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Industrialization in Europe

A social and economic revolution


in European life.

Iron and Coal


The

extraction and refinement of coal


and iron in the early 19th century made
new industrial production possible.
Iron was the best metal for making
machinery
Coal was the best power source in light
of reduced availability of timber.
Britain had significant coal and iron
deposits.

The Steam Engine


The

steam engine had been used in


mining since the middle 18th century.
More efficient steam engines expanded
the use of steam power.
Steam power was an essential part of
the blast furnace for iron smelting.
James Watt increased the efficiency
and design of steam engines, making
them feasible for use in transportation,

Transportation
Road

and canal building in Great Britain


and on the continent in the early 19th
century was a major government
expenditure and undertaking.
Roads and canals linked the coal and
iron fields with ports and manufacturing
centers, allowing the materials to be
processed.

Railroads
The development of steam engines and
better quality iron led to the development of
railroads.
George Stephenson was the first to produce
an economically viable locomotive in 1825.
Railroads soon spread across Britain and
Europe.
By 1870, European railroad mileage totaled
almost 900,000 miles

Effects of the Wars


Britains

lead in industrialization
increased in the period between 1789
and 1815.
Britains insular position and
connections to the rest of the world
continued the industrial process, while
chaos on the continent slowed it.
The debt and change of the post-war
years led to a slow return to economic
growth.

Industrialization spreads
In the years after 1815, industrialization
spread more extensively to the continent.
This was seen primarily in Belgium, Western
Germany, Northern France and the
Netherlands.
This was due to the availability of natural
resources, trade networks, and new free
market policies that developed during the
Revolution and Napoleonic periods.

Social Effects of Industrialization


The

movement of weaving and other


industries to factories changed the
economic and social landscape.
Production occurred on a massive scale
and led to the mass migration of people
to cities.
Differentiation (in division of labor,
class, or government) had a significant
impact on social relationships.

The Family
Family

roles changed due to the changes


occurring and varied among classes.
More women and children were found in
the workplace as the need for unskilled
labor rose (leaving skilled men
unemployed).
Development of middle class values
during this period influenced the views of
work and of womens roles in contrast to
working class and aristocratic ideas.

Standard of Living
Wealth

grew dramatically during the


early 19th century, but the middle and
upper classes benefited the most.
Living conditions in the factory towns
were often deplorable and overcrowded.
Cyclical unemployment kept many
families on the brink of starvation.
Even so, standards of living did start to
rise by mid-century due to economic
stabilization and business reforms.