in the environment causing health hazards, water logging, environmental pollution etc. About 330 million cubic meter waste has been polluting the lakes and rivers of Dhaka and about 49% of it containing 88% human wastes are discharged to the river Buriganga.
Image 3: Water Pollution in Dhaka (“Water Pollution photos of Dhaka”, World’s best photos of water pollution, accessed May 16, 2010 from < http://fiveprime.org/hivemind/Tags/waterpollution >) 9
Last 15 years there was no expansion of city sewer network and at present it covers only 20% of the population. 40% of the population use septic tanks, 20% use water sealed pitlatrines and rest 20% use unhygienic means like open latrines. About 400 deep tube- wells extracting ground water is supplying drinking water to 85% people of the city. As a result the ground water level is going down three meters per year. (“Surface water pollution in Dhaka”, Surface water pollution threatens public health, The New Nation, May 28, 2006, accessed on May 16, 2010, from <http://nation.ittefaq.com/artman/publish/article_28182.shtml >) Due to fast increase of the population, the waste generated by Dhaka is increasing very rapidly. At present Dhaka city generates 3500-5000 tons solid waste (20% commercial and industrial, 0.50%- 6.7% hospital waste, 22% street sweepings) and 65000- 70000 cubic meters of sewer each day. Out of 3500 tons of solid waste 1800 tons are dumped by DCC, 900 tons by backyard and landfills, 400 go to roadside and open space, 300tons are recycled by the rag pickers and 100 tonnes are recycled at the generation point. Solid waste could reach 15000 tonnes per day by the year 2020. Of the eastimated daily total disposal of about 2585m3, about 2305m3 are dumped at Matuail site, about 273m3 at Mirpur site and 7.5 m3 at Lalbag site. All of these sites are open air, close to water bodies and high population density. 40 metric tons of medical waste is generated every day but there is almost no waste management plan for this. The sewer network of about 632km is carrying 50000-55000 cubic meters sewer to DWASA sewer treatment plant at Pagla. Storm sewage pipes runs only for 210km having diameters ranging between 450 to 3000mm. The city has box culverts running for 7 kilometers with sizes between 2.5mx3.4m to 6mx4.1m (JICA,1991;The New Nation) DWASA has only 48000 sewerage connections and at present the city needs at least 3155km of sewer line. About 6000 big and medium as well as 24000 small industrial plants in the country release waste directly to the environment. There are about 300 different types of industries in Dhaka City from only in Tejgaon area dispose about 12000 cubic meter untreated industrial waste per day to the surrounding environment. .(“Pollution in Dhaka”, Health hazards in Dhaka city, accessed May 16, 2010 from < http://www.sos-arsenic.net/english/environment/healthhazards.html >)
Image 4: Open waste and industrial pollution in Dhaka (“Water Pollution photos of Dhaka”, World’s best photos of water pollution, accessed May 16, 2010 from < http://fiveprime.org/hivemind/Tags/waterpollution >)
5. Planning for Sustainable Dhaka
Bangladesh is one of the lowest GHG emission countries of the world which is 0.25 CO2e t/person/year (“GHG emission by countries”, Carbon Planet, accessed on May 15,2010 at <http://www.carbonplanet.com/country_emissions >). Dhaka has area of 153.84 km which is not a big area. As the population is dense, Dhaka has to go for high rise apartments for living. Mike Pearce has demonstrated some excellent works of him on sustainable buildings which is very much suitable to apply for designing Dhaka. Like the CH2 building, all the high rise buildings in future can be made on 6 star rated green. On the other hand the basic transportation system of the city should be switched to tram, train, bus and mono rail rather than mixture of private car, public buses and man pulling rickshaws. Mixture of auto and manual transports are causing significant traffic on Dhaka city. Due to shortage of land, new roads are not possible to make but flyovers and underground tunnels can be introduced to reduce the load
Figure 4: CO2 emission projection for Bangladesh (Abul K. Azad, S.W. Nashreen, and J. Sultana, “State of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emission in Bangladesh”, AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, Volume 35, issue 2, March 2006, article pp 86-88, accessed on May 16, 2010 from <http://ambio.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1579%2F00447447%282006%2935[86%3ASOECAC]2.0.CO%3B2&ct=1>) on the existing roads. All the roads on the Dhaka city will be one way and on the peak hours private transports will be restricted to the main roads. The whole city will be divided into different nodes for train. Different nodes will be connected to each other and the whole city will be surrounded by train line. Commercial part of the city will have monorail as it needs very little space to operate and it is fast. The main portion of the city will have a single tram loop where frequent trams of slow speed will be operated continuously. As the public transportation system will be operated by electricity, the consumption of fossil fuel will be 11
decrease significantly. Most of the vehicles of Dhaka is already using CNG as fuel. If people do not need to spend lot of time in traffic, it’ll increase efficiency, profit and will save time, money. At the same time people of the city will get enough time for social and cultural activities in their free time.
There are not enough resources available to generate power and lead Dhaka towards sustainable energy as there is no option to switch for hydro power as the country is in downstream and nuclear power as there is no safe place to set up nuclear reactor for high population density. But Bangladesh has enough opportunity for renewable energy usage like Solar, Wind and Geothermal. In the Renewable Energy Policy Bangladesh, there are no estimates of how much renewable energy can be generated in present scenario. Dhaka city can use environment friendly architectural designs for the buildings like CH2 building in Melbourne and can use solar PV cells to generate power locally for every building. From the lecture of Richard Potter, we got very clear idea about the options of introducing PV cells in the generation of electricity for homes. The excess power can be stored in DC batteries to be used at night. It can be a proper, feasible and sustainable solution for current energy crisis of the city. Due to dense population, the idea of Wind turbine, introduced by Kam Ho is not applicable for Dhaka, but in the coastal region of Bangladesh there are great possibilities of wind power. The other feasible option that Bangladesh is looking now is to import electricity from Nepal and India which is also a very reasonable option to face the future peak load demand of the country as well as Dhaka city. James and Rob introduced us with the cogeneration using central services hubs. As Dhaka is in tropical zone, heater is not needed normally at winter. Still local cogeneration units with CHP give an option for cooling at summer which is very useful.
Figure 5: Solar radiation over Bangladesh
(“Solar radiation photos”, World solar radiation, accessed May 16, 2010, from <http://www.geni.org/globalenergy/library/renewable-energyresources/world/sources_world/worldsolar_files/solarradiation_data/world_solar_radiation.gif >) Recently Dhaka is installing solar PV modules to the buildings and roofs. Nearly 300MW of electricity can be generated from 20,000 multi storied buildings of Dhaka. (“Solar buildings in Dhaka”, Solar power for high raised buildings to overcome energy crisis, accessed on May 16, 1020 from <http://www.tradingmarkets.com/.site/news/Stock%20News/2653618>) Bangladesh is situated in the solar radiation receiving zone on Earth, so solar PV and solar thermal energy generation is the best option for Bangladesh to face the energy demand. Lots of research is going on all over the world and hopefully in few years the cost of solar systems and Building integrated solar photovoltaic cells will come down. At present scenario, Dhaka can switch to solar PV with battery for street lighting systems, telecommunication systems and IPS batteries. Professor Bob Fuller gave us some ideas about Solar Stills in lecture on Solar Energy. Solar stills can be an option for small scale waste water treatment. Bangladesh Bank head office situated in Motijheel, Dhaka has recently taken decision to install solar PV modules in their roofs. For future energy demand, a regulation should be made that every 8+ storied buildings have to generate at least 40% of their total energy consumption by solar and other renewable resources.
Image 5: 46 kW BiPV, Alan Gilbart Building, Unimelb (“Solar Buildings in unimelb”, accessed on May 16, 2010 from <http://www.apps.org.au/Meetings/200811/union.jpg >)
There is no data available about how much fossil fuel is consumed by the Dhaka city per year to understand what will be the fossil fuel demand over 2030. The total CO2 release from all primary fossil fuels used in Bangladesh amounted to 5072 Gg in 1977, and increased to 14 423.49 Gg in 1995; a growth rate of about 6% per year. The primary source of CO2 is petroleum products, which contributed 50% of all CO2 emission. Natural gas contributed 44% of total CO2 emission during 1977–1995. (Abul K. Azad, S.W. Nashreen, and J. Sultana, “State of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emission in Bangladesh”, AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, Volume 35, issue 2, March 2006, article pp 86-88, accessed on May 16, 2010 from <http://ambio.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=getdocument&doi=10.1579%2F00447447%282006%2935[86%3ASOECAC]2.0.CO%3B2&ct=1>) So the future plan should be to force people to use public transports and restrict the private transports as much as possible. The very dense commercial Motijheel is to be surrounded by monorail connecting all the junction points of rail, bus and tram so that people can come to Motijheel very easily. As new road construction is not possible in this place, monorail is the only option for reducing transport traffic of Motijheel. Slow one way tram line cab be installed through the main roads of the city like Dhanmondi, Shahbag, Ramna, Mirpur road connecting all the main and crowded roads. The aim is that people will use trains to get to the main city circle and then can use tram, bus or monorail to reach to the city. The rail networks will surround the city and also will connect the node points so that people can go to different parts of the city by changing trains at the node points. The city is to be divided into 6 nodes and each node is connected to others. It’ll help people to cross the city by changing 2/3 trains, at best. But the crowded parts of the city will have more nodes so that people can move around in less time.
Figure 6: Proposed transport network for Dhaka (Scanned Image)
At present 85% supply of water comes from the ground water. But the ground water is contaminated by Arsenic which is a great threat to public health. At present DWASA supplies 1900 million lifters of water every day to Dhaka which raises up to 2200 litres during summer.(“Water demand in Dhaka”, Bangladesh: Army to help Dhaka water authority, accessed May 16, 2010 from < http://washasia.wordpress.com/2010/04/07/bangladesharmy-to-help-dhaka-water-authority>) Due to monsoon Bangladesh has lot of rainfall. If this rain water can be captured and kept safely, it can be our biggest source of water supply. Every roof of the city can introduce rain water tank. As the designs of the buildings are proposed to be sustainable, it is very easy to introduce rain water tank on these buildings. Water sensitive urban design for the roads and buildings will give options for increasing retention time and runoff of the surface water. Paul Murfitt gave us some knowledge about 15
how the precinct designs helps towards zero emission goal and Andrew told us about total urban water management techniques. Like Melbourne, use of 155L water can be fixed for conservative use for Dhaka. Apart from rain water use, treatment and use of Buriganga and Shitalakhma rivers and sewage treatment plant is to be introduced.At present there are only four water treatment plants working for the whole country. As Dhaka is surrounded by lots of different kinds of industries, treatment of river water will be very tricky. Groundwater can be referred as emergency storage and there will be facilities and options to get groundwater into the supply system in lowest possible time. Two circuit type pipeline networks will be introduced to minimize the use of safe water. For toilet flashing, gardening and car wash, recycled water from waste water treatment plant will be supplied. For drinking and other household purposes water will come from water treatment plant of the rivers. Combination of local rain water tanks and treated river water will be enough to serve the people of Dhaka for the safe drinking water. Proposed water treatment plant can be described as follows:
Raw Water From the catchment Reservoir Aluminium Sulphate + Lime Flocculation
Air- water Saturator Filter Backwashing
Desludge through pump Filtration Lime + CO2
Sludge to waste treatment plant
Clear Water tank Figure 7: Filtration Water treatment plant
Water can be supplied to Dhaka through two separate supply lines. Portable water will be supplied from the Water Filtration plant to the consumers’ kitchens and bathrooms using existing pipe network, recycled water will be supplied to the toilets and backyard taps using
separate pipe network. The flow diagram of Water Supply to Willaura can be shown as follows:
Community of Dhaka
Water Treatment Plant
Sludge of WTP
Waste Water Treatment Plant
Figure 8: Water Supply Solution for Dhaka
5.4 Waste Management
There is no independent law in Bangladesh to address the problem of solid waste. The Municipal Ordinance 1983 (Amended 1999) and the Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act 1995 are the only two legal obligations to be followed for solid wastes. At present all the waste of Dhaka city is been used to landfill which is causing lot of difficulties. Collecting rubbish and recycle waste from the grass-root level, like Melbourne is to be introduced on Dhaka. The main water pollution for Dhaka is caused by the industries. As there are specific areas, where most of the industries situated, all the discharges of the industries can be collected through pipeline circuit and can be treated specially. It will decrease the pollution significantly and also will reduce the risk of contamination of surrounded river waters. For the rubbish disposal, generation of biogas using waste is a good option. Rob demonstrated ideas how to use biogas as a primary fuel as it has 5 times lower CO2 emission than the brown coal. With cogeneration option, water can be heated to supply warm water for the buildings. Professor Graham Moor has given me some ideas about the duel flashing toilets on the personal meeting with him on April 23, 2010. It is much easier to manage the wastes if the wastes are collected separately at the generation point. It is possible with the help of duel flashing toilets which will collect the urines in a pipe network and other sewage in separate network. As urine is one of the main sources of nitrogen, if the country can establish a pipe network throughout the country and supply the urine to the paddy fields, it will decrease the use of artificial fertilizer as well as environmental problems. As most of the population of Dhaka is still not covered by the sewage network, it is much easier to introduce this waste management system to the city.
Image 6: Environment friendly toilet (M. Graham, April 23,2010) Solid wastes should be converted to composts, when possible and supplied to the farmers. Liquid wastes as well as sewages should be treated to Waste Water Treatment Plant and treated water of Class A can be supplied to the consumers to use for gardening and toilet flashing. The proposed WWTP can be described as follows: Wetland Recycle Water Tank
Lagoon UV Disinfection overflow Tertiary Filters Biofilter
Inlet pump Station
Belt Filter Press
Sludge from Water treatment plant
Figure 9: Waste Water Treatment
6. Kyoto Target and some thinking
As a developing country of Annexure B, Bangladesh is committed to reduce emission of main six greenhouse gases by 6% within the period of 2008-2012. Still now like most of the developing countries, Bangladesh is also very busy fighting for basic needs for living. There are even not enough initiatives to measure the current scenario and no past data available to compare the scenario. But it is well understood from Dr. Peter Christoff’s lecture that countries that are emitting most of the greenhouse gases are having less impact on climate change. From Dr. Christoff’s lecture we got some ideas about the drawbacks of the scenario that has been taken into account to draw conclusion of climate change like there is no gross manipulation of data which is leading to misinterpretation and confusion, non reliable references like glaciers might take 350 years to melt instead of 35years and the degree of risk that the mankind is ready to consume. In the long history there is a relation between the amount of CO2 and earth temperature that impact indirectly. The extraordinary gap between the work of politicians and scientists is increasing the danger. The Copenhagen Summit gave a guideline to work with carbon capture techniques and clean development mechanisms. As industries are the main producer of GHS, Carbon trading or Carbon tax are two possible options. Carol Battie provided us some ideas about how the Carbon market works; Dr. Sean gave us idea about ecological limits. Dr. Brian Davidson’s view was to turn the uncertainty of global warming into probability by mitigating risks like deadweight social loss, volatility and market uncertainty. But he also concluded his argument that the emission trading only fixes the economical side of the problem but not the real emission situation. If the developed countries kept their emission unchanged by buying excess Carbon from the developing countries, the actual GHG emission scenario will remain the same but it will give the right to the developed countries to keep ongoing with the emission when at present there is also a ethical issue here. On the other hand, developing countries will make more money easily by selling their unused couta of Carbon which might lead them to come into a conclusion that they should not go for industrialisation as emission trading is much more profitable than setting up industries. In the long run of the economic development for the developing countries, emission trading might have significant impact. I had some misunderstandings about this thinking and Professor Graham Moore helped me to understand more about Carbon trading. If carbon emission is restricted to a fixed amount per person, the developing countries are going to get more allowances than their generation. If one person can sell the excess carbon just only once, peoples of developing country like Bangladesh will be able to sell the excess carbon and that money will help them to overcome their poverty and get a better life standard. On the other hand, as developed countries will find Carbon very costly, they will start to find out new technologies which will help to control carbon emission. When the developed countries will find the solution, it will also help developing countries too, as the money they are going to get from the carbon trading is going to upgrade their life standards and it also increases the risk of more carbon generation. Bangladesh also joined in the emission trading as a Dutch Joint Venture company has taken a CDM project. (Bangla, Energy, Bangladesh: First CDM Project goes into Operation, media release Nov 25, 2008 in Asia, from < http://www.carbonoffsetsdaily.com/news-channels/asia/bangladesh-first-cdm-project-goesinto-operation-2707.htm >) Dr. Brian Davidson gave an argument about using 1% externality on Garnaut report and as the renewable energy has elastic demand shape, the price is very high. If we can make the 19
demand curve shifted by externalities, using Coasion approach by introducing property right as the market is not completely competitive. Government has to determine the maximum desirable levels of pollution as the affected parties have the right not to be polluted against. But the problem is the pollutants can be homogenous and lot of works still have to be done on fixing the permit levels. According to National Post of May 17, 2008, 32000 scientists were against Kyoto Protocol due to unsupported assumptions. Some scientists argued that instead of regulating carbon emission, government policies might lead to carbon price regulation. Argument against Kyoto leads us to three questions- it demands too much? It achieves too little? Is it necessary?
Figure 10: Global Energy Chart (“Global exergy resource chart”, Global climate and energy project, accessed on May 16, 2010, from <http://gcep.stanford.edu/research/exergy/resourcechart.html>)
7. Life Cycle Diagram of Dhaka
Energy (Fossil fuel, Renewable energies) Product Raw materials Recycle/Reuse Social, Economical, Environmental activities Use
Waste Production Emission
Figure 11: Life cycle Diagram of Dhaka
Changing an existing city like Dhaka with dense population and very limited resources is a great challenge. Feasibilities are the first question. Option, available technology and budget also have significant impact on the project. Planning should be specific and within the limit to achieve. The problems associated with the planning to get Dhaka towards zero emission involve some major issues. The main problem is the cost- as a developing country Bangladesh does not have the economic support to go through all the planning and establishing the infrastructures. Corruption and unstable political condition of the country do not support to go for long term planning. Illiteracy is another problem which delays any new plan to work as it takes long time to aware people about it. No matter how hard it is to put up the plants for Dhaka towards zero emission, Bangladesh cannot put back to the reality and set the pollution problems aside. It is not a question if Kyoto asking too much or how much it could achieve- the temperature of the world is increasing, even if the Kyoto estimation is wrong. So we have to step forward to decrease GHG emission for the sake of this green planet.
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