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INDEX

WARNING
Your common sense, good judgment and
general alertness are crucial to safe and
successful electrical work. Before
attempting any electrical service work on
your vehicle, be sure to read chapter
1 Safety and the copyright page at the
front of the book. Review these warnings
and cautions each time you prepare to
work on your car. Please also read any
warnings and cautions that accompany
the procedures in the book.
A
ABS wheel speed sensor
see Wheel speed sensors (WSS)
Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM)
see Battery
AC voltage
see Multimeter
Actuators
see Solenoids
Adding new wiring
see Circuits
Alternator
AC ripple 14-7
amperage measurement test 14-7
basics 14-2
battery warning light 14-3
testing 14-4
broken wires, bad connectors 14-8
charging system testing 14-4, 14-12,
14-13
determining type 14-8
dim lights 14-4
DIN terminal numbers 14-2
diodes 14-7
health test 14-5
internal short test 14-10
regulator 14-8, 14-13
bypassing 14-10
failure modes 14-13
upgrading 14-9
testing 14-8, 14-10, 14-11
voltage drop test 14-6
wiring test 14-10
Air fuel ratio sensor
see Oxygen sensors
Amplitude
see Analog signals, dynamic
AMR (Anisotropic MagnetoResistive)
see Sensors

Analog signals, dynamic


amplitude 22-3
dynamic analog signals 22-2
measuring 22-2
frequency 22-3, 23-6
alternate tool option 23-11
how a meter calculates 23-2
using a fluke 88V 23-5
introduction 22-2, 23-2
non-periodic 22-2, 22-8, 23-8
parameters 22-3
periodic 22-2, 23-10
rapidly changing signals 22-8
sine waves 22-3, 23-2, 23-10
amplitude and frequency 22-4
devices that use sine waves 22-5
measuring 23-2
slowly changing signals 22-8
square waves 22-5, 23-11
amplitude and frequency 22-5
devices that use 22-7
duty cycle 22-6
measuring 23-3
parameter table 22-7
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
22-6, 22-7
terminology 22-2
Antenna
see Audio, head unit
Audio, head unit
21-2
antenna connections 21-2
building a harness 21-5
buying a harness 21-8
DIN
single 21-3
double 21-3
16 Pin Connector 21-4
ISO 10487 connector 21-5
Quadlock connector 21-7
removal 21-2
wire colors, aftermarket standard 21-3
Automotive multimeters
23-3
see also Multimeters
AWG (American Wire Gauge)
see Wire

B
Ballast resistor
see Ignition, mechanically-timed

Battery
2-2
absorbed glass mat (AGM) 2-15
brands 2-16
buying 2-13
cables 2-6, 2-7
charging 2-8
chargers, choosing 2-9
checking voltage 2-2
cleaning connectors 2-7
cutoff switch, installing 20-3
disconnecting precautions 20-2
flooded cell 2-15
group numbers 2-14
how a battery works 2-2
how dead? 2-5
jumper pack 2-12
jump starting 2-12
lithium ion 2-15
load testing 2-9
maintaining voltage 2-9
ratings 2-13
registration / coding 2-16
venting 2-16
voltage test 2-3
Battery hazards
see Safety
BST (Battery Safety Terminal)
see Fuses
Bump starting
see Starter motor
Buses
see Digital data
Burn hazard
Can electricity in my car hurt me 3-21,
3-22
Electromagnet 3-4
Short circuit 3-14

C
Camshaft position (CMP) sensors
33-5
location 33-5
multimeter test set-ups 33-2, 33-3,
33-4
pinouts 33-6
signal 33-5
technical notes 33-8
testing 33-5
supply voltage test 33-2, 33-6
cranking signal test 33-3, 33-7
running signal test 33-4, 33-7
supplemental 33-7
types 33-5

INDEX

Crankshaft position (CMP) sensors


32-8
additional information 32-12
location 32-8
multimeter test set-ups 32-12, 33-3,
32-4, 32-5, 32-6, 32-7
pinouts 32-9
signal 32-8
supplemental testing 32-11
technical notes 32-12
testing 32-8
supply voltage test 32-2, 32-10
cranking signal test 32-3, 32-6, 3210, 32-11
running signal test 32-4, 32-7, 3210, 32-11
resistance test 32-5, 32-11

Current
measuring 5-14
how a measurement works 5-15
see also Safety
see also Wire
Current draw
see Parasitic drain
Continuity
measuring 5-10
Circuit breakers
see Fuses

CAN bus
see Digital data

Data
capturing and graphing 23-7
see also Digital Data

Capacitive Discharge Ignition (CDI)


see Ignition, electronic

DC voltage
see Multimeter

Cautions
see Safety

Dead battery
see Battery

Charging system
see Alternator

Diagnostic data link


see OBD-II

Check Engine Light


see OBD-II

Circuit diagrams
see also Electrical circuits

Diagnostic tools
see also OBD-II
classes of diagnostic tools 26-2
code readers 26-2
OBD-II tools 26-2
PASSTHRU vehicle programming
(SAE standard J2534) 26-6
scan tools 26-2, 26-4
brand-specific 26-4
DIY-level 26-5
factory knock-off 26-6
factory-level diagnostics 26-6
handheld 26-4
laptop 26-4
professional-level 26-5

Circuit protection
see Fuses

Diagrams, wiring
see Wiring diagrams

CKP sensor
see Crankshaft position (CKP) sensors

Digital data
24-2, 24-3
buses and protocols 24-3
CAN bus signals 24-4
computers and emission controls 24-2
computers in cars 24-2
networks 24-2
topology 24-4
physical layer 24-4

Circuits
see Electrical circuits
Circuits, adding new
13- 2
connecting at battery 13-3
connecting at fuse box 13-3
piggyback connector 13-2
wire taps 13- 2
wiring through firewall 13-3

CMP sensor
see Camshaft position (CMP) sensors
Coding, battery
see Battery
Code readers
see Diagnostic tools
Coil, ignition
see Ignition, mechanically-timed
see Stick coils
Coolant temperature sensor
see ECT (Engine Coolant Temperature)
Sensors
Computers
see Digital data
Condenser, ignition
see Ignition, mechanically-timed
Crimping, wires
see Wire repairs

Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs)


see OBD-II
Dim lights
see Alternator
DIN (Deutsches Institut fr Normung)
6-2
see also Audio, head unit

DTCs
see OBD-II
Duty cycle
23-11
see also Analog signals, dynamic
Dynamic analog signals
see Analog signals, dynamic

E
ECT (Engine Coolant Temperature)
sensors
28-2
circuit 28-4
multimeter test set-ups 28-2, 28-3
operation 28-4
pinouts 28-5
reference voltage, testing 28-2, 28-5
resistance, testing 28-3, 28-6
signal 28-4
supplemental tests 28-6
Engine coolant temperature sensor
see ECT (Engine Coolant Temperature)
Sensors
Electrical circuits
amperage 3-2, 3-3
circuit, malfunctions 3-13
component failure 3-14
conservation of energy 3-9
current 3-2, 3-3
diagrams 33-4
dynamic resistance 3-9
illustrations 3-4
kinds 3-11
Kirchhoffs Laws3-10
loads 3-2, 3-4
Ohms Law 3-7, 3-8
open circuit 3-13
overview 3-3
resistance 3-2, 3-6, 3-15
short to ground 3-13
short to power 3-15
simple circuits 3-6
static resistance 3-9
units 3-3
voltage 3-2, 3-3
voltage drop testing 3-16, 3-20
voltage sag 3-20
Electrical Diagnostic Tools
4-10
Electric vehicles
1-2
Electricity in my car, can it hurt me?
3-21
see safety
see also Electrical circuits

Distributor cap
see Ignition, mechanically-timed

Electromagnet
As a load device in a circuit 3-4, 3-9,
3-21
In a relay 7-3, 7-4, 7-5
In a solenoid 38-5

Drain
see Parasitic drain

Energy Diagnosis
see Parasitic drain

Drive cycle
see OBD-II

Engine speed sensor


see Crankshaft position (CKP) sensors

INDEX

WARNING
Your common sense, good judgment and
general alertness are crucial to safe and
successful electrical work. Before
attempting any electrical service work on
your vehicle, be sure to read chapter
1 Safety and the copyright page at the
front of the book. Review these warnings
and cautions each time you prepare to
work on your car. Please also read any
warnings and cautions that accompany
the procedures in the book.

F
Fire extinguisher
see Safety
Fluke 88v
23-5
frequency, measuring 23-5

Fuses
10-2
blade fuses 10-3
BST (Battery Safety Terminal) 10-10
ceramic fuses 10-2
circuit breakers 10-6
circuit protection 10-2
fuse box 10-3
bad connections 10-5
hot side 10-4
other fuse boxes 10-5
fusible links 10- 7
glass fuses 10-2
inspecting 10-6
mega 10-8
replacing 10-6
safety 10-10
testing (with multimeter) 10-6
unprotected circuits 10-6

G
Graphing meters
23-7

Freeze frame data


see OBD-II

Frequency
see Analog signals, dynamic

Hall effect sensors


see Sensors

Fuel injectors
36-5
additional information 36-8
circuit 36-5
misfiring 36-6
multimeter test set-ups 36-2, 36-3,
36-4,
operation 36-5
pinouts 36-6
signal 36-5
technical notes 36-8
testing 36-5
resistance test 36-2, 36-7
solenoid test 36-7
supplemental 36-8
trigger signal test 36-4, 36-7
voltage test 36-3, 36-7
noid light 36-8

Heat shrink tubing


see Wire repairs

Fuel pump
37-6
additional information 37-10
circuit 37-6
multimeter test set-ups 37-2, 37-3,
37-4, 37-5
operation 37-6
pinouts 37-7
technical notes 37-10
testing 37-6
supply voltage 37-7
direct battery connection 37-8
resistance 37-8
PWM signal 37-8
current draw 37-9
supplemental 37-10
types 37-6

Heated oxygen sensor


see Oxygen sensors
High voltage vehicles
1-2
How to jump start a dead battery
see Battery
How to measure voltage drop 5-12
see Multimeter
Hybrid vehicles
1-2
Human body, voltage dangers
see Safety

Ignition coil
see Ignition, electronic
see Ignition, mechanically-timed
see Stick coil
Ignition, electronic 18- 2
direct ignition 18-5
Capacitive Discharge Ignition (CDI)
18-3
Motronic 18-4
cap and rotor 18-4
scope traces 23-11
stick coils 18-5, 35-5
timing advance 18- 4
triggering 18-2, 18-4
troubleshooting 18-6

Ignition, mechanically-timed
ballast resistor 16-6
basics 16-2
cap 16-8
coil 16-5
testing 17-3, 17-4, 17-5
components 16-3
condenser 16-8
testing 17-6
DIN terminal numbers 16-4
distributor 16-8
functions 16-3
ignition relay 16-4
ignition switch 16-4
points 16-5, 16-8
replacing 17-4
testing 17-3
primary circuit 16-5
rotor 16-8
secondary circuit 16-6
spark plugs 16-9
spark plug wires 16-9
checking 17-8
troubleshooting 17-2
arcing 17-8
checking for spark 17-2
rough running 17-7
voltage source 16-4

J
Jump starting
see Battery

K
Kirchhoffs Laws
see Electrical circuits

L
Lambda sensor
see Oxygen sensors
Lifting the car
see Safety
Lithium Ion
see Battery
Live data
see OBD-II
Logging meters
23-7
Luggage compartment
see Cargo compartment
see also Trunk

M
MAF sensor
see Mass airflow (MAF) sensors

INDEX

Mass airflow (MAF) sensor


34-5
additional information 34-9
circuit 34-6
multimeter test set-ups 34-2, 34-3,
34-4
operation 34-5
signal 34-5
pinouts 34-7
supplemental 34-8
technical notes 34-9
testing 34-6
supply voltage test 34-2, 34-7
analog sensor signal test 34-3, 34-7
digital signal test 34-4, 34-8
types 34-5
MIL (Malfunction Indicator Lamp)
see OBD-II
Misfire
see Stick coils
see also Fuel injectors
Modules
see Digital data
Monitors
see OBD-II
Motronic
see Ignition, electronic
Multimeter
AC voltage, measuring 5-6
accuracy 4-5
anatomy 4-2
autoranging 4-4
back probing 4-8
bar graph 4-6
configuration table 5-3
continuity, measuring 5-10
cigarette lighter voltmeter 4-9
circuit testers 4-10
current clamps 4-7
DC voltage, measuring 5-4
definition 4-2
features 4-4
frequency measurement 4-7
key concepts 5-2
measurements, voltage, resistance,
and amperage 4-4
min/max 4-5
precision 4-5
remote display 4-7
resistance, measuring 5-8
temperature probe 4-6
test lights 4-10
tests 5-2
true RMS 4-6
voltage drop, measuring 5-12

Multimeter test set-ups


2-A Measuring battery voltage 2-3
5-A Measuring DC voltage 5-5
5-B Measuring AC voltage 5-7
5-C Measuring resistance 5-9
5-E Measuring voltage drop 5-10
5-F Measuring current 5-16
23-A Measuring frequency 23-6
28-A ECT reference voltage test 28-2
28-B ECT resistance test 28-3
29-A TPS reference voltage test 29-2
29-B TPS resistance test 29-3
29-C TPS signal voltage test 29-4
30-A Oxygen sensor heater test 30-2
30-B Oxygen sensor signal test 30-3
31-A Active WSS supply voltage test
31-2
31-B Active WSS signal test 31-3
31-C Passive WSS supply voltage test
313
31-D Passive WSS signal test 31-5
32-A active CKP sensor supply voltage
test 32-2
32-B Active CKP sensor starting signal
test 32-3 1
32-C Active CKP sensor running signal
test 32-4
32-D Passive CKP sensor resistance
test 32-5
32-E Passive CKP sensor cranking
signal test 32-6
32-F Passive CKP sensor running
signal test 32-7
33-A Active CMP sensor
supply voltage test 33-2
33-B Active CMP sensor
starting signal test 33-3
33-C Active CMP sensor running
signal test 33-4
34-A MAF sensor supply voltage test
34-2
34-V Analog MAF sensor signal test
34-3
34-C Digital MAF sensor signal test
34-4
35-A Stick coil resistance test 35-2
35-B Stick coil voltage test 35-3
35-C Stick coil signal test 35-4
36-A Fuel injector resistance test 36-2
36-B Fuel injector voltage test 36-3
36-C Fuel injector trigger signal test
36-4
37-A Fuel pump supply voltage test
37-2
37-B Fuel pump resistance test 37-3
37-C Fuel pump PWM signal test 37-4
37-D Fuel pump current test 37-5
38A Solenoid voltage test 38-2
38-B Solenoid resistance test 38-3
38-C PWM solenoid trigger signal test
38-4

N
Narrow band sensor
see Oxygen sensors
Networks
see Digital data
Noid lights
23-11
see also Solenoids

O
OBD-II
25-2
Check Engine Light (CEL) 25-3
Data Link Connector (DLC) 25-8
diagnostic connector 25-8
protocols 25-8
Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs)
25-9
how to scan for 25-10
using for diagnostics 25-10
drive cycle 25-6
freeze frame data 25-9
introduction 25-2
live data 25-9
monitors 25-4
wont run 25-5
readiness 25-3
Ohms Law
see Electrical circuits
Open circuit
see Electrical circuits
see also Troubleshooting
On-board diagnostics
see OBD-II
Oscilloscopes
23-7
analog bench type23-8
digital bench type 23-8
pc-based 23-8
hand-held scope meters 23-8
pocket 23-9
Oxygen sensors
additional information 30-9
circuit 30-5
heated narrow band 30-9
heater 30-2
test 30-2, 30-7
multimeter test setups 30-2, 30-3
operation 30-4
pinouts 30-7
signal 30-3, 30-5
test 30-3, 30-7
supplemental testing 30-8
testing 30-6
technical notes 30-9
types 30-4
resistive-jump (Titania) 30-10
wide band 30-9
Zirconia sensors (narrow band) 30-9

INDEX

Rotor, ignition
see Ignition, mechanically-timed

Soldering, how to
see Wire repairs

Square waves
see Analog signals, dynamic

SAE standard J2534


see Diagnostic tools

Soldering
see Wire repairs

Safety
1-2
12 volt battery hazards 1-2
eye protection 1-6
fire extinguishers 1-8
footwear 1-7
hand protection 1-7
hearing protection 1-8
how much current is too much? 1-4
lifting the car 1-8
safety as a state of mind 1-2
safety equipment 1-6
voltage, current and the
human body 1-3
warnings and cautions 1-5
working under the car 1-8
working under the vehicle safely 1-9

Solenoids
38-5
additional information 38-7
circuit 38-5
multimeter test set-ups 38-1, 38-2,
38-3
noid light 38-7
operation 38-5
signal 38-5
pinouts 38-6
testing 38-5
solenoid voltage test 38-2, 38-6
solenoid resistance test 38-3, 38-6
PWM solenoid trigger signal test
38-4 38-7
supplemental 38-7
technical notes 38-7

Passtthru (SAE standard J2534)


See Diagnostic tools

Scan tool
see Diagnostic tools
see also Sensors

Spark plugs
see Ignition, mechanically-timed

Points, ignition
see Ignition, mechanically-timed

Scopes
see Oscilloscope

Power management
see Parasitic drain

Schematics, wiring
see Wiring diagrams

Pulse trains
see Analog signals, dynamic

Sensors
27-2
see also ECT (Engine Coolant
Temperature) sensors
actuators 27-2
AMR (Anisotropic MagnetoResistive)
27-5
frequently used 27-3
Hall effect 27-4
circuit testing 27-4
introduction 27-2
reference voltage27-5
scan tools for diagnosing 27-2
signal types 27-5
supply voltage 27-5
test tools 27-2
variable resistors 27-5
voltage 27-5
VRT (Variable Reluctance Transducer)
sensor 27-3
circuit testing 27-3

WARNING
Your common sense, good judgment and
general alertness are crucial to safe and
successful electrical work. Before
attempting any electrical service work on
your vehicle, be sure to read chapter
1 Safety and the copyright page at the
front of the book. Review these warnings
and cautions each time you prepare to
work on your car. Please also read any
warnings and cautions that accompany
the procedures in the book.

P
Parasitic drain
20-2
amp gauge 20-3
finding drain 20-5
measuring drain 20-2, 20-3
power management 20- 2
sleep mode 20-2

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)


see Analog signals, dynamic

Q
Quadlock connector
see Audio, head unit

R
Readiness
see OBD-II
Registration, battery
see Battery
Relays
7-3
bypassing, how to 7-12
current consumption 7-6
DIN terminal numbers 7-4, 7-12
electrical structure 7-4, 7-9
interchangeability 7-9
physical appearance 7-4
reading relay schematic 7-7
SPST (single pole single throw) 7-7
testing 7-10
troubleshooting flowchart 7-14
types 7-7
not so common 7-8
Resistance
measuring 5-8
how a resistance measurement works
5-8

Shock hazard
circuits 3-21
mechanically-timed ignition 17-2
safety 1-4
stick coils 35-7
Short circuits
see Electrical circuits
see Troubleshooting
see Wire harnesses
Sleep mode
see Parasitic drain
Sine waves
see Analog signals, dynamic

Starter motor
bench testing 15-12
DIN terminal numbers 15-2
hot wiring 15-6, 15-11
mechanical restriction 15-10
pop starting 15-12
powering directly 15-11
repair 15-14
replace 15-14
solenoid 15-2
terminal 50 voltage 15-6
testing 15-3, 15-12
voltage drop test 15Stick coils
35-5
additional information 35-9
circuit 35-5
misfiring 35-7
multimeter test set-ups 35-2, 35-3,
35-3
operation 35-5
pinouts 35-7
signal 35-5
swapping 35-8
technical notes 35-9
testing 35-7
resistance 35-8
voltage 35-8
trigger signal 35-9
supplemental 35-9
types 35-5
Switches
types 7-2
poles 7-2
throws 7-2

INDEX

T
Tests, multimeter
checking battery voltage 2-3
Throttle position sensors (TPS)
29-2
additional information 29-7
circuit 29-5
multimeter test set-ups 29-2, 29-3,
29-4
operation 29-5
pinouts 29-6
signal 29-5
technical notes 29-7
testing 29-5
supplemental 29-7
TPS reference voltage test 29-2,
29-6
TPS resistance test 29-3, 29-6
TPS signal voltage test 29-4, 29-6
Timing
see Ignition, electronic
Wide band sensor
see Oxygen sensors
Tools for dynamic analog signals
23-2
choosing tool based on signal type 2310
tools for common sensors, table 23-11
TPS
see Throttle position sensor (TPS)
Trickle charger
20-2
Troubleshooting
basics 8-3, 8-4
blown fuses 8-9
chart, relay 7-14
open circuit, finding 8-11
sample circuit 8-3
short to ground 8-10
tips 8-2
voltage drop test 8-9

U
Undervoltage
see Alternator

V
VRT (Variable Reluctance Transducer)
see Sensors
Voltage
see Electrical circuits
see also Safety
see also Battery
Voltage drop
see Electrical circuits
see also Alternator
see also Multimeter
see also Starter motor
Voltage, measuring
5-4

Voltage sag
see Electrical circuits

W
Warnings and cautions
1-5
see also Safety
Wheel speeds sensors (WSS)
additional information 31-10
circuit 31-6
multimeter test set-ups 31-2, 31-3,
31-4,
operation 31-6
pinouts 31-7
signal 31-6
technical notes 31-10
testing
active WSS supply voltage test 31-2,
31-8
active WSS signal test 31-3, 31-8
passive WSS resistance test 31-4, 319
passive WSS signal test 31-5, 31-9
supplemental 31-10
types 31-6
Wide band sensor
see Oxygen sensors
Wire
9-2
AWG (American Wire Gauge) 9-2
current 9-2
heat 9-2
insulation 9-2
multi-stranded copper 9-2
shielding 9-2
sizing 9-3
using Ohms law 9-3
worksheet 9-4
voltage drop index method 9-4
Wire repairs
11-2
crimp connectors 11-2
crimping, how to 11-5
cutting 11-4
heat shrink tubing 11-7
insulated connectors 11-4
quick disconnect connectors 11-2
ring terminals 11-3
soldering, how to 11-8
spade terminal 11-3
stripping 11-4
tools 11-4
weather-resistant connectors 11-7

Wiring diagrams
19-2
see also Electrical circuits
Audi, Volkswagen (late models) 19-5
VW example 19-6
common symbol set 19-9
wire colors 19-9
BMW (late models) 19-10
BMW example 19-10
common symbol set 19-10
wire colors 19-10
German cars (early models) 19-3
Mercedes-Benz (late models) 19-12
common symbol set 19-14
Mercedes-Benz example 19-13
wire colors 19-14
Porsche (late models) 19-15
abbreviations and acronyms 19-16
option codes 19-16
Porsche example 19-16
wiring color codes 19-15
relay schematics
see Relays
where to find 19-2
Wiring harnesses
12-2
buying used 12-7
connectors 12-7
correctness 12-7
damage12-3
accidents 12-3
chafing 12-4
fatigue, breaks 12-5
insulation 12-5
rodents 12-5
exposing damaged section 12-6
grommets 12-8
light repairs 12-6
replacement 12-7
sub-harnesses 12-8
things that go wrong 12-2
Working under the vehicle
see Safety

Z
Zirconia sensor
see Oxygen sensors