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Electric systems

~chnology

Institute

Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book

ABB PowerT&D Company Inc.

Preface to the fifth edition

Fifty-five years ago, the Central Station Engineering Group of Westinghouse Electric Company first published a book focused on the practical application of electrical engineering to the transportation and delivery of electric power. The Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book proved to be a simple, practical, and useful reference book for electric utility engineers as well as electrical equipment designers. Three generations of power engineers have used what has become popularly known as the "T &0 Book" both as a core technical reference and as a tutorial on the finer points of power delivery system design and operation.

In the five and one half decades between its original publication and this latest edition, the T &D Book was revised and expanded three times. In many ways, the T&D book's growth and evolution mirrored that of the electric power industry itself. The original book focused almost exclusively on transmission systems, addressing the higher voltages and longer lines then becoming common, as well as the rapidly growing complexity of transmission systems, particularly due to interconnection of individual electric utility systems into large power grids.

The long-term trend, however, was toward an increasing focus on distribution, that portion of the T &0 system nearest the customer. Subsequent revisions of the T &0 book added sections on power distribution systems, primary and secondary network design, capacitor application, and voltage flicker.

This latest revision continues the trend of increasing attention to the levels of the T &D system nearest the customer. Chapter 24; Characteristics of Distribution Loads, focuses on consumer load requirements and how they interact with distribution system economy and reliability. It presents detailed guidelines and design methods to identify the behavior of electric load on the distribution system, and to address it with respect to the "two Qs" - quantity and quality that consumers of electric power have come to expect the T &0 system will provide.

A more recent and accelerating trend in the power industry is the growth through mergers and acquisitions of both power companies and equipment suppliers into international companies operating on a worldwide scale. Several enormous power companies operate large power grids on three or more continents. More directly associated with this book, what was once the Central Station Engineering Group of Westinghouse Electric Company has been absorbed into ABB ELECTRIC SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE, part of a global company with technical and business resources vastly beyond anything the original authors of the T &D book could have envisioned. ABB ETI continues to maintain the traditional, practical focus of the T &D book's creators, but has added research and development activities focused on meeting the needs of the 21st century with new equipment, designs, and technology.

This latest revision does more than just talk about new technologies. Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, fifth edition, is available in the traditional printed format as well as on computerized CD-ROM. The new format expands the book's usefulness as a resource for modem power engineers.

The material presented here is the result of research, investigation and practical application by many engineers and scientists, including cooperative studies with electric utilities. conductor and cable manufacturers, communications companies and industrial power users. It is not feasible to list here all of the names of the companies and individuals who have contributed to the body of knowledge covered in this book. These acknowledgements are given in the individual chapters. The authors gratefully acknowledge the hearty cooperation of all those who worked to produce this book. In particular, we wish to thank Ms. Kathy Hendricks, who tirelessly assisted in the preparation, editing, and formatting of this fifth edition.

Enrique Santacana Vice-President and Director

October 1, 1997

Contents

Original Author - and Revising Author

CHAPTER 1

General Considerations of Transmission page

C. A. Powel • C. A. Powe!

2 Symmetrical Components page 12 1. E. Hobson • D. L. Whitehead

3 Characteristics of Aerial Lines page 32 Sherwin H Wright and C. F Hall - D. F Shankle and R. L. Tremaine

4

Electrical Characteristics of Cables H N. Muller, J,: .1. S. Williams

page

64

5 Power Transformers and Reactors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 96 J. E. Hobson and R. L. Witz.ke • R. L. Wit:ke and 1. S. Williams

6 Machine Characteristics page 145 C. F Wagner • C. F Wagner

7 Excitation Systems '" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. page 195 1. E. Bark/e. Jr:

8 Application of Capacitors to Power Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. page 233 A. A. Johnson

<} Regulation and Losses of Transmission Lines page 265 G. D. McCann • R. F Lawrence

10 Steady-State Performance of Systems Including Methods of

Network Solution page 290

E. L Harder - E. L. Harder

II Relay and Circuit Breaker Application page 342 E. L. Harder and 1. C. Cunninghum - E. L. Harder and 1. C. Cunningham

12

Power-Line Carrier Application R. C. Cheek

page 401

13 Power-System Stability-Basic Elements of Theory and

Application , page 433

R. D. Evans and fl. N. Muller,.It: - 1. E. Burkle. Jf: and R. L. Tremaine

14 Power-System Voltages and Currents During Abnormal

Conditions , , ,.,., page 496

R. L Wit::ke - R. L. Witzke

Origina! Author. and Revising Author

CHAPTER 15

Wave Propagation on Transmission Lines 0 0 0 0 • o. 0 • 0 • o. 0 0 0 0 page 523

c. F. Wagner and G. Do McCa1111 • C. F W£lgner

16

Lightning Phenomena 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 •••••• 0 0 0 0 0 • 0 • 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 • 0 page 542

c. F Wagner (I1Il1 G. Do McCann • C. F t¥.:IXIJer and 1. Mo Clayton

17 Line Design Based on Direct Strokes . 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 paRe 578 Ao C. Monteith • E. L. Harder ([lUI J, M. (Jay ton

18 Insulation Coordination o. 0 • 0 • 0 0 0 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 page 610 A. c. Monteith and Il, R. vaughan • A. A. Johnson

19

Grounding of Power-System Neutrals S. B. Griscom • So B. Griscom

page 643

20 Distribution Systems. 0 • 0 0 0 0 • 0 0 0 • 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 page 666 John So Parsons and H Go Barnet! • John So Parsons and H. Go Barnett

21 Primary and Secondary Network Distribution Systems 0 •• 0 ••• page 689 John S. Pan-oils and H. Go Barnett • Jolin S. Parsons and H. G. Barnett

22 Lamp Flicker on Power Systems page 719 So B. Griscom - S. B. Griscom

23 Coordination of Power and Communication Systems page 741 Ro Do EFWU. s. L Witz.ke

24 Characteristics of Distribution Loads . 0 • 0 • 0 •••••••••••••• page 784 H. L. Willis

Appendix

page 809

Index 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 • 0 page 818

CHAPTER 1

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF TRANSMISSION

Original Author:

C. A. Powel

THHOUGH discovery.invention, and engineering application, the engineer has made electricity of continually grea.ter use to mankind. The invention of the dynamo first made engine power many times more effect.ive in relieving the toil and increasing the opportunities and comforts not only of industry but also of the home. Its scope, however, was limited to relatively short distances from the power station because of the low voltage of the distribution circuits. This limitation, for economic reasons, kept the general use of electricity confined to city areas where a number of customers could be served from the same power station. The next step in the development of the present-day electric systems was the invention of the transformer. This invention was revolutionary in its effect on the electric industry because it made high voltage and long transmission distances possible, thus placing the engine power, through the medium of the alternatingcurrent generator, at the doorstep of practically everyone.

The first alternating current system in America using transformers was put in operation at Great Harrington in Massachusetts in 188G. Mr. William Stanley, Westinghouse electrical expert who wa.s responsible for the installation, gives an account of the plant., part of which reads:

"Before leaving Piltsburgh I designed several induction coils, or transformers U~ we now call them, for parallel connection. The original was designed in the early summer of 1885 and wound for 500 volts primary and 100 volts secondary emf. Several other coils were constructed for experimental purp(l~e<l.

"At the north end of the village of Great B'arrington was an old deserted rubber mill which I leased for it trifling sum and erected in it a 25 hp boiler and engine that I purchased for the purpose. After what seemed an interminable delav I at last installed the Siemens alternator that Mr. vVestingh()~1l3e had imported from London. It was wound to furnish 12 amperes of current with a maximum of 500 volts. In the meantime I had started the eonstruction of a number of transformers in the labomtorv and engaged a young man to canvass the town of Great Barrington for light customers. 'Ve built in all at Great Barrington 26 transformers. 10 of which were sent to Pittshunrh to be used in a demonstration plant between the UnIun SWItch and Signal Company's factory* and East Liberty.

"IVe installed in the town plant at Great Barrington two [iOlight and foul' 25-1ight transformers, the remainder being used in the laboratory for experimental work. The transformers in the village lit 13 stores, 2 hotels, 2 doctors' olfices, one barber shop, and the telephone and post offices. The lenl~th of t.he line from the laboratory to the center of the town was about 4000 feet."

Our central-station industry today is, for all practical purposes, entirely alternating current. It can, therefore, be said to have grown from the small beginning at Great 'About two miles.

Revised by;

C. A. Powel

Barrington to its present size involving as it does a capitalization in the privately-owned power companies of some 17 billion dollars with an annual revenue of 4 billion dollars.

The growth since the beginning of tbis century in installed generating capacity of all electric power plants

(a)

(b)

Fi~, l-(a) Gaulard and Gibbs transformer for which George Westinghouse had secured all rights in the United States. (b) First transformer designed by William Stanley. The prototype of all transformers since built, it definitely established the commercial feasibility of the alternating-current system,

1884 -rass.

contributing to the public supply has been from about It million kilowatts to 55 million kilowatts in 1948. Of this 55 million k ilowatts the privately-owned utilities accounted for 44 million kilowatts and government-owned utilities for II million kilowatts divided equally between the federal government and local governments. Thus, 80 percent of the generat.ing capacity of the country is privately owned and 20 per cent government owned.

With this 55 million kilowatts of generating capacity, 282 billion kilowatt-hours, divided 228 billion kilowatthours by privately-owned generation and 54 billion public, were generated in 1948. The average use oJ the installed capacity for the country as a whole was, therefore,

282000 .

-··········5~··-- = 5130 hours, and the capacity factor for the ,)

fi130

country as a whole 1:\760 = 58..5 percent.

This capacity factor of 58.5 percent is generally conceded as being too high. It does not allow sufficient margin to provide adequate spare capacity for maintenance and repairs. Fig. 2 illustrates how the spurt) and reserve f~np;wity has shrunk in t.he past few years. A ratio of installed capacity to peak load of 1.15 to 1.20 is considered necessary to provide a safe margin for emergencies. Such

1

General Considerations of Transmission

Chapter 1

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'11.< KILOWATT-HOURS IN BILLIONS
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C' SUM OF NON-COINCIDENT DEMANDS- MILLIONS
OF KILOWATTS
I I I I ! I I ! I ! 1910

1950

1920

1940

1930 YEAR

Fig. 2·Trcnd in production of electricity, installed capactty, and sum of peak demands.

a margin in 1948 would have given a capacity-factor of about 53 percent, instead of 58.5 percent.

1960

The average cost of all electricity used for residential service has shown a steady duwnward trend since 1925 from 7 cents per kilowatt-hour to 3 cents in ] 048. This is all the more remarkable as since 1(,)39 all other items ma.king up the cost-of-living index have shown increases ranging from 10 percent (for rents) to 121 percent (for food), the average increase of all items being G9 percent. The revenue from sales to residential customers aecounts for about 36 percent of the total utility revenue; to large power customers about 2g percent; to small light and power customers 27 percent, and to miscellaneous customers (railroads, street lighting, etc.) 8 percent.

1. Sources of Energy

The sources of energy for large-scale generation of elec-

tricity arc:

L Steam, from (a) coal, (b) oil, or (c) natural gas

2. Water (hydro-electric)

3. Diesel power from oil

Other possible sources of energy are direct solar heat, windpower, tidal power, shale oil, and atomic energy, but none of these as yet has gone beyond the pilot-plant stage, for the reason that coal and petroleum are still abundantly available. But as fossil fuels become scarcer and marc expensive, there is every reason to believe that all of these, as well as petroleum manufactured from vegetable matter, may become useful and economical supplementary sources of energy.

The estimated reserves of coal and lignite in the United States are about 3000 billion tons. This constitutes almost 99 percent of the mineral fuel energy reserves of the country; oil shale, petroleum and natural gas amounting to little more than I percent.'

By far the greater part uf the electric energy generated in this country is obtained from fuel, the 55 million kilo-

TABLE I-PREFERRED STANDARDS FOR LARGE 3600-RPM 3-PHASE SO-CYCLE CONDENSING STEAM TURBINE-GENERA TORS

Air-Cooled HYdrogen-Cooled Gcncrntors
Generator Rated for O.5~~~ILll:X~.~(}gcn Pres~llre
Turbine-generator rating, kw 11500 15000 20000 30000 40000 60000 90000*
Turbine capability, kw 12(;50 16500 22000 33000 44000 66000 99000
Generator rating, kva 13529 17647 23529 352(H 47058 70588 101)882
power factor 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 085
short-circuit ratio 0.8 0.8 0.8 0$ 0.8 0.8 0.8
Throttle pressure, psig 600 850 850 850 f 850 \ or {1250} {850 }od 1250} {1450 'lor {1450} +*
Throttle temperature, F 825 900 900 900 \900f 950 \ 900 t 950 1000 f 1000
Reheat temperature, F 1000
N umber of extraction openings 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5
Saturation temperatures at 1st 175 175 175 175 175 175 180 175
openings at "turbine-gen- 2nd 235 235 235 235 235 235 245 240
erator rating" with all ex- 3rd 285 285 2RS 285 285 285 305 300
traction openings in scrv- 4th 350 350 350 350 350 350 380 370
ice. F 5th 410 410 410 440 440
Exhaust pressure, inches Hg nbs 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 L5 1.5
Generator capability at 0.85 power factor and
15 psig hydrogen pressure, kva 20394 27058 40588 54117 81176 121764
Generator capability at 0.8.5 power factor and
30 psig hydrogen pressure, kva 132353
... A 10 peJ:"oont pressure drop ie eeeurned between Lbe high pressure turbine exhaust and low pressure turbine inlet for the reheat. machine.
NTh_ are two different unite; the first (or regenerative cycle operation, and the aecond a machine for reheat cycle operation, Chapter 1

General Considerations of Transmission

3

Fig. 3- The first central-station turbo-alternator installation in the United States---a 2000-kw turbine coupled to a 60-cycle generator, 2000 kw, 2400 volts, two-phase, 1200 rpm-c-at the Hartford Electric Light Company, Hartford, Cpnnecticut, 1900. This turbine was about four times as Iarge as anyone built before that time and caused much comment the world

over.

watts of installed capacity being made up of approximately 38 million kilowatts of steam turbines and one million kilowatts of diesel engines. Approximately 16 million kilowatt" of t.he inst.alled capacity are in hydro-electric stations. Of the 282 billion kilowatt-hours generated by all means in 1948, roughly 200 billion came from fuel; 76 percent from coal, 14 percent from natural gas, and 10 percent from oil.

2. Development of Steam Power

The modern steam-electric station can be dated from the installation by the Hartford Electric Company in 1900 of a 2000-kw unit (Fig. 3) which at that time was a large machine. Progress in design and efficiency from then on has been continuous and rapid. Tn 1 n2.5 the pu blie utilities consumed in their fuel-burning plants an average of 2 pounds of coal (or coal equivalent) per kilowatt-hour, whereas today the corresponding figure is 1.3 pounds per kilowatt-hour. This average figure has not changed materially in the last 10 years, It would appear that the coal consumption curve is approaching an asymptote and that a much better overall performance is not to be expected, even though the best base-load stations generate power for less than one pound of coal per kilowatt-hour. The very high efficiency in the best base-load stations is obtained at a considerable increase in investment. It cannot be economically carried over to the system as a whole for the reason that there must be some idle or partly idle capacity on the system to allow for peaks (seasonal and daily), cleaning, adjustments, overhaul, and repairs. How much one can afford to spend for the improvement of station efficiency above "normal" depends on the shape of the system load curve, the role of the station in that curve, and the cost of fuel.

Most of the credit for the improvement in steam consumption goes to the boiler and turbine manufacturers who through continuous betterment of designs and materials have been able to raise steam pressures and temperatures. Between 1925 and 194:2 the maximum throttle pressure was raised from 1000 psi to 2400 psi and the average from 350 to 1000 psi. In the same period the throttle temperature was raised from 72.5 to 1000 degrees F. and the

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Fig. 4 ,Progress in turbine generator design.

average from 675 to 910 degrees. Generator losses in the meantime have been greatly reduced from about (\ percent in 1900 to 2 percent today, but these losses never did form a large part of the total, and their influence on the overall performance of the station has been minor.

The increase in maximum size of GO-cycle, two-and fourpole generating units over the years since 1900 is shown in Fig. 4. The remarkable increase has been due to improved materials and designs, particularly in large forgings, turbine blading, and generator ventilation,

In 1945 the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers adopted standard ratings for turbine-generator units. These were revised in November 1950 to include the gO 000 kw unit and are listed in Table L The machines are designed to meet their rating with 0.5 psi hydrogen pressure, but experience has shown that between O.B and 15 psi the output of the generator can be increased one percent for each pound increase in the gas pressure without exceeding the temperature rise guarantee at atmospheric pressure. In many locations operation at more than 15 psi gas pressure

4

General Considerations of Transmission

Chapter 1

may be difficult because of codes regulating operation of "unfired pressure vessels" at. gn:aler pressures, but serious consideration is being given to operation at 30 lbs.

For a hydrogen-air mixture to be explosive, the percentage of hydrogen must lie between 5 and 75 percent. The control equipment is designed to operate an alarm if the purity of the hydrogen drops below 95 percent. The density meter and alarm system is in principle a small constant-speed fan circulating a sample of the mixture. If the density varies, the drop of pressure across the fan varies and registers on the meter.

3. Development of Water Power

'The great transmission systems of this country received their impetus as a result of hydro-elec trie developments. Forty years ago conditions favored such developments, and in the early years of this century water-power plants costing $150 per kilowatt or less were common. Steam stations were relatively high in first cost and coal consumption per kilowatt hour was three times as much as today, and finally fuel oil was not readily available. As undeveloped water-power sites became economically less desirable, steam stations less costly and their efficiency higher, and as oil fuel and natural gas became more generally available through pipe lines, steam stations rapidly outgrew hydro-electric stations in number and capacity. Today very few water-power sites can be developed at such low cost as to be competitive with steam stations in economic energy production. For this reason hydroelectric developments of recent years have almost all becn undertaken by Government agencies, which are in 11 position to include in the projects other considerations, such as, navigation, flood control, irrigation, conservation of resources, giving them great social value.

As the water-power developments within easy reach of the load centers were utilized and it became necessary to reach to greater distances [or water power, only large developments could be considered, and stations of less than 100 000 kw became the exception rather than the rule, as witness Conowingo with 252000 kw, Diablo with 135000 kw, Fifteen Mile Falls with 140000 kw, Osage with 200 000 kw, and many others. The developments of recent years undertaken by various government agencies have reached gigantic proportions, as for example Hoover Dam with 1 000000 and Grand Coulee with 2000000 kw installed capacity.

A natural corollary to the increase in station capacity has been a gradual increase in the size of the individual generator units, the growth of which is shown in Fig. 5, culminating in the Grand Coulee generators of 120 000 kw at 120 rpm with an overall diameter of 45 feet.

Most of the multi-purpose hydraulic developments call for large, slow-speed machines. For such conditions vertical uuit.s are used to obtain maximum energy from the water passing through the turbine. The rotating parts are supported hy a thrust bearing which is an integral part of the generator.

Two general types of generator design are used as distinguished by the arrangement of the guide and thrust bearings. Where the axial length of the generator is short in relation to its diameter, the "umbrella" design

is preferred, in which a single combination guide and thrust bearing is located below the rotor (Fig. 1, Chapter 6). Where the axial length of the machines is too great an additional guide bearing must be provided. In this case the combination thrust and guide bearing is usually located above the rotor and the additional guide bearing below the rotor.

The advantages of the umbrella design arc (a) reduction in overhead room to assemble and dismantle the unit during erection and overhaul, and (b) simplicity of the single bearing from the standpoint of cooling and mini-

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--- HORIZONTAL TYPE

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Fig. 5-Trend in maximum waterwheel generator ratings.

mum amount of piping. 'The design also lends itself readily to a totally-enclosed recirculating system of ventilation, which keeps dirt out of the machine and facilitates the use of fire-extinguishing equipment. It also reduces heat and noise in the power house.

4. Combination of Water and Steam Power

There are very few locations today where an important market can be supplied entirely from water power because of seasonal variations in river flow, but in most cases a saving will be realized from combining water power and steam. The saving results from the combination of low operating cost of water-power plants with low investment cost of steam stations. Moreover, hydroelectric units in themselves have certain valuable advantages when used in combination with steam units. They start more quickly than steam-driven units, providing a high degree of standby readiness in emergency.

Chapter 1

General Considerations of Transmission

5

They are well adapted to maintenance of frequency, and also LO providing wattless energy at times of low water flow. And finally, hydro-pondage can be drawn upon to relieve steam plants of short-time peaks to save banking extra boilers.

To what extent a water-power site can be developed economically involves a thorough investigation of individual cases. An economic balance must be struck between the steam and water power to give maximum economy. One might install enough generating capacity to take care of the maximum flow of the river during a short period. The cost per kilowatt instnJled would be low but the use made of the equipment (capacity factor) would also be low. Or one might put in only enough generating capacity to use the minimum river flow. In this case the cost of the development per kilowatt installed would be high, but the capacity factor would be high.

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Fig.6-Cost of energy at various capacity factors of steam and hydro-electric plants.

also. Obviously between these two extremes lies an optimum value. The ratio of installed water-power capacity to the peak load of the system that gives the minimum annual cost of power supply has been referred to as the "economic hydro ratio," and it can he determined without great difficulty for any particular set of conditions.

In a paper? presented before the American Society of l\rechanic~l Engineers, Irwin and Justin discussed in an interesting and graphical manner the importance of incremental costs on the economics of nny proposed development. Fig. 0, taken from their paper, shows in Curve C the capital cost per kilowatt of installation for various capacity factors. The costs were segregated in iterus that would bc the same regardless of inst.allat.lon (land, water rights, dams) and those that vary with the amount of installation (power house, machinery, trans-

mission). The latter group in this particular study was about $70 per kilowatt.

Curve A gives the total cost of energy per kilowatt hour for a modern "team plant costing $\}5 per kilowatt with fixed charges at 12 percent and coal at. $4 11 ton.

Curve B gives the total cost. of energy from the waterpower plant having the capital cost indicated in Curve C. To obtain such a curve it is necessary to determine the amount of energy availublc [It the various capacity factors, the assumption being made that all hydro capacity installed is firm capacityj, that is, that the system load can absorb all of the energy generated.

Curve B shows l he typically high cost of hydro-electric enerp;y as compared IV ith steam at high capacity factors and its low cost at low capacity factors.

5. Transmission Liability

In a hydro-electric devriopmcnt tho transmission becomes a large Iactor of expense and in comparing such development s with r:quh'nlent steam plants, it is necessary to include the transmission as a charge against the hydroelectric plant. Figures of cost published on the Hoover Dam- Los Angeles 287 -kv line indicate that this transmiseion costs over $\}O a kilowatt, and other lines contemplated will probably show higher costs.

Under eertain conditions it may he more costly to transmit electrical energy over wires than to transport the equivalent fuel to the steam station. It has been shown" that the cost of electric transmission for optimum load and voltages can he expressed as a linear function of power nnd d ist.anco, ,15 foil ows:

'L' 50171 I d f '11 'k h ~ 0.61 Xmiles r or 10 oa actor: rm SI cw- r=O.a'1+~----·~~-

100

I, 01 I . I 0.3.5Xmiles 'or 90/0 oad factor: mills/ kw-hr=O.30+·_·--_···_-

I 100

H was also shown that fuel transportation can be exprcssc.I u.s :1 linear function of energy and distance, thus:

Railroad rates on coal $l.20+.'i~ mills per mile Pipe-line rate" on crude oil

$.'i.OO+l ~('nts per mile per 100 barrels

For pipe-line rates on natural gas two curves were given for estimated minimum awl maximum interruptiblc contract rates

$0 + [2 cents per mile pel' million cubic feet $50+ 12 (:ellt" per mile per million cubic feet

The authors point out that a comparison between transmission cost", alone Ior ga,.;, oil, and coal are likely to be rnislcudlng because there is a wide difference in the costs of the fude: at their source, There is also a considerable variut.ion in the transportation costs above and below the average.

t"Finn Capacity" or "Firm Power" in the ease of an individual station is tIll' ":tl'[tcit.y _intended to be alwnys uvnilable ;,ven Ilnder emergency conditions, "Hydro Firm Capacity" in thc case of combined steam and hydro is the part of the installed capacity that is capable of doing the srune work on that part of the load curve to which it is assigned 116 could be pcrformend by an alternative steam plant.

6

General Considerations oj Transmission

Chapter 1

The equivalence between the fuels is given as:

1 ton of coal 25 000 000 BTV

1 barrel of oil (i 2.'')0 000 BTU

1000 cubic feet of gas 1000000 BTU

6. Purpose of Transmission

Transmission lines are essential for three purposes.

a. To transmit power from a water-power site to a market.

These may he very long and justified because of the subsidy aspect connected with the project.

b. For bulk supply of power to load el.'Ilters from outlying steam stntions. These are likely to he relatively short.

~. For interconnection purposes, that is, for transfer of energy from one system to another in rase of emergency or in response to diversity in system peaks.

Frequent. attempts have been rnndo to set up dcfinitions of "transmission lines," "distribution circuits" and "substations." None has proved entirely satisfactory or universally applicable, but for the purposes of accounting tlw F(~derfl.l Power Commission and various state cornmissions have set up definitions that in essence read:

A transmission system includes all land, conversion structures and equipment at. n primary source of Muppiy; lines, switching and conversion stations between a generating 0)" receiving point and the entrance to a distribution center or wholesale point, all lines and equipment wiJo"e primary purpose is to augment, integrate or tie together sources of powcr supply.

7. Choice of Frequency

The standard frequency in North America is UO cycles per second. In most foreign countries it is 50 cycles. As a general-purpose distribution frequency GO cycles has an economic advantage over 50 cycles in that it permits a maximum speed of 3GOO rpm us against 3000 rpm. Where a large number of distriburion transformers 'n.re used a considerable economic gain is obtained in that the saving in materials of GO-cyele transformers over 50-cycle transformers may amount to 10 to ]5 percent. This is because in a transformer the induced voltage is proportional to the total flux-linkage and the Irequi-ucy. The higher the frequency, therefore, the smaller the cross-sectional arc a of the core, and the smaller the core the shorter the lengt.h of the coils. There is a saving, therefore, in both iron and copper.

The only condition under which any frequency other than 50 to 60 cycles might be considered for a new project would be the case of a long transmission of, say, 500 or 500 miles. Such long t.rnnsmission has been discussed in connection with remote hydro-electric developments at home and abroad, and for these a frequency less than GO cycles might be interesting bocuuse as the frequency is decreased the inductive reactance of the line, 211JL, de-

d tl . . 1 .

creases an ie capacitive rr~ad.n.nce, 2;:jC' mcreases,

resulting in higher load limits, transmission efficiency, and better regulation.

Full advantage of low frequency can be realized, however, only where the utilization is at low frequency. If the low transmission frequency must be converted to 60 cycles for utilization, most of the advantage is lost because of limitations of terminal conversion equipment.

Long-distanec direct-current transmission has also been considered. It offers advantages that look attractive, but present Iimitut.ions in conversion and inversion equipment make the prospect of any application in the near future unlikely.

In many industrial applications, particularly in the machine-tool industry, 60 cycles does not permit a high enough speed, and frequencies up to 2000 cycles may be necessary. Steps are being taken to standardize frequencies of more than GO cycles.

8. Choice of Voltage

Tntnsmission of alternating-current power over several miles dates from 188(\ when a line was built. at Cerchi, Italy, to transmit 150 hp 17 miles at 2000 volts. The voltago hal') progressively increased, as shown in Fig. 7, until in 1 q30 the Hoover Dam- Los Angeles line was put in service at 2Hi kv. This is sUll the highel5~ operating volt.ago in usc in the (' nitcd States today, but considoration Ie; being given to higher values. An investigation was begun in H)·iS at the Tidd Station of the Ohio Power Company on an experimental line with voltages up to 500 kv,

The cost of transformers, switches, and circuit breakers increases rapidly with increasing voltage in the upper ranges of transmission voltages. In any investigation involving voltages above 230000 volts, therefore, the unit cost of power transmitted is subject to the law of diminishing returns. Furthermore, the increase of the reactance of the terminal transformers also tends to counteract the gain obtained in the transmission line from the higher voltage. There is, therefore, some value of voltage in the range heing inv('stigated beyond which, under existing circurnstaneos, it is uneconomical to go and it may be more profit.ahlo to give consideration to line compensation by means of capacitors to increase the economic limit of

300
250
200
<Il
~
0 ISO
>
0
..J
~
100
50 [
I )
i r
!
_ .. _. i
, i
,
- i
I I
I
I I
I
rl , i
i
i W' i
I i
~~ i
... ~
I
i l~fJ' I
i
lrt I
:--f1 I
I [900

1910

1920 YEAR

1930

1940

1950

Fig. 7- Trend in transmission voltages in 60 years.

Chapter 1

General Considerations of Transm£ssion

7

TABLE 2-FoRM OF TABULATION FOR DETERMINING VOLTAGES AND CONDUCTOR SIZES

Based on the Transmission of 10000 Kva for 10 Miles at 80 Percent Power Factor Lagging, GO-Cycle, 3-Phase

VOLTAGE IN KV

CONDUCTORS

FIRST COST

ANNUAL OPERATING COST

TABLE a-QUiCK-ESTIMATING DATA ON THE LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY OF TRANSMISSION LlNEst

Delivered Line Voltage

Kw Which Can Be Delivered Based on 5';~ Itegulation and 90% Power Fae tor

Distance in Miles

13.2 kv-3-foot spacing 5 ! 10 15 20
Stranded Copper
4 950 490 330 245
2 1400 700 470 350
4/0 3000 1500 1000 750
I I
33 kv-4-foot spacing 10 I 20 SO I 40
Stranded Copper
1 5000 2 SOO 1700 1250
2/0 6700 I 3350 2200 1700
4/0 8350 4180 2800 2100
300000 11500 I 57.50_ a 800 2900
----- ----
20 I 40 GO 80
66 kv-8-foot spacing I --
Stranded Copper ,
2/0 12500 I 6250 4180 3140
4/0 Hi 000 8000 5320 3 fino
300 000 ]S400 !) 180 (\ 120 I 4590
" .. _----
Kw Which Can Be Delivered Based
on 10% Loss and Equal Voltage at
Sending and Receiving Ends
Distance in Miles
132 kv-16-foot spacing _4~1 sol 120 160
Stranded Copper _____ ··_·O"o···· -"--
4/0 1116 000 < ,''i8000 39500 30100
300000 172000 86 000 58800 44800
500 000 ,297000 150000 101000 77100
-~--
220 ltv 24-foot spacing 80 160 240 320
Hollow Copper ~--
500000 425000 219000 151000 1119000
ACSH-795000 417000 216000 149000 us 500 tData obtained from Figs. 19 and 22 of Chap. 9.

power trnnsmission than increase the voltage much above present practice.

The basic principles underlying system operation as regards voltages have been set forth in a report.' which lists the voltaaes in common lise, the recommended luuits of voltage spread, and the equipment voltage ratings intended to fulfill the voltage requirements of the level for which the equipment is designed. The report should be carefully studied before any plans are made involving the adoption of or chango in a system voltage.

In selecting the transmission voltage, consideration should be given to the present and probable future voltage of other lines in the vicinity. The advantages of being able to tie together adjoining power districts at a common voltage frequently outweighs a choice of voltage based on lowest illlmediat.e cost.

If the contemplated transmission is remote from any existing system, the choice of voltage should result from a complete study of all factors involved. Attempts have been made to determine by mathematical expression, based on the well-known Kelvin's Law, the most economical transmission voltage with all factors evaluated, but these are so numerous that such an expression becomes complicated, difficult, and unsatisfactory. The only satisfactory way to determine the voltage is to make a complete study of the initial and operating costs corresponding to various assumed transmission voltages and to various sizes of conductors.

For the purposes of the complete study, it. is usually unnecessary to choose more than three voltages, because a fairly good guess as to the probable one is possible without knowing more than the length of the circuit. For this preliminary guess, the quick-estimating Table :3 is useful. This table assumes that the magnitude of power transmitted in the case of voltages 13.2, 33, and GG kv is based on a regulation of 5 percent and a load power factor of 90 percent. In the case of 132 and 220 kv, the table is based on a loss of 10 percent and equal voltages at the sending and receiving ends of the line. The reason for this and the bases of the calculations are given in Chapter It

A representative study is given in Table 2. It is assumed

8

General Considerations oj Transmission

Chapter 1

that it is desired to transmit over a single-circuit ten miles long 8000 kw (10 000 kva) at 80 percent power-factor lagging for 10 hours a day followed by 2000 kw (2500 kva) at 80 percent power-factor for 14 hours. The preliminary guess indicates that 23, 3·+'5, or 4G kv are probably the economical nominal voltages. Equivalent conductor spncing and the number of insulators are as given in Table 4. Conductors of hard-drawn stranded copper are

TABLE 4-CONSTRUCTlON FEATURES OF TRANSMISSION LINES IN THE UNITED STATES'

Line I Length in Miles Equivalent Number of
Voltage Hpaeill~ Insulators
in Kv I --~.- .. ~,
Av. l\Iin. Max, TYJl<'" Av. Av. Min, Max.
--I-~ -- -~- -- -- -- --
13.8 I ... . . SC-W 3
34.51 .. . .. . SC-w 4 .. . .
GD I 35 25 100 sew 8 5 -1 8
115 40 25 100 SC-W 17 7 6 I 11
138 40 25 140 SC-W 18 10 8 I 12
no i 133 I 45 200 He-HI' I 31 15 ! 14 20 employed, the rr-sistnnoe heing tnb:n at 25 rtegrces C. The step-up and step-down transformers are assumed as 2.5 X 10 000 kva,12 500 kva at either end, and high-voltage circuit-breakers are used in anticipation of future additional circu its.

The costs of the pole line, right-of-way, huilding, and real estate nrc not included as they will be practically the same for the range of voltages studied.

Assuming that the cost figures in the table are correct, a 34 SOO-volt line with No. 00 copper conductor is the most economical. The transmission loss will be 5 percent and the regulation 7 percent at full load, which is deemed satisfactory. The voltage is sufficiently high for use as a subtransmission voltage if and when the territory develops and additional load is created. The likelihood of early growth of a load district is an important Iuctor in selection of the higher voltage and larger conductor where thc annual operating costs do not vary too widely.

9. Choice of Conductors

The preliminary choice of the conductor size can also be limited to two or three, although the method of selecting will differ with the length of transmission and the choice of voltage. III the lower voltages up to, say, 30 kv, for a given percentage energy loss in transmission, the cross section ami consequently the weight of the conductors required to transmit a given block of power varies inversely as the square of the voltage. Thus, if the voltage is doubled, the weight of the conductors will be reduced to one-fourth with approximately a corresponding reduction in their cost. This saving in conducting material for 11 given energy loss in t ransmission becomes less as the higher voltages are reached, becoming increasingly less as voltages go higher. This is for the reason that for the higher voltages at least two other sources of

'This t abl« is based on information published in Electrical lV orld and in Electrical Engiiwcriug. While it does not include all lines, it is probably representative of general practice in the U.S.A.

*'SC-W -Single-circuit wood.

SC-ST-Singlc-circui t steel.

loss, leakage over insulators and the escape of energy through the air between the conductors (known as "corona" --see Chap. 3) appear. In addition to these two losses, the charging current, which increases as the transmission voltage goes higher, mny either increase or decrease the current in the circuit depending upon the power-factor of the load current and the relative amount of the leading and lagging components of the current in the circuit. Any change in t.he current of the circuit will consequently be accompanied by a corresponding change in the PH loss. In fact, these sources of additional losses may, in some eases of long circuits or extensive systems, materially contribute toward limiting the transmission voltage. The weight of copper conductors, from which their cost can be calculated, is given in Chap. 3. As an insurance against breakdown, important lines frequently are built with circuits in duplicate, In such cases the cost of conductors for two circuits should not be overlooked.

10. Choice of Spacing

Conductor spacing depends upon the economic conaide-ration given to performance agninst lightning surges. If maximum reliability is sought, the spacing loses its relation to the operating voltage and then a medium voltage [me assumes most of the cost of a high-voltage transmission without the corresponding economy. (See Chap. 17) In general a compromise is adoptcd whereby the spacing is based on the dynamic voltage conditions with some allowance for reasonable performance against lightning surges.

Table 4 shows typical features of transmission lines in the United States including their "equivalent spacing" and the number of suspension insulators used. By equivalent spacing is understood the spacing that would give the same reactance and capacitance as if an equilateral triangular arrangement of conductors had been used. It is usually impractical to use an equilateral triangular arrangement for design reasons. The equivalent spacing is obtained from the formula D=~ABC where .4, B, and C are the actual distances between conductors,

n. Choice of Supply Circuits

The choice of the electrical layout of the proposed power station is based on the conditions prevailing locally. It should take into consideration the character of the load and the necessity for maintaining continuity of service. [t should be as simple in arrangement as practieuble to secure the desired flexibility in operation and to provide the proper facilities for inspection of the apparatus.

A review of existing installations shows that the apparent combinations are innumerable, but an annlvsis indicates Lha.t in general they are combinations of a limited number of fundamental schemes. The arrangements vary from the simplest single-circuit layout to the involved duplieate systems installed for metropolitan service where the importance of maintaining continuit.y of service just.ifics a high capital expenditure.

The scheme selected for stations distributing power at bus voltage differs radically from the layout that would be desirable for a station designed for bulk transmission.

Chapter 1

General Considerations of Transmission

9

In some metropolitan developments supplying underground cable systems segregated-phase layouts have been and are still employed to secure the maximum of reliability in operation. However, their use seems to be on the decline, as the improvement in performance over the convcntiona! adjacent phase grouping is not sufficiently better to just.ify the extra cost, particularly in vie",' of the continuing improvement of protective equipment and the more reliable schemes of relaying available today for removing faulty equipment, buses, or circuits.

Several fundamental schemes for bus layouts supplying feeders at generator voltage arc shown in Fig. 8. These vary from the simplest form of supply for a small industrial plant as shown in (a) to a reliable type of layout for central-station supply to important load areas shown in (e) and (f)t.

Sketch (a) shows several feeders connected to a common bus fed by only one generator. This type of construction should be used only where interruptions to service are relatively unimportant because outages must exist to all feeders simultaneously when the bus, generator breaker, generator or power source is out of service for any reason. Each feeder has a circuit breaker and a disconnect switch. The circuit breaker provides protection against short circuits on the feeder and enables the feeder to be removed from service while it is carrying load if necessary. The disconnect switch serves as additional backup protection for personnel, with the breaker open, during maintenance or repair work on the feeder. The disconnect also enables the breaker to be isolated from the bus for inspection and maintenance on the breaker. Quite frequently disconnect switches are arranged so that when opened the blade can be connected to a grounded clip for protection. If the bus is supplied by more than one generator, the reliability of supply to the feeders using this type of layout is considerably increased.

With more than one generator complete flexibility is obtained by using duplicate bus and' switching equiprnent as shown in (b). It is often questionable whether the expense of such an arrangement is justified and it should be used only where the importance of the service warrants it. One breaker from each generator or feeder can be removed from service for maintenance with complete protection for maintenance personnel and without disrupting service to any feeder. Also, one complete bus section can be removed from service for cleaning and maintenance or for adding an additional feeder without interfering with the normal supply to other feeder circuits. There are many intermediate schemes that can be utilized that give a lesser degree of flexibility, an example of which is shown in (c). There arc also several connections differing in degree of duplication that arc intermediate to the three layouts indien.t.crl, as for instance in (d). An analysis of the connections in any station lavout usually shows that they are built up from parts of the fundamental schemes depending upon the flexibility and reliability required.

The generating capacity connected to a bus may be so tNEI,A Publi~ation8 Nos. 164 and 278-20-Elec. App. Comm. give a number of station and substation layouts.

large that. it is necessary to use current-limiting reactors in series with the generator leads or in series with each feeder. Sometimes both are required. Sketch (e) shows a double bus commonly used where reactors are in series with each generator and each feeder. Bus-lie reactors arc also shown that, with all generators in service, keep the short-circuit current.s within the interrupting ability of the breakers. These bus-tie reactors are important

~ f~ ~ n
?H H~~ v~ t ' , t f ,---
¥¥
,y
(0) (b) (0) (d) (e)

SYNCHRONIZING BUS

(1)

Fig. 8-Fundam.ental schemes of connections for supply at generator voltage.

10

General Considerations oj Transmission

because they not only limit the current on short circuit but also serve as a source of supply to the feeders on a bus section if the generator on that bus section fails. Each feeder can be connected to either the main or auxiliary bus through what is called a selector breaker. A selector breaker is similar in every respect to the feeder breaker and serves as backup protection in case the feeder breaker does not function properly when it should open on a feeder fault. The bus-tie breakers can be used when one or more generators are out of service to prevent voltage and phase-angle differences between bus sections that would exist with the supply to a bus section through a reactor. The phase angle between bus sections becomes important when a station is supplying a network system and should be kept to a minimum to prevent circulating currents through the network. For a network supply at least four bus sections are generally used so that the network can still be supplied in case one bus section should trip out on a fault. Sketch (e) shows only three bus sections, the main and auxiliary buses serve as one bus for the feeders connected to that section.

Sketch (f) shows a more modern design for central stations with the feeder reactors next to the bus structure, in contrast with (e) where the reactors are on the feeder side of the breaker. This arrangement is possible because of the proven reliability of reactors, circuit breakers, and dust-tight metalclad bus structures. Continuous supply to all feeders is provided through reactor ties to a synchronizing bus should a generator fail. Bustie circuit breakers are provided to tie solidly adjacent bus sections for operation with one or more generators uut of service. Stations of this type would be expected to have four to six or more bus sections especially if the station supplies network loads. The synchronizing bus also serves as a point where tie feeders from other stations can be connected and be available for symmetrical power supply to all feeder buses through the reactors. This is not the ease for station design shown in (e) where a tie feeder must be brought in to a particular bus section.

For any type of generating-station design proper current and potential transformers must be provided to supply the various types of relays to protect all electrical parts of the station against any type of fault. Likewise, current and voltage conditions must be obtained from current and potential transformers through the proper metering equipment to enable t.he operating forces to put into service or remove any equipment without impairing the operation of the remainder of the station, A ground bus must be provided for grounding each feeder when it is out of service for safety to personnel. Also a highpotential test bus is necessary to test circuit breakers, bus work and feeders, following an outage for repairs or maintenance, before being reconnected to the station.

Fire walls are generally provided between bus sections or between each group of two bus sections to provide against the possibility of a fire in one section spreading to the adjacent sections, The separa.te compartments within the station should be locked and made as tight as possible for protection against accidental contact by operating personnel either physically or through the medium of a wire or any conducting material. Stray animals have

Chapter 1

caused considerable trouble by electrocuting themselves in accessible bus structures.

With stations supplying transmission systems the scheme of connections depends largely on the relative capacities of the individual generators, transformers and transmission circuits; and whether all the generated power is supplied in bulk over transmission lines or whether some must also be supplied at generator voltage. The simplest layout is obtained when each generator, transformer and transmission circuit is of the same CUr pacit.y and can be treated as a single entity. Unfortunately, this is seldom the case because the number of generators do not equal the number of outgoing circuits. Even here, however, some simplification is possible if the transformers are selected of the same capacity as the generators, so that the combination becomes the equivalent of a high-voltage generator with all t.he switching on the high-voltage side of the transformer.

In Fig, 9, (a) shows the "unit scheme" of supply. The power system must be such that a whole unit comprising generator, transformer and transmission line can be dropped without loss of customer's load. The station auxiliaries that go with each unit am usually supplied

~ ~ ~

1~1 HI

T T

(b)

Fi~. 9-Fundamentalschemes of supply at higher than generated voltage.

Chapter 1

General Considerations of Transmission

through a station transformer connected directly to the generator terminals, an independent supply being provided for the initial start-up and for subsequent emergency restarts.

Sketch (b) shows the case where conditions do not permit of the transformers being associated directly with the generators because, perhaps, of outgoing feeders at genera tor voltage, but where the capacity of the transmission lines is such as to give an economical transformer size. Here it may be desirable to include the transformer bank as an integral part of the line and perform all switching operations on the low-voltage side. Sketch (b) shows the extreme of simplicity, which is permissible only where feeders and lines can be taken in and out of service at will, and (0) shows the other extreme where the feeders and lines are expected to be in service continuously. Sketch (d) shows an arrangement which is frequently applicable and which provides a considerable flexibility with the fewest breakers.

Figs. 8 and 9 include fundamental layouts from which almost any combination can be made to meet local conditions. The choice depends on the requirements of service continuity, the importance of which depends on two factors, the multiplicity of sources of supply, and the type of load. Some industrial loads are of such a nature that the relatively small risk of an outage does not justify duplication of buses and switching.

The same argument applies tu the transmission line itself. Figure 10 shows an assumed transmission of 100 miles with two intermediate stations at ;)3 miles from either end. Sketch (a) is a fully-sectionalized scheme giving the ultimate in flexibility and reliability. Any section of either transmission circuit can be taken out for maintenance without the loss of gent~rating capacity. Furthermore, except within that part of the transmission where one section is temporarily out of service, a fault on any section of circuit may also be cleared without loss of load. Sketch (b) shows the looped-in method of connection. Fewer breakers are required than for the fully scctionalized scheme, and as in (a) any section of the circuit can be removed from service without reducing power output. If, however, a second line trips out, part or all of the generating capacity may be lost, Relaying is somewhat more difficult than with (a), but not unduly so. Flexibility on the low-voltage side is retained as in (a). Sketch (c) is in effect an extension of the buses from station to station. The scheme is, of course, considerably cheaper than that in (a) and slightly less than that in (b) but can be justified only where a temporary outage of the transmission is unimportant. Relaying in (c) is complicated by the fact that ties between buses tend to equalize the currents so that several distinct relaying steps are required to clear a fault.

A proper balance must be kept between the reliability of the switching scheme used and the design of the line itself. Most line outages originate from lightning and a simplification and reduction in the cost of switching is permissible if the circuit is built lightning proof. (See Chap. 13.) On the other hand, if a line is of poor construction as regards insulation and spacing, it would not be good engineering to attempt to compensate for this by

11

Fig. H)-Fundamental schemes of transmission. (a) Fully~ sect-ionalized ~upply. (b) Looped-in. supply. (c) Bussed supply.

putting in an elaborate switching and relaying scheme.

Only a few fundamental ideas have been presented on the possible layout of station buses and the switching arrangements of transmission circuits. The possible combinations are almost infinite in number and will depend on local conditions and the expenditure considered permissible for the conditions prevailing.

REFERENCES

1. Briefing the Reco~d, edited by J. J. Jaklitsch, Mechanical Engineering, February 1948, p. 147.

2, Economic Balance Between Steam and Hydro Capacity, Transactions A.8.M.E., Vol. 55, No.3. Also Electrical World, August 30, 1932.

3. Economics of Long-Distance Energy Transmission, by R. E.

Pierce and E. E. George, Ebaseo Services, Inc., A.I.E,E. Transactions, Vol. 67, 1948, pp. 1089··1094.

4, EEI-NEMA Preferred Voltage Ratings for A-C Systems and Equipment. dated May 1949. EEl Publication No. R-6. NEMA Publication No. 117.

CHAPTER 1

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Original A uthor:

J. E. Hobson

THE analysis of a throe-phase circuit in which phase voltages and currents are balanced (of equal magnitude in the three phases and displaced 1200 from each other), and in which all circuit elements in each phase are balanced and symmetrical, is relatively simple since the treatment of a single-phase leads directly to the threephase solution. The analysis by Kirchoff's laws is much more difficult, however, when the circuit is not symmetrical, as the result of unbalanced loads, unbalanced faults or short-circuits that are not symmetrical in the three phases. Symmetrical components is the method now generally adopted for calculating such circuits. It was presented to the engineering profession by Dr. Charles L. Fortescue in his 1918 paper, "Method of Symmetrical Coordinates Applied to the Solution of Polyphase Networks." This paper, one of the longest ever presented before the A.I.E.K, is now recognized as a classic in engineering literature. For several years symmetrical components remained the tool of the specialist; but the subsequent work of R. D. Evans, C. F. Wagner, J. F. Peters, and others in developing the sequence networks and extending the application to system fault calculations and stability calculations focused the attention of the industry on the simplification and clarification symmetrical components offered in the calculation of power system performance under unbalanced conditions.

The method was recognized immediately by a few engineers as being very useful for the analysis of unbalanced conditions on symmetrical machines. Its more genera] application to the calculation of power system faults and unbalances, and the simplification made possible by the use of symmetrical components in such calculations, was not appreciated until several years later when the papers by Evans, Wagner, and others were published. The use of symmetrical components in the calculation of unbalanced faults, unbalanced loads, and stability limits on three-phase power systems now overshadows the other applications.

The fundamental principle of symmetrical components, as applied to three-phase circuits, is that an unbalanced group of three related vectors (for example, three unsymmetrical and unbalanced vectors of voltage or current in a three-phase system) can be resolved into three sets of vectors. The three vectors of Bach set are of equal magnitude and spaced either zero or 120 degrees apart. Each set is a "symmetrical component" of the original unbalanced vectors. The same concept of resolution can be applied to rotating vectors, such as voltages or currents, or nonrotating vector operators such as impedances or admittances.

Revised bY7

D. L. Whitehead

Stated in marc general terms, an unbalanced group of n associated vectors, all of the same type, can be resolved into n sets of balanced vectors. The n vectors of each set are of equal length and symmetrically located with respect to each other. A set of vectors is considered to be symmetrically located if the angles between the vectors, taken in sequential order, are all equal. Thus three veet.org of one set are symmetrically located if the angle between adjacent vectors 1S either zero or 120 degrees. Although the method of symmetrical components is applicable to the analysis of any multi-phase system, this discussion will be limited to a consideration of three-phase systems, since three phase systems are most frequently encountered.

This method of analysis makes possible the prediction, readily and accurately, of the behavior of a power system during unbalanced short-circuit or unbalanced load conditions. The engineer's knowledge of such phenomena has been greatly augmented and rapidly dev[eloped since its introduction. Modern concepts of protective relaying and fault protection grew from an understanding of the symmetrical component methods.

Out of the concept of symmetrical components have sprung, almost full-born, many electrical devices. The negative-sequence relay for the detection of system faults, the positive-sequence filter for causing generator voltage regulators to respond to voltage changes in all three phases rather than in one phase alone, and the connection of instrument transformers to segregate zero-sequence quantities for the prompt detection of ground faults are interesting examples. The Hen pilot wire relay, a recent addition to tho list of devices originating in minds trained to think in terms of symmetrical components, uses a positivesequence filter and a zero-sequence filter for the detection of faults within a protected line section and for initiating the high speed tripping of breakers to isolate the faulted section.

Symmetrical components as a tool in stability calculations was recognized in 1924-1926, and has been used extensively since that time in power system stability analyses. Its value for such calculations lies principally in the fact that it permits an unbalanced load or fault to be represented by an impedance in shunt with the singlephase representation of the balanced system.

The understanding of three-phase transformer performance, particularly the effect of connections and the phenomena associated with three-phase core-form units has been clarified by symmetrical components, as have been the physical concepts and the mathematical analysis of rotating machine performance under conditions of unbalanced faults or unbalanced loading.

12

Chapter 2

Symmetrical Components

13

The extensive use of the network calculator for the detenuinut ion of short-circuit currents and voltages and for the application of circuit breakers, relays, grounding transformers. protector tubes, etc. has been furthered by the development of symmetrical components, since each sequence network may be set up independently as a singlephase system. A miniature network of an extensive power system, set up with three-phase voltages, separate impedances for each phase, and mutual impedances between phases would indeed be so large and cumbersome to handle as to be prohibitive. In this connnection it is of interest to note that the network calculator has become an indispensable tool in the analysis of power system performance and in power system design.

Xot only has the method been an exceedingly vnlunble tool in system analyses, but also, by providing new and simpler concepts the understanding of power system behavior has been clarified. The method of symmetrical components is responsible for an entirely different manner of approach to predicting and analyzing power-system perf orrnance.

Symmetrical components early earned a reputation of being complex. This is unfortunate since the mathematical manipulations attendant with the method are quite simple, requiring only It knowledge of complex vector notation. I t stands somewhat unique among mn.thomatical tools in that it has been used not only to explain existing conditions, but also, as pointed (Jut above, the physical concepts arising from a knowledge of the basic principles have led to the development of new equipment and new schemes for power system operation, prutect.ion, etc, Til [ngs men come to know lose their mystery, and so it is with this important tool.

Inasmuch as the theory and applications of symmetrical components are fully discussed elsewhere (see references) the intention here is only to summarize the important equations and to provide a convenient reference for those who arc already somewhat familiar with the subject.

I. THE VECTOR OPERATOR "a"

For convenience in notation and manipulation a vector operator is introduced. Through usage it has come to be known as the vector a and is defined as

This indicates that the vector a has unit length and is oriented 120 degrees in a positive (counter-clockwise) direction from the reference axis. A vector operated upon by a is nut chungnd in magnitude but is simply rotated in posit ion 120 degrees in the forward direction. For exampie, V' =aV is a vector having the same length as the vector V, but rotated 120 degrees forward from the vector V. This relationship is shown in Fig. 1. The square of the vector a is another unit vector oriented 120 degrees in a negative (clockwise) direction from the reference axis, or oriented 2,10 degrees forward in a positive direction.

(2)

As shown in Fig. 1, the resultant of a2 operating on a vector Y is the vector V" having the same length as V, but located 120 degrees in a clockwise direction from V. The three vectors 1+fO, a2, and a (taken in this order)

V"OV

V"'02V

Fig. 1-Rotation of a vector by the operator a.

form a balanced, symmetrical, set of vectors of positivephase-sequenc« rotation, since the vectors arc of equal length, displaced equal angles from each other, and cross the reference line in the order 1, a2, and a (following the usual cunvcntion of counter-clockwise rotation for the

(I)

TABLE l·-PROPERTms OF THE VECTOR OPERATOR "a" 1 = 1+-jO=<I'

1 .v'3 '120 a= ~2+J-2 =.'

1 ...,<1 ~ 24D

a2= -2-) -2-·'

a'~ l+jO~.io

I .v'3 '''0 a'=" = -2+)-2 =.'~

1 y'J . a" = ,,1 = - 2 - )-··2 = .,UD

a+o'+I=O

a+'P = -1 +)0 = .i180 a-n' =O+Jy-:l ~ y;:l_.i", a' --11 C~ 0 - j ... ;;l = v3.i2lO

3 v ;;j .;,. - .

1 ~u =:2 --)----2 C~)a v.l = -\1'3.,330

1 ,3 L . ''';:! .. j'f .;'f -SD

-a =2-.)---····2= -)ayv=v"f'

3 ,,/:i --

a-1 = -Z+.i--z= -ja!v'3=y'3eil~O

By':l . ~ ;-

(1'>-1 = -2-)2 =Jav3 = -,/3,1210

1 .v':j .

l+a= -a'=2+)-2=<,60

" ly':j

l+w = -a =2 -)-2 =.,'00

(1 tal (l +0.2) = 1 +jO = .;0 (1-a) (1-i+2)~3+jO=3<i'

l+a ] .y':l .

_·····_'·_·=a= -····-+-J-~~_=f1l30

1-1-a' 2' 2

I-It 1 ,y':j .

r-;~2 = -a = 2 -)"·--2 = .,300

(l+«),=a= _!+j~!;j=.i,".

2 2

(1+ ')" I .-,/3 .,..

a =a = -2-)2="

14

Symmetrical Components

Chapter 2

vector diagram). The vectors I, a, and a2 (taken in this order) form a balanced, symmetrical, set of vectors of negative-phase-sequence, since the vectors do not cross the reference line in the order named, keeping the same

Fig. l-Properties of the vector operator a,

convention of counterclockwise rotation, but the third named follows the first, etc.

Fundamental properties of the vector a are given in Table I, and are shown OIl the vector diagram of Fig. 2.

II. RESOLUTION AND COMBINATION OF VECTOR COMPONENTS

L Resolution of Unbalanced Three-Phase Voltages

A three-phase set of unbalanced voltage vectors is shown in Fig. 3c Any three unbalanced vectors such as those in Fig. 3 can be resolved into three balanced or symmetrical sets of vectors by the USc of the following equations:

EQ=HEa+Ell+Ee) s, =t(K,+aE.\+azEc) E2=!(E,.+a2Eb+aEe)

Fig. 3-Unbalanced vectors.

Eo is the zero-sequence component of Ea, and is likewise the zero-sequence component of Eb and Ee, so that Eo=Eao=EbO=EoO. This set of three-phase vectors is shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4-Zero-sequence components of the vectors in Fig. 3.

B, is the positive-sequence component of E3, written as Eal• The positive-sequence component of Eb, Ebl, is equal to a2E"l' The positive-sequence component of Eel Eel, is equal to HEa!. E,,[, E\", Eel form a balanced, symmetrical three-phase set of vectors of positive phase sequence "inee the vector E"1 is 120 degrees ahead of Ebl and 120 degrees behind Eel) as shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5-Positive-sequence components of the vectors in Fig. 3.

E2 is the negative-sequence component of E«, written as E." The negative-sequence components of Eb and Eo are, respect ively , aRa~ and a2g,z, RO that E,2, Eb2, EC2 taken in order form a symmetrical set of negative-sequence vectors as in Fig, 6.

All three of the zero-sequence-component vectors are defined by Eo, since Eao= EtAJ=E.o. Likewise, the three

E""~""E'

(3)

Fig. 6-Neg,ative-sequellce components of the v ectors in Fig. 3.

positive-sequence vectors are defined by E1, since EaJ =E1, Ebl=a2El' and Ed=aE!. Similarly the three negativesequence vectors are defined by Ez. Thus all nine component vectors of the three original unbaJanced vectors are completely defined by Eo, EI, and Ez; and it is understood that Eo, E\, and E2, are the zero-, positive-, and negativesequence components of E& without writing EoJ), etc. The three original unbalanced vectors possess six degrees of freedom, since an angle and a magnitude are necessary to define each vector. The nine component vectors also possess six degrees of freedom, since each of the three sets of component vectors is described by one angle and one magnitude; for example, the three positive-sequence vectors E&l, Eb1, and Eol, are defined by the angular position and magnitude of E1•

Chapter 2

Symmetrical Components

15

Note that all three sets of component vectors have the same counterclockwise direction of rotation as was assumed for the original unbalanced vectors. The negative-sequence set. of vectors does not rotate in a direction opposite to the positive-sequence set; but the phase-sequence, that is, the order in which the maximum occur with time, of the ncgative-soquenee set is a, c, b, a, and therefore opposite to the a, b, c, a, phase-sequence of the positivesequence set.

The unbalanced vectors can be expressed as functions of

the three components just defined:

K=E.n+Kl+E.2=Eo+E1+E2

Eb= El,o+Ebl+Eb2 = Eo+azEl+aE2 (4)

s,» E<o+Ecl+Ec2= Eo+aE1+a2Ez

1.04

The combination of the sequence component vectors to

form the original unbalanced vectors is shown in Fig. 7. ..rj.3 1.00

In general a set of three unbalanced vectors such as

those in Fig. 3 will have zero-, positive-, and negative- 0.96

Fill. '-Combination of the three symmetrical component sets of vectors to obtain the original unbalanced vectors in Fill. 3.

sequence components. However, if the vectors are balanced and symmetrical-of equal length and displaced 120 degrees from each ot.lwr-there will he only a positivesequence component, or only a negative-sequence component, depending upon the order of phase sequence for the original vectors.

Equations (3) can be used to resolve either line-toneutral voltages or line-to-line voltages into their components. Inherently, however, since three delta or lineto-line voltages must. form a c10sen triangle, there will he no zero-sequence component for a set of three-phase lineto-line voltages, and EOD=l (Enb+Ebc+Eea) =0. The subscript "D" is used to denote components of delta voltages or currents flowing in delta windings.

In many cases it is desirable to know lhe ratio of the negatives- to positive-sequence amplitudes und the phase angle between t.hem. This ratio is commonly called the unbalance factor and can be conveniently obtained from the chart given in Fig. 8. The angle, (J, by which Ea2 leads Eal can be obtained also from the same chart. The chart is applicable only to three-phase, three-wire systems, since it presupposes no zero-sequence component. The only data needed to use the chart is the scalar magnitudes of the three lim" voltages" As an example the chart can be used to determine the unbalance in phase voltages permissible on induction motors without excessive heating. This limit has usually been expressed as a permissible

0.92

0.88

Fig. 8-Determination of unbalance factor.

negative sequence voltage whereas the phase voltages are of course more readily measured.

2. Resolution of Unbalanced Three-Phase Currents Three line currents can be resolved into three sets of symmetrical component vectors in a manner analogous to that just given for the resolution of voltages.

Referring to Fig. 9:

Io=Iao= Hla+h+I<)

11 = 1,1 = HI a +aI b+a2I c) 12= 1 ~~= ~(I,,+a2lt+alc)

(5)

10

(l---===:;_--------

~

b---=="'---------

e

Fig. 9--Three-phase line currents.

The above are, respectively, the zero-, positive-, and negative-sequence components of L«, the current in the reference phase.

IR=Iofl+ld+I~2= 10+11+12

h=Il,Q+lbl+h~=Io+a2Jl+aI2 (6)

10=100+ I c1 +1<2 = Io+aII +a2I%

16

Sym'TJUlrical Components

Chapter 2

Three delta currents, Fig. 10, can be resolved into components;

100 = l(l,,+ 1y+ I,) 11D= !(I,,+aly+a2J,) 12D =.~ (lx+ a2Iy+aI.)

Wbere I« has been chosen as the reference phase current.

Fig. 16-Three-phase delta currents.

Three line currents flowing into a delta-connected load, or into a delta-connected transformer winding, cannot have a zero-sequence component since I.+h+I c must obviously he equal to zero. Likewise the currents flowing into a star-connected load cannot have a zero-sequence component unless the neutral wire is returned or the neutral point is connected to ground. Another way of stating this fact is that zero-sequence current cannot flow into a deltaconnected load or transformer bank; nor can zero-sequence current flow into a etar-connectcd load or transformer bank unless the neutral is grounded or connected to a return neutral wire.

The choice of which phase to use as reference is entirely arbitrary, but once selected, this phase must be kept as the reference for voltages and currents throughout the system, and throughout the analysis. It is customary in symmetrical component notation to denote the reference phase as "phase a". The voltages and currents over an entire system are then expressed in terms of their components, all referred to the components of the reference phase. The components of voltage, current, impedance, or power found by analysis are directly the components of the reference phase, and the components of voltage, current, impedance, or power for the other phases arc easily found by rotating the positive-or negative-sequence components of the reference-phase through the proper angle. The ambiguit.y possible where star-delta transformations of voltage and current. are involved, or where the components of star voltages and currents arc to be related to delta voltages and currents, is detailed in a following section.

3. Resolution of Unbalanced Impedances and Admittances

Self Impedances-Unbalanced impedances can be resolved into symmetrical components, although the impedances arc vector operators, and not rotating vectors as are three-phase voltages and currents. Consider the three star-impedances of Fig. 11 (a), which form an unbalanced load. Their sequence components are:

Zo= HZa+Zb+Zc)

Zl = l(Zal aZbl a2Zc) (8)

Z~ == !(Z~+a2Zb+aZo)

(7)

focfo·;, .. lt
a
(all
Ib ·to .. at{. + OIl Zo
b
Eb9
Ic-1o+D1, ..02t
c IECII
(a]
... Eo
I(I'lo+~+I2 Io a'
0 AA/'IIN'N'V
Eb
lb·lo .. aIlIc +011 Zb b'
b v-.NVWW
• Ec
Ic-l.o .. alj+DlIt Ze cl
e ,._ "NVVVvVv
(M Fig. ll-Three unbalanced self impedances.

The sequence components of current through the impedances, and the sequence components of the line voltages impressed across lhem 1;I.1'e interrelated by the following equations:

Bo = HBag+Bbg+ Beg) = IoZo+ IlZl+ I~Zl

e. =!CE"~+aEbg+a2E"g) =IoZl+11Zu+I~Z2 (9)

E2 = l(Eag+a2Ebg+aEcg) = IoZl+ I1Z1 + 12Zo

The above equations illustrate the fundamental principle that there is mutual coupling between sequences when the circuit constants are not symmetrical. As the equations reveal, both positive- and negative-sequence current (as well as zero-sequence current) create a zerosequence voltage drop. If Z.=Zb=Zc, the impedances are symmetrical; Zl=Z~=O, and Z&=Za .• For this condition,

Eo = IoZ. El=IIZ. E2=I2Zo

(10)

and, as expected, the sequences are independent. If the neutral point is not grounded in Fig. 11 (a), L« =0 but Eu = I1Z2+ J tZl so that there is a zero-sequence voltage, representing a neutral voltage shift, created by positiveand negative-sequence current flowing through the unhalanced load.

Equations (8) and (9) also hold for unsymmetrical series line impedances, as shown in Fig. 11 (b), where ED, B1, and E2 are components of B; Et, and Ee, the voltage drops across the impedances in the three phases.

Mutual Impedances between phases can also be resolved into components. Consider 2mb" of Fig, 12(a), as reference, then

Z ... s= HZmbc+Zm."+Z,,,.b)

z., ~HZrnbo+aZmca+a2Z"'.b) (11)

Zml = !(Zmbc+a2Zmca+aZmab)

Symmetrical Components

17

:Fig.11

(a) Three unbalanced mutual impedances. (0) Unbalanced self and mutual impedances.

The components of the three-phase line currents and the components of the three-phase voltage drops created by the mutual impedances will be interrelated by the following equations:

Eo=t(E",,+Ebb,+Eoe) =2IoZmo-11Z~1-12Z",1

El = HE~a+aEbb'+a2E<c') = - IoZml-I1Zmo+212Zml (12) E2 = HE .. a'+a2Ew+aEco') = - IOZml+211Zml - IzZmo

If, as in Fig. 12(b), both self and mutual impedances are present in a section of a three-phase circuit, the symmetrical components of the three voltage drops across the section are:

Eo = HEa':+ Ebb'+ E 00')

= lo(Zo+ 2Zmo) + J1(Z2- Z""l) + I Z(Zl- ZlIll) E, = !(E •• :laEw+a?Eoo')

=J.(Z, -Z.".)+I,(Z9-Zmo)+I2(Z~+2Zm2) (13)

E2 = t (E~~+a2Ebb'+aEoe')

= Io(Zl- Ztn2) + I1(Z.+ 2Z",1) + [2(Z. - Zmo)

Again. if both self and mutual imperlanees are sym-

metrical, in all three phases,

Eo=lo(Zo+2Z",o) =l.$o E1=I1(Zo-Z ... o) =!IZl E2=Iz(Z.-Zmo) =]2Z2

Where Zo, Z" and Z2 are, respectively, the impedance to zero-, positivs-, and negative-sequence. For this condition positive-sequence currents produce only a positivesequence voltage drop, etc. Zo, Z1, and Z2 are commonly referred to as the zero-sequence, positive-sequence, and negative-sequence impedances. Note, however, that this is not strictly correct and that Zl, the impedance to positive-sequence currents, should not be confused with Z), the positive sequence component of self impedances. Since Zo, ZI, and Z2 are used more frequently than Z., Zl, and Z2 the shorter expression "zero-sequence impedance" is usually used to refer to Zo rather than Z. For a circuit that has only symmetrical impedances, both self and mutual, the sequences are independent of each other, and positive-sequence currents produce only posi-

tive-sequence voltage drops, etc. Fortunately, except for unsymmetrical loads, uusymmetrical transformer connections, etc., the three-phase systems usually encountered are symmetrical (or balanced) and the sequences are independent.

Admittances can be resolved into symmetrical components, and the components used to find the sequence components of the currents through a three-phase set of line impedances, or star-connected loads, as functions of the symmetrical components of the voltage drops

.11 across the impedances. In FIg. 11 (a), let Y .. = Za' Yb= Zb'

1

yo~ z: then

Yo=!(Y.+ Yb+ Ye) YI = HY.+aYb+a2Ye) Y~=HY.+a2Yl>+aYc)

(15)

and

10= EoYo+E1Y~+E2Yl 11= EOYl+ElYO+E2Y2 Iz=EoYl+E1Yl+E2YG

Note, however, that Yo is not the reciprocal of Z., 98 defined in Eq. 8, YI is not the reciprocal of Zl. and Y1 is not the reciprocal of Z2, unless Z.=Zb=Zc; in other words, the components of admittance are not reciprocals of the corresponding components of impedance unless the three impedances (and admittances) under consideration are equal.

(16)

4. Star-Delta Conversion Equations

If a delta. arrangement of impedances, as in Fig. 13(a), is to be converted to an equivalent star shown in Fig. 13(b), the following equations are applicable.

Za= __1_= Z.bXZ<.&

Ya Z.b+Zbo+Zo~

z; = _!_ = ___!_._~!'-~

Yb Z.b+Zbc+Z.a

Zo=_!_= ZbcXZcQ

y~ Z"b+Zbo+Zoa

(17)

(14)

(b)

Fig. 13--Star-delta impedance conversions.

When the delta impedances form a three-phase load, no zero-sequence current can flow from the line to the load; hence, the equivalent star load must be left with neutral ungrounded.

The reverse transformation, from the star impedances of Fig. 13(b), to the equivalent delta Fig. 13(a), is given by

18

Symmetrical Component8

Chapter 2

An equivalent delta for a star-connected, three-phase load with neutral grounded cannot be found, since zerosequence current can flow from the line to the star load and return in the ground, but cannot flow from the line to any delta arrangement,

III. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEQUENCE COMPONENTS OF LINE-TO-LINE AND LINE-TO-NEUTRAL VOLTAGES

Assume that Eo., Ebg, and Eeg, are a positive-sequence set of line-to-neutral vectors in Fig. 14(a). The line-toline voltages will also form a positive-sequence set of

o--y-------------r----------,---

to)

Fig. 14-Relationship8 between line-to-line and Hne-toneutral components of volrage.

(b) Positive-sequence relationships.

(c) Negative-sequence relut.ionships.

vectors. The relationship between the two sets of threephase vectors is shown in Fig. 14(b). Although Em (the positive-sequence component of the line-towline voltages) will be numerically equal to V'JEI~EI is the positivesequence component of the line-to-neutral voltages (which is equal in this case to E.~); the angular relationship between El and Ew depends upon the line-to-line voltage taken as reference. The choice is arbitrary. Table 2 gives the relation between E1D and El for various line-to-line phases selected as reference.

TABLE 2

(18)

Reference Phase I

Line-to-Line Voltages I

--~~, '~---~1

AB i

BC

CA

BA

CB

AC

Positive-Sequence Line-to-Line Voltage As a Function of Positive Sequence Line-to-Xeutral Voltage

Em = R." = y'3EI.i30 = (i-a') E, E,[)=E".= -jyl3E, =(a2-Q)E, EID =,E"",= .._;3J?"il•O = (a -1)E, RID = E". = yl3E,,-i100 = (a' -l)EI Ejo =Ecb =JyI:~E, = (a-a')EI EID=E",,=ylJE1f j,o=(l-a)E,

If Eag, Ebg, and Eeg, form a negative-sequence set of vectors, the vector diagram of Fig. 14(0) illustrates the relation between E2 = E~~) and E2D, t.he negative-sequence component of the line-to-line voltages. Again, the algebraic relation expressing E2D as a function of E2 will depend upon the line-to-line phase selected for reference, as illustrated in Table 3.

TABLE 3

Reference Phase

Em -E.b = v3E •• ~,'" = (l .. -a)E. Em =Eh.=jv'3E, = (a-a·)E. E'D =E",= yl3E,,-;liQ= (a'-l)E~ Em = Eb• = y'3E se ;'50 = (a -1)E, Ew=E,b= -jy'3E.=(a'-a)E, Em =E«; = ,/3R,,;30 = (I -a') R.

Negative-Sequence Line-to-Line Voltage As a Function of Negative Sequence Line-to-N eutral Voltage

AB BC CA BA CB AC

Since the line-to-line voltages cannot have a zero-sequence component, Eoo=O under all conditions, and E~ is an indeterminate function of EoD•

The equations expressing Em as a function of E1, and Em as a function of E2, can be solved to express El and Ez as functions of Em and Em, respectively. Refer to Table 4 for the relationships.

TABLE 4

Rd(>f(>n~e I Phase

----_

I Em i-a

AB EI='V:;J.-/10=-3-Em

E .EIO a-a'E

BC l =J'j;I=~3 ID

CA

BA

CB

AC

Certain author-s have arbitrarily adopted phase CB as reference, since the relations between the line-towline and line-to-neutral components nrc easily remembered and the angular shift of ~)O degrees is easy to carry in computations. Using this convention:

Chapter 2

Symmetrical Components

ElD=jv'3E\

E2D= -jv'3E2 EOD=O

Eo is not a function of EOD

The equations and vector diagrams illustrate the interesting fact that the numerical relation between the lineto-line and line-to-neutral positive-sequence cornponcnts is the same as for negative-sequence; but that the angular shift for negative-sequence is opposite to that for positivesequence, regardless of the delta phase selected for refercnr-o. Also, a connection of power or rep;ulating tyunsformers giving a shift of e degrees in the transformation for positive-sequence voltage and current will give a shift of -1/ degrees in the transformation for negative-sequence voltage and current,

IV. SEQUENCE COMPONENTS OF LINE AND DELTA CURRENTS

The relation existing between the positive-sequence component of the delta currents and lhe pusitivc-scquence component of the line currents flowing into ,~ dolt.a load or delta-connected transformer winding, and the relation existing for the negative-sequence components of t he currents are given in Figs. 15(b) and 15(c). Although the components of line currents are v';-; times the della phase selected for reference, the angular relationship depends

~

0-=='------ ....

c 2£_
I;
b _!!>__
(ol r,

tb)

10 Ie)

Fig. 15-Relationship8 between components of phase and delta currents.

(b) Positive·sequence relationships.

(c) Negative-sequence relationships.

19

upon the phase selected for reference. L; is taken as reference for the line currents. Refer to Table 5.

(19)

TABLE 5

Fig. 14{c)

])('It:.

Reren'nce Current

1

lID ~ I, = ;){,<"O

v'·

J", =I; =:::/;1,

v·>

Fig. 14(b)

I.

I.

1

Im=I, c~vi"j"O

]'IJ= -1. =..1. .. /,,-,,50

- -,.../:J

t.; -/ =~i_l ~ "\../;) I

/ in ,= -1, = .X-I,,-j30 '1':1

-1,

-1,

12l) = Ix = .J..,! ,.-i'.

y'3

j I-» = 1 v = y'i'

12D =L, = J:~lz.-i". 1[.

I2IJ = -Ix = yl3 ,,'''.

-}

12D = - I • = yI:/.

/2D= -I_LI,.iso .zv<;

If the current (- ly) is taken as reference, the relations are easily remembered; also, the j operator is convenient to use in analysis.

(20)

V. STAR-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS OF VOLT AGE AND CURRENT

Each sequence component of voltage and current must be followed separately through the transformer, and tho angular shift of trw sequence will depond upon the input. and output phases arbitrarily selected for reference. In Fig. 10(11), the winding ratio is n and the overall trans-

f . .. \T n I . li I' I ormation ratio 1S Iv = -~,.o..llle-to- me or ine-to-neutra

V,)

voltages 011 the delta side will be N Limes the corresponding voltages on the star side of the transformer (neglecting impedance drop). If the transformer windings arc symmetrical in the three phases, there will be no interaction between sequences, and each sequence component of voltage or current is transformed independently.

To illustrate the sequence trunsforrnutious, phases a and a' have been selectr-d (~S !·dercncc phases in the two circuits. Figs. 1Mb), (e). (ell, and (e) give the relationships for the three phases with each component of voltage and current considered separately.

From the vector diagrams

El' = l'{ E1ci30

1 .

Il' = }/!~J30

E{=NE2e-iw

l' 1 .

'I =·""I.~-J30

. N'

(21)

Regardless of the phases selected for reference, both positive-sequence current and voltage will be shifted in the same direction lJy the same angle. Negative-sequence current and voltage will also be shifted the same angle in

20

Symmetrical Components

Chapter 2

Ie

(d)

(e)

Fig. 16-Transformntion of the sequence components of current and voltage in a star-delta transformer bank.

(b) Relationship of positive-sequence line-to-neutral and line-toline voltages.

(e) He!ationghip of positive-sequence currents.

(d) Relationship of negative-sequence line-to-neutral and lineto-line vol tnges.

(e) Relationship of negative-sequence currents.

one direction, and the negative-sequence angular shift will be equal to the positive-sequence shift but 'in the op-posite direction: As previously stated, this is a g(mernJ rule for ull connections of power and regulating transformers, wherever phase shift is involved in the transformation.

Since zero-sequence current cannot flow from the delta winding, there will be no zero-sequence component of lB.'. If the star winding is grounded, fa may have a zero-soquence component. From the star side tho transformer bank acts as a return path for zero-sequence current (if the neutral is grounded), and from the delta side the bank acts as an open circuit to zero-sequence. FOT zero-sequence current alone} I a = 1" = Ie = 1o, and a current will circu-

1 late around the delta such that I"=Iy=I.=Iod=~I,,.

n

The zero-sequence line-to-neutral voltages, E Q and Eo' are entirely independent; each being determined by conditions in its respective circuit. The transformation characteristics for the three sequence currents and voltages, and the sequence impedance characteristics, for common connections of power and regulating transformers arc given in Chap. 5. The action of a transformer bank in the transformation of zero-sequence currents must be given particular attention, since certain eonncctions do not permit zero-sequence current. to flow, others permit it to pass through the bank without transformation, and still others transform zerosequence quanti Lies in the same manner as positive- or negative-sequence quantities are transformed.

VI. THREE~PHASE POWER

The total three-phase power of a. circuit can be expressed in terms of the symmetrical components of the line currents and the symmetrical components of the line-toneutral voltages.

P=3(Eolo cos 8o+Edl cos 81+Ez12 cos 82) (22)

where 80 is the angle between Eo and [Q, 81 the angle between E, and h 82 the angle between Ez and [2. The equation shows that the total power is the sum of the three components of power; but the power in one phase of an unbalanced circuit is not one-third of the above expression, since each phase will contain components of power resulting from zero-sequence voltage and positive-sequence current, etc. This power "between sequences" is generated in one phase and absorbed by the others, and does not appear in the expression for total three-phase power.

Only positive-sequence power is developed by the generat.ora. This power i" ~()nverted to negative-sequence and zero-sequence power by circuit dissymmetry such as occurs from a single line-to-ground or a line-to-line fault. The unbalanced fault, unbalanced load, or other dissymmetry in the circuit thus acts as the "generator" fOT negativesequence and zero-sequence power.

VII. CONJUGATE SETS OF VECTORS

Since power in an alternating-current circuit is defined as EI (t.he vector E times the conjugate of the vector I), some consideration should be given to conjugates of the symmetrical-component sets of vectors. A system of positive-sequence vectors are drawn in Fig. 17(a). In

Fi~. 17-Conjul!ates of a positive-sequence set of vectors.

Chapter 2

Symmetrical Components

21

(a}

Fig. 18~Conjugates of a negative-sequence set of vectors.

accordance with the definition that the conjugate of a given vector is a vector of the same magnitude but displaced the same angle from the reference axis in the opposite direction to the given vector, thc conjugates of the positive-sequence set of V(,ctors are shown in Fig. 17(b). Note that the conjugates to a pnsitivc-soqucnce sct of vectors form a negativesequence set of vectors. Similarly, as in Fig, 18, the eonjugates to a negative-sequence set of vectors form a posi-

(0)

[b~OO'lbO'~GO

Fig. 19-Conjugates of a zero-sequence set of vectors.

tive-sequence set. The conjugate of a zero-sequence set of vectors is another zero-sequence set of vectors, see Fig. 19.

VIII. SEQUENCE NETWORKS 5. General Considerations

One of the most useful concepts arising from symmetrical components is that of the sequence network, which is an equivalent network Ior t.he balanced power system under an imagined operating condition sueh that only one sequence component of voltages and currents is present in the system. As shown above for the case of balanced loads (and it can be readily shown in general) currents of one sequence will create voltage drops of that sequence only, if a power system is balanced (equal series impedances in all three phases, NI1WJ mutual impedances between phases, rotating machines symmetrical in all three phases, all banks of transformers symmetrical in all three phases, etc.). There will be no interaction between sequences and the sequences are independent. Nearly all power systems can be assumed to be balanced except for emergency conditions such as short-eireuits, faults, unbalanced load, unbalanced open circuits, or unsymmetrical conditions arising in rotating machines, Even under such emergency unbalanced conditions, which usually occur at only one point in the system, the remainder of the power system remains balanced and an equivalent sequence network can be ob-

tained for the balanced part of the system. The advantage of the sequence network is that, since currents and voltages of only one sequence nrc present, the three-phase system can be represented by an equivalent single-phase diagram. The entire sequence network can often be reduced by simple manipulation to a single voltage and a single impedance. The type of unbalance or dissymmetry in the circuit can be represented by an interconnection between the equivalent sequence networks.

The positive-sequence not.work is the only one of the three that will contain generated voltages, since alternators can be assumed to generate only positive-sequence voltages. The voltages appearing in the negative- and zerosequence networks will be generated by the unbalance, and will appear as voltages impressed on the networks at tho point of fault. Furthermore, the positive-sequence network roprr-sonts the system operating under normal balanced conditions. For short-circuit studies the internal voltages are shorted and the positive sequence network is driven by the voltage appearing at the fault before the fault oeeurred aeeording to tho theory of Superposition and the Compensation Theorems (see Chapter 10, Sed.ion II). This give" exactly the increments or changes in system quant.it.ies over the system. Sinee the fault current equals zero before the fault, the increment alone is the fault current total. However, the norrnul currents ill any branch must be added to the calculated fault current in the same branch to get the total current in any branch after the fault occurs.

6. Setting Up the Sequence Networks

The equivalent circuits for each sequence are set up "as viewed from the fault," by imagining current of the particular sequence to be circulated through the network from the fault point, investigating the path of current, flow and the impedance of each section of the network to currents of that sequence. Another approach is to imagine in each network (1 voltage impressed across the terminals of the network, and to follow the path of current flow through the network, dealing with each sequence separately, It is particularly necessary when setting up the zero-sequence network to start at the fault point, or point of unbalance, since zero-sequence currents might not flow over the entire syatom. Only parts of the system over which zero-sequence current, will flow, as the result of a zero-sequence voltage impressed at the unbalanced point, are included in the zero-sequence network "as viewed from the fault." The two terminals for each network correspond to the two points in the three-phase system on either side of the unbalance. For the case of shunt faults between conductors and ground, one tr-rminnl of each network will be the fault point in the three-phase system, the other terminal will be ground or neutral at that point. For a series unbalance, such as an open conductor, the two terminals will correspond (.0 the two points in the three-phase system immediately adjacent. to the unbalance,

7. Sequence Impedances of Lines, Transformers, ami Rotating Machinery

The impedance of any unit of the system-s-such as a generator, a t.ra.nsformer, or a section of line--to be in-

22

Symmetrical Components

Chapter 2

serted in a sequence network is obtained by imagining unit current of that sequence to be circulated through the apparatus or line in all three phases, and writing the equation for the voltage drop; or by actually measuring the voltage drop when current of the one sequence being investigated is circulated through the three phases of the apparatus. The impedance to negative-sequence currents for all static non-rotating apparatus will be equal to the impedance for positive-sequence currents, The impedance to negative-sequence currents for rotating' apparatus will in general be different from the impedance to positive sequence. The impedance t.o zero-sequence currents for all apparatus will in general be diHerent from either the impedance to positive-sequence or the impedance to negativesequence. The sequence impedance characteristics of the component plJ,rt~ of a power system have been investigated in detail and are discussed in Chaps. 3, 4, .5, and 6.

An impedance in the neutral will not. appear in nit,her the positive-sequence network or the negative-sequence network, since the three-phase currents of either sequence add to zero at the neutral; an equivalent impedance equal to three times the ohmic neutral impedance will appear in tho zero-sequence network, however, since the zero-sequence currents flowing in the three phases, Io add directly to give a neutral current of 3Io.

8. Assumed Direction of Current Flow

By convention, the positive direction of current flow in each sequence network is taken as being outward at the faulted or unbalanced point; thus the sequence currents are assumed to flow in the same direction in all three sequence networks. This convention of assumed current flow must be carefully followed to avoid ambiguity or error even though some of the currents are negative. After the currents flowing in each network have been determined, the sequence voltage at any point in the network can be found by subtractiru; the impedance drops of that sequence from the generated voltages, taking the neutral point of the network as the point of zero voltage. For example, if the impedances to positive-, negativo-, and zero-sequence between neutral and the point in question arc Zl, Z2, and Zo, respectively, the sequence voltages at the point will be

s, =Ea1-![Zl E2= -I2Z2 Eo= -L»,

where E~l is the generated positive-sequence voltage, the positive-sequence network being the only one of the three having a generated voltage between neutral and t.he point for which voltages are to be found. In particular, if Z[t Z2 and Zo are the total equivalent impedances of the networks to the point of fault, then 1<:q. (23) gives the sequence voltages at the fault.

Distribution Factors-If several types of unbalance are to be investigated for one point. in the system, it is convenient to find distribution factors for each sequence current by circulating unit sequence current in the terminals of each network, letting it flow through the network and finding how this current distributes in various b:-anches. Regardless of the type of fault, and the magmtude of sequence current at the fault., the current will

distribute through each network in accordance with the distribution factors found for unit current. This follows from the fact that within anyone of the three networks the currents and voltages of that sequence are entirely independent of the other two sequences.

These points will be clarified by detailed consideration of a specific example at the end of this chapter.

IX. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE SEQUENCE NETWORKS

As discu'lsed in Part TT, Sec. 3 of this chapter, any unbalance or dissymmetry in the system will result in mutual action between the sequences, so that it is to be expected that the sequence networks will have mutual coupling, or possibly direct connections, between them at the point of unbalance. Equations can be written for the conditions existing at the point. of unbalance that show the coupling or connections necessarily existing between the sequence networks at that point.

As pointed out in Sec. 5, it is usually sufficiently accurate to reduce a given system to an equivalent source and single reactance to the point of fault. This in effect means that. the system is reduced to a single generator with a fault applied at its terminals. Figs. 20(a) through 20(0) show such an equivalent system with the more common types of faults applied. For example Fig. 20(a) is drawn for a three-

(1) EQUIVALENT SYSTEM

rEar _ ,F1

IF' I'F I

L N1:~~~'=-~~_ Nf

X2

_ Ft

IN I~f r

L ~~TJ!~_~~ Nt

)(0

(23)

(2}

to POSITIVE-, N EGATIVE-, AND ZERO-SE~UENCE DIAGRAMS FOR SYSTEM {I )("o· PHASE)

,...-------Ebl

(4)

VECTOR DIAGRAM SHOWING VOLTAGES AIliD CURRENTS DURING FAULT

(3}

SHORTHAND REPRESENTATION OF POSlTtVE-, NEGATIVE-, ANO ZERO-SEQUENCE NETWORKS

(a) Fi~. 20.

(a) Three-phase short circuit on generator,

Chapter 2

Symmetrical Components

23

(0) EQUIVALENT SYSTEM

[b)

POSITIVE-, NEGATIVE-, AND ZERO-SEQUENCE DIAGRAMS FOR SYSTEM(Q) ("a· PHASE}

I I /

I

I

I

I

(dl

VOLTAGE vECTOR DIAGRAM

(e)

SHORTHANO REPRESENTATION OF (b)

(b)

(a) EQUIVALENT SYSTEM

(b] POSITIVE-,NEGATIVE -, AND ZERO-SEQUENCE OIAGRAMS FOR SYSTEM(a)(",," PHASE)

(d)

VECTOR DIAGRAM SHOWING VOLTAGES ANO CURRENTS OURING FAULT

(c) SHORTHAND RE P RESEN TAT ION OF (b)

(e)

(b) Single-line-to-ground fault on ungrounded generator,

(c) Single-hne-to-ground fault on generator grounded through

a neutral reactor.

N,

F~

(a) EQUIVALENT SYSTEM

(b)

POSITIVE-, NEGATIVE-, AND ZERO-SEQUENCE DIAGRAMS FOR SYSTEM (0) (''a'' PHASE 1

Eel

~ ~

(dl

VECTOR DIAGRAM SHOWI NS VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS DURING FAULT

Ie)

SHORTHAND REPRESENTATION OF (b)

(d)

a

X,

(a) EQUIVALENT SYSTEM

(b)

POSlTIVE-, NEGATIVE-,AND ZERO-SEQUENCE DIAGRAMS FOR SYSTEM (0 )("0" PHASE)

CI (d)

VECTOR DIAGRAM SHOWING VOLTAGES ANO CURRENTS DURING FAULT

Ie)

SHORTHAND REPRESENTATION OF (bl

(e)

Filt. 20 (d) Line-to-line [ault. on grounded or ungrounded generator.

(e) Double-line-to-ground fault on generator grounded through

a neutral reactor,

24

Symmetrical Components

Chapter 2

~~~~.,.,.:;+.,=""",~.) OOUOLE UN£-TO-GROUN() F/\ULT THA:OUGH UIllP-fOAN(;E UNBALANCEO STAR LOAD

~._1'L ~ -.,f-:-:---.------,. c---~II'-} . .~----~--_~

:-----r.,~O:} ::::::~_~x v ::: x z x; . I I"".,-} ,,-X.~_~~ .. __ 1 ;:: x i y ;~: x Z Y

::: l\.:o"---~1'i.:~----! I\!;(:CL~___ 'I_<I __ ... __ ---- (0)

-----.t::----l.,.)n})7'nl).,.J/,.,'7n"'n,j;;~)n'7i""'7l1n,.,.,,.,,,n,-r, })jJ/JJ;jl n~Ji})iJ .... un ""----:.----

"",lL dll;~'" '''Ii,,' '" rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr

UNBALANCED DELTA tOAO UNGROUNDED SYSi'EM

1m] ,,)

io} xJv,...!.y____ (o)""-"--"·-;2a~"'

ibl ! (b) Zb

(0) «I Zb

Z"

rrrrr: i7U",;.,)}'J)'lIn()L

IT]

THREE-PI4AS'£ F'AliLT

• F
(b]
10) zl fZ
Ii ,. ,; ~iz~,
(oj r
: tb)
le) J"'),», j"",j"'t"/ll

III.IPEDAN-CE IN ONE UNt

'''''nn),

DO

.r--

;~~~; F~ I~~:~; ~F _

(~:""",,,,~1;,,,,,,, '''' (:r,.,.",,,,,,~ .. , "

IN "I

~N,

rn rn

IM~EOANCE5 IN ON t LINE .ANO Nt:UTfi:AL RETuRN

(u]

I)i>JnJjj)}))))),))))y,j

I ox. y.o I' Z "No

oGo

EQUA.L IIrIIPlDANGES IN lwO LINES

I.)

OF. I

"'. aGo

LINE - TG-LiNE F4ULT

ONE LINE OPEN

ON£ LINE OPEN WITH TWO LIW£S OPEN TWO LINES OPEN,

IMPEbANGE '{OfTH:CA" I,JNES (0:) IIrIfPEOANC:E ~~ TMJRD LIN&:

(.I-·--X-'N'!z'" .a, y-_-_-_~-_-_-_~!-Io----x=~y~---j-{-a-I--___:X Y

Ib) {~} t. I~I t:

(0) (0) 1 lel.Z"

G

I/}'I>IIII)))) }}}))j;}"

G >. 'n;;;))jnu)' "n)) fnn

YwO UNES OPEN,IMPEOAN{;(S IN THIRD UN( 6~rHAL AETI)RN

I.) x lay

{bJ~ ~~-

G

nun}})} tlilinino )j}

H)

C

"'/lI)'lUIl u,i; ,uj}}

UNEQUAL SEAI£S IMPEDANCES

'EQUAL IMPEOANCES IN two LINES WIT'i'i IMPEDANCE I~ NEUTRA.L ReTURN

I .. ]

Fi~. 2t·-Connectlon of the sequence networks to represent shunt and SHies unbalanced conditions. For shunt unbalances the faulted point in the system is represented by F and neutral DY N. Corresponding. points are represented in the sequence networks by the letter with a sequence subscript. P, N, and Z refer to the posrtive-, negattve-, and zero-sequence networks, respectively. For series unbalances, points in the system adjacent to the unbalance are represented by X and Y. N is again

the neutral.

Chapter 2

Symmetrical Components

phase fault on the system. Part (1) shows the equivalent system (2) the corresponding positive- negative- and zero-sequence diagrams, and (3) the shorthand representation of the sequence diagrams. Part (4) is a vector diagram showing graphically the relationship between the various voltages and currents. In the zero-sequence diagrams of (2) and (3) a distinction is made between "neutral". N, and "ground", G. Tn t,hfl positive- and negative-sequence networks no such distinction is necessary, since by their definition positive- and negative-sequence quantities are balanced with respect to neutral. For example, all positive- and negative-sequence currents add to zero at the system neutral so that the terms "neutral" and "ground" are synonymous. Zero-sequence quantities however, are not balanced with respect to neutral. Thus, by their nature zero-sequence currents require a neutral or ground return path. In many cases impedance exists between neutral and ground and when zero-sequence currents flow l:t voltage drop exists between neutral and ground. Therefore, it is necessary that one be specific when speaking of line-to-neutral and line-to-ground zero-sequence voltages. They are the same only when no impedance exists between the neutral and ground.

In parts (3) of Fig. 20(a) all portions of the network within the hoxes are balanced and only the terminals at the point of unbalance are brought out. The networks as shown are for the "a" or reference phase only. In Eqs. (2.";) through (29) the zero-sequence impedance, Zo, is infinite for the case of Fig. 20(b) and includes 3Xa in the case of Fig. 20(c). Fig. 21 gives a summary of the connections required to represent the more common types of faults encountered in power system work.

Equations for calculating the sequence quantities at the point of unbalance are given below for the unbalanced conditions that occur frequently. In these equations ElF, E2F, and EOF are components of the line-to-neutral voltages at the point of unbalance; f,y, 12F, and [OF are components of the fault current [F; Zl, Z2, and Z~ are impedances of the system (as viewed from the unbalanced terminals) to the flow of the sequence currents; and En. is the line-to-neutral positive-sequence generated voltage.

9. Three-Phase Fault-Fig. 20(a)

(24)

10. Single Line-to-Ground Fault-Fig. 20(b) and 20(c)

14. Two Lines Open-Fig. 21(p)

s; I1F=I2F= /0.'= -,---"ZI+Z2+Z0

IF=I~=3Iw

Ea,(Z,+ZO) EIx-E)y = Eal-I)FZl = .2,+Z2+Z0

E2x-E2y= -I2FZ2= -z'-iz2p;a+_L_-z

1 ,.12 J'O

• ZVE'l

Eo.-EOy= -IoFZo= _---,_.,-_

ZI+Z2+Z0

15. Impedance in One Line-Fig. 21(s) E"I(ZZO+ZZ2+3ZoZ2)

IF = --~ .. -""- .. -".-""-"" .. ~.------

1 ZZlZO+ZZlZ2+ 3Z,Z2Z0+ZZZZ0

25

(31) (32)

(33)

(34)

(35)

(36)

(37)

(38)

(39)

(40)

(41)

(42)

(43)

(44)

(45)

(46) (47) (48)

(49)

(50)

(51)

26

Symmetrical Components

Chapter 2

connections will have to be made through phase-shifting transformers. The analysis in the cases of simultaneous faults is considerably more complicated than for single unbalances.

No assumptions were made in the derivation of the representation of the shunt and series unbalances of Fig. 21 that would not permit the application of the same principles tv simultaneous faults on multiple unbalances. In fact various cases of single unbalance can be combined to

ZZ2ZoE.l

~--=-=---o::- __:_c~~_-:-:: (56)

IOfZo = ZZlZo+ ZZlZz +3Z1ZZZ0+ ZZ2Zo

If two or more unbalances occur simultaneously, mutual coupling or connections will occur between the sequence networks at each point of unbalance, and if the unbalances are not symmetrical with respect to the same phase, the

b

I:T~ 1

L-_';~:::~__ W

TRANSFORMERS

SIMULTANEOUS SINGLE LlNE-TO-GROUND SIMULTANEOUS SINGLE UNE-TO-GROUND

FAULT AND OPEN CONDUCTOR ON PHASE A. THROUGH IMPEDANCE AND OPEN CONDUCTOR ON PHASE A.

(~ ~)

Q xV ~ __

:77??'7"77lt~"?777777?'?'?:

e

777777777777777777777777777777

SIMULTANEOUS SINGLE LlNE-TO-GROUND ON PHASE A AND UNE-TO-LINE BETWEEN PHASES BAND C.

(a)

3Z

x

V

e

x:

y

o

x z y

Q
b Z
e Z
z~
G
(////( '/// '////// 1////////// b

e

G 77777777777777777777777777777

SIMULTAfiEOUS SINGLE LINE -TO-GROliNO FAULT ON PHASE B AND OPEN CONDUCTOR ON PHASE A.

Cd)

Fill. ll-Connections between the sequence networks for typical cases of m.ultiple unbalances.

(f)

b

77777777777l77777777??77777771

SIMULTANEOUS SINGLE LINE - TO- GROUND FAULT ON PHASE C AND OPEN CONDUCTOR ON PHASE A,

{e}

SIMULTANEOUS SINGLE LlNE-TO-GROUND FAULTS ON PHASES A AND 8 AT DIFFEREN'i LOCATIONS.

Chapter 2

Symmetrical Components

27

form the proper restraints or terminal connections to represent multiple unbalances. For example, the reprcsontation for a simultaneous single line-to-ground fault on phase "a" and a line-to-line fault on phases "b" and "c" can be derived by satisfying the terminal connections of Figs. 21(d) and 2W). Fig. 21(d) dictates that the three networks be connected in series, while Fig. 21 (f) shows the positive- and negative-sequence networks in parallel. Both of t.hese requirements can be met simultaneously as shown in Fig. 22(a). Simultaneous faults that are not symmetrical to the reference phase can be represented by similar connections using ideal transformers or phase shifters to shifl the sequence voltages and currents originating in all of the unbalances except the first or reference condit ion. The fault involving phase "a" is usually taken as the reference and all others are shifted by the proper amount before making the terminal connections required to satisfy that particular type of fault. The positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence shifts, respectively for an unbalance that is symmetrical to phase "a" are 1, 1, 1; "b" phase a2, a, 1; to "c" phase a, a2, 1. A few multiple unbalances that may occur at one point in a system simultaneously are given in Fig, 22, which also gives one illustration of simultaneous faults at different points in a system with one fault not symmetrical with respect to phase a.

To summarize, the procedure in finding voltages and currents throughout a system during fault conditions is: (1) set up each sequence network as viewed from the fault, (2) find the distribution factors for each sequence current throughout its network, (3) reduce the network to as simple a circuit as possible, (4) make the proper connection between the networks at the fault point to represent the unbalanced condition, (5) solve the resulting single-phase circuit for the sequence currents at the fault, (0) find the sequence components of voltage and current at the desired locations in the system. The positive-sequence voltage to be used, and the machine impedances, in step (.5) depend upon when the fault currents and voltages are desired; if immediately after the fault occurs, in general, use subtransient reactances and the voltage back of subtransient reactance immediately preceding the fault; if a few cycles after the fault occurs, use transient reactances and the voltage back of transient reactance immediately before the fault; and if steady-state conditions are desired, use synchronous reactances and the voltage back of synchronous react.ance. If regulators are used, normal bus voltage can be used to find steady-state conditions and the machine reactance in the positive-sequence network taken as being zero.

X. EXAMPLE OF FAULT CALCULATION

16. Problem

Let us assume the typical transmission system shown in Fig. 23(a) to havo a single line-tn-ground fault on one end of the GG kv line as shown. The line construction is given in Fig. 23(b) and the generator constants in Fig. 23(c), Calculate the following:

(a) Positive-sequence reactance to the point of fau1t. (b) Negative-sequence reactance to the point of fault. (c) Zero-sequence reactance to the point of fault.

Z5000 KVA ~i X=IO%

20000 KVA t~ X·9%

40 MILES-1I0 KV

110 KV LINE CONDUCTOR 4/0 cu.

66 KV LINE

CONDUCTOR 4/0 CU.

ALL GROUND WIRES 0.375 EBB STEEL (bl

GENERATOR G, GENERATOR G2

50,000 KVA 37,500 KVA

NEUTRAL GROUNDED THROUGH 4% REACT. NEUTRAL UNGROUNDED

"'d = 100% Xd ·130%
X;d -: 21 % X'd= 25 %
X"d' 12% X"d= 17%
X2 • 12% X2= 17%
Xo' 6% Xo' 5% (c)

Fig. 23- Typical system assumed for fault calculation. (a) System single-line diagram,

(h) Line const.ruct.ion .

(c) Tabulation of generator constants.

(d) Fault current.

(e) Line currents, line-to-ground voltages, and line-toline voltages at the breaker adj acent to the fault, (f) Line currents, Iine-to-ground voltages, and line-toline voltages at tho terminals of G'.

eg) Line currents, line-t.o-ground voltages, and line-toline voltages at the 110 kv breaker adjacent to the 25,000 kva transformer.

17. Assumptions

(1) That the fault currents are to be calculated using

transient reactances.

(2) A base of .50,000 kva for the calculations, (:3) That all resistances can be neglected.

(4) That. a voltage, positive-sequence, as viewed from the faull uf j 100% will be used for reference. This

. d If· GG,OOO 1 b

IS an assume vo tage 0 J ~~-~ vo ts etween

"';3

line "a" and neutral.

(5) That the reference phases on either side of the stardelta transformers arc chosen such that positivesequence voltage on the high side is advanced 30c in phase posit.ion from the positive-sequence voltage on the low side of the transformer.

28

Symmetrical Components

Chapter 2

18. Line Reactances (Refer to Chap. 3)

Positive- and Negative-Sequence Reactances oj the 110 kv Line.

For 4/0 copper conductors x" = 0.4\)7 ohms per mile. Xd=1(Xd for 14 feet+xd for 14 feeL+xd for 28 feet). = ~(O.320+0.320+(U01) = 0.3"*8 ohms per mile. xl=x2=xa+xd=0.497+0.318=O.845 ohms per mile.

Positive- and Negative-Sequence Reactances oj the 66 kv Line.

x,,=O.497 ohms per mile.

Xd = HXd for 10 feet+xd for 10 feeL+xd for 20 feet) =l(O.279+0.279+0.3G4) ~O.307 ohms per mile.

Xl=XZ=Xu+Xd=0.497+0.307=O.804 ohms per mile.

Zero-Sequence Reactances-Since zero-sequence currents flowing in either the 110- or the GG-kv line will induce a zero-sequence voltage in the other line and in all three ground wires, the zero-sequence mutual reactances between lines, between each line and the two sets of ground wires, and between the two sets of ground wires, must be evaluated as well as the zero-sequence self reactances, Indeed, thc zero .. sequence self reactance of either the 110- or the (In-kv line will be affected by the mutual coupling existing with all of the ground wires. The three conductors of the llO-kv line, with ground return, are assumed to form one zero-sequence circuit, denoted by "a" in Fig. 2'1; the two ground conductors for this line, with ground return, form the zero-sequence circuit denoted "s": the three conductors for the 56-kv line, with ground return, form the zero-sequence circuit denoted "a:"; and the single ground wire for the 66-kv line, with ground return, forms the zerosequence circuit denoted "q':" Although not strictly correct, we assume thc currents carried by the two ground wires of cireu it "u" are equal. Then let:

,,----------..

\. II .)

'----------

,r--- .. _ ........ ,

{, __ ... ~_9~ _ _}

(-----------------~

o 0 0 0)

"- ...... _--_ .... _- --- --- ... --~'

,-.-----~---- ---:::-\

roo 0' 0)

'-=- - --_---- --- _- ---

Fi&. 24-uro-sequence circuits formed by the 110 kv Hne (0). the 66 kv line (0'), the two ~round wires (g), and the sin~le ~round wire (g').

Eo = zero-sequence voltage of circuit a

Ego = zero-sequence voltage of circuit g = 0, since the ground wires are assumed LO be continuously grounded.

Eo' = zero-sequence voltage of circuit a'

E; 0 = zero-sequence voltage of circuit 9' = 0, since the ground wire is assumed to be continuously grounded.

10 = zero-sequence current of circuit a Ig = zero-sequence current of circuit g lo' = zero-sequence current of circuit a' I g' = zero-sequence current of circuit g'

It should be remembered that unit 10 is one ampere in each of the three line conductors with three amperes re-

turning in ground; unit Ig it; 3/2 amperes in each of the two ground wires with three amperes returning in the ground; unit 10' is one ampere in each of the three line conduet.ors with three amperes returning in the ground; and unit 1,/ is three amperes in the ground wire with three amperes returning in the ground.

These quantities arc inter-related as follows:

Eo = Inzo(~) + I.zo(s.) + Io'zO(aa') + I :ZOl'K')

E,o = Iozo{ag) + I gZO(g) + I ~ZO(.'gl + 1 :ZO(gg') = 0 E~ = InzO(a" + I RZO(a'.) + UZO(a'l + I :Zo(.'g')

E:o=loZo(ag') + I gZO(gg') + I ~z( .. g') + 1 g'ZO(g) = 0

where

201a) = zero-sequence self reactance of the a circuit =xa+X,,-1(Xd for 14 fcet+xd for 14 fcet+xd for 28 feet)

= 0.1l.l7+ 2.S9-2(O.348) =2.69 ohms per mile.

Zo(s') = zero-sequence self reactance of the a' circuit =x~+X\1-~(Xd for 10 feet+xd for 10 feet+xd for 20 feet)

=0.4n7+2.89-2(0.307) =2.77 ohms per mile.

ZO(g) = zero-sequence self reactance of the g circuit =~xa+Xc-~(Xd for U.5 feet) =~(2.79)+2.Sg-HO.324) =6.,159 ohms per mile.

ZO(g'j = zero-sequence self reactance of the g' circuit ~3x~+ X.

=3(2.7U) +2.89= 11.26 ohms per mile.

ZO(ag) = zero-sequence mutual reactance between the a and g circuits

=X<-g(Xd for 12.06 feet+xd for 12.06 feet+xd for 12.;)5 feet+xd for 12.35 feet-l-z, for 2;).5 feet +Xd for 23.5 feet)

=2.8£1-3(0.3303) = 1.90 ohms per mile.

Zo(",,') = zero-sequence mutual reactance between the a and a' circuits

=Xe-HXd for GO feet+xd for 50 feet-l-z; for 70 feet +Xd for 46 feet+xd for 36 feet+x.r for 55 feet ~I Xd for 74 fectlzd for G4 feet+xd for 84 feet) =2.8D-3(O.493) = 1.411 ohms per mile.

Zo(ag') = zero-sequence mutual reactance between the a and g' circuits.

=xe~HxJ for 75 feet+xd for GZ feet+xd for 48 feet) =2.89-3(0.498) = 1.40 ohms per mile.

Z;Ha'g') = zero-sequence mutual reactance between the a' and g' circuits.

=xc-1Cxu for 15 feet+xd for 18.03 feet+xd for 18.03 feet)

=2.89-3(0.344) = 1.86 ohms per mile.

Similar definitions apply for ZO{u'g) and ZO{gg'). In each case the zero-sequence mutual reactance between two circuits is equal to z, minus three times the average of the Xd'S for all possible distances between conductors of the two circuits.

The zornsoquencc self reactance of the Ll O-kv line in the presence of all zero-sequence circuits is obtained by

29

Chapter 2

Symmetrical Components

j20%

j14%

j22.5%

letting lo' be zero in the above equations and solving for Eo. Carrying out this rather tedious process, it will be 10

found that

Eo h '1

'io =2,050 ms per mi e.

The zero-sequence self reactance of the G6-kv line in the presence of all zero-sequence circuits is obtained by

letting t, be zero in the equations and solving for ~~. It will be found that

Er! 22 h '1

1 c! = . 5 0 ms per mi e;

The zero-sequence mutual reactance between the 66- and the Ll O-kv line in the presence of all zero-sequence

ZI·iZ6.4~

Fig. 25-Reduction of the posttfve-sequence network and the positive"sequence distribution factors,

circuits is obtained by letting 10' be zero and solving for Ef

j~-' When this is done, it will be found that

Et . h If ) Eo .

To(Wlt 0 =0 =i/w1th [0=0) =0.87 ohms per mile.

19. The Sequence Networks

The sequence networks arc shown in Figs. 25, 26, and 27, with all reactances expressed in percent on a 50000-

j22.7% 175

L-~~~+-~~--~AAP-~

;22.7%

-

.275

j49.1'1.

_ Pt 1.0

121.0%

CW:Pt

1.0

'------ONe

Zt·j21.0%

Fig. 26-Reductlon of the negattve-eequence network and the negarlve sequence distribution factors.

kva base and the networks set up as viewed from the fault. Illustrative examples of expressing these reactances in percent on a 50 OOO-kva base follow:

Positive-sequence reactance of G2 = ~ (50 (00)

(2<») .----- .. ~ = 33.3% (37500)

Positive-sequence reactance of the Gu"kv line= (0.804) (402.. (50000) =36 901

(Ci!:i) (GG) (10) . /0

Positive-sequence reactance of the 110-kv line = (O:~4.5) (40) (50000l_1401

(110) (UO) (10) - 10

Zero-sequence mutual reactance between the 66- and the llO-kv line. for tho 30 mile section =

Iq:._~!) (30) (5_~) = 18'1<

(110) (GG) (10) 0

The distribution factors are shown on each sequence network; obtained by finding the distribution of one ampere taken IU, flowing out at the fault.

Each network is finally reduced to one equivalent impedance as viewed from the fault,

30

Symmetrical 'Components

Chapter 2

'764%

J '" ., ...
- j18%
.039 ).j6%
j16% j77.5% j52.5%
.859 tl. .Hi J 1 - 'v v
.071
1.0 Po j50%
rD --- N
.070 j70.4%

j18% 0388

jl6%

i55.12%

ZO·jI3.7%

Fig. 27-Reduction of the zero-seq uertce network and the zero-sequence distribution factors.

20. Voltages and Currents at the Fault

The sequence networks are connected in series to represent it single line-to-ground f'ault. The total reactance of the rosul: ing f;ingle-phasc network is

Z{!o+Zz%+Zo% = 2(\.4(/0+21 .0<70+ 13.7% = 61.1%. jlOO% IDF=I,F=12P=jGlj%= 1.637 p.u.

Then:

Since normal current for the G6-kv circuit (for a base kva of 50 0(0)

50 000 ~

',j:I X lit) = 431 .5 amperes.

I« = 11 = 12 = (UI37) (437.5) = 715 amperes.

The total fault current =

10+11+12=4.911 p.u.=2145 amperes.

The sequence voltages at the fault:

E\= Ed ~I1ZI= jI00%-j(1.(137)(26.4)%=j56.9% = j21 700 volts.

E2= -1~Z2= ~j(L637)(21)%= -j3·1.4%= -j13100 volt".

Eo= -l"Zo= -j(1.637)(13.7)%= -j22.5%= -jS 600 volts.

E.g= Eo+Et+E2=O E\jg=E,,+a1Ed((Ez=30 200-j12 900 = 32 SOO volts.

E<g= 1~'v+aEd-a'E2= -30 200-j12 900

= 32800 volts.

E"b = E.,,, - E\,g = - 30 200 + j12 900 = 32 800 volts. E!,c = E\," - E og = GO 400 volts.

Ee" = DtK-Eag= -30 200-j12 900=32800 volts.

21. Voltages and Currents at the Breaker Adjacent to the Fault

IT sing t he distribution factors in the sequence net-

works at this point:

11- (0.752) (l.fi37) = 1.231 p.u, =540 amperes. 12 = {().76H)(l.(\;m = 1.2.58 p.u. = 550 amperes. 10= (O.85n)(I.G37) = 1.407 p.u, =615 amperes. 1,,=io+l1+12=17015 amperes,

10= [,,+a"ld-aI2=70+j8.G = 70.5 amperes. Ic= f()+(lII+a212=70-j8.G=70.5 amperes.

Thc I inc-to-ground and line-to-line voltages at this poiut are equal to those calculated for the fault.

22. Voltages and Currents at the Breaker Adjacent to Generator G1

The base, or normal, voltage at this point is 13 800 volts line-to-line, or 79GO volts line-to-neutral.

Tl I I hi . 50 000

IlC iase, or norma, current at t )8 point IS M 13 8

v3X .

= zono amperes. Since a star-delta transformation is involved, there will be a phase shift in positive- and negative-sequence quantities.

I1 = (O.G84)(1.G;37)(2090)e-i30= 2340 amperes =2030-jI170.

12= (O.725)(l.G37) (2090)E+i30= 2480 amperes = 2150+J'1240.

Chapter 2

Symmetrical Components

31

10=0.

1. = 10+ 11 + 12 = 4180+j70 = 4180 amperes.

Ic= Io+a2It+a!2= -4180+j70=4180 amperes. 1<= IQ+al1+a2J2= -j140= 140 amperes.

The sequence voltages at this point are:

El = (.ilOO%-jO.G84 x21 X1.G37%)f-l30= -a276.5% = 3045+ j5270 volts.

E2= (-.iO.725X 12X l.G37%)fPO= -a14.2% =505-j980 volts.

Eo=O.

Eo,,= El + E2= 3610+ j!2GO = MOO volts. Ebg= a2E1+aEz = 3G10- j4290= S000 volts. E"~=aEl+a2E2= -7220= 7220 volts. E,I)= +j8580=8580 volts.

s;» 10 830-j·!290= 11 (ISO volts. Eca= - 10 830-j4290 = 11 G50 volts.

23. Voltages and Currents at the 110~kv Breaker Adjacent to the 25 000 kva Transformer

The base, or normal, voltage at this point is 110 000 volts line-to-line; or G3 500 volts line-to-neutral.

Th b I I . . . 50 000

case, or norma) current at t lIS point IS vl3 X 110

= ZG2 am peres.

The sequence currents at this point are:

II = (-0.068)(1.637)(262) = -29.2 amperes. 12= (-0.043)(l.G37)(202) = -18.4 amperes. 10= (0.039) (Ui37)(2G2) ~ 16.7 amperes.

1 .. =/o+]t+12= -30.9=30.9 amperes.

h= ID+a2I1+aJ2= 40.5+j9.35=4L6 amperes. L; = lo+aI1 + a2f 2 = 40.5 -}9.35 = 41.6 amperes.

The sequence voltages at this point, are:

El = j100% - J(O.G84) (1.G37) (21)%

-j( -0.0(8) (1.637)(20)% =j78.7%

= j50 000 volts.

E2= -j(O.725) (1.()37) (l2)%

- j( -0.013)( l.(37)(20) % = - j12.8%

= -j8130 volts.

Eo= -j{0.(39)(1.637)(20)%= -j1.3%= -j825 volts.

E".=Eo+E1+E2=j41 000=41000 volts.

E".= Eo+a2Et+aE2=50 300-j21 750=54800 volts. Ec.= En+aE1+a2E\= -50 300-j21 750=54800 volts. Eub = - 50 300+j62 750 = 80 400 volts.

Eb< = ] 00600 = 100 GOO volts.

Ec .. = -50 300-j62 750= 80400 volts.

REFERENCES

1. Muthod of Symmetrical Coordinates Applied to the Solution of Polyphase Xctworks, by C 1" Fortescue, A..I.E.E. Transactions, V. 37, Part II, rsrs, pp. 1027-1140.

2. SymmNrimi ('ornp()nents (a book), by C. F. Wagner and R. D.

Evans, \\!cGraw-lIilI Book Company, 1933.

3. Sequence l'\etwork Connections for Unbalanced Load and Fault Condtuous, by K L. Harder, ']'he Eledric Journal, V. 34, Decemher Hl37 , pp. 4Rl-4RK

4. Simultaneous Faults on Throe-Phase Systems, by Edith Clarke, A.f.E.E. Transactions, V. 50, March 1931, pp. 919-941.

5. Applicati()n~ o] Symmetrical Componenl5 (a. book) by W. V. Lyon; McGraw~Hill Book Company, 1937.

CHAPTER 3

CHARACTERISTICS OF AERIAL LINES

In the electric-power field the following types of conductors are generally used for high-voltage power transmission lines: stranded copper conductors, hollow copper conductors, and ACSR (aluminum cable, steel reinforced).

Ot.her types of conductors such as Copperweld and Copperwr-ld-Copper conductors are also used for transmission and distribution lines. Use is made of Copperweld, bronze, copper bronze, and steel for current-carrying conductors on rural lines, as overhead ground wires for transmission lines, as buried counterpoises at. the base of transmission towers, and also for long river crossings.

A stranded conductor, typical of both copper and steel conductors in the larger sizes, is shown in Fig. 1. A stranded conductor is easier to handle and is more flexible than a solid conductor, particularly in the larger sizes.

A typical ACSR conductor is illustrutcd in Fig. 2. In this type of conductor, aluminum strands are wound about a core of stranded steel. Varying relationships between tensile strength and current-carrying capacity as well as overall size of conductor can be obtained by varying the proportions of steel and aluminum. By the use of a filler, ductor is known as "expanded" ACSR and is shown in such as paper, between the outer aluminum st.rands and Fig. 3.

the inner steel strands, a conductor of large diameter can In Fig. 4 is shown a representative Anaconda Hollow be obtained for use in high voltage lines. This type of con- Copper Conductor. It consists of a twisted copper "I"

32

Original Authors:

Sherwin H. Wright and C. F. Hall

IN the design, operation, and expansion of electrical power systems it is necessary to know electrical and physical characteristics of conductors used in the construction of aerial distribution and transmission lines.

This chapter presents a description of the common types of conductors along with tabulations of their important electrical and physical characteristics, General formulas aropresented with their derivation to show the basis of the tabulated values and as a guide in calculating data for other conductors of similar shapes, dimensions, composition and operating conditions.

Also included are the more commonly used symmetricalcomponent-sequence impedance equations that are applicable to the solution of power system problems involving voltage regulation, load flow, stability, system currents, and voltages under fault conditions, or other system problems where the electrical characteristics of aerial lines are involved,

AddiLional formulas are given LO permit calculation of approximate current-carrying capacity of conductors taking into account such factors as convection and radiation losses as influenced by ambient temperature, wind velocity, and permissible temperature rise,

1. TYPES OF CONDUCTORS

Revised by:

0.1". Shankle and R. L. Tremaine

Cou.Tle~y 01 Generai Cable CurpQf'a.Uon

Fig. i-A typical stranded conductor, (bare copper).

Courtesy of Alum~'num CDmpany of Amerif:(J.

Fig. l-A typical ACSR conductor.

Courtesy of Aluminum Company of Amerioa

Fi~. 3--A typical "expanded" ACSR conductor.

Co'urt€sy of A noconda Wire and Cable Company Fig. 4-A typical Anaconda Hollow Copper Conductor.

Chapter 3

Characteristics oj Aerial Lines

33

Fig. 5-A typical General Cable Type HH.

Coutte."iY oj ('oP1Juwdd 8tl.-·tl Company Fig. 6-A typical Copperweld conductor.

Courte.~y of cl'pp,."rwdd Steel Com.pany Fig. 7- Typical Copperweld-Copper conductors

{a) Upper photograph-Typo V

(b) Lower photograph Type F

beam as a core about which strands of copper wire are wound. The "I" beam is twisted in a direction opposite to that of the inner layer of strands.

Another form of hollow copper conductor is shown in Fig. 5. Known as the General Cable Type Hfl hollow copper conductor, it is made up of segmental sections of copper rnort.ised into each other to form a self-supporting hollow cylinder. Hollow copper conductors result in conductors of large diameter for a given r:ros" sect.ion of copper. Corona losses arc therefore smaller. This construction also produces a reduction in skin effect a" well as inductance as compared with stranded conductors. A discussion of large diameter conductors and Clwir clJilra,eLerj"Lie;; is given in referCDee 1.

Copperweld conductors consist of different numbers of copper-coated steel strands, a typical conductor bcinz illustrated in Fig. G. Strength is provided II)' the core of' steel and protection by the outer coating of copper,

'When high current-ea.rryinp; capucit.ios are desired as well as high tensile strength, copper !'itrUllds are used with Copper weld strands to form Copperwcld-Copper conduct-

ors as shown in Fig. 7. Different relationships between ou rrr-nt-csu-i-ying capacity, outside diameter, and tensile strength can be obtained by varying the number and size of the Copperweld and copper strands.

II. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AERIAL CONDUCTORS

The following discussion is primarily concerned with the development of electrical characteristics and constants of aerial conductors, particularly those required for analysis of power-system problems. The constants developed are particularly useful in the application of the principles of s_Yllll1lcCri(;al components to the solution of power-system problems involving positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence impedances of transmission and distribution lines. The basic quantities needed are the positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence resistances, inductive reactances and shunt capacitive reactances of the various types of conductors and some general equations showing how these quantities are used.

1. Positive- and Negative-Sequence Resistance

The resistance of an aerial conductor is affected by the three factors: temperature, frequency, current density. Practical formulas and methods will now be given to take into account these factors.

Temperature Effect on Resistance+ The resistance of copper and aluminum conductors varies almost directly with temperature. While this variation is not strictly linear for an extremely wide range of temperatures, for practical purposes it can be considered linear over the range of temperatures normally encountered.

When the d-c resistance of a conductor at a given temperature is known and it is desired to find the d-c resistance at some other temperature, the following general formula may be USGd.

Rt2 M+t2

(1)

Ru where

Rtz=d-c resistance at any temperature tz degree C.

Ru = d-e rf$j"t.i1nce nt any other tf'mperature tl degree C.

At = a constant for anyone type of conductor material. = inferred absolute zero temperature.

= 2(5'1.5 for annealed 100 percent conductivity copper. = 241.:; for hard drawn 97.3 percent conductivity

GOp pc r.

= 228.1 for aluminum.

The ahove formula is useful for evaluating changes in d-c resistance only, and cannot be used to give a-c resistanc« variations unless skin effect can be negleeted. For small conductor sizes the frequency has a negligible effect on rCKiKtant:e iu Lbe d-e to 60-eyele l'l1Ilge. This is generally true for conductor sisos up to 2/0.

The variutions of resistance with temperature are usually unimportant because the actual ambient temperature is indefinite as well as variable along a transmission line. An illustration or percentage change in resistance is when temperature varies from winter to summer over a range of o degrn<' C to ,10 degrees C (32 degrees F to 101 degrees F) in which case copper resistance increases 17 percent.

34

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

Chapter 3

Skin Effect in Straight Round Wires- The resistance of non-magnetic conductors varies not only with temperature but abo wiLli frequency. This is due to skin effect. Skin effect is due to the current flowing nearer the outer surface of the conductor as a result of non-uniform flux distribution in the conductor. This increases the resistance of the conductor by reducing the effective cross section of the conductor through which the current flows.

The conductor tables give the resistance at commercial frequencies of 25, 50, and GO cycles. For other frequencies the following formula should be used.

Tt=]{rdo ohms per mile

where

T{ = the a-e resistance at the desired frequency (cycles per second).

Td<= d-e resistance at any known temperature. K ~ value given in Table 5.

In Table 5, K is given as a Junction of X, where

X = .063598 /iiT (3)

~~

f=frequency in cycles per second.

I" permeability = 1.0 for non-magnetic materials.

r mile = d-e resistance of the conductor in ohms per mile.

Table 5 (skin effect table) is carried in the Bureau of Standards Bulletin No. 1D9 on pages 22G~8, to values of X = 100. To facilitate interpolation over a small range of the table, it is accurate as well as convenient to plot a curve of the values of K vs. values of X.

Combined Skin Effect and Temperature Effect on Resistance oj Straight Round Wires~When both temperature and skin effect are considered in determining conductor resistance, the following procedure is followed.

First calculate the d-e resistance at the new temperature using Eq. (1). Then subst.itute this new value of d-e resistance and the desired frequeney in the equation defining X. Having calculated X, determine K from Table 5. Then using Eq. (2), calculate the new a-c resistance T{, using the new d-e resistance for Tde and the value of K obtained from Table 5.

Effect of Current on Resistance The resistance of magnetic conductors varies with current magnitude as well as with the factors that affect non-magnetic conductors (tern perature and frequency).

Current magnitude determines the flux and therefore the iron or magnetic losses inside magnetic conductors. The presence of this adri it.ional factor complicates the determination of resistance of magnetic conductors as well 'as any tabulation of such data. For these reasons the effect of current magnitude will not be analyzed in detail. However, Fig. 8 gives the resistance of steel conductors as a function of current, and the tables on magnetic conductors such as Copperweld-copper, Copperweld, and ACSR conductors include resistance tabulations at two current carrying levels to show this effect. These tabulated resistances are generally values obtained by tests.

Zero-Sequence Resistance-The zero-sequence resistance of aerial conductors is discussed in detail in the section on zero-sequence resistance and inductive reactance given later in the chapter since the resistance and in-

(2)

Fig, 8-Electrical Characteristics of Steel Ground Wires"

ductive reactance presented to zero-sequence currents is influenced by the di:-;trihution of the zero-sequence current in the earth return path.

2. Positive- and Negative-Sequence Inductive Reactance

To develop the positive- and negative-sequence inductive reactance of three-phase aerial lines it is first necessary to develop a. Icw conr: ... pts that greatly simplify the problem.

First. the total inductive reactance of a conductor carrying current will be considered as the sum of two componeuts:

'This figure has been taken from Symmetrical Components (a book) by C. F. "Vagner and R. D. Evans, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1933.

Chapter 3

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

35

(1) The inductive reactance due to the flux within a radius of one foot from the conductor center, including the flux inside. the conductor.

(2) The inductive reactance due to the flux external to a

radius of one foot and out to some finite distance.

This concept was first given in Wagner and Evans book on Symmetrical Components' and was suggested by W. A. Lcwis.t"

It can he shown most easily by eonsider ing a two-conductor single-phase circuit with the current flowing out in one conductor and returning in the other. In Fig. 9 such a circuit is shown with only the flux produced by conductor 1 for simplioity. Conductor 2 also produces similar lines of flux.

The classic inductance formula for a single round straight wire in the two-conductor single-phase circuit is:

L=!::+2In P12 abhenries per em, per conductor. (4)

2 r

where

fJ. ee permeability of conductor material. T = radius of conductor.

D12 = distance between conductor 1 and conductor 2.

D12 and r must be expressed in the same units for the above equation to be valid. For practical purposes one foot is used as the unit of lengt.h since most distances between aerial conductors are in feet. In cable circuits, however, the distance between conductors is less than one foot and the inch is a more common unit (see Chap. 4).

b From derivation formulas a general term such as 21n -

a

represents the flux and associated inductance between circles of radius a and radius b surrounding a conductor carrying current. (See Fig. 10).

Rewriting Eq. (4) keeping in mind the significance of the b

general term 21n - ,

a

~ 1 I D12

L=-+2In-+2 n~

2 r 1

ductor

abhenries per em. per con-

Fig. 9-A two conductor single phase circuit (inductance)

Fig. IO~Inductance due to flux between radius a and radius b (2 In ~ abhenries per cm.)

where t = inductance due to the flux inside the conductor. 2

Zln! = inductance due to the flux outside the conductor r

to a radius of one foot.

21nQl: = inductance due to the flux external to a one foot 1

(5)

radius out to 1>'2 feet where 1)12 is the distance between conductor 1 and conductor 2.

From Fig. 9 it can be seen that it is unnecessary to include the flux beyond the return conductor 2 because this flux does not link any net current and therefore does not affect the inductance of conductor l.

Grouping the terms in Eq. (5) we have:

L=tt+2In!+21nD12 abhenries per em. per con-

2 r 1 ductor. (6)

~~ '-v---' Ldueto L due flux out to flux to a one external ft. radi- to a 1 us ft. r a-

dius out toD'2ft.

Examining the terms in the first bracket, it is evident that this expression is the sum of the flux both inside the

conductor (~) and that external to the conductor out to

a radius of one foot (21n~). Furthermore this expression contains terms that are strietly a function of the conductor characteristics of permeability and radius.

The torm in the second bracket of Eq. (6) is an expression for inductance due to flux external to a radius of one foot and out to a distance of D12, which, in the twa-conductor case, is the distance between conductor 1 and conductor 2. This term is not dependent upon the conductor characteristics and is dependent only upon conductor spacing.

Equation (6) can be written again as follows:

36

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

Chapter 3

L = 21n} _ + 2ln Dl~ abhenries per em. per

GMR 1 conductor.

GMR in the first term is the conductor "geometric mean radius". It can be defined as the radius of a tubular conductor with an infinitesimally thin wall that has the same external flux out to a radius of one foot as the internal and external flux of solid conductor I, out to a radius of one foot. In other words, GMR is a mathematical radius assigned to a solid conductor (or other configuration such as stranded conductors), which describes in one term the inductance of the conductor due to both its internal flux

(~) and the external flux out to a one foot radius (2In~). GMR therefore makes it possible to replace the two terms (~+2Inn with one term (2lnO·iiR) which is entirely dependent upon the conductor characteristics. GMR is expressed in feet.

Converting Eq. (7) to practical units of inductive reactance,

X=O.27IJ1Jo Ioglfi G~IR jO.2704io log., ~12

ohms per conductor per mile (8)

where J=frequency in cps.

GMR = conductor geometric mean radius in feet.

Dl2 ~ distance between conductors 1 and 2 in feet.

H we let the first term be called Xa and Lhe second term Xd, then

X=Xa+Xd ohms per conductor per .nile (9)

where

Xa = inductive reactance due to both the internal flux and that external to conductor 1 to a radius of one foot.

Xd = inductive reactance due to the flux surrounding conductor I from a radius of one foot out to a radius of DI2 feet.

For the two-conductor, single-phase circuit, then, the total inductive reactance is

x= 2(X&+Xd) ohms per mile of circuit (10)

since the circuit has two conductors, or both a "go" and "return" conductor.

Sometimes a tabulated or experimental reactance with 1 foot spacing is known, and from this it is desired to calculate the conductor G1\lR. By derivation from Eq. (8)

GMR= . 1. feet. (11)

A til Reactance With I ft spacmg (60 cycles)

n 1 oglO O.279.f

When reactance is known not to a one-foot radius but out to the conductor surface, it is called the "internal reactance." The formula for calculating the GMR from the "internal reactance" is:

GMR physical radius f t (12)

A til "Internal Reactan('e" (fiO cycles) ee

n I oglo . 0.:2794·-----

The values of GMR at GO cycles and Xa at 25, 50, and 60 cycles for each type of conductor are given in the tables of electrical characteristics of conductors. They are given

(7)

Solid round conductor _ ....•.. _ O.779a

:Full stranding

7 o 726a

IH 38. (il . 91.

127 ..

...................•....•................... 0.758a .................••...•..••.•................ 0.7681.1.

. 0.7721.1.

.077411.

.....•..•.••.•.......... 0.7761.1.

Hollow stranded conductors and A.C.S.R.

(neglecting steel strands) 30-twu lavtr . 26-two layer

54-three laver .. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 0.8101.1.

Single layer A.C.S.l\. O.35a...Q70a

Point. within circle to circle. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a

Point. outside circle to circle distance to center of circle

Rectangular section of sides a and (3 " •........... 0.2235(a+~)

...........•....••.•...... 0.82611. ................................ 0.809a

CIRCULAR TUBE

1.00
0.95
.. 0.90
....
a::
;;;
(!)
0.85
0.80 /
f······· ., J
................. V
/
V ---- ~------- ,""'~
I V
V
/V
V V
I-- I
0.2

0.8

1.0

0.4 0.6

INNER RADIUS RATIO OUTER RADIUS

o~ 112 OUTSIOE OIAMETER

Fig. l1-Geometric Mean Radii and Distances.

la

-

a-r------------~~~--------~--~~----------r

Xao

Xob

fla Eb C f f E'b JEO

IllIJ:77??77777777777777t77l7 Fig. 12-A Three-conductor three-phase circuit (symmetrical spacing).

Chapter 3

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

37

in these tables because they are a function of conductor characteristics of radius and permeability. Values of ;Cd for various spacings are given in separate t.ables in this Chapter for 25, 50, and 60 cycles. This factor is dependent on distance between conductors only, and is not associated with the conductor characteristics in any way.

In addition to the GMR given in the conductor characteristics tables, it is sometimes necessary to determine this quantity for other conductor configurations. Figure 11 is given for convenience in determining such values of GMR. This table is taken from the Wagner and Evans book Symmetrical Components, page 138.

Having developed Xa and Xd in terms of a two-conductor, single-phase circuit, these quantities can be used to determine the positive- and negative-sequence inductive reactance of a three-conductor, three-phase circuit.

Figure 12 shows a three-conductor, three-phase circuit carrying phase currents la, /;" L; produced by line to ground voltages Ea, Et, and Ec. First, consider the case where the three conductors are symmetrirally spaced in a triangular configuration so that no transpositions arc required to maintain equal voltage drops in each phase along the line. Assume that the three-phase voltages Ea, Et, E; are balanced (equal in magnitude and 1200 apart) so that they may be either positive- or negative-sequence voltages. Also assume the currents L: Is; L; are also balanced so that Ia+lb+lc=O. Therefore no return current flows in the earth, which practically eliminates mutual effects between the conductors and earth, and the currents la, Ib, 10 can be considered as positive- or negative-sequence currents. In the following solution, positive- or negativesequence voltages Ea, Eb, Ee, are applied to the conductors and corresponding positive- or negative-sequence currents are assumed to flow producing voltage drops in each conductor. The voltage drop per phase, divided by the current per phase results in the positive- or negative-sequence inductive reactance per phase for the three-phase circuit. To simplify the problem further, consider only one current flowing at a time. With all three currents flowing simultaneously, the resultant effect is the sum of the effects produced by each current flowing alone.

Taking phase a, the voltage drop is:

FJ A - R~' = l "X~" + l bX"b + l.x". where

xaa=self inductive reactance of conductor a.

Xab = mutual inductive reactance between conductor a, and conductor b.

Xac=mutual inductive reactance between conductor ([ and conductor c.

In terms of x" and Xd, inductive reactance spacing factor,

xaa=X,,'jxd(ak) (14)

where only fa is flowing and returning by a remote path e feet away, assumed to be the point k.

Considering only I b flowing in conductor b and returning by the same remote path f feet away,

X"b = Xd(bk) - Xd(b,,) (15)

where Xab is the inductive reactance associated with the flux produced by I b that links conductor a out to the return path f feet away.

Finally, considering only T, flowing in conductor c and returning by the same remote path g feet away.

Xac = Xd(ck) - Xd(cs}

(16)

where Xae is the inductive reactance associated with the flux produced by 1 c that links conductor a out to the return path g feet away.

\Vilh all three currents t; i; t, flowing simultaneously, we have in terms of x~ and Xd factors:

B; - E,,' = 1 .(x" +Xd("k) + lb(Xd(bk) -Xd(ba»

+Ic(xd(ckl -Xdlca))' (17)

Expanding and regrouping the terms we have:

E" - E~' = 1 aX" - I bXd(ba) +I cXd,"",]

+[1 aXd(ak)+h;cd(bk) + Icxd(ckJ (18)

Since L; = - I a - 10, the terms in the bracket may be

written

Iu(xd(ak) -Xd(CK» + h(Xd(bk) -Xd(ck)).

Using the definition of Xd, 0.2794 L1o,,[)12 this expression 60 '" 1 '

can be written

I ,,(0.2794!- log t!Jakl) + h(0.2794L log d(bkl).

GO diCk) 60 du,k)

Assuming the distances d(akl, d(ck), and dibkl to the remote path approach infinity, then the ratios ~(J'k) and d(bk)

d(Ok) deck)

approach unity. Since the log of unity is zero, the two terms in the bracket are zero, and Eq. (18) reduces to

(19)

slllce

Xd(ba) =X<1(",,) =Xd(bCI =Xd, and 1,,= -Ib-Io,

E,,-E,,' =I,,(x,,+xd). (20)

Dividing the equation by I a,

(13)

E<l.~E\t'

XI=X2= ~l-a-=x,,+xd ohms per phase per mile (21)

where

Xa = inductive reactance for conductor a due to the flux out to one foot.,

Xd = inductive reactance corresponding to the flux external to a one-foot radius from conductor a out to the center of conductor b or conductor c since the spacing between conductors is symmetrical.

Therefore, the positive- or negative-sequence inductive reactance per phase for a three-phase circuit wit.h equilateral spacing is the same as for one conductor of a singlephase circuit as previously derived. Values of z; for various conductors are given in the tables of electrical characteristics of conductors later in the chapter, and the values of Xd are given in the tables of inductive reactance spacing factors for various conductor spacings.

When the conductors are unsymmetrically spaced, the voltage drop for each conductor is different, assuming the currents to be equal and balanced. Also, due to the unsymmetrical conductor spacing, the magnetic field external to the conductors is not zero, thereby causing induced voltages in adjacent electrical circuits, particularly telephone circuits, that may result in telephone interference.

To reduce this effect to a minimum, the conductors are transposed so that each conductor occupies successively the

38

Characteristic8 oj Aerial Lines

Chapter 3

10 Ie IIJ
~ ,Z: ®
®
Ie Ib Ib d2~ 10 10 d3Z 1(;
1$1 SECTION 2nd SECTION 3rd SECTION
[0 Ie Ib
tb 2 10 2 Ie 2
Ie 3 ill :5 10 :5
-- Ea Eo' Eo· ro"

kJ7?7»»?777777771777777??l//7/777?7J7777/77/7777/))77J Fig, 13-A Three-conductor three-phase circuit (unsymmet-

rical spacing).

same positions as the other two conductors in'two succcssive line sections. For three such transposed line sections; called a "barrel of transposition", the total voltage drop for each conductor is the same, and any electrical circuit parallel to the three transposed sections has a net voltage of very low magnitude induced in it due to normal line currents.

In the following derivation use is made of the general equations developed for the case of symmetrically spaced conductors. First, the inductive reactance voltage drop of phase a in each of the three line sections is obtained. Adding these together and dividing by three gives the average inductive reactance voltage drop for a line section. Referring to Fig. 13 and using Eq. (19) for the first line section where f. is flowing in conductor 1,

E,. - E .' = I .x. - I bXd(12) - I cXd(IJ).

In the second line section where I a is flowing in conductor 2, E: -E:' =I.x.-Ibxd(23j - Ioxd(2I).

In the third line section where 1& is flowing in conductor 3, E:' -E:''' = l.x. -lbXd(31) - Icxd\3z;,

Taking the average voltage drop per line section, we have

(E. - E:) + (E; -: ... ~'{).± .. (E:' - E:''')

E .. vg

3

<= 3Iaxa_h (Xd(121 +Xd(23) +Xd(31))

3 3

I ,,(Xd(l~) +Xd(23] +X.%1!))

3

E a'Vi = I aX. - (I b j I.) ~~?(l~)±Xd ;3) +Xd(31)

Since

I .. +Ib+le=O, 1 e, = - (h+lc)

E = I (x +::?(12) +Xd(.2~)_+Xd(31))

avg a a 3 .

Dividing by Ill, we have the positive- or negative-sequence inductive reactance per phase

XI = X2 = (x. + Xd) ohms per phase per mile

where

Xd = i(:t:d(12) +Xd(2J) +Xd{31) ohms per phase

per mile. (22)

Expressed in general terms,

Xd= .~( O.2794fo)(lOg d(12)+log d(2J)+log d(3t)

Xd = t 0.2794 :0 log dl2d2Sdsl

f _'1--

xd=O.2794-log Vd12d23d31

{)()

xd=O.2794I.. log GMD

60

where GMD (geometrical mean distance) =..:; dl'iiudJ(, and is mathematically defined as the nth root of an n-fold product.

For a three-phase circuit where the conductors are not symmetrically spaced, we therefore have an expression for the positive- or negative-sequence inductive reactance, which is similar to the symmetrically spaced case except Xd is the inductive-reactance spacing factor for the GMD (geomet.ric mean distance) of the three conductor separations, For Xd, then, in the case of unsymmetrical conductor spacing, we can take the average of the three inductivereactance spacing factors

Xd = J(Xd(l2) +Xd(23) +Xd(31) ohms per phase per mile or we can calculate the GMD of the three spacings

(23)

and use the inductive-reactance spacing factor for this distance. This latter procedure is perhaps the easier of the two methods.

z, is taken from the tables of electrical characteristics of conductors presented later in the chapter, and Xd is taken

0.7

NO.5

NO.3

.1

o

o 00,000 00,000 50,000 00,000

~ io

f--~-±~ N

___ CQfPER l7
/
1.0 V' NO
V i r;
./
141
. ___ •. V ],7 3
l.5 17 1/ .
5
VI/ 7
- . V 1/ j ),0
.-- V / /
/ 1/ -
.s'
._. __ .. Vi .... 1/ l7
./ ./ i'/ 1,/
/ ./
I-- ./ ./ V
7 --. L V/ '7 ~ ...... .L./ .. VI/V r/
.~ 7"
/ V
// 1// / V V I ....
fL'77 ./ ./ ./ ._ .
,6V~~ fr7' './
/' v: r-
(L/ /1/./ /
LL // ./ r./
Jz33 .LL
'/
V77~ I

.L/ ! i
~--+ ! <
I a:: w ...

Vol

~o

o

~

","0

+ 0 .,/'



-' )(

o

2345710 20 J040

EOUIVALENT CONDUCTOR SPACING-FEET

Fig, 14 . Quick reference curves for 60-cycle inductive rcact-. ance of three-phase lines (per phase) using hard drawn copper conductors. For total reactance of single-phasc lines multiply

these values by two. See Eqs, (10) and (21),

Chapter 3

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

39

VVV 0.4 VV

V

2

3 4 5 1 10

20 30 40

EQUIVALENT CONO\JCTOR SPACING - FEET

Fig. 15--Quick reference curves for 60·cyc1e inductive reactance of three-phase lines (per phase) using ACSR conductors. For total reactance of sin~le.phase line!!, multiply these

values by two. See Eqs. (10) and (21).

1,1

9-IIZD

8e

6A

4A

2A

IF 2/0F 310 V 4/0 EK 350(

1.0

COPPERWELO COPPER ........ 7
V
(Average Ourre"'$) ./
i 7
I 7
/ L
",
/ L
/
VI/ v···· 7
VI/
7 / 7
1/ / //
/ 17·
V /1/ Y V
/ / ./ / ,
V
/ V
/ V~ V; kS ,/ Vv v.vr;;..- _ .. _ ... -
VV
//
/V V / V
VVV ./ /' /' V :
/V / / /
//' 7/ 1/ /' I
// / // 17 ,
/ // / 1/ !
V// W ..... _.

V /V
/VV! ,
V./ , ,
'V w ..J

s

0: 0.9

~

r./) :::Ii

~ 0.8 ~

. .,j x

t5

z 0.6

¢

o 00(

t!

0.5

2 3 4 5 7 10 20 30 40

EQUIVALENT CONDUCTOR SPACING-FEET

Fig. 16-0uick reference curves for 60·cycie inductive reactance of tht'ee-phase lines (per phase) usinl?, CopperweldCopper conductors. For total reactance of single-phase Hnes

multiply these values by two. See Eqs, (10) and (21).

W ..J

j

1.0

0::

W Q.

fI) ~

t:i 0.9 z

..,

x

+.,0.8 x



x !oJ o

~ 0.7

lo <:(

W 0::

1.2


COPPER WELD
(AVERAGE CURRENTS) /
/
............ - 1 1 /
1 / L
1 ./ ./
r/l~ ~ 3 NO. 10 1/ //
y
3/8 Q3NO.S ./ V
I I 1 I r.o::. 1/ V 1/
1/2 Q3NO.6- 7 7 1/ /
/ .0../
V A ~
17 7 7' V 5/B" .... -
// /
7/ / ';..
V V V / ..... 7/8
... _- / / / 17
VV I
/V / V v ;
/ / / ./ V i ,
/ /V / i I
./V l// f
f
/// 7 V I
/V / i
VV/ / I
/V V ,
,
/ /
l/ ./ ,
/
./
,
....
I


1 1.1

0.6

0.5 l 2 3 4 5 7 10 20 30 40

EQUIVALENT CONDUCTOR SPACING-FEET

FIg. 17·-Quick reference curves for 60-cycle inductive reactance of three-phase lines (per phase) usinll. Copperweld conductors, For total reactance of single-phase lines multiply

these values by two. See Eqs. (10) and (21).

from the tables of inductive-reactance spacing factors. Geometric mean distance (GMD) is sometimes referred to as "equivalent conductor spacing." For quick reference the curves of Figs. (14), (15), (16), and (17) have been plotted giving the reactance {Xa+Xd) for different conductor sizes and "equivalent conductor spacings."

Since most three-phase lines or circuits do not have conductors symmetrically spaced, the above formula for positive- or negative-sequence inductive reactance is generally used. This formula, however, assumes that the circuit is transposed.

When a single-circuit line or double-circuit line is not transposed, either the dissymmetry is to be ignored in the calculations, in which case the general symmetrical components methods can be used, or dissymmetry is to be considered, thus preventing the use of general symmetricalcomponents methods. In considering this dissymmetry, unequal currents and voltages are calculated for the three phases even when terminal conditions are balanced. In most cases of dissymmetry it is most practical to treat the circuit as transposed and use the equations for Xl and X! derived for an unsymmetrically-spaced transposed circuit. Some error results from this method but in general it is small as compared with the laborious calculations that must be made when the method of symmetrical eomponents cannot be used.

40

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

Chapter 3

Positive- and Negative-Sequence Reactance of Parallel Circuits-When two parallel three-phase circuits are close together, particularly on the same tower, the effect of mutual inductance between the two circuits is not entirely eliminated by transpositions. By referring to Fig. 18 showing two transposed circuits on a single tower, the positive- or negative-sequence reactance of the paralleled circuit is;

Xl = X2 = 0.2794'£ [J' loglo ..y_~~l!_I'C_~~

60 Z GAf HC()llductar

-i~ logJO ~_(d""')'~l".l;)~ __ -~J (dnb·) Z(dco') (dac') (ab.')ohms per phase per mile.

in which the dist.ance« are those between conductors in the first section of transposition.

The first term in the above equation is the positive- or negative-sequence reactance for the combined circuits. The second term represents the correction factor due to the

gO oe'
bO Ob'
cO 00'
FIRST SECTION
co oe'
GO OG'
bO Oe'
SECOND SECTION
bO OQ' oe'

<10 Ob'

THIRD SECTION

Fig. is-Two parallel three-phase circuits on a single tower showing transpositions.

mutual reactance between the two circuits and may reduce the reactance three to five percent. The formula assumes transposition of the conductor as shown in Fig. 18.

The formula also assumes symmetry about the vertical axis but not necessarily about the horizontal axis.

As contrasted with the usual conductor arrangement as shown in Fig. 18, the arrangement of conductors shown in Fig. 19 might be used. However, this arrangement of cori-

00

00'

bO

Ob'

cO

oc'

Fig. 19-Arrangement of conductors on a single tower which materially increases the inductance per phase.

(24)

ductors results in five to seven percent greater inductive reactance than the usual arrangement of conductors. This has been demonstrated in several references."

3. Zero-Sequence Resistance and Inductive Reactance

The development of zero-sequence resistance and inductive reactance of aerial lines will be considered simultaneously as they are related quantities. Since zero-sequence currents for three-phase systems are in phase and equal in magnitude, they flow out through the phase conductors and return by a neutral path consisting of the earth alone, neutral conductor alone, overhead ground wires, or any combination of these. Since the return path often consists of the earth alone, or the earth in parallel with some other path such as overhead ground wires, it is necessary to use a method that takes into account the resistivity of the earth as well as the current distribution in the earth Since both the zero-sequence resistance and inductive-reactance of three-phase circuits are affected by these two factors, their development is considered jointly.

As with the positive- and negative-sequence inductive reactance, first consider a single-phase circuit consisting of a single conductor grounded at its far end with the earth acting as a return conductor to complete the circuit. This permits the development of some useful concepts for calculating the zero-sequence resistance and inductive reactance of three-phase circuits.

Figure 20 shows a single-phase circuit consisting of a single outgoing conductor a, grounded at its far end with the return path for the current consisting of the earth. A second conductor, b, is shown to illustrate the mutual effects produced by current flowing in the single-phase circuit. The zero-sequence resistance and inductive reactance of this circuit are dependent upon the resistivity of the earth and the distribution of the current returning in the earth.

This problem has been analyzed by Rudenberg, Mayr,

o

Fig. 20-A sinale conductor single phase circuit with earth return.

Chapter 3

Charactertstics of Aerial Lines

41

and PoIlaczek in Europe, and Carson and Campbell in this country. The more commonly used method is that of Carson, who, like Pollaczek, considered the return current to return through the earth, which was assumed to have uniform resistivity and to he of infinite extent.

The solution of the problem is in two parts: (1) the determination of the self impedance Zg of conductor a with earth return (the voltage between a and earth for unit current in conductor a), and (2), the mutual impedance Zgm between conductors a and b with common earth return (the voltage between b and earth for unit current in (L and earth return),

As a result of Carson's formulas, and using average heights of conductors above ground, the following fundamental simplified equations may be written:

. 2160~

zlr= r 0+0.001591 +)0.004657f IoglO GMR

ohms per mile (25)

... - 0.001591+ jO.004657 flog .. 21':.J1

ab

ohms per mile (26)

where

r c = resistance of conductor a per rnile. f = frequency in cps.

p=earth resistivity in ohms per meter cube.

GMR= geometric mean radius of conductor a in feet. dab = distance between conductors a and b in feet.

A useful physical concept for analyzing earth-return circuits is that of concentrating the current returning through the earth in a fictitious conductor at some considerable depth below the outgoing conductor a. This equivalent depth of the fictitious return conductor is represented as De.

For the single-conductor, single-phase circuit with earth return now considered as a single-phase, two-wire circuit, the self-inductive reactance is given by the previously de-

rivedjO.2794to log., G~R (See Eq. (8)) for a single-phase,

two-wire circuit, or jO.004657! log,o ~ where D~ is

GMR

substituted for D12, the distance between conductor a and the fictitious return conductor in the earth. This expression is similar to the inductive-reactance as given in Carson's simplified equation for self impedance. Equating the logarithmic expressions of the two equations,

jO.004657Jlog"G~R - jO.004667JlOg,,2~~t

or De=2160~ feet. (27)

This defines D., equivalent depth of return, and shows that it is a function of earth resistivity, /J, and frequency,!.

Also an inspection of Carson's simplified equations show that the self and mutual impedances contain a resistance component 0.00159/, which is a function of frequency.

Rewriting Carson's equations in terms of equivalent depth of return, De,

Zg=rc+O.00l59f+jO.004657f log., G~R

ohms per mile. (28)

Zgm= O.00159f+jO.OO4657f!og10De ohms per mile. (29) dab

These equations can be applied to multiple-conductor circuits if Te, the GMR and dab refer to the conductors as a group. Suhsequently the GMR of a group of conductors are derived for use in the above equations.

To convert the above equations to zero-sequence quantities the following considerations must be made. Considering three conductors for a three-phase system, unit zero-sequence current consists of one ampere in each phase conductor and three amperes in the earth return circuit. To use Eqs. (28) and (29), replace the three conductors by a single equivalent conductor in which three amperes flow for every ampere of zero-sequence current. Therefore the corresponding zero-sequence self and mutual impedances per phase are three times the values given in Carson's simplified equations. Calling the zero sequence impedances Zo and 20m, we have:

Z'o = 3Tc + O.00477f+jO,Ol 397/ Iogw G~R

ohms per phase per mile. (30)

ZO(m) =0.OO477f+jO.01397f IoglO De

dab

ohms per phase per mile (31)

where f = frequency in cps.

Tc=resistance of a conductor equivalent to the three conductors in parallel. 3r. therefore equals the resistance of one conductor for a three-phase circuit.

GMR=geometric mean radius for the group of phase conductors. This is different than the GMU for a single conductor and is derived subsequently as G MR",rcult.

dab=distance from the equivalent conductor to 8. parallel conductor, or some other equivalent conductor if the mutual impedance between two parallel three-phase circuits is being considered.

For the case of a single overhead ground wire, Eq. (30) gives the zero-sequence self impedance, Equation (31) gives the zero-sequence mutual impedance between two overhead ground wires.

Zero-sequence self impedance of two ground wires with earth return

Using Eq. (30) the zero-sequence self impedance of two ground wires with earth return can be derived.

zo=3re+0.00477f+jO.01397f Iog1Q G~R

ohms per phase per mile (30)

where ro=resistance of a single conductor equivalent to the two ground wires in parallel. (r e therefore

becomes ~ where r; is the resistance of one of the two ground wires).

42

CharMteristics of Aerial Lines

Chapter 3

GMR=geometric mean radius for the two ground wires. (GMR therefore becomes

V(GMR)2 conductor d,.y2 or {I-(G-M-R-)-(d,.-y-)

where rixy is the distance between the two conductors

X and y.)

Substituting ~ for Tc and {i(GMR)(d.y) for GMR in Eq. (30), the zero-sequence self impedance of two ground wires with earth return becomes

3Ta. 1).

zO=-2 + 0.00477/+J 0.0 1397f loglD 'P?r======= 'V (GMR) (d,.y)

ohms per mile per phase. (32)

Zero-sequence sell impedance 01 n ground wires with earth return

Again using Eq, (30), the zero-sequence self impedance of n ground wires with earth return can be developed.

zo=3re+O.00477f+JO.01397f logto G~R

ohms per mile per phase. (30)

Since r c is the resistance of a single conductor equivalent to n ground wires in parallel, then r. = ~ where T a is the

n

resistance of one of the n ground wires, in ohms per phase per mile.

GMR is the geometric mean radius of the n ground wires as a group, which may be written as follows in terms of all possible distances,

GMR= '-\j(GMR)" conductor (d(g,g,)d(g,g,)---fi(g,a.) (d(gog,)d(g2g3)-d(g,g,) (d(g,g,)d(g.g,J--d(g_) (d(g.~'Jd (g.g.) --d (_-1) feet.

This expression can also be written in terms of all possible pairs of distances as follows.

G MR = \J (GMR)" conductor (d{g .. ,.) d(glK>} - d!.il.irJ)~

(d(lI>.i3) -d(pg.)2 (d(II3&o»)~ feet. (33)

The equation for zero-sequence self impedance of n ground wires with earth return can therefore be obtained by sub-

stituting ~ for To and Eq, (33) for GMR in Eq. (30).

n

Self impedance of parallel conductors with earth return

In the preceeding discussion the self and mutual impedances between single cylindrical conductors with earth return were derived from which the zero-sequence self and mutual reactances were obtained. These expressions were expanded to include the case of multiple overhead ground wires, which are not transposed. The more common case is that of three-phase conductors in a three-phase circuit which can be considered to be in parallel when zero-sequence currents arc considered. Also the three conductors in a three-phase circuit are generally transposed. This factor was not considered in the preeeeding cases for multiple overhead ground wires.

In order to derive the zero-sequence self impedance of three-phase circuits it is first necessary to derive the self impedance of three-phase circuits taking into account

transpositions. The expression for self impedance is then converted to zero-sequence self impedance in a manner analogous to the case of single conductors with earth return.

Consider three phase conductors a, b, and c as shown in Fig. 21. With the conductors transposed the current

1.. 3 o

I~I 3~"!"

b be c

I

3"

__..

o-------------.~-----------

±.

b------------~I~-----------

-L

7.7777777771/77777???7?7J?7?/?)7???7?7???

I

Flit. It-Self impedance of parallel conductors with earth return.

divides equally between the conductors so that for a total current of unity, the current in each conductor is one third.

The voltage drop in conductor a for the position indicated in Fig. 21 is

For conductor b:

Z~b + Zbb + Zbo

333

and for conductor c:

!ae+ Zbc+ Zu

333

in which z",., Zbb, and Zoo are the self impedances of the three conductors with ground return and Zab, Zbo, and Zao are the mutual impedances between the conductors.

Since conductor a takes each of the three conductor positions successively for a transposed line, the average drop per conductor is

I

g(Z&&+Zbb+Zoe+2z"b+2zbc+2zao).

Substituting the values of self and mutual impedances given by Eqs. (28) and (29) in this expression,

Z~=§ [31'Q+9(0.00l59f)+}0.004657f(3 loglQG~it +21oglo dDe+210glO dD~+210g1o De)]

ab be dac

ohms per mile.

Za;= ~+O.OO159/+jO.004657j loglo V De

(GMR)3d .. b2db.2dc.2

ohms per mile. (34)

Chapter 3

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

43

The ninth root in the denominator of the logarithmic term is the GMR of the circuit and is equal to an infinitely thin tube which would have the same inductance as the throeconductor system with earth return shown in Fig. 21.

GMRctrcult = ~ (G MRYconductor d.b~dbc ~dca2 feet.

9 .

GMRd,.cult = V (GlVIR)3conductor (dahdbodca)2 feet.

eM RC!rCUlt = .q' G M R""nductor( ..,y d,,~db.d on )2 feet.

By previous derivation (See Eq. (23)), GMD"P6ratlon = ..,y d .. bdbcdc~ feet,

Therefore GMR.I ro ult = V (GlVIR)cOndUcto/GMD)2.eparatton

feet. (35)

Substituting GMRolrou!t from equation (35) in equation (34))

zit = ~ +0.001591

. 1 De

+JO.0046571 OgIO '3~~~O:=~=:;~~::::=== V (GMR) oondu<tar(GM D) 2 •• _."tlon

ohms per mile. (36)

In equations (34) and (36)] r; is the resistance per mile of one phase conductor.

Zero-sequence self impedance of three parallel conductors wdh earth return

Equation (30) gives the self impedance of three parallel conductors with earth return and was derived for a total current of unity divided equally among the three conductors. Since zero-sequence current consists of unit current in each conductor or a total of three times unit current for the group of three conductors, the voltage drop for zero-sequence currents is three times as great. Therefore Eq. (36) must be multiplied by three to obtain the zerosequence self impedance of three parallel conductors with earth return. Therefore,

20 = rc+0.00477f

+ jO.0l3~7 f log., ":?,,,,:=:=:==D=c===:======== ..,yOJlvlRconductor(GMD)2""" ara tion

ohms per phase per mile (37)

where vOMR."ndoo,,,.(GMD)2sep,,,,.uon is the GMRcl .. ul~ derived in equation (35) or \Y'(GMR)3""DdUc10' dah2dh<2d.,.2

Zero-sequence mutual impedance between two circuits with earth return

Using a similar method of derivation the zero-sequence mutual impedance between 2 three-phase circuits with common earth return is found to be

2or",) =0.004771 +jO.01397J log., G;;n ohms per phase per mile

where GMD is the geometric mean distance between the 2 three-phase circuits or the ninth root of the product of the nine possible distances between conductors in one group and conductors in the other group. Note the similarity between Eq. (38) and Eq. (31)

Zero-sequence selJ impedance 01 two identical parallel circuits 1hith earth return

For the special case where the two parallel three-phase circuits are identical, following the same method of derivation

D

Zo= ~+O.00477/+jO.01397f loglO V(GMR;(GMD)

ohms per phase per mile (39)

in which GMR is the geomet.ric mean radius of one set of conductors, (-0' (GMR.)oondu.tor(GMD)~.eD,.,.atlon), and GMD is the geometric mean distance between tho two sets of conductors or the ninth root of the product of the nine possible distances between conductors in one circuit and conductors in the other circuit.

This equation is the same as !(zo+ZO(In) where ZD is the zero-sequence self impedance of one circuit by equation (37) and ZO(m) is the zero-sequence mutual impedance between two circuits as given by Eq. (38). For nonidentical circuits it is better to compute the mutual and self impedance for the individual circuits, and using !(ZO+ZO{m» compute the zero-sequence self impedance.

Zero-sequence mutual impedance between one circuit (with

earth return) and n ground wires (with earth return)

Figure 22 shows a three-phase circuit with n ground

0, •

o G

o c

Y/J7?77'/7/7'7»»J/77lJ/7J?7J7?J»JJJ?l7J/;;;;

Fill. 22-A three-conductor three-phase circuit (with earth return) and n ground wires (with earth return)

(38)

wires. Equation (31) gives the zero sequence mutual impedance between two conductors:

ZO{tn.} = 0.004771 +jO.01397/ Ioglo dD~

ab

ohms per phase per mile (31)

where dah is the distance between the two conductors. This equation can be applied to two groups of conductors if dab is replaced by the GMD or geometric mean distance between the two groups. In Fig. 22, if the ground wires are considered as one group of conductors, and the phase conductors a, b, c, are considered as the second group of conductors, then the GMD between the two groups is

feet

Substituting this quantity for d.b in Eq. (31) results in an equation for the zero-sequence mutual impedance between one circuit and n ground wires, This Zo(m) is Zo(ag).

44

Characteristics oj Aerial Lines

Chapter 3

ZO(m) = 0.004771

Zero-sequence impedance oj one circuit with n ground wires (and earth) return.

Referring to Fig. 20 the zero-sequence self impedance of a single conductor, and the zero-sequence mutual impedance between a single conductor and another single conductor with the same earth return path was derived. These values are given in Eqs. (30) and (31). As stated before, these equations can be applied to multi-conductor circuits by substituting the circuit GMR for the conductor GMR in Eq. (30) and the GMD between the two circuits for dab in Eq. (31).

First, consider the single-conductor, single-phase circuit with earth return and one ground wire with earth return. Referring to Fig. 20 conductor a is considered as the single conductor of the single-phase circuit and conductor b will be used as the ground wire.

Writin~}he equations for Ea and Eb, we have;

Ea=olazaa+hzm (41)

Eb=Iazm+lbzbb. (42)

If we assume conductor b as a ground wire, then Eb = 0 since both ends uf this conductor are connected to ground. Therefore solving Eq. (42) for Ib and substituting this value of lb in Eq. (41),

E a = I a(Zaa - :_~).

Zbb

To obtain Za, divide E; by L; and the result is

Zm2 Z,.=Za,,-Zbb

The zero-sequence impedance of a single-conductor, singlephase circuit with one ground wire (and earth) return is therefore defined by Eq. (43) when zero-sequence self impedances of single-conductor, single-phase circuits are substituted for Zaa and Zbh and the zero-sequence mutual impedance between the two conductors is substituted for Zn,. Equation (43) can be expanded to give the zero-sequence impedance of a three-phase circuit with n ground wires (and earth) return.

Where zo=zero-sequence impedance of one circuit with n ground wires (and earth) return.

ZO(~) = zero-sequence self impedance of the threephase circuit.

ZO(g) = zero-sequence self impedance of n ground wires.

ZO(ag) = zero-sequence mutual impedance between the phase conductors as one group of conductors and the ground wire(s) as the other conductor group.

Equation (44) results in the equivalent circuit of Fig. 23 for determining the zero-sequence impedance of one circuit with n ground wires (and earth) return.

(40)

General Method for Zero-Sequence Calculations ~ The preceding sections have derived the zero-sequence self and mutual impedances for the more common circuit arrangements both with and without ground wires. For more complex circuit and ground wire arrangements a

FI~. 23~EqtJivalent circuit for zero-sequence impednnce of one circuit (with earth return) and n ground wires (with earth return).

(43)

general method must be used to obtain the zero-sequence imparlance of a particular circuit in such arrangements.

The general method consists of writing the voltage drop for each conductor or each group of conductors in terms of zero-sequence self and mutual irnpedanees with all conductors or groups of conductors present. Ground wire conductors or groups of conductors have their voltage drops equal to zero. Solving these simultaneous equations

f Eo f h d . d ci 't' th .

or -- 0 t e esire C1fCUl gives e zero-sequence im-

Jo

pedance of that circuit in the presence of all the other zerosequence circuits.

This general method is shown in detail in Chap. 2, Part X, Zero-Sequence Reactances. Two circuits, one with two overhead ground wires and one with a single overhead ground wire are used to show the details of this more general method.

Practical Calculation oj Zero-Sequence Impedance of Aerial l.ines-Tn the preceding discussion a number of equations have been derived for zero-sequence self and mutual impedances of transmission lines taking into account overhead ground wires. These equations can be further simplified to make use of the already familiar quantities Ta, X., and Xd. To do this two additional quantities, re and x. are necessary that result from the use of the earth as a return path for zero-sequence currents. They are derived from Carson's formulas and can be defined as follows;

r.=0.00477j ohms per phase per mile.

x.=O.0069S5jloglo4.6655Xl06; ohms per phase per

mile. (46)

(44)

It is now possible to write the previously derived equations for zero-sequence ",,1£ and mutual impedances in terms of r., x., Xd, 1'., and Xe' The quantities rE, Xa, Xd are given in the tables of Electrical Characteristics of Conductors and Inductive Heactance Spacing Factors. The quantities To and x. arc given in Table 7 as functions of earth resistivity, p, in meter ohms for 25, 50, and 60 cycles per second. The following derived equations are those most commonly used in the analysis of power system problems.

Chapter 3

Characteristics oj Aerial Lines

45

Zero-sequence impedance-one circuit (with earth return) but without ground wires

ZQ =r c+0.00477f

D

+jO.01397f logJo, c,.... ~"'--~." 2

V' (G l\11~) conductor (G :'1 D) acparatron

ohms per phase per mile. (37)

zo=r&+r.+jO.00698f IOglO 4.6656X106Y

+jO.2794L loglo ,.... ~~IJ

60 \.Y lVI 't.cccductor

-j2(0.2794[0 loglo GMDseparat10J zo=r,,+r.+j(x.+Xa-2Xd) ohms per phase per mile (47)

where Xd = HXd(.b) +Xd(be)+Xd(ca»

and Xd(ab) = Xd from Table 6 for spacing a to b, etc.

Mutual zero-sequence impedance between two circuits (with earth return) but without ground wires

ZO(m) = 0.00477j +jO.01397jloglo G~D ohms per

phase per mile. (38)

ZO(m)= r.+jO.006985j log., 4.665X106Y

-,iO.006985J log-lo GMD2

zO(m)=r.+j(xc-3Xd) ohms per phase per mile (48)

where Xci jS~(Xrllaa') +Xd(Rh') +Xd(~"')+Xd(b"') +Xd(hh') +Xd(b<') +x<!(ca') +Xd(cb') +Xd(cc'»

Zero-sequence self impedance-one ground wire (with earth return)

zO(g)=3ro+0.00477J+jO.01397f ioglO--.!!::_

G NIR""nd""!.o.

ohms per phase per mile. (30)

ZO(g) = 3r .. +r.+ jO.006985flogl04.6656X 106]

1

+0 0069851 loglo---.----

- (GMR)2condllotor

ZO(g) =3r a +re+j(xe+3xa) ohms per phase per mile. (49)

Zero sequence self impedance-two ground wires (with earth return)

ZO(g) = 3;s +O.00177f+jO.01307J log1Qz-=--==D=e=== V (GMRLonductm.d"y

ohms per phase per mile. (32)

ZO(&) = 3;" + r.+jO.006985floglO 4.6656 X 1067

+ 0.8382 I 1 0.83821 d-."

~2- og GMR -~2- og T

31'.. .( 3 3)

ZO(g)="2-+r.+J x,+2x"-2xd

ohms per phase per mile

where

Xd = Xd from Table 6 for spacing between ground wires, d,,_y.

Zero-sequence self impedance--n ground wires (with earth return)

ZO(g) = 3r 0+0.00477j +jO.0l397f loglO C~iR

ohms per phase per mile (30)

where r c =.,." ohms per phase per mile. n

G.:l\{R = '\,1 (0 ::\1 R)> cQmJu<tor(d~lg2dglg3 - - - dg1•n) (dg2g1d!tlg~

-- - dg"~,,) (d.3gld.~g2 -- -d~3.n) (dgngldgnrt2 - --dgng("~l»

~(g)=3r~+r u +jxe+j~(0.2794)L lOglO 4.G65XI06-jP

n' 2 60

+j3 (0.2794) !o loglO (G"'il:»·~l<_-

2 6 _, '" »couductor

-J~(O.279'1)~loglO [(dglg2dglgr--d",gn) (dg2g1dg2g3

--- dg2gu) (d.3g1dg3g2 --- dgagn) (dgngldgng2 -- -d€ng(n~!») ] ~

3 .( 3xa 3(n-1) )

ZO(g)=~ra+re+J x.+------Xd

n n n

ohms per mile per phase (51)

where Xd = _(_1_) (sum of Xd'. for all possible distances n n-l

between all ground wires.)

or Xd = _2 __ (sum of Xd'. for all possible distances n(n-I)

between all possible pairs of ground wires).

Zero-sequence mutual impedance between one circuit (with earth return) and n ground wires (with earth return)

Zo(",,) =0.00477f

+jO.01397j log10 3,. .... __ .I?~ __ . __ . __ ...

V dagldb.ldegl- - - dagndhgndcgn

ohms per phase per mile. (40)

Zo(",,) = r.+jO.006985j logLO 1.6656X 10£ P

f

where

1

Xd = 3~ (Xd(agl) +Xd(bgl)+Xd(egl)

-- - +Xdlagn) +Xd{bgn) +Xd(cgn))'

Zero-sequence im pedance+One circuit with n gTQ1).nd wires (and eartli return)

(44)

(50)

where ZQ(S) = zero-sequence self impedance of the threephase circuit.

ZO(g) = zero-sequence self impedance of n ground wires.

ZO(A~) = zero-sequence mutual impedance between the three-phase circuit as one group of conductors and the ground wire(s) as the other conductor group.

46

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

Chapter 3

4. Positlve-, Negative-, and Zero-sequence Shunt Capacitive Reactance

The capacitance of transmission lines is generally a negligible factor at the lower voltages under normal operating conditions. However, it becomes an appreciable effect for higher voltage lines and must be taken into consideration when determining efficiency, power factor, regulation, and voltage distribution under normal operating conditions. Use of capacitance in determining the performance of long high voltage lines is covered in detail in Chap. 9, "Regulation and Losses of Transmission Lines."

Capacitance effects of transmission lines are also useful in studying such problems as inductive interference, lightning performance of lines, corona, and transients on power systems such as those that occur during faults. .

For these reasons formulas are given for the positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence shunt capacitive reactance for the more common transmission line configurations. The case of a two-conductor, single-phase circuit is considered to show some of the fundamentals used to obtain these formulas. For a more detailed analysis of the capacitance problem a number of references are available. 2.4.5.

In deriving capacitance formulas the distribution of a charge, q, on the conductor surface is assumed to be uniform. This is true because the spacing between conductors in the usual transmission circuit is large and therefore the charges on surrounding conductors produce negligible distortion in the charge distribution on a particular conductor. Also, in the case of a single isolated charged conductor, the voltage between any two points of distances x and y meters radially from the conductor can be defined as the work done in moving a unit charge of one coulomb from point P2 to point PI through the electric field produced by the charge on the conductor. (See Fig. 24.) This is given

P, Pz

CONDUCTOR I

CONDUCTOR 2

FIg. l4-A two conductor single phase circuit (capacitance).

by

v"')' ~ 18 X 109 q In ~ volts (53)

x

where q is the conductor charge in coulombs per meter.

By use of this equation and the principle of superposition, the capacitances of systems of parallel conduotors can be determined.

Applying Eq, (53) and the principle of superposition to the two-conductor, single-phase circuit of Fig. 24 assuming conductor 1 alone to have a charge gl, the voltage between conductors 1 and 2 is

V12= 18X109 q1ln D12 volts. (54)

r

This equation shows the work done in moving a unit charge from conductor 2 11 distance Du meters to the surface of conductor 1 through the electric field produced by ql. Now assuming only conductor 2, having a charge Q2, the voltage between conductors 1 and 2 is

(55)

This equation shows the work done in moving a unit charge from the outer radius of conductor 2 to conductor 1 a distance DI2 meters away through the electric field produced by q2.

With both charges 11 and 1z present, by the principle of superposition the voltage Y12 is the sum of the voltages resulting from gl and q2 existing one at a time. Therefore 1'12 is the sum of Eqs, (54) and (55) when both charges ql and q2 are present.

YI2 = 18 X 109( ql In ~12 +q2 In ;;u) volts. (56)

Also if the charges on the two conductors are equal and their sum is zero,

Qt+Q2=0 or q2= +q:

SUbstituting -ql for q2 in equation (56)

D1• I V12 = 36 X lO~ql In - vo ts.

r

(57)

The capacitance between conductors 1 and 2 is the ratio of the charge to the voltage Of

yg1 = C12 = 1 farads per meter. (58)

12 36 X 109 In D12

r

The capacitance to neutral is twice that given in Eq. (58) because the voltage to neutral is half of V12•

1

C« = D farads per meter. (59)

18X 109 In _E

r

The shunt-capacitive reactance to neutral (or per con-

d ) . 1. ti 1 .

uctor IS XeD ~ 2;ji:J Or in more prae lea unite

60 D12 h d

XO n =O.0683~ [OglO - mego ms per con uctor per

f r

mile,

This can be written as

60 1 60 D12

X =00683·- loglO ~+O.0683~ log -

tm • f r f 10 1

megohms per conductor per mile

(60)

(61)

where D12 and r are in feet and f is cycles per second. Eq. (61) may be written

Xen = x: + x,{ megohms per conductor per mile. (52)

The derivation of shunt-capacitive reactance formulas brings about terms quite analogous to those derived for inductive reactance, and as in the case of inductive reactance, these terms can be resolved into components as shown in .Eq. (62). The term Xa' accounts for the electrostatic flux within a one foot radius and is the term

Chapter 3

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

47

0.0683 ~ loglo ~ In Eq. (61). It is a function of the conductor outside radius only. The term Xd' accounts for the electric flux between a one foot radius and the distance

Dl~ to the other conductor and is the term O.O(j83 tiO loglO

j

~12 in Eq. (61). Note that unlike inductive-reactance where the conductor geometric mean radius (GMR) is used, in capacitance calculations the only conductor radius used is the actual physical radius of the conductor in feet.

Zero-sequence capacitive reactance is, like inductivereactance, divided into components x: taking into account the electrostatic flux within a one-foot radius, xi taking into account the eleetrostlltic flux external to a radius of one foot out to a radius D feet, and xe' taking into account the flux external to a radius of one foot and is a function of the spacing to the image conductor.

I 12.30 I 2h h '1

X a = -j- oglO mego ms per mi e per

conductor (63)

where h=conductor height above ground.

f = frequency in cps.

x: is given in the tables of Electrical Characteristics of conductors, xl is given in Table 8, Shunt-Capacitive Reactance Spacing Factor, and x: is given in Table 9, Zero-Sequence Shunt-Capacitive Reactance Factor.

The following equations have been derived in a manner similar to those for the two-conductor, single-phase case, making use of the terms x:, Xd and xi. They are summarized in the following tabulation.

Shunt-Capacitive Reactance, Xc, of Three-Phase Circuits (Conductors a, b, c)

(a) Positive (and negative) sequence xc.

x{ = x!. = x: + xl megohms'per conductor per mile. (64)

xl = ~(sum of all three Xd'S for distances between all possi ble pairs) .

= ~(Xj'b+Xj'C+X,jb')' See Table (8) (65)

(b) Zero-Sequence Xc of one circuit (and earth).

X6 (a) = x,: + x: - 2Xd megohms per conductor per

mile. (66)

x,{ = value given in Eq. (65). Table (9) gives x:.

(c) Zero-Sequence Xc of one ground wire (and earth).

Xo'(g)=3x:(g)+x:(g) megohms per conductor per

mile. (67)

(d) Zero-Sequence Xc of two ground wires (and earth).

I 3 I + I 3,

x 0 (g) = 2x~ (g) Xe (g) - :td megohms per conductor per

mile.

xrf =Xd(glg2) =x.{ for distance between ground wires. (e) Zero Sequence Xo of n ground wires (and earth).

I ,+3 r 3(n-l) r

Xo (K) "" Xa -Xa - -- Xd megohms per conductor per

n n

mile (69)

where

xi = _2~. (sum of aIt xd's for an possible distances n(n-l)

between all possible pairs of ground wires)

or xl = --~~ (sum of all x.J's for all possible distances n(n-I)

bet ween all ground wires).

(f) Zero-Sequence x" between one circuit (and earth) and ri ground wires (and earth)

X,f(i>,,1 =x: -3x./ megohms per conductor per mile. (70)

I I( J + I + J +'

Xd = -3 Xd (ag I} Xd lbgl) Xd (ogl)' •• Xd (as,,)

n

+ xl (bgn) + xl (cgn)).

(g) Zero-Sequence Xc of one circuit with n ground wires

I 2

Xo = X6 (al - Xo ;a~.!.__ megohms per conductor per mile. (71) Xo (KJ

Shunt Capacitive Reactance, Xc, of Single-Phase Circuits

(Conductors a and b)

(h) Xc of single-phase circuit of two identical conductors x' = 2(x; + xJ) megohms per mile of circuit. (72) Xd' = Xd' for spacing between conductors.

(i) Xo of single-phase circuit of two non-identical con-

ductors a and b.

x' = x: (~) + x: (b) + 2x1 megohms per mile of circuit. (73)

(j) Xo of one conductor and earth. x' = x: +Jx: megohms per mile.

(74)

In using the equations it should be remembered that the shunt capacitive reactance in megohms for more than one mile decreases because the eapaeir.ance increaaes. For more than one mile of line, therefore, the shunt-capacitive reactance as given by the above equations should be divided by the number of miles of line.

(68)

5. Conductor Temperature Rise and CurrentCarrying Capacity

In distribution- and transmission-line design the temperature rise of conductors above ambient while carrying current is important. While power loss, voltage regulation, stability and other factors may determine the choice of a conductor for a given line, it is sometimes necessary to eonRider the maximum continuous current carrying capacity of a conductor. The maximum continuous current rating is necessary because it is determined by the maximum operating temperature of the conductor. This ternperature affects the sag between towers or poles and determines the loss of conductor tensile strength due to annealing. For short tie lines or lines that must carry excessive loads under emergency conditions, the maximum continuous current-carrying capacity may be important in selecting the proper conductor.

The following discussion presents the Schurig and Frick" formulas for calculating the approximate current-carrying capacity of conductors under known conditions of ambient temperature, wind velocity, and limiting temperature rise.

The basis of this method is that the heat developed in the conductor by J2R loss is dissipated (1) by convection

48

Characteristics oj Acr£al Lines

Chapter 3

In the surrounding air, and (2) radiation to surrounding objects. This can be expressed as follows:

PR = (W c+ W r)A watts.

where I = conductor current in amperes.

R = conductor rosistuncr- per foot.

We = watts per square inch dissipated by convection. TVr = waLt,,; per square inch dissipated by radiation.

A = conductor surface arcu in square inches per foot of length.

The watts per square inch dissipated by convection, lVc, can be determined from t.he following equation:

T _ 0.0128 VTJ1; .,. ." .

n _-- ---,Elt \\ atts per square inch (7G)

e T"O.l23Y'd

where p = pressure in atmospheres (p = 1.0 for atmospheric pressure).

v=vc!ocity in feet per second.

Ta= (degrees Kelvin) average of absolute temperaturos of conductor and air.

d= outside diameter of conductor in inches.

At= (degrees C) temperature rise.

This formula is an approximat ion applicable to conductor diameters ranging from (L3 inch to 5 inc hes or more when the velocity of ail' is higher than free convection air currents (0.2 -0.5 ft.'sec).

The watts per square inch disHipated by radiation, Wr) can be determined from the following equation:

[( T)4 (1' )4J

W r = 3(1.811,' lOOO - ]r)ej{)

watts per square inch

where E = relative cmissivit.y of conductor surface

(E = 1.0 for "black body." or 0.5 for average oxidized copper).

T = (degrees Kelvin) absolute temperature of conductor.

To= (degrees Kelvin) absolute temperature of surroundings.

By calculating (lV ,+ lV ,), A, and R, it is then possible to determine I from Eq. (75). The value of R to use ,is Lite a-c resistance at the conductor temperature (ambient temperature plus temperature rise) taking into account skin effect as discussed previously in the section on positive- and negative-sequence resistances.

This method is, in general, applicable to both copper and aluminum conductors. TOK1.3 have shown that aluminum conductors dissipate heat. at about the same rate as copper conductors of the same outside diameter when the temperature rise is the same. Where test data is available on conductors, it should be used. The above general method can be used when test data is not available, or to check test results.

The effect of the sun upon conductor temperature rise is generally neglected, being; some 30 to SoC. This small effect is less important under conditions of high temperature rise above ambient."

The tables of Electrical Characteristics of Conductors include tabulations uf the approximate maximum current-

(75)

100 90 80 70

60

r- 50 z

li!40 cc :::. o

cc30 o Io

Z5 ~~O

o us

~ ~

x o

g: 10

~ 9

8

7

6 5

0
0
0
0
r--
-
- I--- --- r-:!.:'
or--- I--- - t--- ,3/0 --~
I--- I- - t-- I'"---...
or-- 1---1- I-- t-- ~ r--. r-...... ~ r-,
t-- -lL0 -.... r-.. J'.... "
-- I- .... I- It-- I'
I-- I--- t-- - t-- r-! r-- r-- r-; <, ~ I'
01--- ..... t-- '>; t-. r--. J'.,.,
4
-. _o ...... ...
r-. <, ......
- i--_ , -. <, I"'
0
a 8
0
0
0 <,
0 ""

0 4



40'

60·

10·

30·

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ·C

Fig. 25-~Copper conductor current carrying capacity in Amperes VB. Amhient Temperature in °C. (Copper Conductors at 75°e, wind velocity at 2 Ips.),

1000 900 800 700 600



--
r- rl.3SiQo c,
-t- --
r--- ~ 86800~
- -- t--.. -~"'26
- --- - -~ Q.. t--...
- -- - -- ~ ..._ ..... r........ r-,
- -- - -- ~- ..._ ...... r--...._ ['..:t-.
!--
r-- -- - --- ~ ..._ r-.. <, <,
r-- -- r- '"- [-...... I-... t-.
e
"'"
- --_ - 4 ...... r-, "
i-- -- <, ......
--- ~ R I--- r-;
r--
.......
<, 500 .... z ~400

a: :::. 0300

cr: o I(.) :::.

§EloO o o

LLI I<i ::E

X o g: 100

~ 90

80

70 60

50

40 O·

10·

:W· 30' 40· 50·

AM81ENT TEMPERATURE ·C

Fig. 26-Aluminum conductor current carrying capacity in Amperes VS. Ambient Temperature in °C. (Aluminum Conductors at 75°C, wind velocity at 2 Fps),

Chapter 3

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

49

TABLE I-CHARACTERISTICS OF COPPER CONDUCTORS, HARD DRAWN, 97.3 PERCENT CONDUCTIVITY

I I . Xa'

_.Size of -g_' D·,am.1 I I pAr,I,'~. Ge ...... _ r a Xa Shunt Capacitive

Conductor -'l" 0 C -"- "U". Rceietu ncc Inductive Reactance Rcac tnnce

s, eter I .ut- . Weight ur- merrtc Ohms pcr Conduetor per Mile Ohms per Conductor Megchrns per

(~ of 1 aide Breakinz I' 1'1 rent Mean C .r

----:--1 ...... Indi- Diam~StrengthII)Ull(!'SCarr'}.-, Radius --_ .... _ .... _. Per ]\-{Ue kuuluc tor

... c id 1 I'd' per. ('0 «.10('. (12""F.) At 1 Ft. Spacing Per Mile

~0 ... Y' un eter ounus ] 1'..l.ilc ,Jnf;!; ~:.) 2!i.<:<C. (77'l-F.) .._..- ~ At 1 Ft. Spacing

C' 1 ,. -. ~ CJ. Shands Inches t Ce nac- L~ des

~i~sar ~~ ~'lllnchcs I ~~i,~s Feet ~~-'I ~'-I-;--;'o-- ----1--- ;:'--1 ;(;-I'~;;;-' ... - 2;' --I 50-,--;-- ---;;--1-;-1-;'0

< z I d-e [cycles cycles eye] ... ~s d-e cycles .pycl.e:-\ eyr-Ies cycles Icycles CYC~~S •.... ~y,-,ll's {:ycl(>s cycles

1 000 000 - .. - ~'IO 1644115l 43 830 116 3001; 300 0 03H8 O. O:;8;;!Oo;;94107!620 oon3~i O~(i-40 j)-(j;;:;Slo. OG72I;:-OG~ O~l \)(;6!0. :m 0.40'0 02l,ilo:108IiO'OOOI 900 000 .. 1370 15Ml O~2 3\1;;10 14 MOL no ,0 O:H9 O.OI\~O'O.0658'(1.06~~0.069:ill.07110 ()71Bi00i40007;;20.16\)~iO.3:l\l '[040G 0220 jO 110010.0916 800 000 .. !:';7'IO 14701029135 12() 113 ()101 13() 1°0329 0.073m 07301007~~007721l08000.080(;IO.()821i10.()837 0 172,,0.:141 0.413 0 Z2-f '0.112)100934 750 000 .. j:370 14210 997 33 400 12 230'1 DUO o 0319 0.0780iO.0787 0.08070.081800853008591°.0878.0.08880 1739[0.348 0.417 0 226 [0.113210 0943

700 0001.. b 0 137.30 g63 31 170 '/11 4101 010 ·0 0308 O. 0&1r.'~'08420'08fll 0.0871 00914 0.0()200.093710 .ann 0 17591° 352 !lo.422 o. n~ ,0.114;,0. 09Fi4 500 000 .. '3"1°.12730 II))! 27 020 9 781 \HQ'O 0285 0.0()750.0981 O.09~70 100ft 0. )()<150. 1071iO 108i\lo. I()~;; 0 179\),0. 3GO () 132 0 .. 23:; 10.117:l~ In77 500 OOO .... j37.0.11(;20 814 22;,10 8 ),;1 840 () 0200 0.1I700.1I7:;O.11880.119f>O 1280101283,0 12()iliOI:1030184f)10 369 iO H3 02410.]20;;0.1004 500 OO(J , "1191° 15220 811 21 ~90 8 151 840 (J 02~6 O.11700.117B o.rrsso.riec 0.1280110 1 ~8310 12\J(iD 13030,18<530 371 !o 4<15 0.211 '0.120(10.100

450000 il90.15390 770 19750 7 :136 780 () 0243 0.1300 .13040 131GO.1323 0 J.!220 1-12(;10 143710 IH~OI879!0 :l76 04,,1 024:) 0.12240.1020

400 000 1190 1451'0 726 17 5(;0 6 521 730 0.0229 0 14620 14660.14770 148·.0 .1t)OO(i IUO:;!O H)1310 lolD 0. )9091° 382 0.4.;8 0.249 O.12~OO.1O:!8

3.5D 000 1191(), 135710.67il Ib 590 5706 fi70 0.0214 0. ltl71(). 1(;7.;0. lG840. H;~l" () lR280. 1831'1'0.ISWO. ]845 O.19430.38UI0.46f> 0.2,,·\ O.I~(\!}O.105B

350000 12:0 1708Io.7iO 15140 5706 6700.0225 O.lG710.107;-,O.10840.1f1tH 0.1828(1.!831.O.lfH010 184:;(19181).381 0.460 0.25\ O.l2530.1D44

300000 •.. )()0.12570.6211 13.110 48911 RIO 1l.019870.HI~lU l\l5:H1,I\l(jI'LUHitill:ll~ (1.~141().2H (l2!~ n 1982[) 3')6 0.470 02[i\l O.12~')O.1080 300 000 ... ,120 158W657 13170 4891 (\10 0.0208 O.HI!)(0.lUr)30.19610 l\Hil) 0 21:) (} ZI!! 214 02lJ 1).1.9.".71).3820470 0256 O.1281().1068 250000 "'I'1901147iO.571 II 300 4076 540 0.()181~O ~;H o,~a~ O"23~ I) ~;l~ o ~.!(? 0 ~!(? 0 ~~~ In ~~7 o~o:, f)-lOG 0.487 O.Z()() 00:113321:l'IO •• )'.n3S 250 o ()O" .. 120 144a:O.GOO II 130 4076 540 O.OW()20.2.H 0.234 0.23" 0.2,1;, O.20h I) "X) 2;j, 0.,,7 O.2UlJ 0.40( 0.481 0.263 . 4

211 6001410!)90 1055~ 528 o 617 '.~ 44.,~.),,;0. 480 O.01GG8() 2760277 0277 () 278 o 3020 :,,)30303,0303 02070.4140.497 0,272 "°"135911°.1132

211 sno 4iOII?O 132S0 fiil2 s asa ., '!'c 4()0 0 017WI) 27fl 02770.2770.278 0 :\02 () :10:10 :lO:ll() 30;; 0.205 0.409 0.4iH ().2GiJ'lo.]:H301lHI

211 6004;0 70 173\)0 522 9154 3450 480 0.()15711().27fJ 0.277 () 277 0278 0302 I) aoa o :,03 0303 0210 0.420 O(i03 0,273 0.131\30.1136

167 80013iOil210 118.1 492 7.556 2736 420 O.0155H 0.:149 0.3,19 () 349 0.350 0381 () :\81 o 382 I) 382 0.210 (l.·!21 0.505 0.~77 rI38~iO.l153

167 80J3!oi7.0 1548[ 464 7366 22 71~7oG 420 (1.01404 0349 0.349 0.349 0.350 () 3811° ,l81 o 382!0 382 1).216 0.431 05]8 0.281 :0,140,,10 1171

133 !()( 2/017'1° 1379041-1 5 9Z6 ~~ 3(,0 O.()12~20.440 0.440 O,1{O 0.440 048\ (l '181'0481 () 481 0.222 OH~ 10.r>:J2 ()28H 1°1445101205

!OS ,~~ 1/0,7012280 3GB 4752 1720 3]() 0.0111:10.55;,0.5550.5550.55'30606 U G071o.G07 ,O.G07 0.2270.455 O.f>·10 ().2~18 OI488.() 1240

83 Of)' I] 710 10Q3~ 328 3 80·1 1 364 270 o. 00992 O. 0UO 0.099 0 6\10 O. 6()O 1).765 I I o. 2a:, o. ·167 () .. "60 0.306 0 15281° .. J 214

836[l( 1 3'10 ](\100 3GO 3620 J 351 270001016(18020,6920602 rLW? 0757 0232104601 IIU557 n.zos 014<l;'jO 1246

66370 2 700074 292 ::I 045 1082 2:l0 ()On8830,8~1 0.882 0.882 882 U.Otii 02:39 :1),4780574 0.314 :0"157:;'j0.l:108

66370 2 301487 320 2913 Ion 2"10 O.(l(J!lO:l0873 O\l55 on810.476 iO.,,71 0.307 '0.1537.0.)281

66 370 2 II" . jO 25S 3 003 1 061 220 o 00836 0.8(\·1 0.945 0.2 .. 12,. 1°.484 i.O ".: 81 0.323 10 H.i 14/0 1345

71°08670260 200 IJ 007871.112 1.2HlI O.~4,' 10.480 ,0 .. )88 0.322 'IO.HHIO.1343

30132;;0285 2000 008();; 1.101 1.204 ().244 0.488 iO.580 O.:lW 0.]:\78.0.1315

I 0 ZZ9 1:)0 I() 007451.09() Burue ae d-e l.l~l2 Same aa d-e 02.181°496 !(l59.'3 (I.33l O.IO,";i().1380

30.11800 25~ 180 O"O()717 1388 [Ji18 0.250 IO.4~)9 i'l.599 0:124 10. 16HIIO. 1349

1 . 0204 170 10,00(;631 374 1.50J i 0.2"4 io 507 iGOOf) 0.3391°. ]6071°, 1415

30 10.) 0 22h lti(} :0 non~x I 7:)0 1..914 ! 0 :~r}f; 10 51l fU nl:~ O_a:-;2 0.11'11110 l:iS4

1 .... ,01819 140 !O"OO~90 l,n:l 1.8951 (j,260 ,0J)1\1 ;(J(,23 0348 '10 173g,O IH9

31°.09351'°.201 . 130 iO.O%('8 2.21 2.41 , 0.262 iO.523 !().(j~8 0:341 0.}70310:1419

I 0.1620, 12010"00,,2(, 2.)8 I 2.39 I[ 0.26" ,(UiSI :0(,37 0.3.>6 ,0.1779io,1483

11 iO.IH31 110 10 0040112.7;' 301 027110~i2lU(~5! O;H\4\'U.1821iOI517

I: 10.1285 co 10 I){HI7 3.47 3.80 0.277 ,O.M4 iO.bo;> 0.372 0 1862!0_1;,52

52 630 3
52 630 3
.52 030 3
41 740 4
41 740 4
33 100 5
'''l S
26 2,>0 6
26250 6
20 820 7
16 51O, 8 * For conductor a.t 7ij"C.~ air at 25<:lC •• wind 1.4 miles per hour (2 ft/SCI..l). [r-cquency=GO cycles.

carrying capacity based on 50"C rise above an ambient of 25°C, (75°C total conductor temperature), tarnished surface (E =0.5), and an air velocity of 2 feet per second. TheRe conditions were used after discussion and agreement with the conductor manufacturers. These thermal limitations are based on continuous loading of the conductors.

The technical literature shows little variation from these conditions as line design limits." The ambient air temperature is generally assumed to be 25°(; to 400e whereas the temperature rise is assumed to be woe to 60"0. This gives a conductor total temperature range of 35°0 to 100"C. For design purposes copper or ACSR conductor total temperature is usually assumed to be 75°0 as use of this value has given good conductor performance from an annealing standpoint, the limit being about 100°C where annealing of copper and aluminum begins.

Using Schurig and Frick's formulas, Fig, 25 and Fig. 26 have been calculated to show how current-carrying eapacity of copper and aluminum conductors varies with ambient temperature assuming a conductor temperature of 75.C and wind velocity of 2 feet per second. These values are conservative and can be used as a guide in normal line design. For those lines where a higher conductor tern-

perature may be obtained that approaches WO°C, the conductor manufacturer should be consulted for test data or other more necut";l,tP informat.ion as to cnndw:tor temperature limitations, Such data on copper conductors has been presented rather thoroughly in the technieal literature."

III TABLES OF CONDUCTOR CHARACTERISTICS

The following tahles contain data on copper, ACSR, hollow copper, Copperweld-copper, and Copperweld conductors, which along with the previously derived equations, permit the determination of positive-, negative-, and zerosequence impedances of oonductors for use in the solution of power-system problems. Also tabulated are such conductor oharur-teristies; as size, weight, and current-carrying capacity as limited by heating.

The conductor data (ra, XA, xa') along with inductive and shunt-capacitive reactance spacing factors (Xd, Xd') and zero-sequence resistance, inductive and shunt-capacitive reactance factors (T~) XQ, x~') permit easy substitution in the previously derived equations for determining the symmetrical component sequence impedances of aerial circuits.

The cross-sectional inserts in the tables are for ease in

50

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

Chapter 3



TABLE 2-A~CHARACTERISTICS OF ALUMINUM CABLE STEEL REINFORCED

(Aluminum Company of America)

8jl1gle Layer COllciut:lorn

Small Currents

Current Approx.75% C3.pa.cityt

• Based on copper 97 percent, aluminum 1}1 percent conductivity.

t Ft.'!' conductor at 75fJC, au at. 2S·C_. wind L4 miles per hour (2 ft!see), fl"equew:cy=£O evclea.

l "Current Approx. 75% Capacity" is 75% of the "Appro.ll.. Current Catrying Ca.pacity in Amps." and is appro;t;imat-ely the current which win produce .5O-:'>C. conductor temp. (25QC~ rise) witb 25"0. air ternp., wind 1.4 mil es per hour .



TABLE 2-B-CHARACTERISTICS OF "EXPANDED" ALUMINUM CABLE STEEL REINFORCED

(Aluminum Company oI~Amcric.a.)

Aluminum St.el Ftller SectIOn I I I I. Ap- r 4 Xtl X/

Circular Alu- \ Pa+ $ Copper.:;s. Geo- prox. Resistance Inductive Reactance Shunt Caps_!'itive

M,·l. I mmum per I <!J Enui ~ 1;:f "1.17"",,-, htlmefrH: Cur- Ohms per Conductor pe-r Mile Obme pet" Conductor Reactance

___ ~_ S I.l.:.nJU V .§ no;:; g Mean rent ------"-----, ,

or ~ '!l I :l 1 1 ;l alent ca pO(md"lfu.dlU' Ca"y 25'(' (77'F) \ 5D C. (122 F) et IPFet'.""slpil.".,... Megohm" p ••

A.W.O 1;: ..-:: A IA CI(cllla.r 4.' per- . , Current Approx .... "'"'no Conductor pet Mile

4}u- -a Ili ~ co ~ -e ~ ~ -.:::: ~ 1.;;\ V-I-* I1l Mils or -:;! t'l ! Mite Ca.t rjLO C1ng Small Currents 75% Capa.clty· All Currents at 1 Ft. Spacmg

minum c ~ t::::- ;:: ::;- =:: ~- >= t :;; ¢- A W.G. 2~ 1 yr ee ~apac --- ---- -~"

E ~ s~ I;~;~ I; ~.:! L~ ~~gl f!.-;J I Feet.! rt.y d-r! 25 ! 50 !,60 Id-cl 25 ~ 50 I 00 25 I 50 I 50 25 50! SO

8500001: i o~~51~lo~:41~ro~~21~1~I~i534 ~mI3~~J 7 2001-~;I~!"S" ~e"'IC:deS~.OYcleSI <yd.s,<yd,. "yd •• cYde'ICYcJe'i\,=Vde, cydes .OYclesloYd ..

] 15000054 2 0 ]400 ]910 012114,0 135324 211 55724 0001-11 9001 9 0701 (1) (I) (I) (I) (1) (1) (1) (I) (I) (I)

1338000 66 2 Q 1350 19 0 lOll I 4 10 IS1 118: 2 I 75'840 000149 2781)1 340

(1) Electrical Characte,iBtios not available until laboratory m eas u-ercenta are completed.

Chapter 3

Character£sh'cs of Aerial Lines

51

TABLE 3-A-CHARACTERISTICS OF ANACONDA HOLLOW COPPER CONDUCTORS

(Anac-onda 1N~;rp k Cnble Company)

Xa'

Shunt Capacitive

Inductive Reactance Reactance

Ohms per Conductor Megohms per

p('r Mile Conductor

at 1 Ft. Spacing per Mile

2""C. (77'1<'. l!50'C. (122'F.) at I Ft. Sp"cing

~-~~~:ir:l: d~~ 1 c~:t~s I 25 50 I 60 zs l 5~ I·········~~-

251 so I 2'1' GO, cycles cycles cycles cycles i cycles cycles

• i eye es cycle. I eye es cvclcs I ' I

--9-06--1--811-0-,;-0-0-1'-2-8- 110. HlIO~! 36 000 '~~ --j-39-5--IO.'Of.7! ;;--o;~if'!007:l4·0.07:J9o.l4l2 o.m0-339 0 19070:00531°.0794

QGRI 750000 42 0.1296 1.155 34200 12 :U5 U.U4lJ8 IH)O U07860(m)lllJ08HOIO.080~'O.1017 ° 323 0.388 0.21G OlOH01000OO

939 6.;0 000 50 01097 1.126 129500 1071H 00406 1000'0 O;j()giO Olllf)iO.OO;J40.IDOI10lG21Io.324 0.389,0218 0.10891°0\108

360RI nOI) 000 50 ° 1053 1.007 27 ,,00 o 905 0.03117 1020 l'o,',o:l84.I'.o"I]j.t'Il.J).107710. 108·Jlo' 164·1 0.329 0.3051'°221 0 110;'I.O.OO2!

938 5[,0 000 50 0100!l 1036 25 200 ~ 103 Ooa73 9(lO O.107GO.]()810.1177!01l~:~0.1663IO.333 0.3990.224 0111910.0032

4R" 510000 50 00:170 1.000 22700 81g5 0.03(\0 910 ° IIno 117~'fl 12R~:0 1280 0.J681 0336 0.4040.226 01131 0.G943

892R3 500000, L8 01558 1.080 21 400 8263 OO:l94 gDO 1°1178:0 1184:0. 128Vio: 1296 0 16300.326 0.3910.221 0.111l4:0.0920

::: :: :~ ::: :::~ :::: :~ :: : ::: :::~: ::: I: ::::1:: ~:~:!~ ::::'1:: :::~I: ::;'~I :.::~ ~:::: :~:~ !~: ::~:!:~:::

925ft 1 380 500 22 0 1211 1.003 16 300 6 ;,:31 0 11;J73 780 10 156510 1.)721° 17120.1719'0.1003 0.333 0.3\)9 0.226 0.1130:0.0042

565 u 1 350000 21 0 !lOo 0950 15100 ;; 813 0.0353 750 0: lii96l0 17000.18541o.180010.16~11 0.338 0.4060.230 01l.'j(J:00958

936 350 000 15 0.1444 0.800 15 400 ,,776 0>0311 740 ,0.16')0,0.1[;%:0. 1S4f1:0. 18~·!:0. 175·1,0.301 0.421 ° 237 0 11%10 O!lAA

378R! 3fl() 000 30 0.1059 0736 16100 "nu 0.02,;3 700 '10 U;&j:0.!090:0. 1843,0. lS·HHO.18GO, 0.372 0.4460.248 0.124101034

954 321000 22 0 i t ia o.oao 13860 (, .1-13 OO:HO 700 .. 0 lR~.11 .. 1'0'185f.; ..... ,.! •. O,202 'lo,2m 10' 17LO! 0.342 0.410 .0.232 10' 116L[.0.0968

935 3DO 000 18 0120;' 0.839 13100 4984 0.0307 fj70 ° lllH(Hl.l1)8!):O.210 0217 0.1761'0.352 0.423;02:19 01l94,0 Og95

003R1 300 000 15 01338 07Q7 13200 49.,3 0.0289 660 iO 106()iO.197;liO.215!0 216 t 17931 0.359 0.4301'0>242 0.12121°.1010

178R2 300000 12 01507 0.750 130;'0 4037 00266 650 !0.19f,4iO.19WO 215 iO.2](1 10.1833io.3Ll7 0.4400.247 0>1234:1).1028

926 250 000 18 0.1100 0.766 10 8:;0 4155 0.0279 600 iO,2~;8 'Io,n~' :0.21\0 10.261 0.1810'0.302 0.4341°.240101226,.°.1022

\l15R! 200000 15 0.1214 0.725 11000 4 148 0.026Ll 590 iO.237 0.238 '10>2['9 '0.260 0.18:~4 0.367 0.4400.2'19 '10.124(\'1,.0.1038

24R! 250000 12 0.1.308. 0.68.3 II ooo 41J:J 0.0245 ~80 io 237 0.238 0.2:.9 O.~(iO '0 1876 0.375 0.450 02&3 0.1267,0.]()o6

\i23 4(0 18 0.1005! 1).700 9300 3.,21 0.02;,5 530 iO.281 0282 0>:lO7 0.:,081°.18.".) 0.371 0.4450.252 0.125810.1049

~22 4/0 15 o 110')' 0.663 i o soo 3510 0.0238 520 i02HI 10.282 iO.307 0 :W>l ,0 !RS!) 0.378 0.4530.256 0.1278,0.1065

50R2 4/0 14 .1'011.021' O.G.';O I' \) :lOO 31dO 0.0234 520 :0.28010.281 10.30G 0.30710 18980.380 0.4550.25710.128510.1071

IS8Rl 3;0 JG 0 lY.J61 060G I 7,1110 27!l5 0.0221 460 10.;{,)4 10";'''1'0.387 O.38S iO 19280.386 0.463 0.262 0.131010.1091

49SHl 3/0 15 0.0096 0. 59!) . 7 eoo Z 785 0.0214 460 10.3r)~ !0.354 ,0.:186 0.387 10 1943 0.389 04,,6 0.263 0.1316 0 1097

S70R2 3;0 ll~ 0° 0181 8023 ! 0.500 7 GOO 2772 O.02fJl 450 iO.:;',2 10.3;)3 10.385 0.386 10 1970 0.395 0.47-1 02G8 0.13381°.1115

909H2 210 ~;. I 0 ,,3D I 5 sso 2213 0.0191 370 1044,,'044610487 0487 le.zoo 0.400 0.4811°.271 0.13,;J7;01131

412R2 210 14 1:0091;;, .. 0.51.; ", 6e ,O~{(.)ll1" Z 207 0.0184 370 lo.i4/' 0:446 10'487 0:487 '1°.202 0.-101 0,185 ().274 0.1368io 1140

9:)7 2/0 13 ,0.0(150 0.505 6 000 2 203 0 0181 370 0.446 0.4~6 10.487 0 487 ° 20., 0.400 () 487 ,0.275 0.1375[0.1146

930 125 GOO 11 1'0088.5' 0 GOO 5 "50 2083 0.0180 360 0473 0'>731'0,,17 0 517 :O.2il.~ 0406 0.487,0.276 0.1378'0.\149

934 121 3DO 15 0:08361' 0500 54()() 201.0 00179 350 10.4\11 04\)) ,0;,:17 o 5:.17 1020.3 0407 0.4881'0.276 ,0.137810 1149

901 119400, 12 10.0936 0470 1979 {LOW5 340 0.507 050710555 0,555 :0207 0.415 0.4080.280 10.HDO!0.1l61

Size of

Conductor Circular Mila or A.\V.G.

Weight Pounds per :f\lilc

Geometric Mean Radius at 00 Cycles Foot

Appnn:;, Cu r ren t Carrying Capacity

Amps.

r" Resistance Ohms per Conductor per Mile

Design Number

Wi"""

I Outside i Breaking

, Dinm- Diameter Strain

1 nches Pounds

Num- ctcr

be); Hnchcs

tFor conductor at. 75¢C.t air at 25~C" wind 1.4 miles per hour (2 [thee), frequeney=Ef cycles. avcrngc tarnished surface+

TABLE 3-B-CHARACTERISTICS OF GENERAL CABLE TYPE BB HOLLOW COPPER CONDUCTORS

(General Cable Corporat.ionj

o

II I l~'~~' r a Xa Shunt ~~:acitiVe

Condue- Geo- \ CUT- Resist.anee Inductive Reaotance Reactance

Ji~: s~ll~~~) T\;i~l~_ ~:e~~!! Break- !~ft i C:r~~~ Ohms per Conductor per ~~~le O~I!sp~~rl\~?:~~c- ~!~~~hcr;~r ~e:r

Cll~ula:r Dio:lm- ness per I~tr~nnggth Mean mg 25e-C. (77"F.) 50"C (l22o(;1F) 1 Foot Spacing Mde ~t I Foot

]I.!!l, or I ett: Inches MIle I Pounds Radius Capac- . . I SpaClng

A.\\.O. nc 8 Feet ,ty'" I 25 I 50 I 60 25 ---.w-'~----r,O- 21) 1 50-I-~ 25 1 50 I 60

! Amps d-e cycles cycles cycles d-e cyd~l~ cycles 1 eye lee i cycles cycles cycles cycles cycles cycles

1 ODO 000 ~ ° 150'";116 160: 43190 0 0833 lfi20 10 05760 057610 0577 00577 ° 0030;;- 0630 () 003Iio.06:11lo 12:;7 0- 251 1 ° 302 0.1734,0 0857.0 0722 !l50 000 203.5 0147'15350111030 0 0805 1~6;' ° 06(l(l0 06060 06070.06070 0663 O.06f,4 0 06A410 Ofili40 1274 02.'>.'> 0306 0.1757;0087\>,00732 900 000 1 !l66 o IHo J4 .,401 38 870 0 0778 1505 ° 06400 06400 0641006410 0700 007010 070!IO 07(110 1291 0 258 ° 310 0.17820.08911'0 0742 R'jO 000 1 901 c 140*i1i1 730 311 r io iO.07M 145D 0.06771°.06780.06780.06780. OHIO 07420. 0742!O.0742 0.1309 0.262 i 0.314 '0.18050.0903 0.0752

800 000 820 0.137*112 920 34 55!) iO.0722 1390 0.0720.0.07200.07200.0721 0.0788007880 0788;007880.1329 0.26610.319 0 1833 0.0917 0.0764 7\J0 000 1 650 0.131t112760 34 120 100fl46 13;,5 O.U71liIO.0721J 0.07300.07301°079700798 0. U7\1(>IO.079fl 0.131>5 0.2771° 332 ° 1906 0.09531°.0794 750 000 1 750 0 133* 12 120 32 390 10.060111:325 00768:00768 00768 0.07691°.0840 0.0840 O. 0841 I()' 0841 ,0 1351 0270! 0.324 0.1864 0.0032'10 0777 700 000 1 686 0.130' II 310 30 230 '0.0606 1265 008~2'00823 0.0823008230.0900 0.0000 0. OU01100001iO.1370 0.274 0.329 0.18010.004500788 6,,() ooo I (HO 0 126* 10 500 28 070 10.063~ 1200 0.0886!0.OS86 0.0886 00887>00\)69 0.0'170 O.OH7010.0070.0.1394 0.279 a 335 0.1924 009621008(lZ 600 000 1.568 0. 123~ 'J 602, 25 910 10.0615 ) I-tO 0.0059,00960 0.0960 0.006(1 0.1050 0.1O"110.105)i().105!'0.1~1O 0 2H? ° sas 0.19470 .fY.l74 0.1)81I 550 000, 1478 0 119* 8 884i 23750 0.0,183 1075 0.10471°.104801048010480 1146 0.1l46'1). 114710. 1!47.0.J437 0287 03450.19850.00920.0827 512 0001 1400 0115' 8270: 22 110 ().()Mt' 1020 0.1l240.112,';0.11250.11250.12300.1Z:l0110123110.123110.14660.293 0.3520.202 0 !0120.0843

500 DOOI' .390 10.lIS' 8 076: 21 590 0.0547 1006 0.1151,0.1151 0 11520.1 Hi2 0.12~9.0.12no 0.126010 1260 0.1469 0 294 0.353 0.203 0.10]40 0845

500 000 2G8 10.I09t 8 074: 21 59() 100494 978 0.1I5Iio. usz O. 1152 0.1152 0.125\l·O. 12tiO'0.12"010 1261.0.1521 0.3N 0.365 0200 0 1047 0.0872

500 000 .100 0.130t 8068: 21 590 0.0420 9:)7 0.1150i() 11510 11520.11530.125810 125\11° 1260'0.1260'0.1603 0 321 0.385 O.ZI\J 0.109800015

500 000 1.020 ,0.IHt 80031' 21580 Oo:l84 91.'l 0.1l50!0.11wo.11520.1152o.,z5ao.12w,0.12GOlo.'261Io.1648 0.330 0.396 0.22& 0.!12~OOO37

!~ gzg ~'m ,g~M; ~ ~~g l~ ~3g >33~A~ ~~g 19:9~~igi~~g:mgg;~~g::~ggg:~:~'g:;!Ugi:g: g::~;~ 3:m g~~g:g~n g.:g;~gg~~~

400 000 1.218 11°.106*[ 6 460 17 Z70 0.0478 864 0 1439 () 14400 1440 ° 1440 O.157510.1.;7ftiO 1.';71i0.157G,0. 1537 0307 0.36910.212 0.100]]0.0884

400 000 I W3 O.10))t, 6 4:,R 17 270 O.042W HJ8 0.14380.14390.143910. 1440 0.1574'0.157510.1575'0.1576'0.1593 0.319 0.382 .0.219 0.10970.01114

350 000 .128 1°.102* 5 653115 llO 00443 790 0 1644 0.16451°.164.5 0. )6450.1799 O. 18DOio. 1800 0.1800 0.],576 0.315 0.378 !lo.2IS 0.10890.0907

350 000 .014 0.096t;; 650 15 110 0.0393 7t;~ 0 IM4 () 16450.1645 1l.1ti46 U. 179\1 O.lSOO 0.1800 0.18010 lij37 0326 0.393 0.225 1:0.11270.0939

aDO 000 1.020 0.0\16° 484." 129bOO.O:l9,j 709 ,().L9180.1~I()i().19190.1!HP02W 0.210 0.210 0.210 0.L628 0.326 0391,0.225 0.1l2{O.lY.J37

3000001 0.919 10.0911 4 843! 12950 '0.03';5 (;87 101,n701918·0.19ISio.191~O.210 0.210 0.210 0.210 01688 0.3.18 0.4051°.232 0.1162.0.0968

;SsOoooOoOo 0.914 10.Wl< 40371 10 7oo ·lo.0357C 026 10.230 '11)·230 ;0.230 ·0.230 0252 0.252 02fJ2 O.2~2 0.16850337 04040.233 0.11630.0970

- 0.818 0.086t 4036 10 790 0.0315! 606 0.230 0.23010.230.0.230 :0.2';2 0252 0252 02,,2 0.17480.350 0.4200.241 fl. 1203 0 1002

2500()O. 0766 ·0.094t 4034 1079() 002!)2i 5!)4 ·0.230 o.zao 10.230 10230 0.2r,2 10.252 0.2<52 02,,2 0.17870.357 0.4290.245 0.1226iOl022

21~ 5001: o.nso 'lo09M ,'45~ 9 2fi.'i ,0.02431.' 524 l,o.261l 0.2GB 0.268 !0.268 0.293 iO.293 0.293 0>294 0.18790.375 0.4511°.257 0.12851,o.1071

4,.'0 I 0.733 0082t 3415 9 140 100281 539 0.272 ,O.Z72110.272 :0.272 0.2971°.297 0.298·0298 0.1806 O.36! 0.4330.248 0.12420.1035

3;0 0.608 10.080ti. 2707 7240 0.0230 4;14 IO.:H3 !0.343 0.34310.343 0.375 U.:H5 0.o7~ IO:~75 0.1907 0.38l 0.1580.262 0.1309 0.1091

2-'0 0.500 ,O.080t: 2 1461 5750 0.0186 .182 ,0432 i0432 0.43210.432 0.472 0473 0.473 j0.473 0>201 0.403 0.483 0.276 0.13780.1149

Notes: "Thickness at edges of interlocked segments. +Thickness uniform throughout.

(1) Conductors of smaller diameter for given cross-sectional area also available: in the naught sj~es~ some additional diH.weter expansloa is p08t!ib1e~ (2) 11'01 conductor- at, 15"'C., air at 25"C .• wind 1.4 miles per hour (2 ft/aec), Irequeucy= Gu cycles,

52

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

Chapter 3

TABLE 4-A-CHARACTERISTICS OF COPPERWELD-COPPER CONDUCTORS

(Cor-per weld 8tl;(' i Company)

Size of Conductor r (J r 11 Xa Xa'

Gee- Appro); Resistance Resistance Inductive Reactance Capacitive

I Copper Rated m~tric CIII"t'l'ut' Ohms PH Conductor Ohms per Conductor Oh.JIJ:'. rWT Conductor Reactance .M,.'gOhillli

Number and Diameter f..qI~,i\vLa.- Break Mean Carrying per :\tit(, at 25<lC.(iiGF.J per Mile a.t 50"C. (lzzor.) per Mile pet Conductor

f '"t. L" I','X ("t '11 (" Current Approx 75(;-~ (If One ft. Spcciug per Mile

Nominal 0 wires Outside I Circular lug J3 l.o!I."JU':'- .ap:.U:l y i:5lna .urrents Capacity'" Averag-e Currents One ft. Sp.ac:ing

Desig- Dinrn- \(11, or tb~d ~~ P 1;0 ~t G?

nation i C~~flr- II Copper I~~~;<3 -'_W G. fi l:e~s A[;~~;; doc cy:f,." ,y~eJ}~~", doc I c:cL I C}~c, I c}~L c,:f es cy~1 ee <y~<, ()~="I c~~e~,1 (:'St~

350E 7~· 15)£" 1~, 1576" ~ 350 ()OO 32 .I~C 7.llfl 0 0220 ~ 0 li>5S 0 -r);g;o 17;910 ISI2 0 1~12 0 19l1>1020;- 0 20~ 0·19290a8(; u-';Z:i" 0 2>13 O.l?lO·O 1014

3.;0 EK h WO" 115x II.D" 0 735 :150 000 23 85C 653h o 0215 6HO n W)S 0 !>\k2Io 170010 170S 0 IS1210 18150 18730 ISR20 1875 037.> 0450 D.2·18 0 1211:0. W34

350 V 3x li51" I 9x 1893" U 75. 350 000 23 480 s 5iR 00226 GOO 0 1555 (] 17250 1800 0 IB28 0 18000 19W,O 202 o.zes 0 19150383 0.460 o 24fi O.IZ32Io.I02i

I 1

300 E "H59" '12, 1459" 0 729 300000 27 770 6 351 () 0204 600 0 1~34 (j tOO 0207 10209 0 2!l 0 222 10 232 0235 0 1%9 0394 0.473 0 219 ° 12440 1037

soo sx 4, lobI" :15,.1:1"1" O.(j~O 300Dool2u 01\0 "002 O.On7 6111 O.11,:q,(J.I"5~() lH7bO.IYXlIUll iU.Z'" 0.210 0.11\J 0.191HUS;1 u.rou U25! 0 1~"YO HIS,

300 V 3 r . 1521" k17S2" 069~ 30000o'2U730 51i39 0.0209 590 11.1930:0200 020~ 0210 11211'0222023302370195,0391 U.469 0252 0"12W'IOlO50

200E h 1332" 12x 1332" 0.506 Z50000 239205 2n 001859 MO 11232 'Ii) 239 (121" 0 248 0.25410265 0275 0279 0.202 0403 0.48·! D 255 0.127'\0 W,4

250}:K h 12~2" 15,12·12" 0.62\ ~SO 000 17 ~IO 41)6900207 5·10 11232 II 2:;510231> 0237 0251 ,G.2SR 0261 0261 019600.3112 0.·171 H.2W 01301010"

250 V 3,1·]80" Ox. 1600" 0.637 ~50 000 17420 1 DU9 00I!1ll 530 II 232 IU3!1 O.21ij O.2JS O.253Io.2G~ 0271; 02Rl 0.200 0.400 0.·180 0258 0.12112 0.IOi7

4/0E ,,1225" 12x l225" O.foB 4/0 20730 -1 ~79 0 01711 4~0 0271 III 2Rl {l2S7 0290 0.300 :0:112 ,0323 (1326 0208 0411 0.·193 0.201,0 13Il1i!OIOi\8

t3~:1\ I ~~ii~~:: 'Il~~ ii.if II g:~i:l t~ l; ~ig i i\~~ gg:!i~ !::g 3m ~.~n ~ ~i~ g~i~ gjim Igm 8m gi~ g~~8 g!M I~ ~~; g}gl, Ig:~~rgn~

4'fa\" 3,1351" Ilx 1172" O.5~,; 1/0 I., (1)03 n7 0017"S 470 1127. II ~'1 {I 2'~ 0.2:11 0.2!i!IIO 311 (1323 0.02R 0.20·1 OJ09 0.,190 O.Zf,! OI;l220.llOl

4/0 F 1,.1833" I G. 1~33" 0.550 4/0 12290 37511 OOl558 470 0273 I(UilO 0.2R& 02,7 0.29.9 0:31)9 II 31K 'O.~22 0.210 0,121 Il.W:; O.~C9 10 13,10. uzo

SlOE 7x,1O!l1" liZ, 10111" 0.5)5 3/0 IG SOO 3552001521 420 IJ :l\fi iO;,&:l 0 3S~ 031>l O.37~ ,0.301 0402 0.,107 0.212 0,)23 ().S(lR 0270 !o 13<80.1123

3/0] J,1~51:: (I ~x. 1>\51" 'I 0,>5'> 3/0 1" 17037320.01150 410 \loli 1.1:155 0.31)7 0.372 0.377Io.3!IB (1419 012B 0.225 0.451 0.511 0268 10' 1341 IUII8

3JQG 2,.1,31; 2,1731" 0 .o1!1 :1/0 12 RI") 3 :W5 0.01254 4110 0 :J.t\ 0 :;",' I) 31l.o 0 :;1;9 11377 0 3~7 0.116 o.J21 0221 0 HI 05;11 1\ zn II l:lr.5111l:17

3/0EK 4x.101S" i 4,1018" 0 50!1 :,/0 12370313" 0.Oli1S7 420 Il 3!1i 0.11" I) 350 0.351 o:m 03S2 0.38& 0.3% 0206 0·112 0 i95 I} 271 o 13720. 1I 13

3.'0 V 3'.1311" g, !:1l1" l}.b22 3/ll 12 22Q 3151001566 410 IIZ·g, IU52 03,)0 o3,i2 0.377 o.ssn O.t03 o~os 11.210 0.420 0.501 0 273 i(ln~3ioI131i

3;01" 1'.16,2" Ii< lG32" 0.·1\10 oro 9 9110 2 un 0"01388 410 0 34! (0 ;\Sl 03.>1; 1I3~8 0.377 0.3K8 0.397 0·101 0.2!6 0.132 0.519 0277 o 1360!0.1155

2/OK 2/0 J 2/00 2/0V 2/0 P

110K I/O J 1/0G I/O}'

1!'l lK

1 J 10 IF

2P 2N 2K 2J 2A 20 2F

3P 3N 3K 3J 3}'

4P 4N 40 4A

o 216 0.22;j

17 GOO 3 ·111 0"00912 13 430 Z 0(;0 0 01029 \0 S10 2 622 0 OIlIG !I SHi 2 502 0,01395 S 09j 2 359 () Oln,;

1·1 4()O 2 703 0 00812 10 D70 2 34(\ 0 00917 8 .JH;~ 2 07 8~ 0, OOg96 6 I)J6 1 SiO 0 01099

15410 2 511 000';38 11 900 2 144 0.00723 !I GOO 1 Rfi I 0 00,17 6 11,;11 r 611) 0 00~87 5 Z!lt; 1 ·183 O. 009ilO

2/11 2'11 2/0 2/11 2/0

1/0 I/O 1/11 1/0

1

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Z1R7 0.00501 2 010 0.00,%8 170! 1l.O%H 1 -ijti 0,00;27 I 35" Q.00753 1 307 Q OQ7g0 r 176 O. OOS73

360 350 350 3110 350

0.755 0755 o 755 (1 755 0.755

o 952 U.~iiZ o 952 O_i)52 0950 o g52 (1.952

1 200 1 200 1 200 1.200 1.198

0.818 0.832 0,256 0813 0825 0.249 o.sos 0820 0 2~3 0.805 UB!o 0.239 0.7Sl 0.786 0.23,

1024 1.04Q O.26B 1 . U20 l.II35 o .• 5 I 1014 102R 0255 1010 1022 0.249 u9n OW9 O.2H L006 'I01G O. ~!5 0.979 0.985 o,~30

f1A75 0.499 0,52,1 O,~~3J; 0.237 Oc475 1) .• 570 0 271 IHi5 O.49R 0.520 0.530 0.231 0.453 10 . .15.1 Q277 0.475 O. f97 0,51S 0.525 0.227 0.J54 ,).545 0 281 Il.H6 () 4'9 0.501 0.509 H210 (I .:\2 051S 0 2S1 0.475 0.487 GAg, 0.,,01 11.222 OAH 0.,,,13 02,5

o. I~M!O t tzs o 13"3io 115~

g ljg~l~ ~g3

u 1.I27iO, 11B9

o 1397i 0 1154 O. 142310 11~5 o )11710 1205 O. 1-109jO, U24

o 140:,11l 11,1

g li~~!~ gg~

I). HH, 10 1210 0.15091°.1258

O.HOG O.ll72

3 W~i~ ]~~~

Q, ]50~\~Oc1255 O.HBn!OlW 0.1529iO.1275 O. 1551 iO 1292

o 144Sio 1201 o. l1S7! Ll239 o 15200 1255 0.1547 0.12~9 0.15310.1275

0.509 0.625 0.052 0.664 0.2.3 O.48i 0.584 11279 0.599 0.62,1 0.548 0.659 0.237 O.471 0.569 0.285 0,59n 0.623 0.6·!5 :lIti5\ 0233 0.460 0559 0289 0.~99 0.Ol2 0.622 0.02'1 0.228 0.156 V.ail U~!H

1.273 1.296 0274 0.547 0.657 0.290 12i3 L2R9 021i7 053" 0.641 0.298 1.26i 1.281 0261 () 522 I1H2,; 0304 126Z 127, 1I.2fi5 O!jOO 0.511 0.:lIl9 1 22[) 1229 0 252 0 505 0.606 0 306

O. 7~7 O.7S4 0_ iB3 o.rsi 0.7u9

fURS O.~h6 0.%3 O,9SZ 0.962 OgRO 0.957

12.39 1 237 1233 1 232 1311

0.512 OCI1 0,498 IU9B 04BI; US~3 O.HS' 0.5n

0.158 1°061 0.536 Ofl43 0.,020 !H6U

g 1~~ i:;~~;

0.493 0.592 0.j~9 0.587 0.479 0.575

n 281 I) 2N8

o 203

o 298

o 3QZ

o 2g1 II 2H~ 02% II 301

o Z98

o 306 0310

4x.l1KU" 3x 17"80"

3x _16-iW! 4x H:dS"

2)1:. j 5 1211 5,. Hi 12"

3,1080" 9,11G," Lx _ US·f' 6x I15,t"

0.5:\1 0 .• \11 1115:, 0 . .if)5 n, ~:;~)

,i~ ~~g

! ~ 730

, 7 3-22 ~ S 8if)

5 62R 1 2:13

o H7 O_-.JS~ ,0.4I)fj

o 116 '0 4,)1 I U. 462

o 1·15 ~O_45(l Oc459 Il llZ io 4,10 0.1;\2 n III '1\.4j() O. 4·IB

310 310 310 310

2RO 270 270 260 270

0.5!8 0.050 10573 0.579 O.51~ O},S9 iO.570 0.576 I' 51R 0,)59 iO.5GR 0.573 I) S!8 0 ,54 10' 55~ (- 552

0,691 0.705 ;O.7Hl ~O.726 11691 O;O! 10.716 '1°722 1I.6~1 0.;03 lO7l.) 0719

(),m,l 0,. ;02 iO_I!2 IL 716 0,691 06S8 iO.704 0.705

o.sn 0 kS6ln.DOl 10909 U.H7I 0 ''''' iOS9glu.906 11.871 0 ,R! '0896 Og02

O.~71 0."", OR.D.I 0 i. S!09 II. RIi~ 1(1 ,75 oJ.RAO O.~~2 o.an ()'~2 0S92 0896 0871 (J,"S 0.88·1 '10.885

1.0gB 11 113 1..127 1.136 i.ons 1.112 i rse I !a3 1.0!18 '1.111 1.IZ:1 1.I29 I .OUB 11.110 ) lZl 1.125 i. 09(\ 1. IQZ 1. 107 I Hill

1.38511.100 14H 1.423 13," 11.199 141:1 L420

Lm !U0: U~~ U~~

I

I Hi I I .762 1 776 I. '7><5 I .712 L 71\i 1 75& 1 759 1.7'12 (I 7.8 1 ,OJ 1 ''',05

2.21} 12.21 221 2.22

n~ I~~~ 2.21 g:

'277 It.78 I:~~ 2.79 2.77 1),-8 1278 2,78

:149 I:.~o 3.51 3.51 :)10 !3.50:\ 51 :,51 3.49 '3.00 a.51 a 51

1.91 1·1.C12 i·l92 J 93

1.5H 1 555 1. 514 L 55! L511 1 529 1511 11525

1909 jJ9M 1 !1I}5 'II n24 lDU;' 1920

2.40 2.·12 2.H 2.·10 2.42 .2.H 2.40 ,2.·]2 '2.44

3.03 1305 3.07 3.03 3.05 307

3.S2 3.8. 3 S2 3 84 382 3.8·j

,

0.2801'0.559 0.[,71 0.298 0.HS90.1211 II. 273 0 541; 0 65,1 (I 30r, 0 15Zg 0.1274 0.2021° 523 0 sn 0301 1015;)70.1'56 02.'i8 0517 Ofi20 0314 0.157201310

0285 0571 0 $85 0.3061° 153101275 D.26R lo.5:l5 () 642 0.310 O.[5·1~ 0 1290 0.204 0.528 ()fj"l 0.3ZiJ O.IOHO lJ15

0.273 o.5~7Io.65G 0.313 0.159010 1325 0270 0510 o j;~~ O:rH in 165.;:0.13;9 0.271 ,0.642 O.~51 0.333 '0.16631°.1386

o ng 0 558 10 670 0 32510 1631 0 l359 027·1 0.518 '11.558 0333 10" 166f>lo.13AA

I

386 386 U 18~ U~iUILfi~~ U :;31 'II) Hi"!U 1393

3.RO 3.R7 02RO 0.560 In.o72 O.3l1 01;00101,122

3.81) 3.86 O.2&~ 0.51)5 !0.679 0.:\40 iO 17*,'0: "53

02Qi o.sss 1°.712 D.351 10 1751'0.[402

5.42

'1<. 15S5" 3'.1467" 2x _137W' Ix 1291"

3x 1585" ,Ix, 1107" oX.13n" fix,l2:fH'1

O,.t(5 O.HO 0112 O,Jb~

3 3 3 3 3

13 910 1 973 D" OOllS 10 390 1 59B 0 00506 1 \ilU I 349 000514 59SS 1 171 OOOfilR 4. 810 I 075 0.00079

250 240 240 230 2.]0 230 230

220 210 210 2(10 210

100 lHO 1\)0 lBO

160 160 160

140 HO 130

120 120

110 100 100

1 59,~ 1616 1593 1 610 I.SH 1 5·12 1 540 L515

200 202 19·11 1 Q39 [935 1 ~41

537

"'B~ on a conductor temperature of 75'~C. and an ambient- of 25I;oC.+ wind ].4 miles per hour;2 ft/s{',d, frcqnency=60 cvclcs. average: tarnished surface .

• otReSISta.~t-eS_ at 5Ooe. total temperature. based 011 an ambient of 25°('. plus 2.r-"C. rise due to heating eflcct of current. The appemimate magnitude of current necessary to produce the 25~ c. rtse IS 7fl;~ of the "Approxuuate Current Carrying Capacity at 00 cycles."

Dx.15-HII! 4x.H!2" ~x BO-ii! 2<.1222" b'.1153N

2")1: 15H/! 3, 1HZ" 4-.: 1:W7" ,0,.1222" 6;(,115Y'

OWl ().In O,;l9'1. O:Hi7 0.:115

o ,162 0.113 o:m 0:\19 O,:H'in () ~~n (UOS

O.Hl o :jGS 0, ~j;~h 0311 0.320

o 3B6

o azs

o :l1.~ 0.2g0

4 4 4 4

5 5 ~

II 420 1 564 0 00397 S 4f~) 1 Zij7 0.00451 7 340 I un 0 0055G :I D:lX gS3 0 0060!

~ sn I Z 10 0 00:153

f} 035 tI-H 0_ OOtl01

3 1~3 070 0 0053S

finding the appropriate table for a particular conductor. For these figures open circles, solid circles, and crosshatched circles represent copper, steel, and aluminum eonductors respectively, The double cross hatched area in the insert for Table 2-B, Characteristics of "EXPANDED"

6x 15-40"" 5x l;ri"j" 4;.: 125j{i 3J<;. 1H;-1" 1x Him)'; 2-;: tf)).l;fl" Ix IOZG"

6, 1371" 5x.1226" 4x 1120" 3,: W3W' Ix. 1513"

1>.1510" 2~, 1377" 3,,1257" -l x lHIt'1

;~: ~g~~:: ~

0',1026"

1<.1371" 2x,122611 3,.;;20" 4, 1036" 2, 1513"

0.276 o no 0225

6, .1221" 1.. 1211" 5x .1002" 2, 1092" 2x _ 16t5" hi HHS!/ 1x.13-17" 2x 1:1.+7"

SP 5D SA

60 6A 6C

7D 7A

SD SA 8C

Bx.l0~r( 2x_l.j3~/( Lx 1200"

Lx IUS;" l x 1·~3R}l 2x lZOON

(U20 0.310 0,'258

2, 1281" Ix 1281" h. t058" 2, 106S"

l x .1046" 2x 101G" ,

2x.1Hl" 1'.!l1t"

lx .1261)" 2". OS!);}'?

12• lOW' h .1011)"

Ix ,1127" 2x_Oj'!)7"

h,080S" 12X_083.JJJ

2. 0808" l x . 0808" I

0.21!1

o I!)!I 1

0 .. 17g. I o 17.

6 ti 6

7 7

8 8 S

4 9·12 7·10 0 00110

2 "RS 531\ 0 00179

2 1·13 5Il O.00~59

4 022 59·j 0.00400

Z 7.>4 4Wj U DOHl

3 250 4i1 0 oosse

2 233 392 ° 00394

I 362 320 U 00373

1 7,1~ 2g8 0.002-"1

9.h

Aluminum Cable Steel Reinforced, represents stranded paper.

The authors wish to acknowledge the cooperation of the conductor manufacturers in supplying the information for compiling these tables,

Chapter 3

Characteristics oj Aerial Lines

53

TABLE 4-B~CHARACTERISTICS OF COPPERWELD CONDUCTORS

(Copperweld Steel CornIH}'!)y)

Rated I fa fa Xu Xal

Breaking Geornetrie Approx. Rtsi8tarl(:e Resistance Inductive Reactanee Capacitive

Area of Load Pounds W . ht Mean 'Current Ohm, per Conductor Ohm, per Conductor Ohms ucr Conductor Reactance Megohms

C(ln~ J-----J erg . Rad~~6 CarrYIIIl'!: per MiJf' per Mile at 7b"('. (167GF.) per Mile pr:r Conductor

ductor Pounds at 60 cycles Capacitv" at 2t?'C. (77°F,) Current Approx. 75S;;. of One Ft. Spacing per Mile

Circttlar Stnmgth pnr and Amps· 8maH Currents Capacity":" A vcrage Currents One Ft. Spacing

M,l. High II Extra Mile g;:::t~ 00 (:;de. ---I-;~-I ~;'l'-~~-' --"-1~-~~"1--5~-1---;- 25 I 50 I 60 ~~ i 50 I 50

High F ret d-e cveles cveles f;vde.o: d-e cyril'S I I'ydf'~ ! r-yri-€s cycles cycles I. cycles cycles! cycles eydee

__ -'--_--' __ --'- __ -'--___:_--'-_---'- __ --'---_ .. _ _ : : : _ ..'__---' '..:_..'......;_---' ---'-_-'----' _ _c_:__-'--_

N ominal Number Outside

Con- and Bize ~i~~-

dsi:~r of Wire:; Inches

30~'c Conductivity

7/8" 19 No.5 O~!O 628 900 55 570 I~~ 910 93H U.OO75R i 620 in 30G 0310 o ;;26 0331 o 363 () 119 0476 o "99 0.26l U.4!)3 0.592 O. Z33 0.1165 0.0971
13/1GtI 19 No.6 0810 498 800 45 SSG 530 7410 0_00675 I iHO 0.380 0.306 0.406 o 411 OfM 0518 o 5S0 0605 O_26i OliO;; 0506 O.2H o 1205 o 1005
23/32" 19 No.7 0.721 395 500 37 74C 850 5877 o.conoi i 470 0.480 0496 o 506 o 511 O_b77 0,;13 0.710 0.737 0.273 0.517 0.621 0.250 o ms o 1010
21/32" 19 Nn. R O. t.42 3[3 700 31 ~~ li~ G90 ! GOO 0.00535 410 ~013 0623 n 63:l o sss o 72R 0799 n.H7Z 0.902 0.279 0.520 0.635 o 258 o 1289 01074
9/16" 19 Nn. ~ 0572 248 800 ~~ ~~ 010 3 6911 0.llOn7 360 173 o 7S3 O_793 o 79R Oq.17 o Q~.:; I 075 I. 1O~ 0.285 (I 5~1 (I.6~9 0.266 O. ]330 o ]]09
5/8" 7 No.4 0613 292 200 29 43( ·l 32·l O.OOS[ [ 410 o 656 0.664 0672 o 676 077& o S2~ 0.870 o 887 0.281 0.533 0.6.j{) 0.261 0.1306 0 .. 1088
9/16" 7 No.5 0016 231 700 20 470 2,1 650 3~v.! 1I.lItJ.l;;;; :JW II.HU o S35 o S·l;! o R17 IJ 9&1 10aO \.080 1099 0.2R7 0.545 0.554 o 269 o 1347 o 1122
1/2" 7 No.6 0.IS6 183 800 10 890 20 4D2 2 719 IIIU}105 310 I 0\2 1050 I 05R 1062 1 n7 1 200 1343 1364 o 293 0.557 o 668 o 278 o 13SR 0.1157
7/16" 7 NQ. 7 0.433 145 700 13 910 16 890 2 157 1I.003(l1 270 1 Sl5 1 323 1.331 1.;';'~ 1 MO 1 611 l.675 1_ 697 0299 0569 0683 02&1:1 01+29 o.rrci
31B" 7 No.8 0.3S5 ns 600 11 ,1·10 n ~~~ 17W o 110321 230 1. 658 1666 1 fijI 1 1)78 1.067 203 2.00 2.12 0.305 0.581 0.607 0.294 0.1471 0.1226
11/32" 7 No.9 0313 91 650 9 393 1 :,56 o 002~6 200 2 09 210 2.11 2. J I Z.4~ 2.~ a.ei 2.fi4 o 311 11 .. 592 II 711 0.303 o 1512 o 1200
5/16" 7 No> HI 0.306 72 680 7i5-8 9 196 1 076 1I1»)2~ 170 2.64 2114 2 "5 2 011 ~ 1~ ~ 20 :J 27 3.30 o 3[6 0.601 0.725 0.311 0.1553 0.12M
3 No.5 3 No.5 0.392 99 310 9 262 11 ROO 1 41), 0011<57 220 r.ose U31 19.35 l.n8 29 23t 234 235 02B9 II .545 0.654 ~~~1 0.1465 0.1221
3 No. fi 3 No. fi 0.3"9 78 750 7 639 9 76 .. 1 I 153 O.(RHOJ 1911 ~1J 2.13 2.11 2.H 2. RS 2.91 2 g4 2.95 0295 0056 0668 0.1506 () 1255
3 No.7 a No.7 0311 62 450 " 201 7 922 nz .. ! {I 1»1363 160 306 3 01 .,07 307 3.83 :3 .66 ;1 70 3.71 0301 05C8 0682 0.310 0.1547 0.1289
3 No. S 3 No.8 0.277 49 530 5 m 6 2S2 7.31. ;} II ()()323 J.10 :l.86 387 ., ~7 ., K7 1.58 ·11)] 165 l.66 0_307 0580 o 696 0 .. 318 0.1581) o 1324
3 No.9 3 No .. 9 o 247 39 ?sa 4 250 5 129 5RD. ] o 002RR 120 4. ~7 4 g7 I. ~~ 4 RR s 78 581 5.S5 5.~O 0.313 11.501 0.710 0.326 o.rses 0 .. 1358
3 No. 10 3 No. 10 0.220 31 150 3 5Q9 , 4 160 1500 () ()(IZ57 1W 6.14 614 1615 6.15 728 732 1.36 1.3S 0.319 0603 10724 0331 o !fiil 0.1392 ----;----,----..,.----o~ ... -,- ~ ........

7/8" 19 No.5 0.910 62R 900 50 240 9 341

13/1fi" 19 No 6 0 S10 498 800 41 BOO . 7 410

23/32" 19 No.1 0.721 395 500 3{ 390 . 5 871

21/32" 9/1-1'(' 6/8"

9/W' 1(2" 7Jlfill

i9 530 4 730 39 280 3 898 . 31 150 3 2Z[

19 590 2 236

19 No.8 O .. 1Yl2 19No.9 0.572 7No.' 0513

7 No. b 0.546 7 No_ 6 0.486 7No.7 0.433

7 No.8 0.385 7 No.9 0.343 7 NQ. 10 0.306

3 No.5 0.392 3 NQ. 6 0.310 3 No.7 0.311

313 700 28 380 2!8 800 23 390 292 200 22 310

231 700 18 &10 183 801~ 15 330 145 700 12 G70 .

115 600 10 460 .

91 650 B 616

72 680 7 121 .

99 310 8 373

79 750 H ~l3-1 .

62 45() 5 ,32 .....

3/8" 11/32" 5/16"

3 No.5 a No.6 3 No.7

3 No.8 3 No.8 0.277

3 No.9 3 No.9 0 247

3 No. lU 3 No. l() 11.220

3 No. 12 3 Xu. 12 0.174

41}% Conductivity

000191 11.00143 o 00395

0.00621 () 0055a 000492

0.00139 0.00:l!!1 O.00;H8

£90 610 :;30

47D 410 47U

410 350 310

0.293 0.14&501221

o 301 o 100[, () [Z55

o 310 0 1517 0 !28G

0.318 0.158\! 0.13U o 3?f, O. H\2g O. 1358 0.334 0 .. 16710.139a

o 351 0 175·1 0 1462

0.01175 0.01046 0.00931

0.00829 0.00739 O.0079Z

4 660 3 696 4 321

. 3 12S

0.0070,') o IJO(i28 O.m5S9

~.Z29 0.239 0.249 0.254 0.272 0321 0.371 0.3!!1 0.236 0449 0539 0.233 0 1165 O.Q971 0.289 02g9 0309 0 .. 311 0313 0306 0.150 0 . .j72 O.2Jl 0.461 0 .. 553 0 Z41 0.12060 .. [005 owo.m~_o._o.mo~o~o.mowomo~o.~o.~O.~

0460 0.470 O~80 0.4SS 0.546 O.60R 0.072 0.698 0.253 04SS 0.1182 0.258 O.ln90.1074 0580 05:10 0(;00 0.G05 0.688 0756 0.826 0.853 0259 0396 0.595 0.26. 0.13300.1109 04Y2 0000 0.508 O.SIZ 0.58·1 0 621 0.664 0.680 0.2);5 0 -IS9 0587 0.261 0 13060.1088

0020 0.628 0.636 0610 0.782 0790 0798 0002 O. 986 0 991 1. 002 1. 006

1.244 1252 1260 12M 1.5G~ 1.57G lfiRt 1..5H~ 1. 978 lilA. 1.. 99j 1998

o J3G II 7RO o g{:) 0.840 0.201 0.501 0.601 0.260

o 928 0 975 1 021 1. 010 0.267 0 .. >13 0.615 0 273 1..17011220 1271 1.2,n 0 .. 273 0 .. 52·j 0.629 0.286

11 48' "6.61 III 9!\.~1~ I .'\84 I fi06 0279 0536 0.614 ~.2n4

, 1 978 2 .. 00 028.5 0.548 0.f15g 0.3113 235 2. H 2.47 2.50 0.29l 0.559 0.671 0311

0.1317 0 1122 11138~ 0 1157 O. H29 0. l1~ll

270 no 200

2';0 no 100

100 1,[0 120

90

0.1-171 0.1226 0.15120.1250 0.15530 1294

... 2 il~ 2 15i

! 710 1 356 ! 076

1167

1 1(13 ~

922 ·jl

731 si

5S0.lf

·!QO.O

289 3

O_OO2i6

1.44514.10 1455 1.457 LiB 1.738 1.762 1.772 112m 0514 0617 1.821 l 1<2[' IK:JI 1":):) Z 16 2.19 2.21 2.22 0.27~ 0.526 0 .. 631 2.30 230 2.31 2.31 2.73 2.75 2.78 2.79 0.281 115371° .. 615

290 290 2.Vl 291 3.41 347 350 3.)1 0286 0.5·!9 0.G59

Ur U1 U~ U~ i l~ Ul U~ lH ~.~~~ g~n 13m

7.32 7.33 J:l 1 JI ~ ~9 s.n 8.77 S.i8 O.3lG H 59610 715

-Based on conductor teOlreralur-e of 125<>('. and an ambient of 25-~'C .

.... Resistance at i5QC. tote temperature, based on au ambient of 25"£1_ pJu~ 5(t'C. rise due to hMting: (':ffl~d of ('1I1'T~'nt.

Thl;: appruxiutate magnitude of current necessary to produce the 5O¢C rise is 7·}9~ of the "Approximate Current Carrving Capacity at eo Cycles,"

TABLE 5-SKIN EFFECT TABLE

X K X K I
X K X I K
, ... ---'"~ .,,~ .. _.~ . ----_ .. ~ , __ ~_-,-.- ...•• ... ........... - .. --,~ .. , __ -~-_-_- _ - -_~_,_---_- -_ •••..•.. _ ... -
0.0 1.00000 1.0 1.00.519 2.0 1. 07816 3.0 ] .31809
0.1 1.()OOOO 1. 1 1.0()758 2.1 1 . ()u375 3.1 1. 35102
0.2 1. 00001 1 .2 1.01071 2.2 1. I1J20 3.2 1.38504
0.3 1.00004 1 .3 lOl·HO 2.3 1. 13060 33 1.4199\l
0.4 1 00013 1.4 1.01\)6\) 2 ~i 1 .1.5207 3.,1 1.45570
0.5 1.00032 1..5 1.02582 2 5 1 1.7B38 3.5 140202
0.6 1.00067 1 6 1 .03323 2.6 1.20056 3.6 152879
0.7 1.00124 1.7 1.0·120.5 2. 7 1 22753 , 3.7 1.5n587
0.8 1.00212 1.8 1.05240 2.8 1 25G20 I 3.8 i 1. 60314
I I
0.0 I 1.00340 1.9 1.0U-I40 2.9 I . 28U·!4 I 3.0 I l. 61051
I 54

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

TABLE 6~INDUCTIVE REACTANCE SPACING FACTOR (Xd) OHMS PER CONDUCTOR PER MILE

Chapter 3

F .~.~~~-.-~~~~-

""t 0 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 I 7 I 8 9 I 10 i_l~l ~

o -~- -D. 1256 -0.0906 -0.0701 -D.Oll5S -0.0443 -0035Oi-D.0273 -D.020S::o.0145I.:o·oo92'I-O·0044 1 0 0.0040 0.0078 0.0113 0.0145 0.0176 0.0205 0.02321 0.0258 0.0283 0.0306 0.0329 2 0.0350 0.0371 0.0391 0.0410 0.0428 0.0446 0.046310.0480 0.0496 0.051110.0527 0.0541 3 0.0555 00569 0.0583 0.0506 O.060g 0.0621 0.01133 0.064"1' 0.0657 0.0668 0.0137Qi 0 0690 4 0.0701 0.0711 0.0722 0.0732 0.0741 0.0751 0.0760 0.0770 0.0779 0.0788 0.0797, 0.0805

~ 3:3Mi g.8m g:g~~g g:g~~;1 gg~j~ gg~~ g:g~~1 gg~~ 83m 3:g~~1 gg~i~! ggm

7 0.0984 0.0990 0.0996 0.1002 0.1007 0.1013 0.1019 0.1024 0.1030 0.1035 0.1041! 0.1046

8 0.1051 '

1~ 8:1m 50 CYCLES 11 0.1212

12 0.1256

13 0.12971---.-------------------------------------------------------------------

14 O. 1334 In<h ••

16 0.1369 Feet .--~.~ .-.-~-~--- .. ---

16 0.1402 0 I I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I 9 10 11

i~g 1m 0 =:: -0.2513 -0. 1812::;:;~ 1402 -D. 11 11 -D.0885 -0.070140;;45 -o.0410Lo.0291 -D.018.! -0,0088 W 0.14811 1 0 0.0081 0.0156 0.0226 00291 0.0352 0.0410 0.0465 0.0517 0.05613 0.0013 0.0658 20 0.1515 2 0.0701 0.0742 0.0782 0.0820 0.0857 0.0892 0.0927 0.0960 0.0992 0.1023 0.1053 0.1082 21 0.1~361l3 3 0.1111 0.1139 0.1166 0.119210.1217 0.1242 O.I:t~7 c.rasi 0.1:.t14 0.I:l37 0.1359 0.1380 22 0.1" 4 0.1402 0.1423 0.1443 0.1463 0.1483 0.1502 01521 0.1539 0.IM8 0.1576 0.1593 0.1610 23 O.I~~57 Ii 0.1627 0.1644 0.1661 0.1677 0.1693 001708 0.1124 0.1739 0.17M 0.1709 0.1783 0.17\18 241°.1""7 6 0.1812 0.182610.1839 0.1853 0.1866 0.1880 0,1893 0.1006 0.H118 0.1931 0.1943 0.1956 25 0.1627 7 0.1968 0.1980 0.1991 0.2003 0.2015 0.2026 0.2031 0.20411 0.2060 0.2071 0.2081 0.2092

26 0.164 8 0,2103i--....:....:-....:.-- .... -- ..... --..:...-_01-_....:....:-....:.-- .... -- ..... --

~~ '8. t~~~ 9 O.22~~ 60 CYCLES

29 0 1702 10 0.2320 ~--~~--~------------.--- ------.---.------

30 U: H2O g gjm

31 0.1731\ 13 0.25941----,,.---------------------- ~---~-.----------

32 0.1752 14 0.2669 Incbes

33 0.1768 15 O. 27~8 Feet ~--.-~~"~-_,--._---

3. 0.1183 16 0 2804 II 1 :1 I 3 4 s I> 7 8 i 9 10 I 11

35 0.II98 17 0:2865 - ~- --- --~ --- --~ ~-~ --- --- ---11--- __ ~ _

3fl O.I~12 IS 0.2923 0 _ --II.301~ --II. 2114 --11.1652 -0.1333 -""iI.I062 -0.11$<11 -""iI.0654 -""iIII4n -11.0349 --11.0221 -0.0100

37 0.1826 19 0.2977 I 0 0.0097 11.0187· 0.0271 0.0349 0.0423 0.0492 0.0558 0.062010.0679 0.0735 0.0789

~~ g'l~i 20 0.3029 2 6.0841 0.0891 0,09381 0.4)984 O.10~ 11,1071 0.1112 0.1152 0.1190' 0.1227 0.1264 0.1)<19 40 '0'1865 21 0,3079 3 0.1333 0.1366 0.139910.1430 0.1461 0.1491 11.1520 01549 0.1517 0.1604 01631 0.1(,57

I· 2Z 0.3126 4 0.1682 0.1707 0.1732 11.1756 0.1779 0.1802 0.1825 01847 0.1869 0.1891 0.1912 0.1933

!i g'i~~8 231°.3170 5 0.1'153 0.1973 0.1993 0.20U 0.2031 0.2050 0.1069 0.2087 0.2105 11.2123 11.2140 0.2157 43 0'1902 24 0.3214 (, 0.2174 0.2191 0.2207 0.2224 0.2240 0.2256 0.2271 0 n87 0.2392 0.2311 0.2332 0.2347 44 0'1913 25 U.~:.l55 7 0.2361 0.2376 0.2390 0.2404 0.2418 0.2431 0.2445 0.1458 0.1412 0.2485 0.2498 11.2511 45 O· 1925 26 0.3294 8 0.25231--....:-- .... _._ ..... __ ..:... __ .:... __ :...._....: __ .... __ ..... __ ..:..._-

[ . 27 10.3333 9 (I 21>60

46 0.1936 28 '0.3369 HI 0:2794 47 ,0.1947 2() 0.3105 it II 2'110 48 10.1957 30 0.34311 12 0:3015 49 ,0.1968 31 0.3472 13 0.311

32 0.3504 14 0.3202 33 0.35~~ 15 O.328f> 34 0.35~: 16 0.336 35 0,3~95 17 0.3438 36 0.3624 18 0.3507 37 0.3651 19 0.357 38 0.3678 lO 0.363~ 39 0.3704 21 0.3694 40 0.3730 22 0.3751 41 10.3755 23 6.3805 42 ,0.3779 24 0.3856 43 0.3803 25 0.3906

44 0.3826 26 O.39~~ 45 0.3849 27 0.3999 46 0.3871 25 9.4043 47 0.3893 29 0.4086

48 0.3914 30 0.4127

49 0.3935 31 0.4167

32 ,0.4205 33 0.4243 34 0.427' 35 04314 36 0.4348 37 0.4381

38 0.4414 39 0.4445 40 0.4476 41 (I.45ll6 42 0.4113 43 0.4564 44 O.4Sn 4~ 0.4619 46 0.4646 47 0.4672 48 10.0&697 49 0.4722

25 CYCLES

SEPARATWN

~.,....-------------------~-.~~.--.-----

INCHES

Xu at 25 cycles "'J:2~~~:tlz~:·f!.t. s, =ZA = r,,+j(x,,+Xd) z.,=r .. +r.+j(r,,+x .. -2Xd)

FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS

SF.PA RATION

SEPARATION

*From Formulae:

tThis is an average value which may be used in the absence of definite informa.tion.

X<l at 50 cycles

"'0=0. ~321; log,. Ii a=aeparation, fee-t.

X/l at 60 cycles

" .. =0.2794 loa,. d d=aep:ar1'tloI11 feet.

TABLE 7 -ZERO-SEQUENCE RESISTANCE AND INDUCTIVE REACTANC.m FACTORS (r.,x.)*

Ohms per Conductor per Mile

p Meter Ohm

O.9~1 1.043 1.095 I. 217 1.270 1.392 1.444 1.566 1.6111

25 Cycle.

All

0.1192

1

5

io 50 lOOt 500 1000 5000 10000

r.=0.004704/

". = 0.000985/10&, ... 005 6001 where f = frequency

p=Resistivity (meter vohrn)

FREQUENCY

60 Cycles 0.2860 2050 2343 2469 2.762 ~.868 3.1!;1 3.307 3.600 3.726

50 Cycles 0.2383 1.736 1.980 2.085 2.329 2.434 2.679 Z.784 3028 3.133

Chapter 3

Characteristics oj Aerial Lines

55

TABLE 8-SHUNT CAPACITIVE REACTANCE SPACING FACTOR (xl) MEGOHMS PER CONDUCTOR PER MILE

25 CYCLES

SEPARATION

INCHES

Feet 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 I 7 8 9 10 11

o -D.1T69 -D. 1276 -D. 0987 4.1.0182 -0.0623 -D.0494 --0.0384 -{).0289 -{).0205 --0.0130 --0.0062

1 o 0.0057 O.OHO 0.OU;9 O.OW':' 0.0248 0.0289 0.0327 0.0364 0.0398 0.0432 0.0463

2 0.0494 005~3 O.O~51 0.Ob77 0.0003 0.0628 0.06&2 0.0676 0.0698 0.0720 0.07-12 0.0762 3 0.0782 0.0802 0.0821 0.0839 0.0857 0.0875 0.0892 0.0909 0.0925 0.0941 0.0957 0.0912 4 0.0987 0.1002 0.1016 0.1030 0.1044 0_ ioss 0.1011 0.1084 0.1097 0.1109 0.1122 0.1134 5 0.1146 0.1158 0.1169 0.1181 0.1192 0.1203 0.1214 0.1225 0.1235 0.1246 0.1256 0.1266 6 0.127& 0.1286 0.1295 0.1305 0.1314 0.1324 0.1333 0.1342 0.1351 0.1360 0.1368 0.1377

7 0.1386 0.1394 0.1402 0.1411 0.1419 0.1427 0.1435 0.1443 0.1450 0.1458 0.1466 0.1473

8 0.1481/-_....l. __ -!- __ J-_....! __ -!- __ ..l-_--l __ .....l-. __ -'- _ _..J _

1~ g:ig~ 50 CYCLES

II 0.1707

i~ 8:i~~~I __ -. SE __ P~A_R_A_T_I_O_N __

14 0.1879 Inches

15 0.1928 Feetl-----.-----.----,----,---,---,---,---,---,---,----,---

1(1 0.1974 0 1 2 3 4, 5 6 .., I 8 9 10 11

17 0<2017 __ ~ _

ig g ·~Z~ 0 -0,0885 -0,0638 -0.0494 --0.0391 -{).0312 -0.0247 --0.0192 -{).0144 -{).0102-O.0005 -{).0031

20 0<2133 1 0 0.0028 0<0055 0.0079 0.0102 0.0124 0.0144 0.0164 0.0182 O.OI!1ll 0.0216 0.0232

21 0'2168 2 0.0247 0.0261 0.0275 0.0289 0.Oa02 0.0314 0.0326 0.0338 0<0349 0.0360 0<0371 0.0381 22 0'220 3 0.0391 0.0401 0.0410 0,0420 0.0429 0.0437 0.0446 0.0454 0.0463 0.0471 0.0478 0.0486 23 0'2231 4 0.0494 0.0501 0.0:;08 0.0515 0<0522 0.0529 0.0535 0.0542 0.0548 0.0555 0.0561 0.0551 24 0'2263 5 0.0573 0.0579 0.0585 0.0590 0.0596 0.0601 0,0607 0.0612 0.0618 0.0623 0.0628 0.0633 25 U'2292 6 0.0638 0.0643 0.0648 0.0652 0.0657 0.0662 0.0666 0.0671 0.0675 0.0680 0.0684 0.0689

26 0:2320 ~ g:~: 0.0697 0.0701 0.070.; 0.0709 0.0713 0.0717 0.0721 0.0725 0.0729 0.0733 0.0737

27 0.2347 9 0 0782

280.2373 10 0'0820 40 CYCLES

20 10.2398 11 O' 08M1--------------------------------------------------------

30 0.2422 12 0:08S.~ SEPARATION

31 0.244.5 13 0.0913<1---;---------------------------------------------------------

~i g.~:~ 14 0,0940 (nche.

34 O' 2511 15 00964 Feet: I I I I

~5 g:~~32 ~~ g:~~7 __ 0 __ 1 __ 2 3 __ 4 5 __ 6 7 __ 8 9_ ~ _1_1_

3~ O· 25~i 18 O.10gg 0 - -0.0737 -0.0532 -0,0411 -0.0326 -0.021>0 -0.021)6 -0.0160 -0.0120 -0.0085 -0.0054 -0.0026

38 o·~~;';; 19 0.1048 t 0 0.0024 0.00% 0.OGB6 0.0085 0.0103 O.iH21) 0.0136 0.0152 0.0166 0.0180 0.01'3 39 0'2009 20 0,1067 2 0.0206 0.0218 0.0129 0.0241 0.0251 0.0262 0.0272 0.Ol82 0.0291 0.0300 0.030') 0.0318 40 0'2A27 2~ 00.1084 3 0.0326 0.0334 0.0342 0.0350 0.0357 0.11365 0.1Il72 0.037" 0.0385 G.03"l 0.0399 0.0405 41 0'2644 2M .1100 "0.0411 0.&417 11.0423 0.042'J 1I.&43!; 0.0441 O.044B 0.0452 0.0457 0.0461 0.041>7 0.0473 42 0'2661 23 0.1116 5 0.0478 0.0482 IU1481 0.(1492 0.0497 0.0501 0.OS06 8.0MO (!.OM5 0.0519 0.0523 0.0527 43 io' 2678 24 0. 1131 6 (1.0532 0.0536 I). OM() 1).0544 I) .11548 I) .11552 O. 05!S5 1).05$9 0.0563 11.0561 0.0570 0.1157" 44 iO'2695 ~ 0,1146 7 0,0577 0.0581 0.0584 0.0588 0.0591 0.0594 1),1)598 0.0601 0.01>04 0,0608 0,0611 0,061"

451°'2111 ~,,0.1160 II 11.0(,17

46 0'2726 27 0.1173 9 1I.065l

41 0.2742 §~ 8· m~ :~ g.~n

48 0.27,">6 30 0.1211 12 0.&737 49 0.2771 31 0.1223 U 6.0161

32 0.1234 14 O.07~~ 33 0.1245 15 n,081)3

~~ 8·m~ :~ g::m

36 0.1276 18 11.0858 37 0-1286 19 11.9874 38 0.1295 20 11.0889 39 0.1304 21 1I.119~~ 40 0.131J 22 11.0917 41 0.1322 23 j).0930 42 0.1331 U 0.0943

43 0,1339 25 O.095~ 44 0.1347 26 (1.1196' 45 0.1355 27 O.0'l1~ 46 0,136.1 28 O.1I'I8~ 47 0.1371 29 0.0999 48 O.l:lr~ 30 0.11109 49 IU.1386 II O.IOl~

------I 32 O. 10~~ 33 0.1031 J4 0.1046 35 0.105~ 36 O.10~~ 371°.1071 38 0.1019

39 O.1~7 40 ,0.10'14

:~ium

4l :0.ltl6 4410.1123

451°.1129 46 0.1136

471°.1142 48 0.1149 49 0.1155

xfat

25 cycles o:.r'- .1640 los,. (J.

d - separation, feet

FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS

x/ =x{ = »: +xj x:=x:+x;--2x';

xl at

50 cycles z,;'=0.081981og,o (J. d--separation, teet ...

XI at 60 cycles

",.' =ft.061111 104" d d~aeparatlon. feet.

TABLE 9~ZERo-SEQUENCE SHUNT CAPACITIVE REACTANCE FACTOR x.'

Megohms per Conductor per Mile

FREQUENCY

25 Cycles

50 Cycles

60 Cycles

iO 0.640 0.320 0.267

15 0.727 0.363 0.303

20 0.788 0.394 0.328

25 0.836 0.41S 0.348

so 0.875 0.431 0.364

40 0.936 0.468 0.390

50 0.984 0.492 0.410

60 1.023 0.511 0.426

~ l~ O.~ O.~

W 1.~ o.~ O.~

90 1.109 0.555 0.462

_____ 1~OO~ ~ ~1~.1~3~Z~ __ ~ O~.~5~66~ ~ __ ~0~.~47~2~ __

, 1230

x. =-j-Iog,. 2 h

where h""" height above ground, j=frequency.

56

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

Chapter 3

IV CORONA

With the increased use of high-voltage transmission lines and the probability of going to still higher operating voltages, the common aspects of corona (radio influence and corona loss) have become more important in the design of transmission lines.

In the early days of high-voltage transmission, corona was something which had to be avoided, largely because of the energy loss associated with it. In recent years the HI (radio influence) aspect of corona has become more important. In areas where HI must be considered, this factor might establish the limit of acceptable corona performance.

Under conditions where abnormally high voltages are present, corona can affect system behavior. It can reduce the overvoltage on long open-circuited lines. It will attenuate lightning voltage surges (see Sec. 29 Chap. 15) and switching surges." By increasing the electrostatic coupling between the shield wire and phase conductors, corona at times of lightning strokes to towers or shield wires reduces the voltage across the supporting string of insulators and thus, in turn, reduces the probability of flashover and improves system performance. On high-voltage lines grounded through a ground-fault neutralizer, the inphase current due to corona loss can prevent extinction of the arc during a line to ground fault.28

6. Factors Affecting Corona

At a given voltage, corona is determined by conductor diameter, line configuration, type of conductor, condition of its surface, and weather. Rain is by far the most important aspect of weather in increasing corona. Hoarfrost and fog have resulted in high values of corona loss on experimental test lines. However, it is believed that these high losses were caused by sublimation or condensation of water vapor, which are conditions not likely to occur on an operating line because the conductor temperature would normally be above ambient. For this reason, measurements of loss made under conditions of fog and hoarfrost might be unreliable unless the conductors were at operating temperatures. Falling snow generally causes only a moderate increase in corona. Also, relative humidity, temperature, atmospheric pressure, and the earth's electric field can affect corona, but their effect is minor compared to that of rain. There are apparently other unknown factors found under desert conditions which can increase corona.!"

The effect of atmospheric pressure and temperature is generally considered to modify the critical disruptive voltage of a conductor directly, or as the % power of the air density factor, ii, which is given by:

0= 17.91J 459+oP

where

b = barometric pressure in inches of mercury of = temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.

The temperature to be used in the above equation is generally considered to be the conductor temperature. Under

TABLE lo--STANDARD BAROMETRIC PRESSURE AS A FUNCTION OF ALTITUDE

Altitude, Pressure, Altitude, Pressure,
feet in. IIg. feet in. IIg.
~]()OO 31.02 4000 25.84
~ 500 30.47 5000 24.80
6000 23.98
0 29.92 8000 22.22
1000 28.86 to 000 20.58
2000 27.82 15000 16.88
3000 26.81 20000 13.75 standard conditions (29.92 in. of Hg. and 77°F) the air density factor equals LOO. The air density factor should be considered in the design of transmission lines to be built in areas of high altitude or extreme temperatures. 'fable 10 gives barometric pressures as a function of altitude.

Corona in fair weather is negligible or moderate up to a voltage near the disruptive voltage for a particular conductor. Above this voltage corona effects increase very rapidly. The calculated disruptive voltage is an indicator of corona performance. A high value of critical disruptive voltage is not the only criterion of satisfactory corona performance. Consideration should also be given to the sensitivity of the conductor to foul weather. Corona increases somewhat more rapidly on smooth conductors than it does on stranded conductors. Thus the relative corona characteristics of these two types of conductors might interchange between fair and foul weather. The equation for critical disruptive voltage is:

Eo=gQ 0% r m log. Dfr (79a)

where:

Eo=critical disruptive voltage in kv to neutral

g~= critical gradient in kv per centimeter. (Ref. 10 and 16 use gQ= 21.1 Kv /cm rms. Recent work indicates value given in Sec. 10 is more aceurate.)

r =-radiua of conductor in centimeters

D=the distance in centimeters between conductors, for singlephase, or the equivalent phase spacing, for throe-phase voltages.

m=surface factor (common values, 0.84 for stranded, 0.92 for segmental conductors)

o =a.ir density factor

(78)

The more closely the surface of a conductor approaches a smooth cylinder, the higher the critical disruptive voltage assuming constant diameter. For equal diameters, a stranded conductor is usually satisfactory for 80 to 85 percent of the voltage of a smooth conductor. Any distortion of the surface of a conductor such as raised strands, die burrs, and scratches will increase corona. Care in handling conductors should be exercised, and imperfections in the surface should be corrected, if it is desired to obtain the best corona performance from a conductor. Die burrs and die grease on a new conductor, particularly the segmental type, can appreciably increase corona effects when it is first placed in service. This condition improves with time, taking some six months to become stable.

Strigel" concluded that the material from which a conductor is made has no effect on its corona performance. In

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

57

Chapter 3

o

2.00

300 KVI._L

500

400

100

industrial areas, foreign material deposited on the conductor can, in Rome cases, seriously reduce the corona performance. (Reference 28 gives some measurements made in an industrial area.)

Corona is an extremely variable phenomenon. On a conductor energized at a voltage slightly above its fair weather corona-starting voltage, variations up to 10 to 1 in corona loss and radio-influence factor have been recorded during fair weather. The presence of rain produces corona loss on a conductor at voltages as low as G5 percent of the voltage at which the same loss is observed during fair-weather, Thus it is not practical to design a high-voltage line such that it will never be in corona. This alao precludes expressing a ratio between fair- and foul-weather corona, since the former might be negligibly small.

If a conductor is de-energized for more than about a day, corona is temporarily increased. This effect is moderate compared to that of rain. It can be mitigated by re-energizing a line during fair weather where such a choice is possible.

7. Corona Loss

Extensive work by a large number of investigators has been done in determining corona loss on conductors operated at various voltages. This work has lead to the devel-

Curve 1~1.4 in. HH copper. 0=0.88. Ref. 19. Corona loss test made in desert at a location where abnormally high corona loss is observed on the Hoover-Los Angeles 287.5-kv line, which is strung with this conductor. Measurement made in three-phase test line. This particular curve is plotted for" =0.88 to show operating eondition in desert. All other curves are for" = 1.00.

Curve 2~Same as curve 1, except con verted to Ii.= 1.00.

Curve 3-1.'1 in. HH copper. Ref. 12. Corona loss test made in California. Comparison with curve 2 shows effect of desert conditions. Measurements made on three-phase test line, 30-foot flat spacing, HHoot sag, 30-foot ground clearance, 700 feet long.

Curve 4~1.1 in. H H, Ref. 13. Measurements made on three-phase tcst line, 22-foot flat spacing, 16-foot sag, 3O-foot clearance to ground, 700 feet long.

Curve 5~L65 in. smooth. Ref. 12. This conductor had a poor surface. Measurements made on three-phase test line, 3O-foot spacing, 16-foot sag, 30-foot ground clearance, 700 feet long.

Curve 6~1.65 in. smooth aluminum. Ref. 27. Reference CUlYe obtained by converting per-phase measurement to loss OIl three-phase line. Dimensions of line not given.

Curve 7~1.04 in. smooth cylinder. Ref. 23. In reference this conductor is referred to as having an infinite number of strands. Plotted curve obtained by conversion of per-phase measurements to three-phase values, using an estimated value for charging kva, to give loss on a line having 45-foot flat configuration.

Curve 8---1.96 in. smooth aluminum. Ref. 28. Reference curve gives three-phase loss, but line dimensions are not given.

Curve 9~1.57 in. smooth. Ref. 23. This conductor was smooth and clean. Reference curve gives per-phase values. Plotted curve is for 45-foot flat spacing.

600

Fig. 27-Fair~Weather Corona-Loss Curves for Smooth Conductors; Air Density Factor, 0 = 1.

opment of three fonnulas(lo.u.l~) generally used in this country (Reference 18 gives a large number of formulas). The Carroll-Rockwell and the Peterson formulas are considered the most accurate especially in the important low loss region (below 5 kw per three-phase mile). The Peterson formula, when judiciously used, has proved to be a reliable iurlicat.or of corona performance (sec See. 9) for transmission voltages in use up to this time. Recent work on corona loss has been directed toward the extra-highvoltage range and indicates that more recent information should be used for these voltages.

Fa.ir-wca.thcr corona-loss measurements made by a number of different investigators are shown in Figs. 27, 28, and 20. All curves are plotted in terms of kilowatts per threephase mile. The data presented in these curves has been corrected for air density factor, 0, by multiplying the test voltage by 1/52/3• Some enol' might have been introduced in these curves because in most cases it was necessary to convert the original data from per-phase measurements. The conversions were made on the basis of voltage gradient at the surface of each conductor. The curves should be used as an indicator of expected performance during fair weather. For a particular design, reference should be made to the original publications, and a conversion made for the design under consideration. The relation between fair-

58

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

Chapter 3

Curve 1-1.4 in. ACSR. Ref. 12. Conductor was washed with gasoline then soap and water. Test configuration: three-phase line, 30-foot flat spacing, 16-foot sag, 30-foot ground clearance, 700 feet long.

Curve 2-1.0 in. ACSR. Ref. 11. Conductor weathered by exposure to air without continuous energization. Test configuration: threephase line, 20-f oot fiat spacing, 700 feet long.

Curve 3-1.125 in. hollow copper. Ref. 14. Washed in same manner as for curve 1. Test configuration: three-phase line, 22-foot fiat spacing.

Curve 4-1.49 in. hollow copper. Ref. 14. Wa~hed in same manner as for curve L Test configuration: three-phase line, 30-foot flat spacing, 16-foot sag, 3O-foot ground clearance, 700 feet long.

Curve 5-2.00 in. hollow aluminum. Ref. 14. Washed in same manner as for curve L Test configurat.ion: three-phase line, 3O-foot flat spacing, 16-foot sag, 30-foot ground clearance, 700 feet long.

Curve 6-1.09 in. steel-aluminum. Ref. 22. Reference curve is average fair-weather corona loss obtained by converting per-phase measurements to three-phase values, for a line 22.9 foot flat spacing, 32.8 feet high. This conductor used on 220-kv lines in Sweden which have above dimensions.

Curve 7-1.25 in. steel-aluminum. Ref. 22 App, A. Plotted curve obtained by estimating average of a number of fait-weather perphase curves given in reference and converting to three-phase loss for line having 32-foot fiat spacing, 50-foot average height.

Curve 8-1.04 in. steel-aluminum, 24-strand. Ref. 23. Plotted curve obtained by conversion of per-phase measurements to three-phase values, using an estimated value for charging kva, to give loss on a line having 45-foot flat configuration.

Curve g .... ·O.fIl in. Hollow Copper. Ref. 11. Conductor washed.

Test configuration: three-phase line, 2O-foot flat spacing, 700 feet long.

Fig. 28---Fair-Weather Corona-Loss Curves for Stranded Conductors; Air Density Factor, ~ = t,

and foul-weather corona loss and the variation which can be expected during fair weather is shown in Fig. 30 for one conductor.

Corona loss on a satisfactory line is primarily caused by rain. This is shown by the fairly high degree of correlation between total rainfall and integrated corona loss which has been noted. (2[,2';.41) The corona loss at certain points on a transmission line can reach high values during bad storm conditions. However, such conditions are not likely to occur simultaneously all along a line. Bergquist and Vrethem expect only a variation from L6 to 16 kw per mile, with an average value of 6.5 kw per mile, on their 380-kv lines now under construction in Sweden. The measured loss on their experimental line varied from 1.6 to 81 kw per mile. The calculated fair-weather corona loss common in the U B.A. is generally less than one kw per mile, based on calculations using Reference 16. Where radio-influence must be considered, the annual corona loss will not be of much economic importance", and the maximum loss will not constitute a serious load.

Corona loss is characterized on linear coordinates by a rather gradual increase in loss with increased voltage up to the so-called "knee" and above this voltage, a very rapid increase in loss. The knee of the fair-weather loss curve is generally near the critical disruptive voltage. A transmis-

sion line should be operated at a voltage well below the voltage at which the loss begins to increase rapidly under fair-weather eonditions. Operation at or above this point can result in uneconomical corona loss. A very careful analysis, weighing the annual energy cost and possibly the maximum demand against reduced capitalized line cost, must be made if operation at a voltage near or above the knee of the fair-weather loss curve is contemplated.

Corona loss on a conductor is a function of the voltage gradient aL its surface. Thus the effect of reduced conductor spacing and lowered height is to increase the corona loss as a function of the increased gradient. On transmission lines using a flat conductor configuration, the gradient at the surface of the middle phase conductor is higher than on the outer conductor, This results in corona being more prevalent on the middle conductor.

8. Radio Influence (RI)

Radio influence is probably the factor limiting the choice of a satisfactory conductor for a given voltage. The RI performance of transmission lines has not been as thoroughly investigated as corona loss. Recent publications (see references) present most of the information available. IU plotted against voltage on linear graph paper is characterized by a gradual increase in IU up to a vol-

Chapter 3

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

59

600 "Bundle-ccnductor designation-number of sub-conductors/out-

side diameter of each sub-conductor in inches/separation between adjacent sub-conductors in inches.

Fi~. 29-Fair-Weather Corona-Loss Curves for Two-, 'I'hree-, and Four-conductor Bundles; Air Density Factor, 0= 1.00.

35


@-"'

r ~
;
I
I ~
jf,~ ~
r~
lif I ~ ~
'I I 11
.~ iJJ~ ~
:.;
.
.
~ .. , 30

25

10

o

200

500

100

300

400

Curve 1-----4/0.985/15.7* (Smooth) Ref. 25. II not given, but assumed 1.10, which is average value for Germany. Reference curve obtained by converting single-phase measurements to three-phase values on the basis of surface gradient. Dimensions of line used in making conversion are not given.

Curve 2---4/0.827/15.7* (stranded aluminum-steel). Ref. 25. 0 = 1.092. See discussion of Curve 1-

Curve 3-3/0.985/11.8* (Smooth). Ref. 26. 8=1.092. Reference curve gives single-phase measurements versus line-to-ground voltage, but it is not clear whether actual test voltage or equivalent. voltage at line height is given. Latter was used in making the conversion to three-phase. If this is wrong, curve is approximately 15 percent low in voltage. Converted to flat configuration of 45 feet.

Curve 4-2/1.09/17.7* (Stranded aluminum-steel). 0 - L01. Ref.12, App, A. Reference curve gives per-phase measurements versus gradient. Converted to three-phase corona loss on line of 42.5-foot average height, 39.4-foot fiat configuration.

Curve 5-2/1.25/17.7* (Stranded aluminum-steel) .; not given, probably close to unity. Ref. 12. Reference curve, which gives threephase corona loss" was converted from per-phase measurements. Dimensions 42.5 feet average height, 39.4 feet flat configuration. This conductor was selected for use on the Swedish 380·kv system. Original author probably selected a worse fair-weather condition than the writer did in plotting curve 4, which could account for their closeness.

Curve 6-2/L04/23.7* (Stranded aluminum-steel), t, not given. Ref. 13. Plotted curve is average of two single-phase fair-weather curves, converted to three-phase loss for 45-foot fiat configuration. See Curve 7.

Curve 7~2/1.04/15.7* (Stranded aluminum-steel). Il Dot given. Ref. 13. Plotted curve is average of two single-phase Iair-weather curves, converted to three-phase loss for 45-foot flat configuration. Data for curves 6 and 7 were taken at same time in order to show effeet of sub-conductor separation .

tage slightly below the minimum voltage at which measurable corona loss is detected. Above this voltage, the increase in the RI 1S very rapid. The rate of increase in RI is influenced by conductor surface and diameter, being higher for smooth conductors and large-diameter conductors. Above a certain voltage, the magnitude of the RI field begins to level oft'. For practical conductors, the leveling off value is much too high to be acceptable, and where RI is a factor, lines must be designed to operate below the voltage at which the rapid increase starts during fair weather. Figures 32 and 33 are characteristic RI curves. The relation between fair- and foul-weather corona performance is shown in Fig. 32.

An evaluation of RI in the design of a high-voltage line must consider not only its magnitude, but its effect on the various communication services which require protection. Amplitude-modulated broadcasting and power-line carrier are the most COmmon services encountered but other services such as aviation, marine, ship-to-shore SOS calls, police and a number of government services might also have to be considered.

In determining the RI performance of a proposed line, the magnitude of the RI factors for the entire frequency

range of communication services likely to be encountered, should be known. An evaluation of these factors in terms of their effect on various communication services must take into consideration many things. These are available signal intensities along the line, satisfactory signal-to-noise ratios, effect. of weather on the RI factors and on the importance of particular communication services, number and type of receivers in vicinity of the line, proximity of particular receivers, transfer of RI to lower-voltage circuits, the general importance of particular communication services, and means for improvement of reception at individual receiver locations." For extra-high-voltage and double-circuit high-voltage lines the tolerable limits of RI might be higher because the number of receivers affected, the coupling to lower voltage circuits, and the coupling to receiver antennas is reduced. Also fewer lines are required for the same power handling ability, and wider right-ofways are used which tend to reduce the RT problem.

Although RI increases very rapidly with increased gradient at the surface of a conductor, theoretical considerations of the radiation characteristics of a transmission line as spacing is reduced, indicate that the RI from a transmission line will not be seriously affected by reduced spacing.42

Characteristics oj Aerial Lines

Chapter 3

60

!oJ ...J

s

~ i

i 20~----~------+-~-+-»~·~tf,1rl-------r------1

~ ~

~ I I--~CLEAR

¥ 5r-~---4+TI~I~t~~~I~

OVERCAS~ -t NEARLY

HOARFROS~~ I --CLEAR

FOG I /._ I

• j"' -CLEAR

IO~----~-=~--~~~~--Ht~~----~r-----~

RAIN _- U I t I j

, II : ""--r-CLEAR

~tlt111 i II J I

RAIN - /1 1. : --r---CLEAR

5~---4----++~-+~~+;~+---~r---~

;~~~- 111)l)} ~~i{/

o

200

300

500

400

100

I<VI._L

Fig. 30-Corona Loss on 1.09 Inch Stranded Aluminum-Steel Conductor under Different Weather Conditions. This conductor is in use on the Swedish 120-kv system. Note variation in fair-wearher corona loss and the relation between fair- and foul-weather corona loss. Plotted curves obtained by convecting per-phase measurements to three-phase values for a line having 32-foot flat spacing, 50-foot average height. No cor-

rection made for air density factor. Ref. 22, App. A.

The conductor configuration, the number of circuits, and the presence of ground wires affect the radiation from the line with a given RI voltage on the conductors. Very little is known about the radiation characteristics of transmission lines and caution should be exercised in applying data not taken OIl a line configuration closely approximating the design under consideration.

The RI field from a transmission line varies somewhat. as the inverse of the radio frequency measured. Thus services in the higher-frequency bands, (television", frequencymodulated broadcasting, microwave relay, radar, etc.) are less apt to be affected. Directional antennas which are generally used at these frequencies, on the average, increase the signal-to-noise ratio. The lower signal strengths, and wider band-widths generally found in the high-frequency bands can alter this picture somewhat. Frequencymodulated broadcast is inherently less sensitive to RI because of its type of modulation.

Standard radio-noise meters35.38 can measure the average, quasi-peak, and peak values of the RI field. The average value is the amplitude of the RI field averaged continuously over Yz second. For quasi-peak measurements, a circuit having a short time constant (0.001-0.01 sec.) for charging and a long time constant (0.3 to 0.6 sec.) for discharging is used, with thc result that the meter indication is near the peak value of the RI field. Aural tests of radio reception indicate that quasi-peak readings interpreted in terms of broadcast-station field strengths represent more accurately the "nuisance" value of the RI field. The peak value j:-; the maximum instantaneous value during a given period. The type of measurements made must be known before evaluating pu blished IU information or misleading conclusions can be drawn.

The lateral attenuation of RI from a transmission line depends on the line dimensions and is independent of voltage. At distances between 10 and 150 feet from the outer conductor, the attenuation at 1000 kc varies from 0.1 to 0.3 db per foot, with t.he lower values applying generally to high-voltage lines. Typical lateral attenuation curves are shown in Fig. 34. Lateral attenuation is affected by local conditions. Because of the rapid attenuation of RI laterally from a line, a change of a few hundred feet in the location of a right-of-way can materially aid in protecting a communication service.

600

9. Selection of Conductor

In the selection of a satisfactory conductor from the standpoint of its corona performance for voltages up to 230 kv, operating experience and current practice are the best guide. Experience in this country indicates that the corona performance of a transmission line will be satisfactory when a line is designed so that the fair-weather corona loss according to Peterson's formula;" is less than one kw per three-phase mile. Unsatisfactory corona performance in arc as where RI must be considered has been reported for lines on which the calculated corona loss is in excess of this value, or even less in the case of medium highvoltage lines. Figure 31 is based on Peterson's formula and indicates satisfactory conductors which can be used on high-voltage lines. For medium high-voltage lines (138 kv) considerably more margin below the one kw curve is necessary because of the increased probability of exposure of receivers to RI from the line, and a design approaching 0.1 kw should be used.

10. Bundle Conductors

A "bundle conductor" is a conductor made up of two or more "sub-conductors", and is used as one phase conductor. Bundle conductors are also called duplex, triplex, ete., conductors, referring to the number of sub-conductors and are sometimes referred to as grouped or multiple conductors. Considerable work on bundle conductors has been done by the engineers of Sicrncns-Sohuckertwerke'" who concluded that bundle conductors were not economical at 220 kv, but for rated voltages of 400 kv or more, are the best solution for overhead transmission. Rusck and Hathsman= state that the increase in transmitting capacity juetifies ecunomically the use of two-conductor bundles on 220-kv lines.

Chapter 3

Characteristic8 of Aerial Lines

61

I-- - I ~ ~
1 J. J.......-- .-
I-- - 40
I'~ ! I- -- ;....;;;,;
I-- !-- II-\,..""\ ..h:
rS;-S-j v ",!I"r,~' ",i t- i""""
I-- I-- 30 I-- '~I I~~~\~
Q 0 0 _ - /---
I-- !-- I- ~ ~~~\V~ ~ 1- ,- -
w /
,-- I-- ~ 20 V i ~ J. ~_\~!:?~-
I-- I-- ~ .--~ ,,_."." ......... _ .... ..... __ .
<I) V i Lf'"'" I ~~,,\v, ~~ __t
- I-- 10 / /' t.0I'l~ I
/' .... -r
- I-- / vI-'"
.- --
~ I-- 00
100 200 ~oo 400 VI 1-"-( , !
~ I-- UNE VOLTAGE - KV ~ .... S'1'RI.JiO-O.l K'fI \.0$$ 1
V .... ~_.;...__:: t-- 1 -- r-
CONCENifUC -- -
, V f.-' , , , : _I :--'tNo'_: 0 I 11'11 LOSS
,
, .,.. CONCEHli'C il'R " i
V .»: ...... -- I- ,__ 1-- - _-
-
V ...... ~ I--- - - - I 1 I
/' 1- ....
~ V ........ v -- i
v i --- SEA LEVEL
V...:; ~ ~ P<f ---- 6000 FEET
I-- }---- ----~~ ~ ~~~t: ,,~"'VUI;~<;ItI ~~ =-~:: LOSSES ARE IN KW PER THREE-PHASE MILE
I) CARROI..!.. AND ROCKWELL F'OFt SMOOTH SEGMENTAL
" CARROLl.. ANO ROCI(WELI.. FOR CON. STRANO-I ,",W LOSS
i J
,
,
0 0.1 02 03 04 0_'5 0.6 0-1 0.8 0.9 1.0 I.l 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2. 400

360

320

280 >

:.:

~

w 240

'"

~

o

> 200

l!!

..

t 160 ;II!

:::i 120

60

40

o

cosoucroa DIAMETER IN INCHES

500 1~O 16o~PPER-THOI.JSMOS 01" CIRCULAR "'ILLS OR AW G

Q

.... SOLID-<

t---t----;--+--+~I---+-_+-------+.- -- - , --~~-+--:+c-----I---+----~ACSR-MCM OR AWG

6 4 2. I 110 310 410 300 397.:; 500 666 195 1033.5 1212 1590

29 STRANOS ----..;NUMBER OF' STRANDS IN ourSIOE LAYER

1-0--12 STRANOS---l

,.._-- 6 STRANDS 18 STRANDS --_

Fig. 31--Quick-Estimating Corona-Loss Curves. Curves based on Peterson's formula with a few check points from. the Carrol and Rockwell paper for comparison.

The advantages of bundle conductors are higher disruptive voltage with conductors of reasonable dimensions, reduced surge impedance and consequent higher power capabilities, and less rapid increase of corona loss and RI with increased voltage.22.21.28 These advantages must be weighed against increased circuit cost, increased. charging kva if it cannot be utilized, and such other considerations as the large amount of power which would be carried by one circuit. It is possible with a two-conductor bundle composed of conductors of practical size to obtain electrical characteristics, excepting corona, equivalent to a single conductor up to eight inches in diameter.

Theoretically there is an optimum sub-conductor separation for bundle conductors that will give minimum crest gradient on the surface of a sub-conductor and hence highest disruptive voltage. For a two-conductor bundle, the separation is not very critical, and it is advantageous to use a larger separation than the optimum which balances the reduced corona performance and slightly increased circuit cost against the advantage of reduced reactance.

Assuming isolated conductors which are far apart compared to their diameter and have a voltage applied between them, the gradient at the surface of one conductor is given by:

e

(79b)

g = rlog.,D /r

where the symbols have the same meaning as used in Eq. (79a). This equation is the same as equation (79a), except that surface factor, m, and air density factor, 0, have been omitted. These factors should be added to Eqs. 80 and 81 for practical calculations, For a two-conductor bundle, the equation for maximum gradient at the surface of a subconductor" is:

e(1-1-2r/8)

g=---'------:::--'..

D 2rlog" 1_ VrS

(80)

where:

S = separation between sub-conductors in centimeters.

Because of the effect of the sub-conductors on each other, the gradient at the surface of a Bub-conductor is not uniform. It varies in a cosinusoidal manner from a maximum at a point on the outside surface on the line-of-centers, to a minimum at the corresponding point on the inside surface. This effect modifies the corona performance of a bundle conductor such that its corona starting point corresponds to the voltage that would be expected from calculations, but the rate of increase of Corona with increased voltage is less than for a single conductor. This effect can be seen by comparing curve 6 of Fig. 28 with curve 2 of Fig. 29. Cahen and Pelissier2L24 concluded that the corona performance of a two-conductor bundle is more accurately indicated by the mean between the average

62

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

Chapter 3



i~'
J/
1/ II,
I
,;1; 't"--j
/' I
,
I ,
I i'
j/ / / I
I
.- I I :
I I / / r
: 1 1
I LL II :' (II
l-
I i
,
I r---RAIN :
RAIN,---';_ ~11 I
I
I I
FAIR ..... I
I I' 1
r--
,/ I 1
-CORONA IV t I J
--1'(1 /
! II' " /
"
........
"/ II ,,' II
_ ...
I

JI
J, 2.000

1000 800

u::

I.IJ I- 600 w :E

l:5 400

0..

(t)

S

~ 200 o

:I

100 80

60

40

80 100

KILOVOLTS

Fli. 32-Radio influence and Corona loss measurements made on an experimental test line. Ref. 26.

60

120

140

and maximum gradient at the surface of a sub-conductor, which is given by;

e(l+r/S)

g=---'---'-:::,-'-

2rloge• ~ (81)

v-s

If it is desired to determine the approximate disruptive

(1+°·301) k .

voltage of a conductor, go=21.1 V; v per centi-

meter rms can be substituted for g and the equations solved for eo in kv rms. This value neglects air density Factor and surface factor, which can be as low as 0,80 (consult references 10 and 16 for more accurate calculations).

380 kv Systems using bundle conductors are being built or under consideration in Sweden, France, and Germany.

Curve I-Average lateral attenuation for a number of transmission lines from 138- to 450-kv. 0 X b. 0 are plotted values which apply to this curve only. Test frequency 1000 ke. Ref. 21.

Curve 2-Lateral Attenuation from the 22O-kv Eguzon-Chaingy line in France. Line has equilateral spacing, but dimensions not given. Distance measured from middle phase. Test frequency-868 ke. Ref. 24.

Curve 3-Lateral Attenuation from 230-kv Midway-Columbia Line of the Bonneville Power Administration. Conductor height 47.5 feet, test frequency 830 ke, Ref. 42.

000 . eoo 800

600

400

0'
50'
"t
_I
t;:c
~z
LlJO
QQ
z
<to:
I-LIJ
(/)1-
-:;)
Co
~:E
0:0
00:
:t:1.t.
IL ,Jo'
1/ I
II
/ I
lL L II
/ J J zod
V ...... V V 1/ 400
k:::::: -: ~ V 100

2.00

c: 600

~

LIJ

::I!

c: ~500

~

o

~400 0:

u

s

00 eo

60

40

300

20

200

o 8

6

100

4

o

100

200

KVL_I..

Fig. l3-Fair-Weather Radio-Influence Field from a Transmission Line as a Function of Voltage. Measurements made epposite mid-span on the 230·kv Covington-Grand Coulee Llrre No.1 of the Bonneville Power Administration. RI values are quasi-peak. 1.108 inch ACSR conductor, 27-foot flat spac-

Ing, 41-foot height, test frequency-800 kc.

300

10 e

6

o _
~.~
0 ~~
~
0
~ ~/
0 >~.
10
~ + -"'---J
6 ""'''-j~
"
4

2

I 4

2

o 40 80 120 160 200

HORt ZONTAL DISTANCE FROM OUTSIOE CONDUOTOR-FEET

Fhl. 34-Lateral Attenuation of Radio Influence in Vicinity of High-Voltage Transmission Lines.

Chapter 8

I

Characteristics of Aerial Lines

63

REFERENCES

1. Line Conductors- Tidd 500-kv Test Lines, by E. L. Peterson, D. M. SirnmollS, L. F. Hickernell, M. E. Noyes. AlEE Paper 47~244.

2. Symmetrical Components, (a book), by C. F. Wagner and R. D.

Evans. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1933.

3. Reducing Inductance on Adjacent Transmission Circuits, by H. B. Dwight, Electrical World, Jan. 12, 1924, P 89.

4. Electric Poicer Transmission (a book), by L. F. Woodruff. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1938.

5. Electrical Transmission of Power and Signals (a book), by Edward W. Kimbark, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1949.

6. Heating and Current Carrying Capacity of Bare Conductors for Outdoor Service, by O. R. Schurig and C. W. Frick, General Electric Reoieso Volume 33, Number 3, March 1930, p 142.

7. Hy-Therm Copper-An Improved Overhead-Line Conductor, by L. F. HickernelI, A. A. Jones, C. J. Snyder. AlEE Paper 49-3.

8. Electrical Characterietics of Transmission Circuits, (a book}, by W. Nesbit, Westinghouse Technical Night School Press, 1926.

9. Resistance and Reactance of Commercial Steel Conductors, by Prof. H. B. Dwight, Electric Journal, January 1919, page 25.

10. Dielectric Phenomena in High-Voltage Engineering (Book) F.

W. Peck, Jr. Moflraw-Hill Book Co. Inc. New York, 1929.

11. Corona Loss Measurements on a 220-KV 6O-Cycle Three-Phase Experimental Line, J. S. Carroll, L. H. Brown, D. P. Dinapoli, A.l.E.E. Transactions Vol. 50, 1931, pages 36-43.

12. Corona Losses from Conductors lA-inch Diameter, J. S. Carroll, B. Cozzens, T. M. Blakeslee, A.I.E.E. Transactions VoL 53, 1934, pages 1727~33.

13. Corona Losses at 230 KV'with One Conductor Grounded, J. S.

Carroll, D. 1\1. Simmons, A.I.E.E. Transactions Vol. 54, 1935, pages 846-7.

14. Empirical Method of Calculating Corona Loss from High- Voltage Transmission Lines, J. S. Carroll, M. M. Rockwell, A.I.E.E. Transactions Vol. .')6, 1937, page 558.

15. Corona Loss Measurements for the Design of Transmission Lines to Operate at Voltages between 220-KV and 330-KV. J_ S. Carroll, B. Cozzens, A.I.RE. Transactirms Vol. 52, 1933, pages 55--n2.

16. Development of Corona Loss Formula (discussion of reference IS), W. R. Peterson, A.l.E.E. Transactions VoL 1i2, pages 62-3.

17. New Techniques on the Anacom- Electric-Analog Computer, E.

L. Harder, J. T. Carleton, AlEE Technical Paper 50--85.

18. Ein neues Verlustgcsetz der Wochsclspannungelcoronn, H. Prinz, Wiss. Veroff. Siemens-Schuckertwerke A.G.-Vol. XIX, July 26,1940.

19. Desert Measurements of Corona Loss on Conductors for Operation above 230 KV, W. S. Peterson, B. Cozzens, J. 8. Carroll, as presented AlEE Convention Pasadena, Calif., June 12-16,1950.

20. Transmission of Electric Power at Extra High Voltages, Philip Sporn, A. C. Monteith, A.I.E.E. T}"an~adions, Vol. 06, 1947 pages 1.571-7, disc. 1S82.

21. Progress Report on 500-KV Test Project of the American Gas and Electric Company-Corona, Radio Influence, and Other Factors. Philip Sporn, A. C. Monteith, as presented AlEE Convention, Pasadena, Calif. June 12~16, 1950.

22. The Swedish 380:-KV System, W. Bergquist, A. Vrethern, see also Appendix, A. B. Henning, S. Skagerlind, CIGRE paper 412, 1948 session, June 24 to July 3, Conference Internationalo des Grands Reseaux Elcctriques a Haute Tension.

23. Influence, sur I'Effet de Couronne, du Diarnetre et du Profil des Cables des Lignes Aeriennes a Tres Haute Tensiou, F. Caheu, R. Pelissier, Reoue Generale de l' Eleciriciie, VoL S8, pages 279-90.

24. L' emploi de Conductcurs en Faisceaux pour L' Armcmen t des Lignes a Tres Haute Tension, F. Cahen, R. Pelissier. Bull. Soc. Erancaiee des Eleciricien»; 6th Series, Vol. VIII, No. 79, H148.

25. Recherohes Experimentales sur Ie Comportement des Conducteurs des Lignss a 400 KV, F. Cahen, R. Pelissier, Bull. Soc. Francoise des Eiectriciens, 6th Series, Vol. IX No. 99, Dec. 1949.

26. Mecanisme de l'ElIot de Couronne sur les Lignes de Transport d'Energie en Courant Alternatif, R. Pelissier, D. Renaudin Bull. Soc. Fra11.!:aise des Eleciriciens, 6th Series, Vol. 9, Feb. 1949.

27. Bundelleitungen, W. v. Mangoldt, F. Busemann, A. Buerklin, G. Markt, F. I. Kromer, Siemcns-Schuckertwerke, A. G. pamphlet, Berlin-Siemensstadt, 1942.

28. 400-KV Transmission Lines with Special Reference to Multiple Conductor Lines (Bundelleitungen), British Intelligence Objectives Sub-committee, Final Report No. 1833, Item No. 33, S.O. Code-No, 51-8275~33, Technical Information and Documents Unit 40, Cadogan Square, London S.W.l England.

29. Drebstromlernuebert.raguug mit BUlldellei~el"1l, G. MarkL, B.

Mengele, Eleklrotechnik und Maschinenbau, 1932, page 293.

30. Die Wirtschaftliche Bemessung von Bundelleiter-Leitungen Elektrolechnik und Maschinenbau, 1935, page 410.

31. 5OO-KV Experimental Station at Chevilly ; Use of Bundle Conductors; Corona Effects; Clearances, P. Ailleret, F. Cahcn, Conf. Int. des Grands Res. Electr. a Haute Tension (CIGRE), 1948, paper No. 410.

32. Relative Surface Voltage Gradients of Grouped Conductors, M. Ternoshok, A.I.E.E. Transactions Vol. 67, Part II, pages IS83~9.

83. Discussion of Reference 32 by C. F. Wagner, A.I.E.E. Transac. tions Vol. 67, Part II, page 1590.

34_ Three-Phase Multiple-Conductor Circuits, E. Clarke, A.I.E.E.

Transactions, Vol. 51, 1932, page 809, Appendix C by S. Crary,

35. Methods of Measuring Radio Noise 1940·· A report of thc Joint Coordination Committee on Radio Reception of EEl, NEMA, and RMA.

36. Proposed American Standard Specification for a Radio Noise Meter-O,015 to 25 megacycles, Oct. 1949 (Published for one year trial use).

37. Television Interference Seldom Comes from Power Systems, F.

L. Greene, Electrical World, Jan. 16, 1950, pages 55-9.

38. Effect of Rfl.dio Frequennies of a Power SYRt!lm in Radio-Receiving Systems, C. V. Aggers, W. E. Pakula, W. A. Stickel, A.l.E.E. Transacii.:m8, Vol. 62, 1934, pages 169-72.

39. Measurements Pertaining to the Coordination of Radio Reception with Power Apparatus and Systems, C. M, Foust, C. W. Frick, A.I.E.E. Transactions Vol. 62, 1943, pages 284-91, disc. 458.

40. Radio Interference Suppression in Canada, H. O. Merriman, AlEE paper No. 47-140.

41. Results of Tests Carried out at the 5OO-kv Experimental Station of Chevilly (France), Especially on Corona Behavior of Bundle Conductors, F. Cahen, A.l.E.E. Transactions, 1948, Vol. 67, Part II. pages 1118-25.

42. Radio-Noise Influence of 230-KV Lines, H. L. Rorden, A.I.E.E.

Transaction, Vol. 66, 1947, pages 677-8; disc. 682.

43. Radio Influence from High Voltage Corona, G.ll. Siemon, AlEE paper No. 49-60.

44. Comparative Investigation of D,C.· and A.C.-Corona on Two· Conductor Transmission Lines (In German), R. Strigel, Wis· s01,iSchaftliche V crocftanilichungan A us Den Siemens- W erken, Vol. 15, Part 2, 1936, pages 68-91.

45. The Swedish 380 KV System, A. Rusck, Do G. Rathsman, Electrical Engineering, Dcc. 1949, pages 1025-9.

46. Series Cupacitor and Double Conductors in the Swedish Transmission System, A. Rusek, Bo G. Rathsman, Electrical Engineering, Jan. 1950, pages 53-7.

47. Effect of Earthing on Corona Losses, Conductor Diameter And Length of Insulator Strings, The Brown Booeri Review, Vol. XXXV Nos. 7/8. July/August, 1\)48, pages 192~2QL

48. The Transmission of Electric Power (a book), by W. A. Lewis, (1948 Lithoprinted Edition) Illinois Institute of Technology.

CHAPTER 4

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CABLES

CABLES are classified according to their insulation as paper, varnished-cambric, rubber, or asbestos, each of these materials having unique characteristics which render it suitable for particular applications. Because cables for power transmission and distribution are composed of so many different types of insulation, conductors, and sheathing materials, the discussion here must be limited to those cable designs most commonly used. Reasonable estimates of electrical characteristics for cables not listed can be obtained in most cases by reading from the table for a cable having similar physical dimensions.

Paper can be wound onto it conductor in euccessive layers to achieve a required dielectric strength, and this is the insulation generally used for cables operating at 10 000 volts and higher. Paper insulation is impregnated in different ways, and accordingly cables so insulated can be sub-divided into solid, oil-filled, or ga::AilIed types.

Solid paper-insulated cables are built up of layers of paper tape wound onto the conductor and impregnated with a viscous oil, over which is applied a tight-fitting, extruded lead sheath. Multi-conductor solid cables are also available, but the material shown here covers only single- and three-conductor types. Three-conductor cables are of either belted or shielded construction. The belted assembly consists of the three separately insulated conductors cabled together and wrapped with another layer of impregnated paper, or belt, before the sheath is applied. In the shielded construction each conductor is individually insulated and covered with a thin metallic non-magnetic shielding t.ape; the three conductors are then cabled together, wrapped with a metallic binder tape, and sheathed with lead. The purpose of the metallic shielding tape around each insulated conductor is to control the electrostatic stress, reduce corona Iormat.iun, and decrease the thermal resistance. To minimize circulating current under normal operating conditions and thus limit the power loss, shielding tape only three mils in thickness is used. Solid single-conductor cables are standard for all voltages from 1 to 69 kv; solid three-conductor cables are standard from 1 to 4£ kv. Sample sections of paper-insulated single-conductor, three-conductor bel ted, and three-eond uctor shielded cables are shown in Fig. l(a), (b), and (c) respectively.

Oil-filled paper-insulated cables are available in single- or three-conductor designs. Single-conductor oil-filled cable consists of a concentric stranded conductor built around an oil channels composed of helical springs that extend open helical spring core, which serves as a channel for the through the cable in spaces normally occupied by finer flow of low-viscosity oil. This cable is insulated and material. This construction is shown in Fig. lee). Oilsheathed in the same manner as solid cables, as a com par- filled cables are relatively new and their application has ison of Figs. I (a) and 1 (d) indicates. Three-conductor oil- become widespread in a comparatively short time. The oil filled cables are all of the shielded design, and have three used is only slightly more viscous than transformer oil, and

64

Original A uihor:

H. N. Muller, Jr.

Revised by:

J. S. Williams

(a) Single-conductor solid, compact-round conductor.

(b) Three-conductor belted, compact-sector conductors.

(c) Three-conductor shielded, compact-sector conductors.

(d) Single-conductor oil-filled, hollow-stranded conductor.

(c) Three-conductor oil-filled, compact-sector conductors.

Fig. l-Paper-insulated cables.

Caurfesy of General Cable Corporation

Chapter 4

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

65

remains fluid at all operating temperatures. The oil in the cable and its connected reservoirs is maintained under moderate pressure so that during load cycles oil may flow between the cable and the reservoirs to prevent the development of voids or excessive pressure in the cable. The prevention of void formation in paper insulation permits the use of greatly reduced insulation thickness for a given operat.ing voltage. Another ad vantage of oil-filled cables is that oil will seep out through any crack 01' opening which develops in the sheath, thereby preventing the entrance of water at the defective point. This action prevents the occurrence of a fault caused by moisture in the insulation, and since operating records show that this cause accounts for n. significant percent.age of all high-voltage cable faults, it is indeed a real advantage. Single-conductor oil-filled cables are used for voltages ranging from 69 to 230 kv; the usual range for three-conductor oil-fined cables is from 23 to 69 kv.

Gas-filled cables of the low-pressure type have recently become standard up to 46 kv. The single-conductor type employs construction generally similar to that of solid cables, except that longitudinal flutes or other channels are provided at the inner surface of the sheath t.o conduct nitrogen along the cable. The three-conductor design employs channels in the filler spaces among the conductors, much like those provided in oil-filled three-conductor cables. The gas is normally maintained between 10 and 15 pounds per square inch gauge pressure, and serves to fill all cable voids and exclude moisture at faulty points in the sheath or joints.

Courteeu of the Okonit.e-CallendtJT Cablff Company

Fi~. 2---High-pressurc pipe-type oil-filled cable.

High-pressure cables, of either the oil- or gas-filled variety, are being used widely for the higher range of voltages, The physical and electrical characteristics are fairly well known, but their specifications are not yet standardized, The usual application calls for pressure of about 200 pounds per square inch, contained by a steel pipe into which three single-conductor cables are pulled. The immediate presence of the iron pipe makes difficult the calculations of circuit impedance, particularly the zero-sequence quantities. Most high-pressure cables are designed so that the oil or gas filler comes into direct contact wid, the conductor insulation: in oil-filled pipe-type cables a tcmporary lead sheath can be stripped from the cable as it is pulled into the steel pipe; in gas-filled pipe-type cables the lead sheath surrounding each conductor remains in place, with nitrogen introduced both inside and outside the sheath so that no differential pressure develops across the sheath. Examples of oil- and gas-filled pipe-type cables are shown in Figs, 2 and 3.

Fig. 3-Cross-section of high-pressure pipe-type gas-filled cable. Oil-filled pipe-type cable may have a similar crosssection.

Compression cable is another high-pressure pipe-type cable in which oil or nitrogen gas at high pressure is introduced within a steel pipe containing lead-sheathed solidtype single-conductor cables; no high-pres1;ure oil or gas is introduced diroetly inside the lead sheaths, but voids within the solid-type insulation arc prevented by pressure exerted externally on the sheaths. This construction is sketched in Fig. 4.

During recent years there has been a trend toward the modification of cable conductors to reduce cost and improve operating eha.ra.et.el'isties, particularly in multi-conductor cables. Referring to Fig. 5, the first departure from concentric round conductors was the adoption of sectorshaped conductors in three-conductor cables, More recently a crushed straml ing; that results in a compacted sector has been developed and has found widespread usc for conductor sizes of 1/0 A.W.G. and larger. Its use in smaller conductors is not practical. The principal advantages of such a conductor are: reduced overall diameter for a given copper cross-section; elimination of space between th~ conductor and the insulation, which results in higher

Fig. 4-Cross-sectional sketch of compression cable.

66

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

Chapter 4

(a)

(b)

(c)

Cd)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

Fig. 5-Cable conductors. (a) Standard concentric stranded.

(b) Compact round.

(e) Non-compact sector. (d) Compact sector.

(e) Annular stranded (rope core). (0 SegmentaL

(g) Rope stranded. (h) Hollow core.

electrical breakdown; low a-c resistance due to minimizing of proximity effect; retention of the close stranding during bending; and for solid cables, elimination of many longitudinal channels along which imprcgnatingcompound can migrate. While most single-conductor cables are of the

concentric-strand type, they may also be compact-round, annular-stranded, segmental, or hollow-core.

I. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

The electrical characteristics of cables have been di&cussed comprehensively in a series of articles! upon which much of the material presented here has been based. This chapter is primarily concerned with the determination of the electrical constants most commonly needed for powersystem calculations, particular emphasis being placed on quantities necessary for the application of symmetrical components.! A general rule is that regardless of the complexity of mutual inductive relations between component parts of individual phases, the method of symmetrical component.s can be applied rigorously whenever there is symmetry among phases. All the three-conductor cables inherently satisfy this condition by the nature of their construction; single-conductor cables mayor may not, although usually the error is small in calculating short-circuit currents. Unsymmetrical spacing and change in permeability resulting from different phase currents when certain methods of eliminating sheath currents are used, may produce dissymmetry.

Those physical characteristics that are of general inter-est in electrical application problems have been included along with electrical characteristics in the tables of this section.

All linear dimensions of radius, diameter, separation, or distance to equivalent earth return are expressed in inches in the equations in this chapter. This is unlike overhead transmission line theory where dimensions are in feet; the use of inches when dealing with cable construction seems appropriate. Many equations contain a factor for frequency,!, which is the circuit operating frequency in cycles per second.

1. Geometry of Cables

The space relationship among sheaths and conductors in a cable circuit is a major factor in determining reactance, capacitance, charging current, insulation resistance, dielectric loss, and thermal resistance. The symbols used in this chapter for various cable dimensions, both for single-conductor and three-conductor types, are given in Figs, 6 and 7. Several factors have come into universal use for defining the cross-section geometry of a cable circuit, and some of these are covered in the following paragraphs.t-"

Geometric Mean Radius (GMR)~This factor is a property usually applied to the conductor alone, and depends on the material and stranding used in its construction. One component of conductor reactance! is normally calculated by evaluating the integrated flux-linkages both inside and outside the conductor within an overall twelveinch radius. Considering a solid conductor, some of the flux lines lie within the conductor and contribute to total fluxlin krl.ges even though they link only a portion of the total conductor current; if a tubular conductor having an infinitely thin wall were substituted for the solid conductor, its flux would necessarily all be external to the tube. A theoretical tubular conductor, in order to be inductively equivalent to a solid conductor, must have a smaller radius so

Chapter 4

Electrical Characteristics oj Cables

67

(Il ) SINGLE-CONDUCTOR GABLES EQUILATERALLY SPACED

( b) THREE-CONOUCTOR CA8LE

PHASE C

~

PHASE B S~ s,:~:

(c)

SINGLE-CONDUCTOR CABLES UNSYMMETRICALLY SPACED. BUT PERFECTLY TRANSPOSED

Fig. 6~GeoIDetry of cables.

that the flux-linkages present inside the solid conductor but absent within the tube will be replaced by additional linkages between the tube surface and the limiting cylinder of twelve-inch radius. A solid copper conductor of radius d/2 can be replaced by a theoretical tubular conductor whose radius is 0.779 d/2. This equivalent radius is called the geometric mean radius of the actual conductor, denoted herein by GMRlc where the subscript denotes reference to only a single actual conductor. This quantity can be used in reactance calculations without further reference to the shape or make-up of the conductor. The factor by which actual radius must be multiplied to obtain GMR1c varies with

1

SECTOR DEPTH

Fig. 7 -Typical sector sha pe of conductor used in three-conductor cables.

stranding or hollow-core construction as shown in Chap. 3, Fig. 11. Sometimes in calculations involving zero-sequence reactances, simplification may result if the three conductors comprising a three-phase circuit are considered as a group and converted to a single equivalent conductor. This requires the use of a new GMR, denoted here as

L

GMRac, which applies to the group as though it were one complex conductor. This procedure is illustrated later in Eq. (18).

Geometric Mean Distance (GMD) .. Spacings among conductors, or between conductors and sheaths, arc important in determining total circuit reactance. The total fluxlinkages surrounding a conductor can be divided into two components, one extending inward from a cylinder of 12- inch radius as discussed in the preceding paragraph, and the other extending outward from this cylinder to the current return path beyond which there are no net flux-Iinkages.! The flux-linkages per unit conductor current between the 12-ineh cylinder and the return path are a function of the separation between the conductor and its return. The return path can in many eases be a parallel group of wires, so that a geometric mean of all the separations between the conductor and each of its returns must be used in calculations. Geometric mean distance, therefore, is a term that can be used in the expression for external flux-linkages, not only in the simple case of two adjacent conductors where it is equal to the distance between conductor centers, but also in the more complex case where two circuits each composed of several conductors are separated by an equivalent GMD.

The positive- or negative-sequence reactance of a threephase circuit depends on separation among phase conductors. If the conductors are equilaterally spaced the distance from one conductor center to another is equal to the GMD among conductors for that circuit. Using the terminology In Fig. 6,

GMDs.=8 for an equilateral circuit.

The subscript here denotes that this GMD applies to separations among three conductors. If the conductors are arranged other than equilaterally, but transposed along their length to produce a balanced circuit, the equivalent separation may be calculated by deriving a geometric mean distance from the cube root of three distance products" (see Chap. 3):

(1)

The component of circuit reactance caused by flux outside a twelve inch radius is widely identified as "reactance spacing factor" (Xd) and can be calculated directly from the GMD:

f GMD3c h h 'I ()

Xd =0.2794 6olog10-1-2- 0 ms per p ase per rot e. 2

When the equivalent separation is less than twelve inches, as can occur in cable circuits, the reactance spacing factor is negative so as to subtract from the component of conductor reactance due to flux out to a twelve-inch radius.

The zero-sequence reactance of a three-phase circuit may depend on spacing among conductors and sheath as well as among conductors. A distance that represents the equivalent spacing between a conductor or a group of conductors and the enclosing sheath can be expressed as a G MD. Also, the equivalent separation between cable conductors and the sheath of a nearby cable, or the equivalent separation between two nearby sheaths, can be expressed as a GMD. Because these and other versions" of geometric mean distance may be used successively in a single problem, care

68

Electrical Characteristics oj Cables

Chapter 4

must be taken to identify and distinguish among them during calculations.

Geometric Factor~The relation in space between the cylinders formed by sheath internal surface and conductor external surface in a single-conductor lead-sheathed cable can be expressed as a "geometric factor." This factor is applicable to the calculation of such Gable characteristics as capacitance, charging current, dielectric loss, leakage current, and heat transfer, because these characteristics depend on a field or flow pattern between conductor and sheath. The mathematical expression for geometric factor G in a single conductor cable is

2r·

G = 2.303 loglo -i (3)

where:

Tj = inside radius of sheath.

d = outside diameter of conductor.

Geometric factors for single-conductor cables can be read from Fig. 8. Geometric factors for three-phase shielded cables having round conductors are identical, except for heat flow calculations, to those for single-conductor cables. The shielding layer establishes an equipotential surface surrounding each conductor just as a lead sheath does for single-conductor cables. The heat conductivity of the three-mil shielding tape is not high enough to prevent a temperature differential from developing around the shield circumference during operation: this poses a more complex problem than can be solved by the simple geometric factors given here.

1.2

L V
V
./ V
/ V
~
/ (~~l
/
/ ~d~
/ ~
/ *
V
'/
/ ~~T~~
V ~DED) 1.0

(!I

~

Q

5°·8

<t LL

o

~0.6

w ::E

a

(D

0.4

0.2

0.2

1.0

0.4

0.6

oa

1.2

T RATIO T

Fig. 8-Geometric factor for single-conductor cables, or three-conductor shielded cables havin~ round conductors.

NOTE: This is approximately correct for shielded sector-conductor cables if curve is entered with the dimensions of a round-conductor cable having identical conductor area and insulation thickness. This geometric factor is not applicable for heat-flow calculations in shioldod cables. See Sees. 5 and 6.

Because of the various possible combinations of conductors and sheaths that can be taken in a three-conductor belted cable, several geometric factors are required for complete definition. Two of these factors, the ones applicable to positive- and to zero-sequence electrical calculations, are shown in Fig. 9.

2. Positive- and Negative-Sequence Resistance

Skin Effect-It is well known that t.he resistance of a. conductor to alternating current is larger than its resistance to direct current. The direct-current resistance in cables can be taken as the resistance of solid rod of the same length and cross-section, but increased two percent to take into account the effect of spiraling of the strands that compose the conductor. When alternating current flows in the conductor there is an unequal distribution of current, with the outer filaments of the conductor carrying more current than the filaments closer to the center. This results in a higher resistance to alternating current than to direct current, and is commonly called skin effect. The ratio of the two resistances is known as the skin-effect ratio, In small conductors this ratio is entirely negligible, but for larger conductors it becomes quite appreciable, and must be considered when figuring the 60-cycle resistances of large con-

TABLE l-DIMENSIONS AND 60-CVCLE SKIN-EFFECT RATtO OF STRANDE!) COPPER CONDUCTORS AT 65"C.

Conductor Inner Diameter of Annular
Round Stranded Conductor, inches
Size Coneen tric-Straaded
0.50 0.75
(Circular ----_
Mils) Diameter Outer Outer Ratio
inches Ratio Diarn. R.atio Diam.
--- -- -- --
211 600 0.528 1.00 + •••• , +".' • • ,. >,. + • ~ • ~ •
250 000 0.575 1.005 . , ... , +, •• < • + < •• +. T. ,.,.
300 000 0.630 1.006 ... ... .... .. • L" _ • ... ~ ~ .
400000 0.728 1.012 .... - ..... ,
500000 0.814 1.018 0.97 1.01 ..... . ........
600000 0.893 1.026 1.04 1.01 .. . .. . ... ,_ .
800 000 1.031 1.046 1.16 1.02 1.28 1.01
1000 000 1.152 L068 1.25 L03 L39 1.02
1500 000 1.412 1.145 1.52 1.09 1.Q3 1.06
2000 000 1.631 1.239 1. 72 1. 17 1.80 1.12
2500 000 1.825 1.336 1.91 I 1.24 2.00 : 1.20
3000 000 1.998 1.439 2.08 1.36 2.15 i 1.29 ductors, Some skin-effect ratios are tabulated in Table 1 for stranded and representative hollow conductors. 1

Proximity Effect-The alternating magnetic flux in a conductor caused by the current flowing in a neighboring conductor gives rise to circulating currents, which cause an apparent increase in the resistance of a conductor. This phenomenon is called proximity effect. The increase in resistance is negligible except in very large conductors.

Proximity effect can, however, become important under certain conditions of cable installation. When cables are laid parallel to metal beams, walls, etc., as is frequently the case in buildings or ships, proximity effect increases the apparent impedance of these cables appreciably. Booth, Hutchings and Whitehead! have made extensive tests on

Chapter 4

Electrical Characteristic8 of Coble»

69

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b:-:: -:
e: O.
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r-- ~L -, lL 1/ I' k:: I-""
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.0 :1. v'ilj ~~ ~F':: ~~ .... r- 1\
[hlh v~ ~~ '\

j VI c· .. Go FOR THREE-OONDUCTOR BELTEO CABLES
V L.-' ~
1.6 k:

V
I. 1.1.
~
.1':1
II..J ..L
u.
V
11'L
r-. r;~
4~ 1··_···· .... ·
r-t-
0 I 1
.9 ,1 ... J- .. J .....
~ ,-
.8
./ ,..... SEcTOR fORRJECTlfN lCTOjR
0.7 V J
.6 1/1' o

6 .8 o

4

4

T

1

.0

o

0.

0.

o 0

0.2.

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.2.

2.4

RATIO T!t

Fig. 9-Geometrlc factor for three-conductor belted cables having round or Sector conductors.

NOTE: For cables having sector conductors, enter the curve with the dimensions of a round-conductor cable having identical conductor area and insulation thicknesses. Multiply the resultant geometric factor by the sector correction factor given above.

(0, is calculated for three-phase operation; 00 is calculated for single-phase operation, with three conductors paralleled and return in sheath. See Sees. 5 and 6.)

70

-f

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

Chapter 4

the impedance and current-carrying capacity of cables, as they are affected by proximity to flat plates of conducting and magnetic material. Figures 11 and 12, taken from this work, illustrate forcefully that proximity effect can be significantly large. Although these tests were performed at 50 cycles it is believed that the results serve to indicate effects that would be experienced at GO cycles. The results in an actual installation of cables close to metal surfaces are influenced so greatly by the material involved, and by the

lA

! I
i
- L
~ F' /
- III ,
: ~I ,L\~~jl I /
T
- \@ 10000 '0/
>--
V
II
I
V
J
V
/
J
V
V
V 1.2

(!I 1.0 rr

~

Q

it 0.8 2

It:

...

\oJ

~ 0.6

Id (!I

0.2

0.04

0.08 0.12

RATtO t

0.16

0.20

Fig. lO-Geometric factor for three-conductor shielded cables having sector conductors, in terms of insulation thickness T and mean periphery P.

structural shape of the surface, that calculation and prediction is difficult.

The additional losses caused by placing a metal plate or other structural shape close to a cable circuit arise from both hysteresis and eddy-current effects within the plate. Hysteresis losses are large if the flux density within the plate is high throughout a large proportion of the plate volume. A material having high permeability and very high resistivity would promote hysteresis loss, because flux developed by cable currents could concentrate within the lowreluctance plate, and because the action of eddy-currents to counteract the incident flux would be comparatively small in a high-resistance material. Eddy-current losses depend on the magnetic field strength at the plate, and also upon the resistance of the paths available for flow within the plate.

Because the factors that affect hysteresis loss and those that affect eddy-current loss are interdependent, it is seldom easy to theorize on which material or combination of rna-

<:) 0.07

~~ ~ i 0.06 Zo:: ~ ~ 0.05

tn (jitn

... ~ 0.04 0::0

u,

o 0.0 Iz

~ 0.0

W 0: o 0.0

::

0.10

[a)
1\ [0)-6IN. SPACING BETWEEN SHEATHS
(b)- 31N SPACING BETWEEN SHEATHS
\ -- REACTANCE AT ~O CYCLES
--- RESISTANCE AT 50 CYCLES
(b) 1\ \:
\ !\
I 1\ \ 0
0
\ l~
3 <, ~
(e)
2 -, --..::::::
(I) "' R i
"' -c, ....... i:-
t I .............. .....
~- -_ --~-- --_]~:::' ~
- .ol::_~_.. r--_-= 0.09

o.oa

0.0 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II

DISTANCE FROM STEEL PLATE - INCHES

Fig. ll-Increase in cable resistance and reactance caused by proximity to steel plate for single phase systems (cable sheaths are insulated).

terials will contribute lowest losses. Some practical possibilities, drawn from experience in the design of switchgear, transformers, and generators, are listed here:

a. The magnetic plate can be shielded by an assembly of laminated punchings, placed between the cables and the plate, so that flux is diverted from the plate and into the laminations. The laminations normally have low eddy-current losses and they must be designed so that flux density is not excessive.

b. The magnetic plate can be shielded with a sheet of conducting material, such as copper or aluminum, placed so that the magnetic field acts to build up

0.13

(0)
(a) - 61N. SPACIN G BETWEEN SHE ATHS
(b)-3IN. SPACING BETWEEN SHEATHS
-- j-- (0) - liN. SPACING BETWEEN SHEATHS
c-- t~ -- REACTANCE AT 50 CYCLES
--- RESISTANCE AT 50 CYCLES
\
(bJ \
1\ 0
0
\ i\ 0
(C)I\)' \
\1\ -,
(0) "~~ ~ -.
r-~-..l -, ~': r-. ~~
(~l"' l'~ ~ 1'"'-
II--" - , __ -_0 ~, 1:- - l-
i -_
- _-; E O~ - IIJ ...J

i 0.12

'"

::::'0.11

(f)

~

:J: 0.10 o

I

t: 0.09

z

~

o o.oa ...

w

a: 0.07 o

:z

"" 0.06 w

o

::i 0.05 l-

V>

[j 004

It:

l5 003 I-

~ 0.02 ~

w

50.0 .l!':

0.0 0 2.:3 4 5 6 7 6 9 10 II

DISTANCE FROM STEEL PLATE -INCHES

Flit. 12-lncrease in cable resistance and reactance caused by proximity to steel plate for three-phase systems (cable sheaths are insulated).

Chapter 4

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

71

counteracting circulating currents within the conducting sheet: these currents considerably reduce the magnetic field strength at the plate. The conducting sheet must have sufficient cross-sectional area to accommodate the currents developed.

c. The magnetic material can be interleaved with conducting bars that are bonded at the ends so that circulating currents develop to counteract the incident magnetic field as in (b).

d. The magnetic plate can be replaced, either entirely or partially, by a non-magnetic steel. Non-magnetic steel has low permeability and high resistivity when compared with conventional steel plate: these characteristics do not act in all respects to reduce losses, but the net effect is often a. loss reduction. N on-magnetic steel is of particular benefit when the structure near the cable circuit partially or entirely surrounds individual phase conductors.

The effect of parallel metal on reactance is much larger than on resistance as Figs. 11 and 12 indicate. These figures also show that the magnitude of the increase in impedance is independent of conductor size. Actually, when large cables approach very close to steel, the resistance increments become higher and the reactance increments become somewhat lower. The curves of Figs. 11 and 12 arc based on tests performed aL approximately two-thirds of maximum current density for each cable used. The increments in resistance and reactance do not, however, change greatly with current density; the variation is only about 1 percent per 100 amperes. In three-phase systems the middle cable of the three is influenced less than the outer ones by the presence of the parallel steel. This variation again is less than variations in materials and has not been accounted for in Figs. 11 and 12. These curves cover only a few specific cases, and give merely an indication of the importance and magnitude of proximity effect. More detailed information can be found in the reference listed.'

Proximity effect also has an important bearing on the current-carrying capacity of cables when installed near steel plates or structures. This subject is discussed in the section on current-carrying capacity.

Sheath Currents in Cables-Alter'nating current in the conductors of single-conductor cables induces alternating voltages in the sheaths. When the sheaths are continuous and bonded together at their ends so that sheath currents may flow longitudinally, additional PR losses develop in the sheath. The common way to represent these losses is by increasing the resistance of the conductor involved. For single-conductor cables operating in three-phase systems, this increment in resistance can be calculated by the following equation, the derivation of which is given in references:1,2

Xm2r• •

T = 2 t 2 ohms per phase per mile.

Xm rs

Here Xm is the mutual reactance between conductors and sheath in ohms per phase per mile, and T. is the resistance of the sheath in ohms per phase per mile. These two quantities can be determined from the following equations:

x",=O.2794 61010g1o 2+S ohms per phase per mile. (5) To ri

and

r, = (+o.~~o ) ohms per phase per mile, for lead sheath.

TQ ri rD-Ti (6)

in which

8 = spacing between conductor centers in inches. r 0 = outer radius of lead sheath in inches.

ri = inner radius of lead sheath in inches.

Thus the total resistance (r • .> to positive- or negativesequence current flow in single-conductor cables, including the effect of sheath currents, is

xr,.2r. '

r,.=r~+---z-+ 20hms per phase per mile, (7)

Xm T",

wherc 1'0 is the alternating-current resistance of the conduetor alone including skin effect at the operating frequency. Eq, (7) applies rigorously only when the cables are in an equilateral triangular configuration. For other arrangements the geometric mean distance among three conductors, GMDao, can be used instead of S with results sufficiently accurate for most practical purposes,

The sheath 108s in a three-conductor cable is usually negligible except for very large cables and then it is important only when making quite accurate calculations. In these largest cables the sheath losses are about 3 to 5 percent of the conductor loss, and are of relatively little importance in most practical calculations. When desired the sheath loss in three-conductor cables can be calculated from the equivalent resistance,

44160(81)2 •

r~ ( + )2 X 1O~6 ohms per phase per rode. (8) r, ro fj

where

r. is sheath resistance from Eq. (6).

To and r, are sheath radii defined for Eq. (5).

1

81= y'3(d+2T))

and is the distance between conductor center and sheath center for three-conductor cables made up of round conductors.

d = conductor diameter.

T = conductor insulation thickness.

(9)

(4)

For sector-shaped conductors an approximate figure can be had by using Eq, (8), except that d should be 82 to 86 percent of the diameter of a round conductor having the same cross-sectional area.

Example 1- Fi nd the resistance at. 60 cycles of a 7.:')0 000 circular-mil, three-conductor belted cable having 156 mil conductor insulation and 133 mil lead sheath. The overall diameter of the cable is 2.833 inches and the conductors are sector shaped.

From conductor tables (see Table 10) the diameter of an equivalent round conductor is 0.998 inches. From Eq. (9), 1

81 = va[O.998(O.84) +2(O.I5G)]

=0.664 inches.

Since the overall diameter is 2.833 inches, To= 1.417 inches

72

Electrical Characteristics oj Cables

Chapter 4

and

T; = 1.284 inches.

From Eq. (6),

0.200

r.= (2.701)(0.133)

=0.557 ohms per phase per mile, Substituting in Eq. (8),

= 44160(0.664~~ X 1O~ r 0.557(2.701)2

=0.00479 ohms per phase per mile.

From Table 6 it is found that T., the conductor resistance, including skin effect is 0.091 ohms per phase per mile. The total positive- and negative-sequence resistance is then, ra=0.09{.f-.005=O.096 ohms per phase per mile.

Sheath currents obviously have little effect on the total alternating-current resistance of this cable.

Theoretically some allowance should be made for the losses that occur in the metallic tape on the individual conductors of shielded cable, but actual measurements indicate that for all practical purposes these losses are negligible with present designs and can he ignored in most cases. The resistance to positive- and negative-sequence in shielded cable can be calculated as though the shields were not present.

Three Conductors in Steel PJ'pe-Typical values for positive- and negative-sequence resistance of large pipetype cables have been established by test", and an empirical calculating method has been proposed by Wiseman6 that checks the tests quite closely, Because the calculations are complex, only an estimating curve is presented

!j.28 i

It:

Ie

.... 24

~

'J; IL

It:

~.20

(II

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o

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i!

(II

~ .12

It: <.:>

'" III

o.os z III ::I

e

"'.04 III >

E

II)

f" 0 o

1\ (I) /
,/
?
I
~E"STA"E J RATIO
f--- 1/
\ /
1\ ./
\ /
~ /
...... ~
/ t-- ,__
-
,I
vI"
",'
,,;' 1500

1000

11500

2.000

2.4

1.0 2500

here. The ratio of actual resistance as installed to the d-e resistance of the conductor itself based on data obtained in laboratory tests is shown in Fig. 13. The increased resistance is due to conductor skin effect, conductor proximity effect in the presence of steel pipe, and to I~R loss in the pipe itself. In preparing Fig. 13, the pipe size assumed for each cable size was such that 60 percent of the internal pipe cross-sectional area would have been unoccupied by cable material: choosing a nearest standard pipe size as a practical expedient does not affect the result appreciably. The conductor configuration for these tests was a triangular grouping, with the group lying at the bottom of the pipe. If, instead, the conductors were to be laid in an approximately flat cradled arrangement, some change in resistance would be expected. Actual tests on the flat arrangement produced variable results as conductor size was changed, some tests giving higher losses and some lower than the triangular. If a maximum value is desired, an estimated increase of 15 percent above the resistance for triangular configuration can be used. Field tests have been made on low-voltage circuits by Brieger!', and these results are shown in Table 2.

3. Positive- and Negative-Sequence Reactances

Single-Conductor Cables= The reactance of singleconductor lead-sheathed cables to positive- and negativesequence currents can be calculated from the following equation, which takes into account the effect of sheath currents.

f I GMDao X",3

Xl=X2=O.2794 60 OglQ GMR1" - x",2 + r.2

ohms per phase per mile. (10)

or

x",3

Xl =X2 = X .. +Xd--2--2 ohms per phage per mile. (1I) Xm +r.

The conductor component of reactance is

f 12

x,,=O.2794 60 loglo GMR10 (12)

where

GMR1a = geometric mean radius of one conductor.

The separation component of reactance is

j GMD30

xd=O.2794 60loglo 12 (13)

where

GMD3a = geometric mean distance among

three conductors (see Eq. 1).

The component to be subtracted 1 because of the effect of sheath currents is composed of terms defined by Eqs. (5) and (6),

Three-Conductor Cables-Because negligible sheath current effects are present in three-conductor non-shielded cables, the reactance to positive- and negative-sequence currents can be calculated quite simply as:

f GMD3a

Xl~X2=O.2794 60 IOglO GMR10

ohms per phase per mile (14)

CONDUCTOR SIZE, MGM

Fig. 13-Poaitive-sequence resistance of bigh-voltage cables or in steel pipe (estimatinl& curve).

Xl = X: = X,. + Xd ohms per phase per mile

(Ui)

Chapter 4

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

73

TABLE 2-IMPEDANCE OF THREE-PHASE 120/208 VOLT CABLE CIRCUITS IN FIBRE AND IN IRON CONDUITS.1

Positive- and Negative-Sequence Impedance, Ohms per Phase per Mile at 60 Cycles,

Phase Conductor I Duct Material I Cable Sheath Resistance Reactance
Conductor Assembly I
Size (4 inch) (Phase Conductors) (Ohms at 25'C.) (Ohms)
.~-- 0.189
500 MCM Unoabledt Fibre Non-leaded 0.120
(1 per phase) Lead 0.127 0,188
Iron Non-leaded 0.135 0.229
Lead 0.156 0.236
Cabled' Fibre Non-leaded 0.121> 0.169
Iron Non-leaded 0.135 0.i87
Cabled" Fibre Non-leaded 0.136 0.144
Iron Non-leaded 0.144 0.159
i ._- 0.101
0000 AWG Uneabled- Fibre Non-leaded 0.135
(2 per phase) Iron Non-leaded 0.144 0.152
Lead 0.143 0.113
- --
Cabled' Fibre Non-leaded 0.137 0,079
-~ 0,085
Iron Non-leaded 0.137 Zero-Sequence Impedance, Ohms Per Phase Per Mile at 60 Cycles.

Duct Material Cable Sheath Resistance Reactance
Phase Conductor Neutral Conductor Conductor (Phase
Size Size Assembly (4 inch) Conductors) (Ohms at 25°C.) (Ohms)
500 MCM 0000 AWG Uncabled! Fibre Non-leaded 0.972 0.814
(1 per phase) (1 conductor, bare) Lead 0.777 0.380
Iron Lead 0.729 0.349
500 MCM Uncablod? Iron Non-leaded 0.539 0.772
(1 conductor, bare) Cabled! Fibre Non-leaded 0.539 0.566
Iron Non-leaded 0.534 0.603
OooAWG Cabled' Fibre Non-leaded 0.471 0.211
(3 conductors, bare) Iron Non-leaded 0.433 0.264
·-1·········
OOOOAWG OOOOAWG Uncabledi Fibre Non-leaded 1.015 0.793
(2 per phase) (1 conductor, bare) Iron Non-leaded 0.707 0.676
Lead 0.693 0.328
0000 AWG UncaLled' Fibre Non-leaded 0.583 0.475
(2 conductors, bare) Iron Non-leaded 0.629 0.538
500 MOM Cablede Iron Non-leaded 0.497 0.359
(1 conductor, bare) 1 Mate.;al taken from "Impedance of Three-Phase Secondary Mains in Non-Metallic and Iron Conduits." by L. Brieger, EEl B"ll~tin. Vol. 6, No.2. PII. 61. February 1938-

• Assembly of four conductors arranged rectangularly, in the sequence (clockwise) A-B-C-neutral. while being pulled into tbe duct; conductors may assume .. ran. dom. configuration ef ter- entering the duct.

* Assembly as in note 2. except that conductors ere cabled in position.

" A~rnb]y of three phase coriduetore e rre.nged tt~Q.ngularLy with thr-ee neutee.l cendnc tor s .int.er posed in the .5paC1!IiI between phase conductors. All eonductore are cabled in positlon,

& Assembly of six phase conductors arranged hexaeonallv. in t.he sequence A-B-C-A-B-C, with ei ther one or two- nellt"Roll)onduGtora. inside the phase conduct-or- group.

This arrangement is maintained only at the duct entrance; a random configuration may develop within the duct. , Assembly ... in note 5, except that conductors are cabled in position.

where:

For shielded three-conductor cables the reactance to positive- and negative-sequence currents can be calculated as though the shields were not present, making it similar to belted three-conductor cable. This is true because the effect on reactance of the circulating currents in the shielding tapes has been calculated by the method used for determining sheath effects in single-conductor cables and proves to be negligible.

Three Conductors in Steel Pipe-Conductor skin effect. and proximity effects influence the apparent reactance of high-voltage cables in steel pipe. Because the detailed

GMD3c=S=geometric mean distance among three conductors, and the remaining values are as defined in Eqs. (12) and (13).

For sector-shaped conductors no accurate data on change in reactance because of conductor shape is available, but Dr. Simmons can be quoted as authority for the statement that the reactance is from five to ten percent less than for round conductors of the same area and insulation thickness.

74

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

Chapter 4

calculation of these factors is complex, a curve is supplied in Fig. 14 that serves for estimating reactance within about five percent accuracy. The curve is drawn for triangular conductor grouping, with the group lying at the bottom of the pipe. If the grouping is inst.ead a flat cradled arrangement, with the conductors lying side by-side at the bottom of the pipe, the curve results should be increased by 15 percent. A calculating method that accounts in detail for

"" =.30

::I

0::

~

W

~ 1000

~.25~-----r----~----~+-----~~--~~--~q

0..

a:

~

<J) :::E 620~----~----J4--~~+-~-.~--~~~--~~

OL- ~ ~ ~ -L _L _J

.5 1.0 U5 2.0

2.5

;3.0

CENTER TO CENTER SPACING BETWEEN CABLES, INCHES

Fig. 14-Positive-sequence reactance of high-voltage cables in steel pipe (estimating curve).

the variable factors in this problem has been presented by Del Mar". Table 2 contains information= useful in estimating the impedance of low-voltage (120/208 volt) cables in iron conduit.

4. Zero-Sequence Resistance and Reactance

\Vhen zero-sequence current flows along the phase conductors of a three-phase cable circuit, it must return in either the ground, or the sheaths, or in the parallel combination of both ground and shcaths.? As zero-sequence current flows through each conductor it encounters the a-e resistance of that conductor, and as it returns in the ground or sheaths it encounters the resistance of those paths. The zero-sequence current flowing in anyone phase encounters also the reactance arising from conductor self-inductance, from mutual inductance to the other two phase conductors, from mutual inductance to the ground and sheath return paths, and from self-inductance of the return paths. Each

of these inductive effects cannot always be identified individually from the equations to be used for reactance calculations because the theory of earth return circuits', and the use of one GMR to represent a paralleled conductor group, present in combined form some of the fundamental effects contributing to total zero-sequence reactance. The resistance and reactance effects are interrelated so closely that they are best dealt with simultaneously.

Cable sheaths are frequently bonded and grounded at several points, which allows much of the zero-sequence return current to flow in the sheath. On the other hand, when any of the various devices used to limit sheath current are employed, much or all of the return current flows in the earth. The method of bonding and grounding, therefore, has an effect upon the zero-sequence impedance of cables. An actual cable installation should approach one of these three theoretical conditions:

1 Return current in sheath and ground in parallel. 2 All return current in sheath, none in ground.

3 All return current in ground, none in sheath.

Three-Conductor Cables-Actual and equivalent circuits for a single-circuit three-conductor cable having a solidly bonded and grounded sheath are shown in Fig. 15 (a) and (c). The impedance of the group of three paralleled oonductors, considering the presence of the earth return but ignoring for the moment the presence of the sheath, is gi ven in Eqs. (16) or (17) in terms of impedance to zerosequence currents.

zc=ro+r.+jO.8382 to loglO G~~a.

ohms per phase per mile

(16)

or

zo=r.+T.+j(x .. +x~-2xd) ohms per phase per mile.

(17)

TABLE a-EQUIVALENT DEPTH OF EARTH RETURN (D.), AND EARTH IMPEDANCE (r, AND X.), AT 60 CYCLES

Equivalent Equivalent Equivalent
Earth Depth of Earth Earth
Resistivity Earth Return, D. Resistance Reactance
{meter-ohm} ·1 To x;
inches feet (ohms per mile) (ohms per mile)
1 3.36x103 280 0286 2.05
5 7. 44x 10' I 620 0.286 2,34
10 1.0GxlO' 880 0.286 2.47
50 2.40xlO· 2000 0.286 2.76
100 :~3(\xl0' 2800 0.286 289
500 7.44xlO· 6200 0.286 3.18
1000 l.OGx 1 O· 8800 0.286 3.31
[j 000 2.40x 10' 20000 0.286 3.00
10000 3.36xIO~ 28 000 0.286 3.73 where:

r, = a-e resistance of one conductor, ohms per mile,

r. = a-c resistance of earth return (See Table 3) J ohms per mile.

D. = distance to equivalent earth return path, (See Table 3), inches.

Chapter 4,

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

75

ACTUAL CIRCUIT

(ONE THREE-CONDUCTOR CABLE) (al

b

~ -- I, I
ICc - I. I
-
~~ ; -- Is 1
.... _.J
(100 +llto + 1"0' +(31 .... 19). 0
" "", -1g

EARTH

ACTUAL CI ReOIT

(THftEE SINGLE-CONDUCTOR CA8LES) (bl

(REPRESENTS T~E CONDUCTORS)

I I I

r-----~1~$~AVY,A~,hv_--+_--~---J

-Iso

1m

-1'10

EARTH

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

(1M PEDANCES EXPRESSED IN ZERO SEQUENCE TERMS) (e)

MODIFIED EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT (IMPEDANCES EXPRESSED IN ZERO-SEQUENCE TERMS) (d)

Fill. 1S-Actual and equivalent zero-sequence circuits for three-conductor and stngte-conductcr lead-sheathed cables.

G MR3<l = geometric mean radius of the conducting path made up of the three actual conductors taken as a group, inches"

= ~(GMRlo){S)2 for round conductors. (18)

GMR10=geometric mean radius of an individual conductor, inches.

x. = reactance of an individual phase conductor at twelve inch spacing, ohms per mile.

Xe = reactance of earth return.

= 0"8382 :0 ]OglO ~; ohms per mile. (Refer to

Table 3). (l9)

xd=0.2794 :0 loglO (G~~3<l), ohms per mile.

GMD3<l = geometric mean distance among conductor centers, inches.

=S=(d+2T) for round conductors in three

conductor cables.

The impedance of the sheath, considering the presence of the earth return path but ignoring for the moment the presence of the conductor group, is given in terms of impedance to zero-sequence currents:

. f 2De h

z.=3r.+r.+JO.8382 60 logla -+ .0 ms per

rl) r~

phase per mile.

(20)

or

z.=3r.+r.+j(3x.+x.) ohms per phase per

mile. (21)

where:

r, = sheath resistance, ohms per mile. 0.200

( ) ( ) for lead sheaths.

r.,+r, rQ-Ti

ri = inside radius of sheath, inches. ro=outside radius of sheath, inches.

$. = reactance of sheath, ohms per mile.

=0.27941. logLO ~ ohms per mile.

60 r o +r,

(22)

The mutual impedance between conductors and sheath, considering the presence of the earth return path which is common to both sheath and conductors, in zero-sequence terms is

. f 1 2D.

Zm=r.+JO.8382 60 oglO ~+

ro ri

ohms per phase per mile.

(23)

or

Zm=r.+j(3x.+xe) ohms per phase per mile. (24)

The equivalent circuit in Fig. 15(d) is a conversion from the one just above it, and combines the mutual impedance into a common series element. From this circuit, when both grouno and sheath return paths exist, total zero-sequence impedance is:

( )+(Z.-Zm)Zm

Zo= Z.-Zm

Z.



=z.-~ ohms per phase per mile. (25)

Z.

If current returns in the sheath only, with none in the ground:

Zo= (z.-z",) + (z.-z",)

= zo+z. - 2zm (26)

. f 1'0+1';

=ro+31'.+)0.8382 60 IOglQ 2(GMR3c) ohms per

phase per mile. (27)

=rc+3r.+j(xa-2xd-3x.) ohms per phase per

mile. (28)

If current returns in ground only with none in the sheath, as would be the case with non-sheathed cables or with insulating sleeves at closely spaced intervals, the zerosequence impedance becomes:

Zo= (z"-z,,,)+zm

=e; ohms per phase per mile. (29)

The zero-sequence impedance of shielded cables can be calculated as though the shielding tapes were not present because the impedance is affected only slightly by circulating currents in the shields.

The equivalent geometric mean radius (GMR;!,,) for three-conductor cables having sector conductors is difficult to calculate accurately. The method used to calculate values of GMR3c for the tables of characteristics is of practical accuracy, but is not considered to be appropriate for explanation here. As an alternate basis for estimations, it appears that the GMR30 for three sector-conductors is roughly 90 percent of the GMRa. for three round conductors having the same copper area and the same insulation thickness.

Example 2~Find the zero-sequence impedance of a three-conductor belted cable, No.2 A.W.O. conductor (7 strands) with conductor diameter of 0.21}2 inches. Conductor insulation thickness is 156 mils, belt insulation is 78 mils, lead sheath thickness is 101} mils, and overall cable diameter is 1. 732 inches. Assume De = 2800 feet and resistance of one conductor =0.987 ohms per mile at 60 cycles. Distance between conductor centers is:

S ~O.292+2XO.156 =0.60·1 inches.

GMR of one conductor is (see Chap. 3, Fig. 11); GMR1o=O.726XO.146=O.106 inches.

GMR of three conductors is;

GMRao= ~(O.lOO)(0.6()4)2 =0.338 inches.

The conductor component of impedance is (rc=0.987, r.=0.286):

. 2800X12

ZO =0.987 +0.286+)0.8382 IOglO --- 0.338

= 1.27 +j4.18 = 4.37 ohms per mile.

This would represent total zero-sequence circuit impedance if all current returned in the ground, and none in the sheath.

For the sheath component of impedance:

0.200 .

r. = (1.623)(0.109) = 1.13 ohms per mile

z.=3X1.l3+0.286+jO.83821oglO 2X~~:3X12 =3.68+j3.87 ohms per mile

76

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

Chapter 4

The mutual component of impedance is: zm=0.286+j3.87

If all current returned the sheath, and none in the ground,

Zo = 1.27 +j4.18+3.68+J3.87 -0.57 -j7.74 =4.38+jO.31 =4.39 ohms per mile.

H return current may divide between the ground and sheath paths,

= 127+'418- (O.286+j3.87)'l

Zo • .1. 3.08+j3.87

= 1.27 +j4.18+ 1.623-j2.31 =2.89+jL87 =3.44 ohms per mile.

The positive-sequence impedance of this cable is:

zl=O.987+jO.203 ohms per mile.

Therefore the ratio of zero- to positive-sequence resistance is 2.9, and the ratio of zero- to positive-sequence reactance is 9.2.

Zero-sequence impedance is often calculated for all return current in the sheath and none in the ground, because the magnitude of the answer is usually close to that calculated considering a paralleled return. The actual nature of a ground-return circuit is usually indefinite, since it may be mixed up with water pipes and other conducting materials, and also because low-resistance connections between sheath and earth are sometimes difficult to establish.

Single-Conductor CableS-Fig. 15 also shows the actual and equivalent circuits for three single-conductor cables in a perfectly transposed three-phase circuit, where the sheaths are solidly bonded and grounded. The impedance expressions applying to single-conductor cables differ in some respects from those for three-phase cables:

. 8 f I D. h

z.=r.+r.+JO. 382 60 og 10 GMR3c 0 ms

per phase per mile.

(30)

or

z.=rc+1'.+j(xa+X.-2Xd) ohms per phase per mile.

(31)

where:

r.=a.c. resistance of one conductor, ohms per mile.

1'o=.<t.c. resistance of earth (see Table 3), ohms per mile.

D. = distance to equivalent earth return path (see Table 3), inches.

GMR30=geometric mean radius of the conducting path made up of the three actual conductors taken as a group, inches.

= "\,/(GMRlc)(GMD3o)2

X .. = reactance of an individual phase conductor at twelve-inch spacing, ohms per mile.

Xe = reactance of earth return.

= 0.8382 :0 loglo ~; ohms per mile. (See Table 3.)

f (GMDao) h '1

Zd = 0.2794 60 IOglO ~ ,0 ms per mi e.

Chapter 4

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

77

GMDao=geometric mean distance among conductor centers, inches.

= .,yS .. b,Sbc,Soa·

z.=r.+re+jO.8382 :0 logw G~Ra. ohms

per phase per mile (32)

or

z.=r.+r.+j(x.+Xe-2Xd) ohms per phase

per mile (33)

where:

GMR3• = geometric mean radius of the conducting path made up of the three sheaths in parallel

=~('o~ri)( GMD3CY

r. = resistance of one sheath, ohms per mile 0.200

( + .) ( _ .) for lead sheaths.

r: r, To 1\

ri = inside radius of sheath, inches. r.,= outside radius of sheath, inches.

X. = reactance of one sheath, ohms per mile

f 24

=0.2794 ~ log., ~~.

60 ru+Ti

zm=r.+jO.8382 :0 log., GM~·3d. ohms

per phase per mile. (34)

zm=r.+j(x.+X.-2Xd) ohms per phase per mile.

or

where:

GMD3C~3. = geometric mean of all separations between sheaths and conductors.

= ~ C 0 ~r') 3 (G MDac)5 = ~'~C~~~t-Ti'7")-(G-' M-V-ac-)2.

From the equivalent circuit of Fig. 15, total zerosequence impedance when both ground and sheath paths exist is:

z 2

zo=z.---"'- ohms per phase per mile. (25)

z,

If current returns in the sheath only, with none in the ground:

.<:o=zc-t-;<::.-2zm ohms per phase per mile (26)

Gl\fR3•

=ro+r.+O.8382 log., GMR- ohms p~r phase

3c per mile. (36)

=rc+r.+j(xa-x.) ohms per phase per mile. (37) If current returns in the ground only:

Zo= (zc-zm)+Zm

=Zc ohms per phase per mile. (29)

Cables in Steel Pipes or Conduits-When cables are installed in iron conduits or steel pipes, the zero-sequence resistance and reactance are affected by the magnetic material because it closely surrounds the phase conductors and forms a likely return path for zero-sequence current. No method of calculating this zero-sequence impedance is available, but some rather complete results are available from field tests on installed low-voltage cables, as shown

(35)

in Table 2. Some special tests of the zero-sequence impedance of high-voltage pipe-type cable have been made but the results are not yet of a sufficiently wide scope to be generally usable.

5. Shunt Capacitive Reactance

Shunt capacitive reactances of several types of cables are given in the Tables of Electrical Character ist.ica, directly in ohms per mile. In addition, shunt capacitance and charging current can be derived from the curves of geometric factors shown in Figs. 8 and 9, for any cable whose dimensions are known. The geometric factors given in these curves are identified by symmetrical-component terminology.

The positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence shunt capacitances for single-conductor metallic-sheathed cables are all equal, and can be derived from the curves of Fig. 8. Three-conductor shielded cables having round conductors are similar to single-conductor cable in that each phase conductor is surrounded by a grounded metallic covering; therefore the positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence values are equal and are dependent upon the geometric factor relating a conductor to its own shielding layer. The geometric factor for three-conductor shielded cables having sector-shaped conductors is approximately equal to the geometric factor, G, applying to round conductors, However, if the sector shape of a shielded cable is known, then the curve in Fig, 10, based on insulation thickness and mean periphery of insulation, is recommended as giving more accurate values of geometric factor.

For single-conductor and three-conductor shielded cables (see Fig. 8),

C1 C2~CO~ O.O~92k microfarads per phase per

mile. (38)

1.79G h h . ()

Xl'=X2'=::CO'=jT mego ms per p ase per mile. 39

O.323f·k·kv

h=I2,=Io'= lOOOG amperes per phase per

mile. (40)

Three-conductor belted cables having no conductor shielding have zero-sequence values which differ from the positive- and negative-sequence; the appropriate geometric factors are given in Fig. 9;

C C' 0.2{)7k .

1= 2=~ microfarads per phase per mile. (41)

C O.0892k .

0=--00 - microfarads per phase per mile. (42)

0.59701

Xl' = X2' = -j:k' megohms per phase per mile. ( 43)

1.79Go •

::Co' = -Tk~ megohms per phase per mile. (44)

0.97f· k·kv

/1'=/2'= 1000~ amperes per phase per mile. (45)

O.323f·k·kv ,

/0'= -100'OGo amperes per phase per mile, (46)

78

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

Chapter 4

When three-conductor belted cables have sector-shaped conductors, the geometric factor must be corrected from the value which applies to round conductors. This correction factor is plotted in Fig. 9, and its use is explained below the curve.

In the foregoing equations,

Cl, C2, and Co are positive-, negative-, and zerosequence capacitances.

Xl', X2' and Xo' are positive-, negative-, and zerosequence capacitive reactances.

11" 12, and 10, are positive-, negative-, and zerosequence charging currents.

kv = line-to-line system voltage, kilovolts.

k = dielectric constant, according to the values in Table 4.

It is important to note that in converting shunt capacitive reactance from an "ohms per phase per mile" basis to a total "ohms per phase" basis, it is necessary to divide by the circuit length:

Xo'

Xc'=Z I h' '1' ohms per phase. (47)

, engt III rm es

6. Insulation Resistance.

The calculation of cable insulation resistance is difficult because the properties of the insulation are generally predictable only within a wide range. The equations presented below are therefore quite dependent upon an accurate knowledge of insulation power factor.

For single-conductor and three-conductor shielded cables,

For three-conductor belted cables,

0.597G1 h h '

r1' =r2' f k .+. .1060 ms per p ase per mile,

. 'cos'!' (49)

1.79Go

rO'=--c~~-- .106 ohms per phase per mile. (50) j·k·cos ¢

In these equations,

rr, rs, and ro' are positive-, negative-, and zerosequence shunt resistances.

k = dielectric constant (see Table 4).

cos 4> = power factor of insulation, in per unit.

In Table 5 are listed maximum values of insulation power factor, taken from specifications of the Association of Edison Illuminating Com panies 15. These standard values will very probably be several times larger than actual measured power factors on new cables.

TABLE 4-DIELECTRIC CONSTANTS OF CABLE INSULATION

Insulation Range of k Typical k
Solid Paper 3.0-4.0 3.7
Oil-Filled 3.0-4.0 3.5
Gas-Filled 3.0-4.0 3.7
Varnished Cambric 4.0-6.0 5.0
Rubber 4.0-9.0 6.0 TABLE 5-MAXIMUM POWER FACTORS" OF CABLE INSULATION

Temperature Oil- Gas-
of C.:.ble Solid Filled Filled
(Deg. C.) Paper (low-pressure) (low-pressure)
25 to 60 0,009 0.0060 0.009
70 0.015 0.0075 0.013
80 0.021 0.0090 0.018
85 0.025 0.0097 0.022
00 ! 0.030 0.0105 0027 *The power factor of new "able is usually below these values by " wide mariP-n."

II. TABLES OF ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

(48)

The 6O-cycle electrical characteristics of the most usual sizes and voltage classes of paper insulated cable are contained in Tables 6 through 11. In each case the positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence resistances and reactances are tabulated, or else constants are given from which these quantities can be calculated. Also, included in these tables are other characteristics useful in cable work, such as typical weights per 1000 feet, sheath thicknesses and resistances, conductor diameters and GMR's, and the type of conductors normally used in any particular cable.

In each of these tables the electrical characteristics have been calculated by the equations and curves presented in the foregoing pages. Where sector-shaped conductors are used, some approximations are necessary as pointed out previously. In Table 6 the positive- and negative-sequence reactance for sectored cables has arbitrarily been taken 7.5 percent less than that of an equivalent round-conductor cable, in accordance with Dr. Simmons' recommendations, The equivalent GMR of three conductors in sectored cables is necessarily an approximation because the GMR of one sector cannot be determined accurately. This condition arises since the shape of sectors varies and a rigorous calculation is not justified. The variation in sector shapes probably is greater than any error present in the approximation given in the tables. The reactances calculated from these approximate GMR's are sufficiently accurate for all practical calculations.

Table 7 for shielded cables is similar in form to Table 6 and where sectored cables are listed the same approximations in GMR and reactance apply. Table 8 for threeconductor oil-filled cables is similar to both Tables 6 and 7 and the same considerations apply.

In these tables for three-conductor cables, the zerosequence characteristics are calculated for the case of all return current in the sheath and none in the ground. As pointed out in the discussion of zero-sequence impedance, this is usually sufficiently accurate because of the indefinite nature of the ground return circuit. Where ground must be considered or where there are paralleled three-phase circuits, the impedance must be calculated as illustrated in the examples given.

From the quantities given in these tables of three-conductor cables, the overall diameter of any particular cable can be calculated.

D ... 2.155(d+2T)+2(t+L)

(51)

Chapter 4

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

79

TARLE 6-60-CYCLE CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE-CONDUCTOR BELTED PAPER-INSULATED CABLES

Grounded Neutral Service

I) 4 2 1

:15 0

35 00

35 DOO

35 OOO()

35 250000

35 300 000

35 3,';0000

35 400000

35 500000

40 ~(J!)m)O

40 750000

- -- --I---~.---

40 6

40 4

40 2

40 1

40 0

40 00

40 000

40 O!)()()

40 2.50 000

40 3DO 000

40 3.50 000

40 400 000

40 500 000

40 600 000

40 750000

6 4 2 1

o 00 000 0000 250 000 300000 350000 400000 WOOOO 600000 750000

Insulation Thickness Mil •

..

3 ~

...,

" o

o

60 35

60 35

60 35

60 a5

6fl 60 60 60 60 60 60 60

60 6" 65

70 70 70 70

70 70 70 7(j

70 70 70 70 70 75 75

105 55

100 55

se 50

90 45

90 85 85 85 85 85 85 85

85 4ti

85 45

85 45

130 65

125 65

115 60

110 55

110 105 105 105

105 105 10" 105

105 105 105

170 iGS

160 155 155 155

]55 155 1[15 15.>

155 75

155 75

155 75

---- ----. _. __ --- --- --- --- .... -- --- --- ---I----~I-------

tilt 3 6UO 0.;~73 0.622 0.142 0.165 5000 0.M2 4.79 0.2:;9 9600 100 1.39

cs 3480 0.323 0< 495 0.151 o. 148 3600 0.312 5.42 0.263 11 300 Of; 1.114

CS 4080 0.304 0.392 0.171 0.143 3200 0343 4.71 0.254 IJ 700 100 1.45

CS 4720 0.4.17 0.310 0.19[ 0> 141 2800 0.380 4.33 Oc245 S 300 100 1.34

CS 53700.4550.2630.2100.1382600 0410 3.890.237 7800 105 1.21

es 60S0 0.497 0220 0.230 0 135 2400 0438 3.67 0.231 7400 105 1. 15

CS 6830 0.539 0.190 0.24\1 0.133 Z2QO 0470 3.31 0.225 700[) 110 1.04

es 7480 0.5720.166 0.2M 0.13l 20DO 0.493 3<170.221 6700 110 1.00

CS 8~90 0.0420.1340.2970.129 1800 0.542 2.790.2l(\ 6200 115 0.885

CS !O 300 0700 D.1l3 0327 012S 1600 0.587 2.51 0210 5800 120 0798

CS 12310 0.780 0.091 0361\ 0125 1500 0.1>43 2.21 Oc206 5400 125 0.707

----~-I --~-~-- ~ ~ ~gi -I g g~ l~ ~~ 8 g~i~ -g- ~rg --·i~3 gJ~~ U~ g j~i- tf~gg 16t-l·~gg

2 SR' 3280 : 0292 0.987 0106 0 193 5800 0307 5.25 0.302 12500 roo 1.12

1 SR! 3500 I 0332 0.7&; 0.126 0.179 6100 0338 4.90 0.280 11400 100 1.37

o SR 4 agO 0 J73 0622 0.142 0.174 5700 0.368 4.31 0.272 10700 105 1.23

00 CS 3870 0 323 0.495 0.15\ 0.156 4300 0 330 4.79 0.273 s soo 100 1.43

000 CS 4390 I o. 364 0.392 0.171 a.1S[ 3800 0 362 4 Al 0.2;]3 7400 100 1.34

0000 es 5 \50 . 0 417 0.310 o.rsr U.147 ~WO 0399 3.88 0.2:H 6600 105 1.19

250000 CS 5830 0455 0.263 0.210 0.144 3200 0428 3.50 0.246 5200 110 1.08

300000 : CeSs 65()0 0497 0220 0230 0.141 2900 0.4,)8 3.31 0.2~9 5600 110 1.03

350000 7 Ina 0.539 0.190 0.249 0.139 2700 DAS9 3.12 0233 5200 1)0 0.978

400000 CS 7980 0.5n 0166 0.265 0137 2500 0.513 2.8G 0.230 4900 US 0.B09

500000 cs 9430 0.642 0134 0297 0.135 2200 0.563 2.53 0.224 4300 120 0.800

(lOOOQU CS I(Hi80 U.7UlJ 0 IIi! 0.327 0 132 2000 0606 2.39 0.218 3900 120 0.758

750000 i~ 12740 I~ ~_?366 ._o_:~_ ~~ _0663 ~ 0.211 .. 1 ._~500 __ .~3~ _O.673

2 SR 4350 0.2920.9870.1060.217 86000349 4.200.323 15000 110 1.07

1 SR 4(,40 0.3320.78£ 0.126 0.202 78000.381 3.880.305 13800 ]]0 1.03

o Sit 4990 0.373 0622 0.142 0.193 7100 0.409 3.62 0.288 12800 110 100

00 SR 5600 04190.495 0.159 O.18~ 5500 0.439 3250.280 12000 115 0918

000 SR 623004700.39201780.180 6000 0.476 2.990.27211300 115 0867

0000 sa 7180 0528 0.310 0.200 0.171 5600 0520 264 0.263 10600 120 o 778

2.';0000 ! sn 7840 0 575 0.263 0 218 0.168 5300 0 555 2.50 0 sse 10 200 lZO 0 H4

300000 i CS 7480 0 497 0.220 0.230 0.15& 5400 0 507 2 79 0.254 7 gOO 115 0 855

350000 cs 8340 0.539 0.1!J0 I 0249 0.152 5100 0.536 2.54 0.250 7200 120 0.184

400000 CS 90.30 0.572 0.1661 0265 0.149 4900 0.561 244 02411 6900 120 0.758

;00000 CS 10550 Oc642 0.134 0.297 0.14546000.611 2c260.Z39 6200 125 0680

600000 CS 12030 0.700 0.113 0.327 0.142 4300 0656 1.97 0.231 5700 ISO 0620

750000 cs 14 190 0.780 0.091 0.366 0.139 4000 0.712 1.77 0.226 5100 135 0 558

t soo 1910 2390 2 S20

32tO 3 !GO 3650 4390

4900 1\ 660 6310 7080 g 310 9800 II 800

6300 5400 4700 4300

4000 2SUO 2300 2000

1800 1700 1500 1500

1300 1200 1100

6700 5800 5)00 4700 4400 ason 2700 2400 2100 1900 18()0 1700 IS00 1400 1300

seuo 7600 6100 MOO

45 45 45 4::;

45 45 45 45

fi5 55 55 55

55 55 55 55

55 M 05

POSITIVE & NEGATIVE!'IEQ.

ZERO-SEQUENCE

SHEATH

8,'; 80 75 75 75 75

75 75 75 75

RR sa SR sn.

SR C8 CS CS

CS CS cs cs

es CS es

0.184 0.232 0.292 0.332

0.373 0.323 0.364 0.417

0.45., 0.4\)7 0.539 0.572

0.642

, g~~g

2.50 1.58 0.987 0.786

0.622 0.495 0.392 0.310

0.263 0.220 0.190 0.106

0.134 ! 0.113 0091

0.186 0.175 0.165 D. J~~ 0.152 o 138 0> )34 0> 131 0> 129 0.128 o. 126 o. 124

0.123 0.122 0.121

0.184 10.66 0.315 11600 85 2.69

o 218 8.3~ o. ~93 10 200 90 2 27

0.262 6.99 0.273 9000 90 2.00

o 295 G. 07 O. 256 8400 95 1 .76

O. ;J26 5.54 o. Z46 7900 95 1.M

o 290 5 .96 0 250 5400 95 1. 82

0.320 5.46 0< 241 4500 95 1.69

0.355 4.72 0.237 4000 100 1.47

0.387 4.4t> 0.224 3 GOO 100 1.40

0.415 3.97 0.221 3400 105 1.25

0< 446 3.73 0.2[6 3100 105 l.IS

0.1117 3.41 0.214 2900 110 LOS

0.,.,17 3.11 0.208 2600 110 0<993

0.M7 2.74 0.197 I 2400 115 0.877

0.623 2.40 O. HJ4 2 ]00 120 0.771

----II-~~

0.192 9.67 0.322 12500 90 za9

0227 S.06 0.298 11200 90 2.16

0.271 6.39 0.278 9800 95 1.80

0.304 5.83 0.263 \l 200 95 1.68

0.335 5.06 0.256 8600 lDO I.4S

0.297 5.69 0.259 6700 9& 1.73

0.329 5.28 0.246 5100 95 1.63

0.367 4.57 0< 237 4600 100 1.42

0.396 4.07 0.231 4200 105 1.27

0.424 3.82 0.228 3800 105 I. 20

Oc455 3.61 0>2[9 I' 3700 105 1.14

0.478 3.32 0.218 3400 11p 1.05

3000 ll5 0.918

2800 115 0.855

2500 120 0.158

2.89 268 :l.37

0.214 0.210 0.204

0.067 O.D84 0.106 0.126

0.142 0.15t 0.171 0.191

0.210 0230 0.~49 0.265

0.297 0.327 0.366

SR 1680 0.184 2.50 0067 0.192

~~ ~ ~g gjg~ I 6~~7 g:~~~ g m

SR 2930 0.332 0786 0.126 0.161

SR 3440 O.37a 0.622 0.142 0.156

CS 3300 0.323 0.495 O. lSI 0.142

CS 3890 0.364 0.392 0.171 0.138

CS 4530 0.417 0.310 0.191 0.135

CS b 160 0.455 0.263 0.210 D.132

cs 5810 0.497 0220 0.230 0.130

CS 6470 0.539 Ocl90 0.24\l 0.129

CS 7240 0.572 0.166 0 265 0.128

CS 8 GGO Oc642 i 0 134 0.297 0.126

CS ',) 910 0.700 0.113 0>327 0.125

1-;; --:~~; . ;:~~ ;:~I -~~:~~;f- -J'_;;_;~

~ 2~ 0.= 0_ o.~ o.~

sa 3280 0.332 0.786 0.126 0.171

0.218 0.250 0.291 0< 321

0.342 0.317 0.290 0.270

15000 13600 11300 10200

95 95 95 100

l. 88 l. 76 1.63 1.48

8.14 6.86 5.BB 5.23

JA-c resistance based upon 100:10 conductivity at G5"C. including 2~f allowance for stranding.

~MR .of see tor-aha pad oorrduct.cre i~ an approximate figure dose enough foe- meet pr-actical wpplicattone. "For dielectric constant=3.1.

"Based upon all return current in the sheath: none in ground, 'S"" Fig. 7.

>The following symbols are used to designate the cable types; SR-8tranded Round; CS--Comp .. ct Sector.

80

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

Chapter 4

TABLE 7-60-CYCLE CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED PAPER-INSULATED CABLES

Grounded Neutral Service

I I I I POSITIVE & e
t NEGATIVE .s ZERO ·S·EQUENCE SHEATH
SEQUENCE c
Ii .a "
., ~ "'"
1l .~ g eEl ~ dl
,.Id ~--:- £ 9 " 8 ~~ ,,~
.S A ~~ :~T~ "'" ~~ ~t ~
3 A ,.!1m .. 1 L: " d:=:
f-< e, ~~ ";::!l " .il;:;:: t:::\
.-~ il~ Oil. '" ~ 11 :[ £
0 g ~. !5 .. " ,,- ..... ~g~ l !j ... " ... ""., ! 1l ..
... ~ og p.<> llQ "" "", ~8. ~~ dOl>
'" :;1 .e!~ ~~ m:":: 0" ~p. ~~::: 11"'9
E .. eO "'..", S ... .fii~ ~.§ %11 at~ ~ ~1! .~ 8 ,,-.;;;;; o'j~ ·%nl~
]~ 5~ 0." '!i'§ ,,3 ~ ... :;;:§ cC.,Q 1:!s ;:g 't.Q " ...... :.0;;:
'0 ;"0 oJJ ... "" ffi~8. ~~~
.. ~~ ,..Q ~- ,.,;1;( (;l() Jio <n<t: P. 0 wO rEo ,..;;:
~ --~ ---""- ---- --- --- --- --- _-- --- -- --~
20t. 4 sa 3860 0.232 loSS 0.084 0.248 8200 0.328 5.15 0.325 8200 105 1.19
190 2 SR 4260 0.292 0.987 0.100 0.226 6700 0.365 4.44 0.298 6700 105 1.15
185 1 sa 4740 0.332 0.786 0.126 0.210 6000 0.398 3.91 0.285 6000 110 1.04
180 0 sa 5090 0.373 0.622 0.141 0.201 5400 0.425 3.65 0.275 5400 110 1.01
175 00 cs 4790 0.323 0.495 0.151 0.178 5200 0.397 3.95 0.268 5200 105 1.15
> 17& 000 cs .5 510 0.364 0.392 0.171 0.170 4800 0.432 3.48 0.2513 4800 110 1.03
:.:: 175 0000 CS 6180 0.417 0.310 0.191 0.166 4400 0.468 3.24 0.249 4400 110 0.975
::; 175 250 000 CS 6910 0.45& 0.263 0.210 0.158 4100 0.498 2.95 0.243 4100 115 0.897
175 aoo 000 cs 7610 0.4117 0.220 0.230 0.156 3800 0.530 2.80 0.237 3800 115 0.860
175 35D 000 I C8 8480 0.539 0.190 0.249 0.153 3600 0.561 2.53 0.233 3600 120 0.783
175 400000 cs 9170 0.572 0.166 0.265 0.151 3400 0.585 2.45 0.228 3400 120 0.761
175 500000 CS 10710 0.642 0.134 0.297 0.146 3100 0.636 2.19 0.222 3100 125 0.684
175 600000 cs 12230 0.700 O.1l3 0.327 0.143 2900 o.osr 1.98 0.215 2900 130 0.023
175 750 000 cs 14380 0.780 0.091 0.366 0.139 2600 0.737 1.78 0.211 2600 135 0.562
- --- ---- --_.- --- --- --- .- .....•............ ......... -- -------
265 2 SR 5590 0.292 0.987 0.106 0.250 8300 0.418 3.60 0.317 8300 115 0.B70
250 1 sa 5860 0.332 O. 78~ 0.126 0.232 7500 0.41\0 3.26 0.298 7.500 115 0.8M
250 0 SR 6440 0.373 0.622 0.141 0.222 i 6800 0.477 2.99 0.290 6800 120 0.788
240 00 CS 6000 0.323 0.495 0.151 0.196 I 6600 0.446 3.16 O.Z85 6600 115 0.890
240 000 CS 6(\2() 0.364 0.392 0.171 o 188 6000 0.480 2.95 0.285 6000 115 0.851
.. 240 0000 CS 7480 0.410 0.310 0.191 0.181 5600 0.1)11) 2.04 0.268 MOO 120 0.115
t.::.
'" 240 250 000 cs 8070 0.447 0.263 0.210 0.171 5200 0.545 2.50 0.261 5200 120 0.747
'" 240 300 000 cs 8990 0.490 0.220 0.230 0.171 4900 0.579 2.29 0.252 4900 125 0.690
240 350000 CS 9720 0.532 0.190 0.249 0.1117 4600 0.610 2.10 0.249 4600 125 0.6f15
240 400 000 cs 10 650 0.566 0.166 0.265 0.165 4400 0.633 2.03 0.246 4400 130 0.620
240 500 000 cs 12280 0.635 0.134 0.297 0.159 3900 0.687 1.82 0.237 3900 135 0.562
240 600 000 CS 13610 0.690 0.113 0.327 0.154 3700 0.730 1.73 0.Z30 3700 135 0.540
240 750000 cs 15830 0.167 0.001 0.366 () .151 3400 0.787 1. 56 0.225 3400 140 0.488
- --- --- ---- --- --- --- --- --- --- -- ---
355 0 SR 8520 0.288 0.622 0.141 0.239 9900 0.523 2.40 0.330 9900 130 0.594
345 00 sa 9180 0.323 0.495 0.159 0.226 9100 0.548 2.17 0.322 9100 135 0.559
345 000 SR 9900 0.384 0.392 0.178 0.217 8500 0.585 2.01 0.312 8500 135 0.538
345 0000 ) CS 9830 0.410 0.310 0.191 0.204 7200 0.594 2.00 0.290 7200 135 0.563
> 345 250 000 CS 10 470 0.447 0.263 0.210 0.197 6800 0.628 1.90 0.280 6800 135 0.545
t.::. 345 300 000 cs 11290 0.490 0.220 0.230 0.191 6400 0.663 1.80 0.273 6400 135 0.527
'" 345 350000 cs 12280 0.532 0.190 0.249 0.187 6000 0.693 1.66 0.270 6000 I~O 0.4\,H
'" 345 400000 I cs 13030 0.566 0.166 0.265 0.183 5700 0.721 1.61 0.265 5700 140 0.480
345 500000 CS 14760 0.635 0.134 0.297 0.177 5200 0.773 1.46 0.257 5200 145 0.441
345 600000 I cs 16420 0.600 0.113 0.327 0.171 4000 0.819 1.36 0.248 <1900 150 I 0.112
345 750000 CS 18860 0.767 0.091 0366 0.165 4500 0.879 1.22 0.243 4500 155 0.317 lA-c resistance based on 100% conductivity at SSt-C. including 2% allowance for stranding.

'GMR of sector-shaped conductors is an approximate figure close enough for most. practical applicatioae. IFor dielectric conetant e 3.1.

+Baaed on all return. current in the sheath , none in gt-ouud, 'S"" Fig. 7.

'The following ayrnbola are used to dwsigllR.W eceductor types: SR--Stl'anded Round; CS----Compa.ot Beeece.

in which, according to Fig. 6,

D = outside diameter in inches.

d = diameter of individual conductor in inches. T=conductor insulation thickness in inches.

t= belt insulation thickness in inches (when present).

L = lead sheath thickness in inches.

This equation refers to cables wit.h round conductors. For sectored cables there is no exact rule, but a close approximation can be obtained by using an equivalent cable with round conductors and calculating the diameter D by Eq. (11), and then subtracting 0.3 to 0.4 times the round conductor diameter d, depending upon the shape of the sector.

A set of calculated constants is given in Table 10 for single-conductor cables, from which the positive-, negativeand zero-sequence characteristics can be quickly determined by using the equations given at the foot of the tabulation. These equations are derived directly from

those given for the calculation of sequence impedances in the sections under Electrical Characteristics. Since

f 12

x~=O.27g4 60 Io~o GMRlc

ohms per phase per mile (12)

f 24

x.=O.27g4 60log1o -rG+ri

ohms per phase per mile (22)

Xd =0.2794 :0 loglO 1~ ohms per phase per mile (13) and r, and r, are conductor and sheath resistances respectively, the derivation of the equations given with Table 10 becomes evident. Table 12 gives the one other quantity, Xd, necessary for the use of Table 10. These reactance spacing factors are tabulated for equivalent cable spacings

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

81

Chapter 4.

TABLE 8-60·CYCLE CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE-CONDUCTOR OIL-FILLED PAPER~INSULATED CABLES

Grounded Neutral Service

POSITIVE "" NEGATIVE SEQ.

SHEATII

ZERO-8EQUENCE

:l

il:l ~~~~~--:---cl~----·-------------

.9 -e I I

~ a ·r gjl .~ e ~~ ~~:H j~

~~ ~s ~£ i1:§ ·~b_ ] ~ ~~ t~ g't€ 9:

i~ a~ :3 ~~ r~~~ ~I.g ]f\~ 3~t; /~~IU! ~~

~~ .. :;;: 0 " ~;l.. v .. ~ ~ .... ~ .... _ '-' ,,:::; ~ ".~

~~ .;~ ~.g ~!j ~~~ ~.g ~~ !I1!l ~~::g ~ :!l:g

.~ t ~ ~ ~ g .!! t:i ;: ~ ~ ~ § .~ ... ·c t:: ..a ~ ~ 2~ :tl !:J

c~ e<:A: co ,~5 w~o:; oo rll5 r1l5 ",t:::(::., '"':S t::: ...

- ---,-----!~-- -----1--- --- --- --- .--- --- ------ --- --- ----

00 I· CC"SS 5 sso I n .. ~23 0.495 0151 f).IS5 6030 0.406 3.56 0.265 6030 lI5 102

000 6150 0.364 0.3\)2 0 111 0.178 5480 0439 3.30 0.256 5480 115 0.970

0000 CS 6860 0417 0310 0.191 o.iza 4840 0.478 306 0.243 4840 115 0.918

250 000 I cs 7680 0.455 0.263 0.210 0.168 4570 0.508 2 72 O.~38 457U 125 0.820

300 000 CS 9090 0.497 0.220 0.230 0 154 4200 0 539 2 58 0.232 4200 125 0 788

350000 CS 9180 0.539 0 190 0.249 0160 3900 0570 2.44 0.227 3000 125 0752

400000 C8 I 9900 \Ui72 0 16G 0.265 0 157 3690 0.595 236 0.223 3690 ]25 0.729

500000 cs I 11 550 0.642 0.134 0.297 0.1.53 3400 0.646 2.04 0.217 3400 135 0.636

600000 CS 12900 0.700 0.1l3 0.327 0.150 3200 0691 1.94 0.210 3200 135 I 0.608

750000 CR 1~fi60 0.780 0.091 0.366 O.14!! :lom 0.763 1.73 i 0.202 3070 140 [ 0.548

- --- ~---oo--I·~C-S- --6 3r;o-l~ ----0.495 o"~51-·0:J.95 --;m)j") 0.436 ~i~ 6700 li5TO~28

000 CS 6940' 0.364 0.392 0.171 0.188 6100 0468 2.87! U.265 6 IOU 125.0.826

0000 CS 7660 10.410 0.310,0.191 0.180 5520 0.503 2.67 I 0.256 5520 125 10.788

250000 CS II 280 I 0.447 0.263 'I 0210 0.177 5180 0.533 2.M II 0.247 5180 125 'I 0.761

300000 CS 9690 OAM 0.2200.2300.17248200.5662.410.2414$201250.729

350000 cs 10100 0532 0.190 0.249 0.168 44\10 0.596 216 I. 0.237 4490 135 I 0.558

4.00000 CS 10820 0.566 0.166 0265 0.165 4220 0.623 208 0232 4220 1~5 0639

500 000 CS 12220 0.635 0.134 0.297 0.160 3870 0.672 1.94 0.226 3870 135 I 0.603

600 000 CS 13930 0.690 0 113 0327 0.156 3670 0 718 1.74 0.219 3670 140 i 0 542

750000 CS 16040 0.767 0.091 0.366 0.1-';1 3350 0.773 1,62 0.213 3350 140 i 0.510

______ I~O_O_O~OOO __ I.~C_':; ~ ~ _. ~ I~~_

00 CR 8240 0.376 0.495 0.147 0.234 8330 0.532 2.41 0.290 8330 135· 0.639

000 CS

0000 CS

250 000 CS

300000 CS

350000 CS

400 000 CS

500 000 OS

600 000 CS

750 000 CS

1000 000

8830 9660 10 330 n sso

0.392 0.310 0.263 0.220

0.190 0.166 0.134 0.1l3

0,091

0.171 o.rs: 0.210 0.230

0.249 0265 0.297 0.327

0.366

5700 5430 5050 4740

4360

0.364 0.410 0447 0490

f)532 0.566 0.()35 0690

0.767

12230 13040 14880 16320

IB 980

0.208 0.200 0.1\J5 0.190

7u60 6840 6500 6030

5700 54~0 50.>0 4740

4360

2.32 2.16

2.06 I·

~;~ I

1.55 I 1.51

1.44

1.29 I

i

0.284 0.214 0.266 0.2£0

0.254 0.248 0.242 0.235

0.230

7560 6840 6500 6030

0.538 0.575 0.607 0.610

0.612 0.700 0.750 0.797

0.854

135 135 rss 140

140 140 i 150 I 150 I 155

I

0.642 0.618 o 597 0.543

0.527 0.513 ().460 0.442

0.399

0.185 0.18! 0.176 0.171

0.165

lA-c resistance based on 100% conductivity a.t 65"C> Including 2% allowance for stranding.

~MR of sector"Shape-d conductors is all anproxlmate figure close enough for most practical applicat.lona, IFor .dielectc-ie eon~ta.nt:::3.5.

"Based on all return current in sheath; Done in ground. 'See Fig. 7.

<The following 8ymholll are used to designate the cable types: CR-Compact Round; CS~··-Compact Seotor.

from 0.5 to 36.0 inches, which should cover the range met in practice. For all spacings less than 12 inches, Xd is negative.

The constants calculated in this manner apply to one three-phase circuit of single-conductor lead-sheath cables, assuming all zero-sequence return current to be in the sheaths, none in the ground.

The 50-cycle characteristics of single-conductor oilfilled cables are given in Table 11. This table is similar in form to Table 10 and the impedance characteristics are determined in precisely the same way. Here again the sequence constants apply to one three-phase circuit of three cables with zero-sequence return current assumed to be all in the cable sheaths. Single-conductor oil-filled cables have hollow conductors (the oil channel forms the core), consequently Table 11 includes cables of the two most common inside diameters, 0.5 and 0.69 inches.

In each of the tabulations, the voltage class listed in the first column refers specifically to grounded-neutral operation. Frequently cable systems are operated with other than a solidly grounded neutral. In low-voltage cables the

same insulation thickness is used for both grounded and ungrounded operation, but in cables rated 7000 volts and above, a greater thickness of insulation is recommended for a given voltage class when cable is operated with an ungrounded neutral. A good approximation of the electrical characteristics of these higher voltage cables when operated wit.h ot.her than a solidly grounded neutral, can be had by referring in each specific case to the next higher voltage class listed in the tables.

The constants of several typical cables calculated by the methods outlined are listed in Table 13. These typical cases are included to be used as a check on the general magnitude of cahle constants when making calculations for a specific case. Representative sizes and types of cable have been chosen to cover as many types of calculation as possible.

III. TABLES OF CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY

One of the most common problems in cable calculations is that of determining the maximum permissible amperes

82

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

Chapter 4

TABLE 9-60-CYCLE CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE-CONDUCTOR GAS-FILLED PAPER-INSULATED CABLES (SHIELDED TYPE)

Grounded Neutral Service

eY

AS

q.,

.,'"

~~

~:;(

'i ~ I p::~

-- --- --~--I--- - --- ---- --- --- ---- -- ---. _-- ----I----t--,---

5100 0321 4.86 0289 5100 110: L29

4600 0.354 4.42 0.274 4600 110' 1.21

4500 0.326 4.52 0.279 4500 110 1.30

4200 0.355 4.34 0267 4200 110 1.28

3800 0.392 3.91) O.~41) 3800 lIO 1.17

3.;00 0.437 3.58 0.234 3500 110 1.09

3200 0.462 3.41 0.230 3200

2800 0.521 3.05 0.222 2800

2400 0.600 2.70 0.210 2400

2200 0.715 2.21 0.198 2200

2000 0.810 1.80 0.193 2000

2 1

o

00 000

0000

250000 350000 500000 750000

1000000

-----I-----I----------~----------------------- --------,---

2 SR 4 670 0.292

I sa 5120 0.332

o CR 5300 0.288

00 cs 5360 0.313

000 CS fi ~ln 0 ~f\4

0000 CS 6570 0.417

250 000 CS 7 160 OAS5

350000 CS 8.540 0.539 0.190 0249 0163 I 4000 0.575 2.64 0.240 4000 110 0,1016

500000 CS 10750 0.642 0.134 0.297 0155 3.)00 0.655 2.36 0230 3500 110 0.741

750000 CS 14650 0780 0091 0466 0147 2900 0.760 1.84 0.218 2900 125 0.1>82

_____ ,1_1_00_0_00_0 __ C_9 __ I __ 18_56_0 __ ! __ 0_9_0_0_ ~ ~.:.~ _~~:__ _2600 0.800 ~ ~ 2600 _ ~ ~

o CR 6900 0.288 0.fi22 0.131 0242 I 8400 0.477 3.00 0.320 8400 110 0.794

00 CR 7300 Oe323 0.49.'; 0.147 0.233 7900 0.509 2.09 0.310 7900 110 0.763

000 CR 8200 0.3M 0.392 0.165 0.222 7300 0.545 2"580.284 73001150.730

0000 CS 8. 660 0.410

250 000 CS ~ 380 0.447

350000 CS 11200 0.532

500 000 CS 12190 0.(;38

750000 C9 18 ]90

1 000 000 CS 22 100

]3D 130

13D

i 130 130 130

130 130 130 140

150

~I

POSITIVE & NEGATIVE SEQ.

o 19'7

o 189

0.172

o ISo

o 1.';8

o 156

o 153

o 146 0.141 0.137

o ]34

0224 0.215 0211

0.]88

o 178

o 175

o 171

0201 0.195 o 11>5 0.175

0.165 0.158

3800 4320

4 010 4440 .. 970 5620

Ii 180 7530 9540 12900

16450

SR SR

CS CS CS CS

CS cs CS CS

CS

0292 0.332

0.288 0.323 U.364 0.417

0.455 0.539 0.642 0.780

0.987 0.786

0.622 0495 O(l9~ 0.310

0.263 0.100 0.134 0.091

0.070

Oe9S7 o. 786 0.622

Oe495 0.392 0.310 0,263

0.310 0.263 0.190 0.134

0.091 0.070

0> 106 0.126

0.135 0.151 0.171 o 191

0.210 0.219 0.297 0.366

OA30

0.106 o 126 0.131

0.151 I) 171 0.191 0.210

0.191 0.210 0.249 0.2\17

0.366 0.430

ZERO-SEQUENCE

SHEATH

0.900

0.767 0.898

110 ].05

110 0.1I5~

110 0.854

115 I 0.707

125 I 0.578

6900 6300 6200

5800 5300 4800 4500

0,316 0.410 0.398

0.412 0.445 0.488 0.520

0.302 0.280 0.302

0.281 o 271 0.258 0.249

6900 6300 6200

5800 5300 4800 4500

110 110 110

110 110 110 110

1.06 1.01 1.00

102 0.971 0.922 0.885

4.17 3.82 3.62

3.56 3.31 3.08 2.92

0.281 0.270 0.264 0.251

0.238 0.234

6700 6300 5600 4800

4200 3700

11.5 liS 125 135

150 160

0.707 0.685 0.587 0.500

0.400 0.353

6700 6300 5600 4800

4200 3700

0.570 0.604 0.B65 O. 74~

0.847 0.930

2.43 2.32 1. 95 1. 63

1 32 1.13

(A-e: resieta noe baaed on 100% condueuvity at ti5"C. including 2% allowance for stranding.

IIG1\'lR of sector-shaped conductors is .an approximate figure close enough for meat practical applications. '"For dielectr-ic con3tant=3.7.

-Based on all return current in sheath ~ none in ground, 'See Fig. 7

'The following symbols are used to designate conductor types: SR~Sttandad Round; CR-Compaet Round; CS---Coropact Sector.

per conductor for any given cable. The limiting factor in cable applications is not always the maximum permissible insulation temperature. Sometimes regulation, efficiency, economy, etc., may dictate the maximum permissible amperes. However because temperature rise is most often the controlling factor, the calculations of current-carrying capacity are usually based upon this limitation.

In Tables 14 through 19 earth temperature is assumed to be uniform at 20 degrees Centigrade. These tables were taken from a publication 16 of the Insulated Power Cable Engineers Association and give maximum allowable amperes per conductor for representative cable types. Corrections for earth temperatures other than 20 degrees Centigrade are given within the tables.

Special conditions may make it advisable to calculate a cable temperature problem in detail,lO.1l taking iuto account variable loading, "hot spots" along the cable route, and other factors not contemplated in making up the tabulated information.

Approximations can also be obtained for the currentcarrying capacities of other types of insulation by applying

multipliers to the tables presented for paper-insulated Cables. The value for varnished cambric-insulated cables can be obtained by multiplying the value given in the tables for paper insulation by 0.91, the resulting figure being accurate to within five percent of the calculated value. Similarly, carrying capacities for rubber insulation can be determined with the same degree of accuracy by applying a factor of 0.85 to the figure given for an equivalent paperinsulated cable. For special heat-resisting rubber this factor becomes 0.95.

Circuits are frequently installed with each duct containing three cables. The current capacity of these circuits will he less than that tabulated here for one cable per duct, but will be somewhat higher than the capacity of an equivalent shielded three-conductor cable of the same oonduetor size and voltage rating.

The number of overhead power cables is a small percentage of the number in ducts, and for this reason space does not permit inclusion of loading tables for cables in air. Unfortunately there is no simple correction factor or curve that can be used to translate the figure for cables in ducts

Chapter 4

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

83

TABLE lO-60·CYCLE CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGLE-CONDUCTOR CONCENTRIC·STRAND PAPER-INSULATED CABLES

Grounded Neutral Service

85 90 90 90

90 95 100

105

60 60 60 60

60 00 60 W

6 4 2 1

r.

u IllO 0,373 OHl 0539 i 0,442 0,622 361 22M 00 12m 0.418 u.rss 0,524 i U,4J4 Q,4US 3,34 20~0

000 1510 0470 I 0,178 0,512 i OA25 0,392 3,23 IS40

0000 1740 0,528 I 0,200 0,496 0,411 0,310 2_98 1650

250000 350 000 500 000 750000

1930 0,575 0,211 O,4~4 0,408 0.263 2,81 1530

2490 0,681 0,262 0.460 0,392 0,190 2,31 1300

3180 0,814 0,313 0,442 0,378 0,134 2,M 1090 4380 0,998 0,385 0.417 0358 0_091 1,65 88p

60 60 00 60

60 60 60

- -~I---~I-- ~-~ --- --- --- ----'- --~-

7. 75 15 15

1000000 5560 1,152 0,440 0,400 0,344 U_070 1,40

1500000 8000 1.412 0,543 0,374 0319 O,OIiO L05

Z 000 000 10 190 1,032 0,(;s3 Q,3~6 0305 0,041 0,894

&)0 100 645 lIO 555 us

6 600 0"181 0,067 0_628 0,481 2,50 5,80 4810 75

4 720 0,232 0.084 0,602 0,467 L58 5.23 4020 75

2 9~o 0292 0106 o.>n 0453 0"987 4,31 3300 80

1 1040 0.332 Q,12fj O,M2 0.445 0.786 4_03 2990 80

75 0

75 00

l> 75 000

iI: ,75 0000

'"

7S 250 000

7S SSO 000

75 500 000

75 750000

75 1000000

75 1 SOO 000

15 2000000

-I-------!-----------,--

120 6

115 4

110 2

llO 1

105 0

100 00

,. 100 000

~ 95 0000

90 250000

90 350009

90 500 000

90 750000

1000000 5 ~50 Ll52 0.445 0.400 0,339 0,1)70 LZ7

1500000 8160 L412 0543 0374 0,316 0,050 L02

2000000 10370 1.632 0,653 0356 0,302! 0,041 0,870

90 90 90

120 115 115 115

250 000 350 000 500 000 750 000

1140 105

950 110 820 115

150 6 800 0,IS4 0,067

150 4 1010 0232 0084

140 2 11~0 0.292 ° 106

14Q 1 1330 0,332 0,]26

-0,628 -;;~31-i2:W ~ 77&0:80 0,602 0.425 L58 3 '2 66f1O' 85

0,573 10.417 0.987 3,06 MOO 85

Q,55'Z 10,4!i o.vse 2,91 4920 85

135 130

>- 12S

i:<: 120

o 1450 0,373 0,141 O,53~ U4U~ 0 fiZZ 2,83 4390 85

00 1590 0,418 0.159 0524 0403 0495 2,70 3890 85

000 1760 0,470 0,178 0 &12 0397 0,392 2.09 3440 8S

0000 1980 0,528 0.200 0496 0389 0310 2.29 3020 90

115 1000000 6000 1 152 0.415 0 400 0330 omo 1,25 (470 105

115 1500 000 8 Z50 1.41Z 0,513 0,374 0310 O,O-W 0,975 1210 110

115 i 2000000 10480 La32 0683 0.3561°,297 0,041 0,797 1055 120

75 75 80 80

80 200

8Q 195

85 > 185

Ill> ..: ISO

85 00 90 ss

~ 175

In 175 IJ5

17; 175 175

no 215 210

4 2 1

1 340 0,232 0 084 1500 0,292 0 106 1610 0.332 0,126

o 1710 0373 0,141 0,539 0,397 0,622 2,59 5880

00 1940 0418 0,159 0,524 0391 Q,i95 2,32 5200

000 2100 0,470 0,118 0,512 0386 0392 2,24 4680

0000 2300 0,528 0.200 0,496 O_3SO 0,310 2.14 4200

2WOOO 350 000 500 000 750 000

2500 0.575 0,221 0,484 0371 0_263 2,06 3820 3110 o.!\~[ 0_262 0,464 0"366 0,190 1.98 3340

3940 0,814 0.313 O,H2 0,352 0,134 1.51 2870

5240 0,998 U,~8& DAlI 0,336 0,Q91 L26 2420

1000000 63M L UZ O,H5 0400 0.325 0"070 L15 2130 105

1500 000 8810 1.412 0,546 0.314 0305 O,OIiO 0,90 1790 115

2000000 [1080 1,632 0,633 0.356 0,294 0,041 0772 1570 120

--t--I--- -- ------ --- --- --- -- -~--

295 285

2 1920 0,292 O,IM 0,573 0383 0,987 2.16 8890 90

1 2010 0,332 0,126 0,552 0,380 0,786 2,12 snsu 90

-j---I---·- ",,,,,-- -- -- -- --- --- --- ---

475 400

3 OW 0.470 0,178 0,512 Q,331 i 0,392 1.20 8890 105 4080 0.528 0.200 0,496 0,329 0310 1,19 8100 105

4290 0,575 0,221 0 4&4 0,326 0.263 [18 7570 105

4990 0,68l 0,2(;2 0.464 0319 0,190 1,05 6120 110

5820 0,814 0,313 0 H20, 310 0.134 0,930 5950 115

7450 0998 0,385 0.417 0,298 0091 0,807 5130 120

,150 ~ i 445 ~ , 445

~ 445

275 0 Z 120\ 0,373 0,141 0,539 0_377 0,022 2.08 (300 90

265 00 2250 0.418 0.159 0,524 0,375 0,495 2_02 6580 90

> 260 000 2530, 047() 0 178 0,512 0,370 0"302 LB. 6000 95

~ 250 0000 2740i 0,528 0,200 OA96 0,366 0,310 L78 5350 95

1990 0"515 0,221 0.484 0.403 0,263 2,70 1860 85 ~ 245 250000 293°1°,570 0.221 0,4$4 0.3£1 0,263 1.72 4950 95

2550 0(;81 0.262 °0.446424 I 00 33~,95 o.J90 2,27 1610 90 240 350000 3550 0,&81 0,262 0,464 0.352 0,190 LSI 4310 tOO

3340 0.814 1 0,313. . 0,134 1,89 1340 95 2~O 500000 4300,0,814 0.313 0.442 0,341 0,134 I I.~~ H20, 100

4570 0,998,0.385 0.417 0352 0001 1.53 1060 100 240 750000 563010.998 0,385 0,417 0,325 0,091 i Ll5 3170 i 105

5640 1.1521' 0.445 DADO 0,341 0,070 l_37 980 100 240 1000000 6910, 1.152 0.445 o ADa , 0,313 0,070 1.01 2800 \110

8090 1,412 0.543 0,374 031~ o.oso C02 805 110 240 1500000 9460, 1,412 0,546 0,374 0,296 0_050 0,806 2350 120

W3001_1_:_6_3_2 __ 0.633 ~3_56 0.302 0.041 0,877 _6~85 _1_8105 240 ~~~O~'\I __ I_~~'.~ 0633 0,356 ~ ~ 0_697 2010 125

7401 0_184 0,067 0,628 0.456 2,50 4A7 6700

8~O 0.232 0 O~4 0.573 0 447 1.S~ 417 5540 80 395 0 290010,373 0,141 0539 0,352 I 0,622 LSI 9150 100

1040 o_292 0,106 0,573 0.439 0,987 3,85 4520 80 385 00 3 O~OI 0.418 0,159 0,524 0,350' 0.195 U8 8420 100

1160 0,332 0.126 O.SP2 0.431 0.786 3,62 4100 80 370 000 13190: 0470 0,178 0,512 0,347 0,392 lAB 7620 100

355 0000 i 3 3~Oi u.sas 0,200 U,496 Q,344 0,310 1.43 6870 100

~ 300 aso ooo 359010,575 0,221 0.484 0342 0.263 1,39 £410 100

:.: 345 350000 4230 0,681 0262 0.464 0,3M 0,190 1.24 5f>40 105

Oil : ~:~ ~~ ggg ~ ~~gg: ~~~ g m g m g_~i~ g- 6~t U~5 :~~g i :?~

345 1000000 7780 L152: 0,445 0,400; 0302 0,070 0, B~~ 3780 1J5

345 1500000 10420 1.412 0,546 0,374 0,285 0.050 0,700 3210 125

345 2000000 12830 1,(;s2 0,633 0,356 0.274 0,041 0_611 2830 130

1170 0,373 0,141 0,539 0.436 0"622 3,79 2670

13201· 0.418 0,159 0.524 0.428 0.495 3,52 2450

1570 0,470 0,178 0,S12 0.120 Q.392 3,10 2210 1800 0_528 0,200 0 496 0,412 0,310 2.87 2010

1270 0,373 o.ru 0,539 0,425 0,622 3,47 3600

1520 0,418 0,]59 0,524 0,420 i 0,495 3,09 3140

1110 0470 0,178 0512 0412: 0,392 2.91 2860

1 B70 0,525 0,200 0,496 0.40~ 0,310 2.74 2480

2 nsoi 0,575 0_221 0,484 0,400 0 263 ,262 2180 85

2620: 0.681 0,262 0,464 0,386 0,190· 2,20 1890 90

3410 0.814 0,313 0,442 0369 0.134 1.85 1610 95

4650 0,998 0,385 0,417 0,350 0,091 1.49 1350 100

80 80

8.'i 85

80 &'\ 85 86

000 0000

250000 350000 500000 750000

445 InOO 000 8680 Ll52 0 445 0,400 0,290 0070 0 752 4610 120

445 1500000 II 420 1.412 0.546 O,3H 0,275 0050, 0,615 3930 130

445 2000 000 139)0 1632 0633 0,356 0,264 0,041' 0,543 3520 1135

-6W-----a500(iQ 6no o.ii8l 0,262- 0.464 0.292 Q,190 o:m 8590 ilzG

650 500 000 7810 0,814 0,313 0.442 0,284 0 134 0 695 7ij~O 125

". 650 150000 9420 0,998 0385 0,417 0,275 0:091 0:6i5 6700 130

~ 6-W 1000 ODO 10 940 ],102 0,445 0,400 I 0,267 0_070 0.M7 6000 13~

'" 050 1500 000 13680 ],412 0,046 0,374 0,256 0,050 0,488 5250 140

650 2000000 16320 1.632 0,633 0,356 0246 I 0,041 0,437 4710 145

2250 0575 0,221 0.484 1 0 383 0,263 2_18 2790 90

2730 0,681 0,262 0.464 0.375 0,190 1.90 2350 95

3530 0,814 0,313 0,442 0,361 0,134 1.69 2010 95

4790 0,998 0385 0417 0341 0,091 1.39 1670 JOo

Posltive- and Nege tive-Sequcnco Impedances: (a) Neglecting Sheath Currents;

:1.1 =:1.2 =r.+j(x. +Xd).

(b) Including Sheath Currents;

zl=z.=r.+'.X~,t r·2+j(X'+Xd--'}~-~)

Xm+r• xw+r•

Where Xm ~ (X.+Xd).

Note: Xd is obtained from Table 12.

1 Conductors are standard r-oneents-ic-str-anded , not compact round.

IA_c Resistance based on 100% oonductivity at 65QC. lucluding 2% allowance for atruuding. 'For- dielectric constant=3,7.

Zero-Sequence Impedance:

(Based on all return current in aheath ; none In I1round) Zo =ro+r.+j(x. -x.)

84

Electrical Characteristics oj Cables

Chapter 4

TABLE 11~60-CYCLE CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGLE-CONDUCTOR OIL·FILLED (HOLLOW CORE) PAPER-INSULATED CABLES

Grounded Neutral Service

INSIDE DIAMETER OF SPRING CORE ~ 0.5 INCHES I

-=-1'---=- .r . ~~ d)

~ _ ..c I-< ~

c ~ ~ t i ~ C t'l~ 56: v ~

..:4 $ -£ "" C'I~ i c:... c 2~ ..c ~ ;..- 5« .J3

:2 or;~ 1'-:; ~ ...... '1';..::1, g_:;;J °5 IHo U) ~ ·~5.s ~

~,.., - I c I s : I-;;;~::i ',:. 'O..c::i '0 I .t I 'Ot;~ I ~ Ii {l r

o I 5 ~ES ~ t '"" ~ ~§ ~o t; t;C ~ e c ~ ~ ~g ; ~ ~ II ~

J _, ~o ~ 1; t c y ~ I;;:... I=: I Q., I = t:r;l ;;~ ..... U c~ ,...;::: ~

:i~~ {~~ ~~ E-5c c:::~ :ts~\~~~ ~-5~ ,;~:~~~~t

.... I;::J~ 'Y-< · ... 0 ee ~ ~ d"!'!. ez d~,.Ji,·X! C L. :n -- ~::'l es Q} :._

~ 1~"il - ;S ...... o ""'"'0 q;;,.c ~::'::...;;;:~ <'>0 a,.. ·~,,1_'::;·"'I.t:;~...c. :,:..c:::

-~u_-"Y-oo-I~~3-;<R-.(l 007~6 ~'"3~5 ::~ :~~ I :~9: ·~~8~ ~:: ~1:

000 4Q90 0.7uS 00.33~(~ 0.427 0.331 i 0392 1.157 5070 lID

0000 !~~gl' Z~~~ • 0421 O.32R, 0.3[0 1.[30 I 4900 110

250000 0.381 0.41H 0,325 i 0.263 1.057! 4790 lIS

350000 SlRO 0918 0.408 0410, o.sen i 0,188 1.009 I H7U 115

5UUOOO 6 JOO 1 028 0 41~ 0399 03121 0 133 0905 I 4070 120

7500UO 7310 IIXU 01>05 U 3S. U 302 U OR9 0 ~3~ ,~20 120

1000000 8630 I 310 0550 I 0371 0294 0.068 015213380 125

I 500000 II 090 ! 541 0 6391 0 356 0 281 I 0 048 0 549 2920 130 2000000 13 750 1 760 0 ,lij 0 342 0 270 0 039 0 550 2510 I~O

-- 0000 5720 0.807 o.:m '0:421-110.305 '0-310 0.805 6650 120

250000 5930 0"837 03RI \ 0418 0303 0,263 0793 6500 120

I 350000 6390 0.918 0.40, 0.410 I 0.298 0"188 0.730 6090 125

~ I ~ 500000 7480 1028 O.44B I O,3~9 i 0.291 0133 0.692 56001126

'" ~ 750000 8950 1.180 0505 0384> 0283 0,089 0625 5040 130

~ , 1000000 10350 1.3W 0,1;.\0 O,37~ o.eru 0.OG8 0.M8 47001135

~g~~g~ ~~~~gi :~~~ ~~~r. gm ~ m ~3~~ n~ mg :!~

- - ----OOoo+fi48olo707~lo~ -O~I-O 295 0.310 ~ 158 741Q 112~5~

250000 6700 0837 0,381 0.41R 0.293 0,263 O.H~ 7Z~a 125 350000 ni\O 0918 0,40R 0.410 0.288 0.188 0.690 6820! 130 500000 8310 1028 0.44g 0399 0282 0.133 0"658 &260; 130

INSIDE DIAMETER OF SPRING CORE _ Q.6~ INCUh:8

~ I__:_ -=- __:__I~_:_ ~

'w .... - ...c 10. ~

l~ :.::I ~ I-., _2 ..... I!.)

~ ro ] -£ I ~J: ~ ~ a:§]~ e ~L._ .2J

1.£ JeoJ u·5 - w~ ~~ °6'" co gJ • ~Q;·::l ~

_~ I~:!__., '-0 g t ~]~ 'O]~ '0 I¢: 'Ot;p ~ l:;g -s I

,_ ::E.~~...:. 0""1.. "'0'""' ~Ol-; ~ ... ...,. .., o,o.<t;>'"'~ ~~

o IS ;.1.~ ~Z! ..... 2 U I::; '-11 ~ 2.8011 ()t...._~lill;)~~ 011

§b ~ I _~~ ~~ tJl _:"* ~~: E.s': 3;.2 s::~·~.~::j~~

~l-;.!:\ E-< .~§ E~ ~ ... ~1~ ;:;d~ .~]~ ·~S~ g~~~-g.~

~ I~~ U S ~~ ~'~ 38 ~~~ ~~t: ~8~ ~:§~ ~~o: ~~

-1- ----00; Wo 0 021 0.439 0,300 0,320 0"3Q2 "1:"007 445{) ill 0000 5090 0.956 0.450 039S 0.317 0.310 0985 4350 115

I 250000 5290 0983 0460 'I' o ass 0315 0.253 0975 4230 ]]5

.> i 350000 5950 1050 0.483 0.390 0310 0.188 0897: 4000 120

;,:: i :e 500000 6100 l.]45 0.516 0,382 0,304\ 0 132 i 0.850 i 37M 120

ii? . '" 750000 8080 1.286 0560,0.374 0.295 0.0891' 0.759 ! 3410 i 125

i 1000000 9HO 1.416 0.612 0.360 0.2881 Q.067 0.6&! 131401130

i ! 500000 11 970 1.63~ 0.692 034G 0.Z76 1 0,0471 0.601 "12700 135

_. ~o_OO~ 14 ~50,~8~ ~3_ 0334 0.26& ~~ ~~~~. 2510 _!~O_

0000 6590,0,956 0450 0398 0.29510.310 0760 15950 1125

I 251)000 6800 09f>] 0 'SO . 0396 02g4' 0263 07.>2! 5790 125

I 350000 73~011050 0.483' 0390 0290 0188 0,729 5MO 125

~ l ~ 500000 8320 l.Hb 0516 0.382 0.284 0.132 0.669 5150 130

::: II ~ 750000 9790\ I 286 0.550 0.374 0.277 O.OR9 0.606 4770 1135

~ 1000000 11 060 1,416 0.612 0,300 0,270 0"067 O .s 73 4130 i 135

: 1500000 13900 1635 0692 0.346 0.Z60 O.O!i 0.~90 3920 i 145

I aooo noo 16UO 1935 0.163 0.334 0.251 0,03R O.HO 3580 t~150

-<~~ - -- ~_ ••••• __ -- -- ~--. '-1

! 0000 739010956 0.450 0.398 0.786 0.310 0.678 6590 t 130

< 250000 7510.09R3 0.60 0396 0.285 0.263 0.66~ 16480 130

I 3.>0000 8170110110 04R~ 0"390 0.281 0.188 0.619 6180 130

;;; . c- 500000 918°11145 0.016 0.382 0.276 0.132 0.601 5790 135

~ I ~ 750000 10660i I.2R6 O. SSO 0 374 0 269 0 089 0 545 5320 ]40

-~ 1000000 12010:l.416 0612 0.360 0.263 00671°519 4940 140

i . 1500 000 I~ 4501 1.635 0.6n I 0.3i5 0.253 0 OH 0462 4460 145

I 12000000 10 820j 1.535 0.763 0334 0.245 0038 040. 4060 155

-1!~'I:-;SO;;oo 8560!-0983 0460 -0.396 I 0.275 0.2631 O~596 11'210 105

350000 g 110: 1 050 04831 0300 ,. 0.272 0.188 1 0.580 6860 135

.. I J 500000 10280 I 145 0 516 0 382 0 267 0 132 0 537 6430 140

~ 1 ~ I 7.>0000 II noll 286 I 0 550 Q 3H I 0 261 0 089 0 4n 5980 145

~ I 1000000 13110 I 416 0 612 I 0 3GO I 0255 0057 0469 5540 145

I SOO 000 15840 I 635 0 6921 0 346 0 246 0 04, 0 4~1 4~8Q !lIn

__ ~'I 2 ooo~~ 18 8401~ 0763 . 0 334 ~ 0038 . 0369 4600 160

. 750 000 15360 I 286 0 550 0 374 1 0 233 0 O~91 0 360 7510 160

~ i u") 1000000 167GO 1 416 0 6[21 0 360 0 233 0 OS7 0.355 7110 160

~igl2000oon 22~901183510763 033410219 0038i 03151 5960 170

IA-c Resistance based on tOO% conductivity at M·e. including 2% allowance for .[tanoling. Above value. calculated (rom "A Set of Curves for Skin Effect in Isolated Tubular Conductors': by A_ w. Ewun, G. E. Revieur, Vol. 33, April 1930.

~_F'or- dielr'ctrf e ('onstant= 3.~1.

&Cah;l)l:;i.leu for circo lar tube as gj ven in SymmetTicai CompQnent.s 'by Wagner & Evans, Ch. YII, page 138~

750000 9800 i.iso 0 50S 1000000 11270 L310 0.550 1500000 13720 l.S4i 0.,;39 2000000 16080 L760 0.711\

0.3~1 0.27~ 0089 0.592 0.374 ,0.2G8 O"OG8 0.541 0356 i 0257 Q.Ot8 0.477 0.342: 0,248 0"039 0.427

I

- - ---~I~-~ -~- -_~. ---I ~-- --- -~~ -- -.-

250000 76000837 0381 I 011810283 0263 0660 7980 130

3~OOOO ~~~I) 0 91~ 040H U 110' 0279 01S8 0611 17520 135

500 000 9 2iO I 028 0 41B 1 0 399 I 0 273 0 133 'I 0 585 6nO 135 no 000 10840 1.180 O.MS 0 3~1 o 265 0 089 0 532 6320 140

1000 000 12340 j 310 0 550 II 0 3741' 0 259 0 DoB I 0 463 1 5880 145 I 500000 15 090 I 547 0 639 0 350 0 2~6 0 0-18 0 ~33 5190 150 20000()O 180001.7600716034202411°039 0391i4710,155

5~80 135 52,0 HQ 4670 145 4170 150

Positive- and Negative-Sequence Impedances: (a) Neglecttng Sheath Currents;

z, =Z2 = rn+j(X. +Xd).

(b) Including Sheath Currents;

x~ rs (

Z, =z. =rC+-2~2 +i )';a+Xd x",+ra

Where x'" = (x, + Xd).

Note: Xd is obtained from Table 12.

to a reasonable figure for cables in air. The current-carrying capacities of cables in air have recently been revised by the IPCEA and arc now available in the cable manufacturers' catalogs.

In the discussion on proximity effect it was mentioned that where cables are installed parallel to steel plates, the extra losses arising from proximity to the plate may affect the current-carrying capacity. This reduction in carrying capacity is given by the curves of Fig. 19 which are taken from the test values presented by Booth.

Zero-Sequence Impedance:

<Based on all return current in sheath; none in ground) z..,=re+r.+J(x. -x.)

IV. CABLES IN PARALLEL

The problem of current division among paralleled cables is frequently encountered, because in many circuits more than one cable per phase is installed in order to carry the total current. Also, mutual effects may develop between cable circuits which are adjacent throughout their length but which terminate on separate busses. Depending upon the type of circuit, the cable type and configuration, and the system conditions being investigated, the problem may take any of several forms.

Chapter 4

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

85

TABLE 12~REACTANCE SPACING FACTORS (Xd)*' OHMS PER MILE AT 60 CYCLES

In. Xd In. Xd In. Xd In. Xd In. Xu In. Xd In. Xd In. Xd
--- ----- __ - --- --- --- -_-
.... ...... , 2.75 -0.179 5.25 -0.100 7.75 -0.053 10.5 ·-0.016 15.5 0.031 20.5 0.065 27.0 0.098
0.50 - 0.385 3.00 -0.169 5.50 -0.095 8.00 -0.049 11.0 -0.011 16.0 0.035 21.0 0.068 28.0 0.103
0.75 -0.336 3.25 -0.159 5.75 -0.089 8.25 -0.045 II.S -0005 16.5 0.039 21.5 0.071 29.0 0.107
1.00 -0.302 3.50 -0.149 6.00 -0.084 8.50 -0.042 12.0 0.0 17.0 0.042 22.0 0.074 30.0 0.111
1.25 -0.274 3.75 -0.141 6.25 -0.079 8.75 -0.038 12.5 0.005 17.5 0.046 22.5 0.076 31.0 0.115
1.60 -0.252 4.00 -0.133 6.50 -0.074 9.00 -0.035 13.0 0.010 18.0 0.049 23.0 0.079 32.0 0.119
1.75 -0.234 4.25 -(U26 6.75 -0.070 9.25 -0.032 13.5 0.014 18.5 0.053 23.5 0.082 33.0 0.123
2.00 -0.217 4.50 -0.119 7.00 -0.065 9.50 -0.028 14.0 0.019 19.0 0.056 24.0 0.084 34.0 0.126
2.25 -0.203 4.75 -0.ll2 7.25 -0.061 9.75 -0.025 14.5 0.023 19.5 0.059 25.0 0.090 35.0 0.130
2.50 -0.100 5.00 -0.106 7.50 -0057 10.00 -0022 1.~.0 0.027 20.0 0.062 26.0 0.094 36.0 0.133 *-"4 =0.2794 to 10gIO -&. where S is spae lug in iucbee.

It is difficult to anticipate in detail the problems met in practice, but the examples outlined here indicate methods of solution that can be modified to fit actual circumstances.

Almost any problem involving paralleled cables can be represented by simultaneous equations of voltage drops caused by self and mutual impedances but such equations often become numerous and cumbersome. Therefore in approaching most problems it becomes desirable to search about for one or more simplifying assumptions so that the problem can be reduced to simpler terms, still without introducing errors large enough to invalidate the solution. For example, when paralleled cable circuits connect a generating source to a balanced load, it is usually permissible to assume that the total current in each phase is composed only of the respective positive-sequence component: this assumption is based on the unsymmetrical cahle-eircuit impedances being much smaller than the symmetrical load impedances,

Three outlined examples of calculations on paralleled cables are included here, but they assist only by illustrating general methods, since there are so many different, and more complex, cases to be found in practice.

SENDING BUS o b e

RECEIVING BUS abc

0'

LENGTH LN MILES
to' Zoo
--
IQu Zoo fZo'o"
- I AA
Ib' ZO"b{ Zo' Zo'b'
-
I " Z •• Zoo 2 I tI f Zbb
~, OD ob
ZIi'c1 Z • , Za' Za'c' lb'c'
ac
.
_I 'V Zb'c"tzc'c"
lei Zb"c" Z·· Za· Za'c"
(Ie
It' 'Vvv , b'

II"

jjj I

~E Ec I ! L

1.<;-;-1777777777771 7777777777?7777777777771777717l/)?ili,l/.7 (ZERO CURRENT IN E"RTH RETURN PATH)

Flit. 16~Equivalent circuit for parallel cables, with opencircuited sheaths and no net ltround-return current (see Example 3),

TABLE 1360-CYCLE CONSTANTS OF TYPICAL CABLES IN OHMS PER PHASE PER MILE

DESCRIPTION OF CABLE

POSITIVE- AND NEGATIVEREQUENCE

ZERO-SEQUENCE (ALL RETURN IN SHEATH)

RESISTANCE~

REAC1'ANCE

Single-Conductor, I 000 MOM. 30/64 in. Insulation; 78 in. Sheath. 44 0.070 0.114 0.295 0.284 4780 0.783 0.113 4780
Three Cables spaced 4 in. hor-izontally .......... : ...............
Single-Conductor. WO MCM. 9/64 in. Insulation; 6(64 in. Sheath. 6.9 0.134 0.162 0.302 0299 2440 1.87 0.081 2440
Three Cables spaced 3, 2. 6 in .. .. ... ..
Single-Conductor Oil-Filled. 750 MCM. inside dism, 0.50 in. 650 mils 161 0.089 0.221 0.422 0.341 6300 0.631 0.115 6300
Insulation; 9/64 in. Sheath. Three CabLes spaced 13 in. horizontally!
Bin~e-ConductQr, 250 MeM. 6/M in. insulation; 7(64 in. Sheath. 0.21 0.263 0.239 o 181 0.160 2 270 0.960 0.3S1 2270
Tree Sheaths in contact and 4/0 Copper Neutral Wire ...........
-------_ ... _ ........ _ ...... -
Three-Conductor belted: Sectored. WO MeM. 7/64 in. Conductor In- 6.9 0.134 o 135 O. raJ} 2410 2.53 0.231 4 670
eutauon. 4/64 in. Belt. 7.5/64 in. Sheath. ..... .. .. . ..... "
'Three-Conductor Type H; Sectored. WO MCM. J3/64 in. Insulation. 15 0.134 0.135 0.156 3400 2.10 0.226 3 400
5/04 m. :Sheath. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ......... .. ......... ... '. I
'Three-Conductor Oil-Filled Type H; Sectored, WO MeM. 225 Mil. In- 44 0.1$4 0.135 O.WO 3870 1.94 0.226 3870
aulatiun, 8.5(64 in. Sheath. . . . . .. ......... ...... . ...........
"Conductor temperature 55·C.; Sheath temperature 5O'C. 86

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

Chapter .{

TABLE 14-CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY OF THREE-CONDUCTOR BELTED PAPER-INSULATED CABLES

Conductoe Siee AWG

or iooocn

Number of Equally Loaded Cables in Duet Bank I-------O-N-E---··-"--"~-----T-H-R-E-E-------.'-~~--S-I-X--------·,------N-'I-N-E-------.'------T-W--E-L-V-E------·

Conduc-J--------=~~-------~------~~~------~--------------------~------------------~-------------------

tor Per Cent Load Factor

type' 1--30~1-5017; 11~T~;--1 50 ! 75 1 100 Jao l~oJ_?~ ! 100 I 30 I 50 I 75 i 100 I 30 t 50 I 75 I 100

I---~--~~~~---~--~~~--

AMPERES PER CONDUCTOR'

......... "- .. ".~----------.

4500 Volu.

80 "--_ .. 72 !
6 S 82 78 15 81 78 73 68 79 74 681 63 78 65 58 76\ so 61 I 54
4 SR 109 106 103 98 108 102 96 89 104 97 89 81 102 94 I 84 74 100 90 79 69
2 SR 143 139 134 128 139 133 124 liS 136 127 115 lOt 133 121 108 05 130 117 101 89
1 SR 164 161 153 146 159 152 141 130 156 145 130 ' U8 152 138 122 108 141:1 133 115 100
0 CS 189 184 177 168 184 175 162 )49 180 166 149 1 134 175 159 140 122 170 152 130 114
00 CS 218 2]1 203 192 211 WI 18.'l 170 208 190 gg i 152 201 18t 158 138 195 173 148 128
000 CS 250 242 232 219 2421 229 211 193 :,)37 217 172 229 206 179 156 223 ]97 107 145
0000 CS 286 276 264 249 276 260 240 218 270 246 Zit, \ 19~ 251 234 202 176 254 223 189 163
250 CS 316 305 291 273 30.5 288 263 239 297 271 2391 212 288 258 221 I 192 279 244 I 206 In
300 CS 354 340 3~4 304 340 321 292 264 332 301 264 234 321 286 245 211 310 271 227 HIJ;
350 CS 392 376 357 334 375 353 320 288 366 330 288 255 351 311 266 229 341 296 248 211
400 C8 424 406 385 3,:;9 406 380 344 J09 396 355 30\) 1 272 aBO 334 285 244 3(;7 317 264 224
500 CS 487 165 439 108 465 433 \ 390 348 451 403 348 305 43~ ~78 , 320 213 417 357 296 251
600 CS 544 517 487 450 517 480 430 383 501 444 ~~ I 334 480 416 350 298 i~~ I 393 323 273
750 CS 618 581 SIlO 505 5M5 54! 482 427 566 500 371 541 466 390 331 439 359 302
(U17 at 10'C. 092 at 30'C. (L07 at 10°C. 0.92 at 3O'c. (1.07 at 10·C. 0.92 at 30"C. IL07 at 10'C, 0.92 at 30'C, (1.07 at 10'C, 0.92 at 30"C,
0.83 at 40'C. 0.73 at 50'C)' 0.83 at 4()'C, 0.73 at 50"C)' 0.83 at 40'C, Q.73 at 50"CI' 0.83 at 40'C. 0.73 at 5O'C)' 0.83 at 40'C, 0.73 at 50'C)'
.,_ .. 7500 Volts

COpper Temperature s:rc

6 S 81 [ 1~ I 77 ! 74 79 , 76 72 67 '~I 74 ! 67 62 77 711 64 57 75 [ 69 60 I 53
4 SR 107 !Ol 97 104 100 94 87 96 . 87 79 100 92 82 73 98 89 77 68
2 SR 140 137 132 126 136 131 122 113 134 125 113 102 130 lilt I 105 n 127 114 99 81
1 SR 161 156 150 143 156 149 138 121> 153 142 128 115 149 136 120 105 145 130 1l2' 98
0 CS 186 180 174 165 1~ I 172 156 146 177 I 163 148 131 172 155 136 120 167 I 149 128 111
00 CS 214 ZOO 198 188 196 181 106 202 I 180 166 148 1116 177 155 135 !OI 169 145 125
000 CS 243 236 226 214 2361 224 206 188 230 I 21l 188 168 223 200 174 152 217 Hl2 163 HI
0000 CS 280 270 258 243 270 255 235 214 261 II 211 213 190 255 229 198 172 247 218 184 159
250 CS 311 300 287 269 300 283 259 235 293 i 2611 2S!i 208 282 252 217 188 273 240 202 114
300 CS 349 336 320 300 335 316 288 260 3261 296 259 230 315 279 240 207 304 265 223 190
350 CS 385 369 351 328 369 346 315 283 359 323 282 249 345 305 ' 261 224 333 289 242 206
400 CS 417 399 378 353 398 373 338 303 ::: I 348 303 267 371 317 279 23\1 ~00 309 257 220
500 CS 476 454 429 399 454 423 381 341 392 340 298 4221 3(\9 312 267 400 348 288 24&
600 CS 534 508 479 443 507 471 422 376 g~l 436 , 375 327 469 408 343 I 291 451 384 315 267
750 OS 007 57G :;40 497 575 532 473 413 489 i 418 363 029 4D5 3S1 323 507 I 128 350 295
(! .08 at 10'C. 0.92 at 30'0. (1.08 at IO·C. 0.92 at 311'C. (1.08 at ro-c, 0.92 at 3O"C. {l.OB at 1000C. 0.92 at 30'C. (1.08 at 10°C. 0.92 at 30·C.
0.83 at 401;0, 0+12 at 500CP 0.83- a.t 4{lIJ-C. Q< 12 M 50(0) ~ 0.83 at 40"C. O.7:.l at 6t}1'C}~ O.~3 at 101)C< Oc12 at 50°CP 0.&3 at 40aC, 0.12 at 500C}t 15000 Volta

Copper Temperature 75'C

c_~~ _____ ---------------- ----- ------------------"" ------ """. -
6 8 78 771 74 i 71 76 74 69 64 75 J 70 64 59 73 58 61 54 72 65 I 57 50
4 SR 102 IX! \lSi 1)2 98 95 89 83 1)7 ' III ~3 75 95 87 78 Sg 93 S5 . 73 64
2 SR 132 J29 125 119 129 123 115 106 1261 117 100 96 123 112 99 88 120 108 I 93 82
1 SR ]51 147 142 135 146 140 131 120 144 133 ]20 109 140 128 112 99 136 122 I 107 92
0 CS i
175 170 I 163 155 169 161 150 138 160 . ]53 137 123 161 146 128 112 156 ~~~ i 120 104
00 OS 200 194 187 177 194 184 170 156 ]89 1 175 156 139 183 J66 145 127 178 135 117
000 OS 230 223 214 202 222 211 195 178 217 199 177 1"'8 210 189 165 143 203 ISO 153 132
0000 OS 2M 257 245 2J2 253 242 222 202 249 22t! 201 179 240 2[.) i 187 158 233 205 173 !i9
2.50 CS 295 284 271 2M 281 2e.8 245 221 2761 251 220 196 266 2391 204 177 257 Z25 189 163
300 CS 330 317 301 283 316 297 271 245 307 278 244 215 295 264 22,') 194 285 24~ 208 178
350 C9 365 34() 332 310 348 327 207 267 330 305 26fl 235 324 289 24$ 211 313 271 ' 227 193
400 CS 394 377 357 333 375 352 319 2~1l ::: I 327 285 251 349 307 262 224 336 290 241 206
500 CS 449 429 406 377 428 399 359 321 396 319 2SO 396 346 293 250 379 326 269 229
600 CS 502 ! 479 I 450 417 476 443 396 352 459 409 351 306 438 380 319 273 420 358- 294 249
750 CS 572 i 543 510 468 540 499 444 393 520 458 I 391 341 494 , 425 356 302 471 399 326 275
0.09 at 10'C. 0.90 at 3O'C, 11.09 at 10'C. 0.90 at 30'c. (1.09 at 10'C. O.DO at 30·C. (l.09 at W'C. 0.90 at 30·C, (L09 at 1 O'C. 0.911' at 30'C
0.79 at 40'C. 0.67 at WOe)' 0.79 at 40·C. 0.S1 at 50"C)' 0.79 at 40'C. 0.66 at WOe)' 0.79 at 40O-C, 0.66 at 50""C>" O.7~ at 4U"C:, 0.66 at -5U"C). 1 The followi:t:tg ayrnbole are used here to designate conductor types:

S-Soll,d copper. ~R~8t9,ndard round coneentril;!-stranded, CS--(!ompa.ct-aector st.ran.ded,

• Current ratings are baaed on the following conditions'

a. Ambient earth bempera t.ure s, 20QC. .

b. 60 cycle alterna.tin.g Current.

c. Ratings Include dielectric less. and all induced a-c losses,

~. One cable per duet, all cables equally loaded and in outside ducts only.

• Multiply tabulated currents by those factors when earth temperature is other than 20"C.

Example 3-Type of Circuit: A three-phase 50-cycle cable circuit connected between a sending and a receiving bus, using single-conductor unsheathed cables, and having two paralleled cables per phase.

Conditions: The current flowing into the sending bus and out of the receiving bus is nearly balanced three-phase

load current (positive-sequence only), and its magnitude is known, The cable conductors can be of different sizes, and their spacings can be entirely unsymmetrical.

Problem: To find the division of load current among all conductors.

Circuit: Refer to Figure 16.

Chapter 4

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

87

TABLE i5-CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY OF THREE-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED PAPER-INSULATED CABLES

Number of Equally Loaded Cables in Duct Bank
Conduc- ONE I THREE I SIX I NINE I TWELVE
tor !c"nduc-
Biae Per Cent Load Fa('i<)l'
AWG tor
or Type' I I I 100 I I I I I I I ___ 2~J_!~~_1_30 I I I I I I I
loooCM 30 50 76 30 50 15 100 30 50 50 75 100 30 50 75 100
AMPEIU,S Pl,U CONDUCTOR'
_. 15000 V"ltJo

Copper Ternpere.t.ure 81°C

Ii R 94 91 88\ 8 s 91 R7 I 8l 75 81'1 8~ 74
4 SR 123 120 JlS 107 tI9 114 104 95 1I6 108 95
2 SR 159 154 146 137 153 144 139 121 149 13G 120
1 sa 179 174 166 156 172 163 149 136 168 153 136
0 CS 203 195 182 176 HI6 IS5 169 154 190 173 IS4
00 CS 234 224 215 202 225 212 193 175 218 IU8 174
000 OS 270 2M! 245 230 258 242 220 198 249 225 198
0000 CS 308 295 281 261 2\15 276 250 223 285 2,,7 224
250 CS 341 327 310 290 325 305 276 246 315 283 245
300 CS 383 365 344 320 364 339 305 272 351 313 271
350 CS 417 397 375 346 397 369 330 293 383 340 293
400 CS 453 428 403 313 429 396 I 354 314 413 366 313
500 CS 513 487 450 418 483 446 399 350 467 410 350
600 as 567 537 501 460 534 491 437 385 513 450 384
750 CS 643 606 562 514 602 .>51 485 425 576 5()2 423
[1.08 at woe, 0 .91 ~t eo-c. (l.OS ~t 10·C, 0.91 M 31Y'C, (L08 at. 10"(:, 1)+91 a.t. 30
0.82 at 40'C, O.71 at 50°C)' 0.81 at 40°C. 0.71 .t 50'C)' 0.8~ at 40·C. 0.71 at 50 23000 Volts

2 SR 156 150 HZ 134 1
1 SR 177 170 152 152 I
0 CS 200 192 183 172 I
00 as 227 220 210 197 2
000 CS 262 251 :l31! 223 2.
0000 as 301 289 271 251 2
250 CS 334 315 298 271 :l
300 CB 373 349 328 306 3
350 CS 405 379 358 331 3
400 CS 434 400 386 356 4
500 as 492 4611 436 401 4
600 CS 543 516 484 440 5
750 as 616 583 5U 495 5
(1.09 &t lO'C, 0.90 at 30'(;, (l.
O.SO at 40'C. 0_67 ~t 50°C)' o. fi6 R7 I 7R 69 I 60 84 7,
85 113 102 89 77 109 \)
07 144 i 129 ll2 97 139 12
21 lG2 ]45 125 109 158 13
37 183 ! 154 141 122 178 15
,)6 211 i ]$7 162 139 203 17
74 241 i 212 182 157 232 20
96 275 241 205 176 265 22
15 303 265 2241 193 291 2
36 337 i 293 246 2lJ 322 27
55 36f> 318 267 227 350 30
73 31M 340 285 242 376 32
03 444 381 318 ! 269 419 3
:jO 4!lB 4!G S4t, I 293 40:1 3.
65 545 464 383 323 519 43'
C. (1,08 a.t lO"C, 0<91 at. 30"C, (lXtS at 10o!>
')' O.8~ &t 40'C. 0.71 at SO'C)' 0,81 at 40' 2 2 2 2

3 3 a

'C

Copper Temperature 77'C

HI 130 117 145 i 132) 1171 105 140! J25 107 84 1341 110
160 145 133 164 149 132 117 159 140 121 105 154 133
182 166 149 186 169 147 132 178 158 136 118 173 14
208 189 170 212 193 res 149 202 IS] 156 134 196 j 17'
238 216 193 242 220 ]9! 169 230 206 175 150 222 19
273 246 219 278 2bO 2]6 190 264 233 197 169 2';5 22
299 270 239 308 275 236 207 290 258 216 184 27\1 24
329 297 263 341 302 259 227 320 283 232 202 309 26
356 318 283 369 327 280 243 347 305 255 217 335 28
379 340 302 396 348 298 260 374 325 273 232 359 3
4271 379 335 443 391 333 288 424 363 302 257 400 33
470 414 366 489 428 365 I 313 464 396 32~ 279 441 36
528 465 ~O7 &50 479 402 347 520 439 304 306 490 40
at W'C, 0.90 at so-c, ,L09 at IO'C. 0.90 at :lO'C. (l09 at 10'C. 0.90 at 3We. (1.09 at IW
t 40"'C. 0.67 lit 5Qeep. 0<70 et -toPe, 0>67 .at 60"C:)~ 0.70 at 40';;'C, 0.66 tot 50"'Cl 0.79 at 40"
----"'-~. -.~,--~,-,---~ ,~ ""~,--~.~~-- 49 70

92 21 ;'4 QJ

21 54 84 12

61 12 77 09 60 a

34500 Volts

141 160 IS2 205

140 1.'>8 179 203

(1.10 at IO·C, 0.89 Bt 30·C. ILlO at 10'C, 0.89 at 30'C, (UG at 10'C. 0.89 at aO"C, (l 10 at IO'C. 0.88 at 3(V(;. (LIO at 10·C. 0_88 at 30"(;.

0_16 at 4{)°e, 0.61 at SO"C). 0:/6 at 40°(;, 0.60 at 50·C1' 0.76 at 40'(;, 0.60 at 50ve)' 075 at 40·C. 0.58 at SO'C)' 0_74 at 40·C. 0.56 at SO'C)'

o 00 000

0000

250 300 3:>0 400

500 600 750

224 246 267 284

317 344 383

cs CS CS CS

CS CS CS CS

CS CS CS

185 209 238 275

302 335 364 392

442 ~~7 548

193 2d 250 288

316 352 384 413

468 514 684

176 199 225 260

285 315 342 367

414 455 510

165 187 lIll 241

266 293 318 341

381 416 466

184 114

208 197

238 222

273 256

301 Z80

334 310

363 336

384 360

436 402

m I !§g

15& 178 202 229

2~3 278 aOI 321

358 391 435

-;;;;-----.;-;~1 _~;

140 194 170 145

1.58 220 1113 J65

17\) 251 219 186

16l I

182

2013 234

2;;8 i 284 30S 329

178 202 229 283

111 126 141 160

174 190 204 216

238 259 284

164 185 209 238

262 288 311 334

372 406 452

289 320 346 372

222 19fj 276

244 213 304

264 229 329

281 244 352

240 202

264 221 285 238 303 254

4181 367

459 401

515 447

312 I 271

3ig i m

393 337

430 367

481 409

281 304 337

t The following symbols are used here to designate conductor types:

S--80li,d copper', SR--standard round concentric-stranded, CS-compact--sector stranded.

" Current rabmge are based OIl the following conditions;

a. Ambient earth temperaturn-, 20'>C.

b. 60 cycle alternating cur-rcrrt.

o. Ratings include dielectric loss. and all induced a-c losses.

d. One cable pel' duct. s.ll ea.hles equafIy loaded and in outside d.uct.s only,

• MultIPly u.buh.kd currents by these factors when earth temperature is other than 20·C.

Complete voltage drop equations:

E.:= I .Za'+ I a"Za'a"+ I b'Z,,'b'+ I h"Z a 'b"+ [.'Z.'.'+ T,:'Za'c" s; = J a ,Z':a"+ I .,Z.:' + [ 1:/Za"b,+J b"Za"b" + I.,Za"c'+ Ic',Za"e" Eb, = Ia,z e, 'b'+ 1."Z."b'+ h,Zh'+ h"Zh'b"+ I/Zvc'+ i-z;» Eb,,= IA,ZA'b"+ I ..',Z,.''b''+ 1 b,Zb'b"+ I b"Zb"+ [c,Zb".'+ [<"Zb"o" E.' = I a,Za'c'+ 1 a"Za"c'+ I b'Zh'<'+ 1 b"Zb"c'+ 1 o,Zo'+ i-z,;

Eo" = 1.:Za'o"+ I ,.',Za"e"+ [b,Zb'c"+ Ib"Zb"o"+I .. Zc'c"+ le"Ze'

Simplifying assumptions: It is apparent that Ea' = Ea", Eb,=Eb", and Ec,=Eo"; therefore these voltages can be eliminated by subtraction, Also if one ampere positive sequence current is assumed to flow through the overall circuit, then Ia"= 1.0-/a" h"=a2-Ib', and Ic"=a-Io',

-.~ .. ~-
64 56
83 72
104 90
117 100
131 112
148 127
1G8 144
189 162
207 177
227 194
245 208
262 222
292 247
317 269
348 293 5 6 3 8

6 7 2 7

50 6 I o

58 00 2 C, U>ilt at. 30'"'0. c, 0,70 at 50l;sCP

9 2 5 1

2 6 5 03

100 86
112 \)7
126 109
144 123
152 139
182 157
199 170
217 1!!6
233 199
247 211
~75 ~30
299 248
329 270 6 7 8 C. 0.90 at 30'C. C, o.es at 501;l-C) J

142 161 182 205

103 115 128 144

157 171 184 195

1111 134 152 170

222 244 263 282

313 340 377

187 203 217

I 232

256 277 304

215 232 255

Applying these assumptions leads to a set of three simultaneous equations relating three currents:

Modified equations;

I a,(Za,+Za"- 2Za'~") +1 b,(Z'b'"i"" Za"b" - Za:V~ Z .. 'd +I~/(Z&fGf+ZauOn_ZIJ:r(Jr_Za.'<$ri) = (Z~t1_Zp.'4H) +a2(Za''h'' - Za'b") +a(Za"c"- Za'c") ,

] .:(Za'b+Z,,"b" - Za'b" - Za"b') + I b,(Zh+Zb" -- 2Zb'b") +1c'(Zb'o'+Zb,,<,,-Zb"c'-Zb'c") = (Za"b"-Z,:V) +a?'(Zb" - Zb'b") +a(Zbffcff - Zw),

I f!t,'(ZtJ,'~/+ ZgtlCII_Za.'C1J -Z~lrct) + It/(Zb'c,+Zb"'o"- ZllrrZbV) + 1c'(Zc+Zo"_ 2Zo'0") = (Z~"rt"-Z.".!) +a2(Zb"<' - Zb"c') +a(Zc" -Zo'<"),

88

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

Chapter 4

TABLE 16-CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY FOR THREE· CONDUCTOR OIL-FILLED PAPER INSULATED CABLES (amperes per conductor)*

Rated Line Voltage-Grounded Neutral
Circular Mils. 34 500 I 46000 I 69000
orA.W.C. Maximum Copper Tempo raturo-c-Deg. C.
(B.& S.)
75 7,5 75
0 168 .. . ...
00 190 190 ...
000 210 210 210
0000 240 240 240
250 000 265 265 265
300000 295 295 295
350 000 320 320 320
400 000 342 342 342
50U UOO 382 382 380
600000 417 417 412
700 000 445 445 440
750 000 460 460 455
.......... .. - - - --- - - - -~ ""-
Deg. C. Correction Factor for Various Earth Temps.
10 I 1.08 I 1.08 L08
20 1.00 LOO 1.00
30 I 0.90 0.90 0.90
40 .79 .79 .79 nc;'c load factor assumed.

Ratings Include dselect.r!c loss and ext.ra a-c. lessee such ne sheath and pr-cximitv loss.

Above values apply spedfh:aUy to sector shaped conductora. For round eonductors multiply by 0.9\1.

*Applie-s to three sirnilar loaded cables in a duct bank: for six loaded cables in a duct bank, muu.iply above values by O,t!8.

After substituting the proper self and mutual impedance values as defined later, these equations can be solved by the method of determinants for current distribution, based on a total of 1.0 ampere positive-sequence current in the circuit. To obtain actual currents, the distribution factors must be multiplied by the actual load current in amperes,

Apparent conductor impedances: Using the currentdistribution factors for each conductor to solve the complete voltage drop equations, an "apparent" impedance for each phase of the circuit can be calculated. This apparent impedance is valid only for the particular current division calculated:

Apparent impedance of phase a

E, E,

=--'-=-~=E '=E" ohms

1.+1.:' 1.0 a a, •

Apparent impedance of phase b

s, Eb• E·' E

==---=-=a b'=a 'b" ohms

1w+I~ ~ ,.

Apparent impedance of phase c

Ee' Eo' 0

= 1 •. +10" =-;; = a2E. = a-Eo", ohms.

Supplementary equations: The original assumption of positive-sequence current flow through the circuit precludes the existence of any net ground return current. This assumption simplifies the determination of the various self and mutual impedances, because the effects of a

ground return path may be ignored with very small error:

Z~' = l(rc+jx~) where

l = circuit length in miles.

Te= a-c. resistance of conductor a', ohms per mile.

x .. = reactance of conductor a', to a twelve inch radius, ohms per mile.

. 12

= )0.2794 loglo .

GMRl of conductor a', inches

Z.", Zh', Zh", Zo', and Zo" are determined similarly, based on the respective conductor characteristics.

Za'a" = l·jO.27941og1o S1~" = l( - Xd) where Sa'a." is the axial

aa

spacing in inches between conductors a' and a". The remaining mutual impedance are calculated similarly, using the appropriate spacing for each.

A series of more complex examples of the above type of problem is described by Wagner and Muller.!

Example 4~Type of circuit: A three-phase 50-cycle cable circuit connected between a sending and a receiving bus, using two dissimilar three-conductor lead sheathed cables in parallel.

Conditions: Each cable contains three conductors that, by the nature of the cable construction, are symmetrically transposed so that the flow of positive- or negativesequence currents will cause no zero-sequence voltage drops, Therefore, the sequence networks are not interdependent and an impedance value of each sequence may be calculated and used independently.

Problem: To find the zero-sequence impedance of the entire cable circuit, and to determine how zero-sequence current divides between cables.

Q b c

abc

SH£ATH LENGTH IN MILES---~

(0) ACTUAL CIRCUIT

EARTH

10'

Ze'

-
v v fle'~'
10" Ze" ie«
-
'v , tIN
Is' Zets" Zf/s· Z,'
- .~.
Eo fZs'" I
.:! Z$" 1
,
v 1
t
" '. // '/////// (b)

EARTH

EQUIVAL.ENT CIRCUIT, WITH ALL QUANTITI£S EXPRESSED IN ZERO-SEQUENCE TERMS

Fig. 17-Actual and equivalent zero-sequence circuit for tWQ parallel three-conductor lead-sheathed cables (see Example 4).

Chapter 4

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

89

TABLE 17-CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY OF THREE-CONDUCTOR GAS-FILLED PAPER-INSULATED CABLES

Number of Equally Loaded Cables
Oonduc- ONE I THREE I SIX I NINE I TWELVE
tor Condue- ~ ~~~-
Size tor 1).Qt' Cent L09..d Fador-
AWG Type .. ,--~, -- .... , .... ~
or (1) I I I I I I I I I I nl I I I 15 I 100 I 30 I 50 I 75 I 100
MCM 30 50 75 100 30 I 50 75 100 30 50 i 100 30 50 I
APPROXIMATE AMPERES PEn CONDUCTOR'
.-~-----.-. .-~~ ... -~ 4

15000 VoH.

--,~_~ __ .,-~CoPpl"!r 'Tcrnpct-ut.ur c 81 "C~ _

149 I 136 120 107 1401 129 112 97

168, 153 136 121 162 145 12S 109

1110 173 154 137 183 164 141 122

218 198 174 156 211 187 102 139

24H 225 1 \)~ 174 241 212 ]82 157

285 257 224 196 275 241 205 176

303 20., 224 193

366 318 2~7 227

44-1 381 318 269

545 464 383 323

(1.08 at 10'0. 0.91 at 30'C. O.St at 40'C. 0.70 fit 51)'<:)'

90 100

112 127 144 162

177 208 247 29~

, 137
2 SR 1591 154 146
1 SR 179 174 166 156
0 CS 203 i 195 182 176
00 CS 234 224 215 202
000 CS 27Q 258 24~ ~30
0000 CS 308 295 281 261
250 CS 341 327 310 290
350 CS 417 397 375 346
500 CS 513 481 450 418
750 CS 643 606 562 514
(1.08 at IO'C. 0.91 at 30'('.
11.82 at 4a'C. o.n at 5[)"C)'
c~~, ~i~ I i~j I m m

196 ISS i 169 154

225 212! 193 175

25S 242 i 220 198

295 275' 250 223

325 3051 275 246

397 369 330 293

483 I 4461 399 350

602 551 485 426

(1.08 at IOOC. 0.111 at 300C. O.8~ at 40·C. 0.71 at 50"C)'

139 1~1l

178 203 2J2 20~

123 138

1.)6 117 202 I 227

250 '1 301

~3~ i

10·1 117 .

I

131 I 148

HiS I

189

207 ! 2-\.') ,

292 I 34S

245 293 350 423

215 255 303 3(;5

291 350 419 ~19

(l.08 at 10'C, 0.91 at 3D"C. O_S:.! at 4WC. 0_71 at 5O~CJ'i

~L08 at 10"C. o.oi at 30"C. 0.81 .at 40°C. 0.70 at. 50"CP

23 000 Volts Copp~r 'Temncrnture 77'C

2 SR 156 150 I 143 1
1 SR 177 170 162 1
I) CS 200 1921 183 1
00 CS 227 220 210 1
000 CS 262 25] 238 2
0000 CS 301 289 1 271 2
250 CS 334 3151 298 2
350 CS 405 379 358 3
500 CS 492 405 4;l6 4
750 CS tHO 583 041 4
(LIl\I at 1O'e, U.90 at ~O'(
0.80 III 40·C, 0.67 at w'e
.-~ ---- 34 52

72 97 23 51

149 141 130 1)7

170 160 145 1;J3

192 182 160 149

221 208 189 170

254 238 2[6 193

291 273 246 219

321 299 270 I 239

~~i ~~~ m i ~~

577 I 528: 465 I 407 (JOg at lO'e, 0.90 at 30·C. 0.80 at 40'C. 0.67 at 5()'C)'

77 31 OJ 95

;,

34 500 Volt. Copnor Temperature 70'C

145 132 I 117 105 164 149 132 117

180 109 147 132 212 193 168 149

2-12 220 ]\)1 lOG

278 250 215 190

308 275 I 231i 207

~~~ 327 I m m

550 m I 402 347 (1.09 at 1O"C'. o.no at 30'"'C. 0,79 at 4{lI'-C. 0.67 at .so"'C~i!

140 I 125 '1107 'i 84 ·~;~T-~j'"""7l;o 86

159 140 121 105 154 133 I 112 97

178 I 1581 130 I 118 173 149 12fi 109

~~g! ~~~ i;~ i~i Jg~ m i~~ m

264 233 197 Ill9 255 221 182 1[,;

290 2.'>81' 216 184 279 2421199 170 347 305 2<',5 I 217 335 285 23:1 199

424 363 302 'I 257 400 336 215 230

520 i 439 364, 306 490 408 329 276

(109 at ro-o, 0.90 at 30'(;. (1.09 at IIl"C. (l.90 at :lO'C,

0.79 at 40·C. 0.66 at w'e), 079 at 40"C. 0,65 at OO'CI'

I I I ----- : -~,-. 12;; I
0 CS 203 ! 194 185 173 193 I 183 I 166 143 187 169 147 130 180 156 135 110 172 149 108
00 OS 230 22(l 209 196 218 ! 207 187 168 212 191 166 l4.7 203 178 L~2 132 194 169 141 121
000 CS 262 250 236 222 250 233 212 19! 240 216 ISS 166 231 203 173 148 220 191 1(;0 134
0000 CS 302 289 273 253 287 I 269 I 240 215 276 246 213 18S 264 230 195 HiS 250 215 179 151
250 CS 332 317 300 279 3161 294 266 235 304 271 233 206 200 252 212 183 275 233 196 165
350 CS 403 382 309 334 38Z 353 316 280 363 323 277 240 346 300 250 214 327 27G 228 193
500 CS 492 464 435 400 408 422 :l76 I 333 4~9 386 :,28 285 413 3M 29:, 2,;() sso 329 269 226
7S0 CS 613 575 536 490 570 I 521 451 I 402 540 469 :,97 :140 50;:. 130 3.0·1 ~98 475 ;:HHi ;{20 268
(1.10 at 10"0. 0.89 at 30·C, (!.lO at 10'C. 0$9 at 30"C, n.Wat IO'C, 0.89 at 30"C. (1,10 at lO.;lC. 0,88 at 3(}tlC. 11.10 at io-c ILkS at 30'(:.
0.16 a.t 400C. 0.61 at 60"t>C)~ (},16 at 40"0, 0.60 a.t 5O"C)' 0.76 at 4D"C, Q .60 at :}O"C]-3- 0,7,0;, at 10"C, O.rlS 11,[. 5(r'C)~ 0.74 at 4(rC, 0.56 at 501l(.";)1 1 The followi:ng eymbcle are used here to deeiguu te conduct.or t.ypes i SR~-8tandard round concentr ic-stz-anded. CS--·~compact-8€:('tor stranded.

2 Current ratings at-e based on t.he following concli t.ione: a, Ambient earth ternpera tu re e 20"0.

b. 60 cycle a.lter nat.ing current.

c. Ratings include diele-ctric loss. and all induced a-c losses.

d. One cable per duct, all cable. equally loaded and in outside ducts only.

, Multiply t.f:I.buhtted currents by thes-e factors when earth. temperature iH other eben 2O<te.

Circuit: Refer to Fig, 17. The three actual conductors in each cable have been reduced to one equivalent conductor in this figure, and all impedances are to be expressed in zero-sequence terms considering the earth as a return path for each circuit.

Complete voltage drop equations:

Eo = uz,« IQ"Zc'c"+ I.,Zc'.'+ I."Zc'." Eo = Io'Zo'c"+ Io"Z(,+ I.Z,!'.+ I,'Zeno" 0= lo'Zo'a'+ 10, Zo"a'+ J.Zo' + t-z,; 0= Jo'Zc'a"+ io"Zc"."+ I .. Z a's' ,+ J."Z."

The voltage drop Eo can be eliminated by subtraction, and the sheath currents can be solved in terms of conductor currents by using the last two equations only. Also, it is convenient to assume that the total zero-sequence ourrent flowing into the sending bus is one ampere, which makes

Io,,=1.0-IG,.

After making these changes, the following single equation results:

!7

Modified equation:

lo{(Ze' -Zc,c,,) (Zo'Z.,,-Z2 ,-) + (Zc" Zc'c") (Z.Z.,- Z~.',,)

+- (Zc" - Ze";) (Z,.'.,Z •• " - Z., .. Z.,,) + (7:<",' - Zc") (Z,."o',Z"s"- Z"" .. Z .. ,) + (Z,.'o" - Z<"s") (Z<,.,Z.:," - Z.,."Z.) + (Ze"o"- 70,0") (70".Z ... ,,-Z<"0',Z,,)J = (Zc"- Z<,,:") (7.,·Z." - Z",,) + (Ze"o' - Zo") (Zo"o"Z e'e "- Zc""Z .. ,)

+- (Ze"'" - Zc',') (Zc" s' Z.,." - Zc" .. ·Z .. )

This equation furnishes a solution for Io', from which Io" follows directly. To find the zero-sequence impedance of the entire circuit requires that one of the complete voltage drop equations be solved for Eo. Then

Eo Eo

ZD = --.-.~ = -. = Eo) ohms. 1D'+10" 1.U

Supplementary equations: The equations necessary to determine each impedance value are shown here: every impedance must be expressed in zero-sequence terms, with the effect of earth as a return path included.

90

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

TABLE 1S-CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY OF SINGLE-CONDUCTOR SOLID PAPER-INSULATED CABLES

Chapter 4

Number of Equa.lly Loaded C8.ble~ in Duct Dank

--------------,--------------------

3U

75

100

30

50

AMPERES PER CONDUCTOR'

30

lUO

5U

75

THRVV SIX NINE TWELVE

C081~:~rl--------------~-~----------.-L--------------------------~--------------------------L __

A WG Per Cent Load Factor

or

MCM

tOO

ao

75

100

6 " 2

1

o

00 000 0000

250 300 350 400 WO

600 700 750 800 1000

1250 1500 1750 2000

7500 Volts
........ _------------
116 IJ3 109 103 115 110 103 96
154 1411 142 135 152 144 131 125
202 ]96 186 175 1\19 189 175 162
234 226 214 201 Z30 218 WI 185
270 262 245 232 266 25] 231 212
311 300 283 202 3iJ'J WU 270 241
356 344 324 300 356 333 303 275
412 395 371 345 408 380 M1 314
456 438 40g 379 44g 418 319 344
512 491 459 423 499 464 420 380
561 537 500 460 546 507 457 403
607 580 I 540 496 593 548 493 445
692 660 611 561 679 626 560 504
772 735 679 62] 757 1196 621 557
846 804 141 {)77 827 7,;8 674 604
881 837 771 702 860 789 700 627
!l11 !!6B 797 72.'\ 892 817 725 648
1037 980 898 816 1012 922 815 725
1176 1108 )012 914 1145 l039 914 809
1300 1224 IIlO 1000 12G8 1146 1000 884
1420 1332 12{)4 10S0 1382 1240 rers 949
1546 1442 1300 1162 1500 ]343 1162 101\1
(1.07 at lO"C. 0.92 at 30"'C, 0.83 (1.07 at JO"C, 0,92 at 30"C, 0.83
at 40'C, 0.73 at SO'C)' at 40"'C, 0.73 at so-o»
------------".
15000 Volts
lI3 110 105 100 112 107 100 93
149 145 138 131 147 140 13l 117
195 190 180 170 193 l83 170 157
226 218 208 195 222 211 195 17~
256 248 234 220 2&2 239 220 203
297 287 271 254 295 278 253 232
311 330 312 2{)O 341 320 293 267
399 384 361 335 392 367 335 305
440 423 396 367 432 404 367 334
490 470 43\1 406 481 449 406 369
539 51t1 48l 444 527 491 443 401
586 561 522 480 572 530 478 432
669 639 592 543 655 005 542 488
746 710 656 601 727 668 598 537
810 772 712 652 790 726 647 58]
840 197 736 614 8~1 153 672 602
869 825 762 696 850 780 695 622
991 939 864 785 968 882 782 697
1130 1067 975 864 1I02 1000 883 784
1250 117G 1072 9613 1220 1105 972 856
1368 1282 1162 1044 1330 1198 1042 919
1464 1368 1233 i llOO 1422 1274 1106 970
(lOS at 10·C. 0.92 at SO'C, 0.82 (LOS at ro-c, 0,92 at SO'C, 0.82
at 40llC 0.7] at 500;)(":)1: at 4'()"C, O_7l at .sO"'Cp II 4 2 1

o 00

000

0000

250 300 350 400 500

600 700 150 800 1000

1250 1500 1750 2000

Copper Temperature, 85'C
............. __ .. _._
111 104 \14 85
147 136 122 110
192 178 ]59 142
222 204 181 162
261 242 2111 196 256 234 208 184
3U3 278 250 224 21Ib 268 236 20S
348 319 285 255 340 308 270 236
398 3M 325 290 390 352 307 269
437 400 356 316 427 386 336 294
486 442 394 349 474 428 371 325
532 483 429 379 518 466 403 352
576 522 461 407 560 502 434 378
659 597 524 459 641 571 4110 427
733 B63 579 50{) 714 632 542 470
802 721 629 548 77\1 688 587 508
835 750 651 568 810 714 609 526
865 776 674 588 840 740 630 544
980 874 756 657 950 632 705 606
1104 981 845 730 1068 941 784 673
1220 1078 922 794 1178 1032 855 131
[342 1166 992 851 1280 1103 919 783
1442 1260 1068 914 138'> 1100 986 839
(LU7 at ro-c, 0.92 a.t so-c, 0.83 (l.U7 at 10"C, U.92 at su-e, O.8~
at 40i)C. 0.73 at 50"e)=!! at 401le. 0.73 at 5O~CP
--"--,,--,.,,. ... -----~.---~--
Copper Temperature, 81·C 110 104
144 136
189 171
218 204
247 230
287 265
333 30G
383 352
422 387
470 429
514 4f,s
556 506
63G 577
705 631
766 69]
7% 716
823 741
933 832
]063 941
]175 1037
1278 1124
13W 119:! (1.08 at 10'C. 0 at 4.O"'C, 0.7

96 i 87 108 101 112 83
125 114 142 132 119 107
161 146 186 172 154 137
185 167 214 191 175 157
200 188 242 ~23 198 177
239 214 283 257 226 202
274 245 321 29G 200 230
315 280 374 340 298 263
345 306 412 372 325 286
382 338 457 413 359 3lG
4[6 367 501 450 391 342
447 395 542 485 419 366
507 445 618 50l 474 412
557 {8S 685 60S ~21 452
604 528 744 659 564 488
625 SH 772 I 684 581 505
646 565 800 707 604 522
724 631 903 794 675 581
816 706 1026 898 7M I 650
892 772 1133 I 987 828 1U7
958 824 1230 1063 886 755
1013 869 1308 112~ 93G 795
.92 &t 30'C. 0.82 (1.08 at to-e, 0.92 at 30'C, 0,82
t ee 50"C}2 at 4:(J.QC, 0.71 at 509C)~ Copper Temperature, rrc

I .................... __ ._-_._---
2 186 181 172 1112 184 175 162 )50 180 169 154 ! 140 178 164 147 )32
1 214 207 197 186 211 200 185 171 206 Ig3 176 159 203 187 167 150
0 247 239 227 213 244 230 2]3 196 239 222 197 182 234 211) 192 171
00 283 ~7a 258 242 27~ 2{)3 243 221 275 253 225 205 267 245 217 1113
000 326 314 296 277 320 I 302 276 252 31& 290 259 233 307 280 247 220
0000 3tO 362 S4{) 317 367 I 345 315 288 360 33:! 291 265 351 320 281 250
250 412 396 373 346 405 380 346 316 390 365 320 290 386 351 307 272
300 463 444 416 386 450 I 422 382 349 438 404 360 319 428 389 340 301
350 508 488 461'. 422 493 461 418 380 48[ 442 3\13 347 468 424 369 326
400 548 525 491 454 536 4\18 451 409 52l 478 423 373 5{l7 458 398 349
500 627 600 559 514 615 t 570 5]4 464 597 546 480 423 580 521 4.50 392
600 695 663 616 566 684 632 568 511 653 603 529 461> 645 577 4\l6 431
700 765 129 675 020 144 689 617 554 725 of>o 514 503 703 627 538 467
750 797 759 702 643 779 717 641 574 7M 68] 5116 527 732 650 558 4!S3
800 826 786 126 665 80S 743 663 595 7S~ 70(\ 617 540 159 674 576 500
1000 946 898 827 752 921 842 747 667 8l<~' 7\17 692 603 860 759 646 560
1250 1080 1020 935 848 1052 I 957 845 I 751 1011 904 781 678 980 858 725 630
1500 1192 1122 1025 925 1102 i 1053 926 818 1118 993 855 735 J081 940 791 1\82
1750 1296 12Lfi 1106 9114 1256 I i tao 991 875 1206 1067 911 785 Il62 1007 843 720
2000 1390 ]302 1)80 HJ58 l352 1213 10[,3 1128 1293 1137 967 831 l240 1073 893 760
(I ,0911!t 4~~~~'Oo6~O &~t 5~9~51 O.!IU (1.(19 .. t W'C, 090 at 30·C. 0<80 (J09 a~\~~~~'006~O 6~t ~~~1! 0.80 (),09 at 10'C, 0.90 at 30'C, 0.80
&t 40'C, 0,68 at bO'Ci' at 40'C, 0.62 at 50"C)' 23000 Volts

Continued

Chapter 4

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

91

TABLE 1S-CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY OF SINGLE-CONDUCTOR SOLID PAPER-INSULATED CABLES (Continued)

Conductor Size AWG

or MCM

1 ~ "t" ._N_u_m_b_c_r_O_f_E_q .. _u_a_ll_Y.,L_oadc_d_C_a~.I_e'_:in_D_u_c_t_B_a_n_k "";" _

. "_I_X . L __ _:"iIN_' _~~ _,_ T_W_E_L_V_E _

1--30-'--5-0--:--7-5--'-100--,,--30-'--5-0-'-'--7-5-7"-_1:: CT~I~:ad r~.:.t::..:r--''---7--5--'-I-00-'1-3-0-''--50--'--7-5-'--I00-' 1--__..1..__~_'---_--'-_---'. __ _C__~_---'-- __ -'---_~ ._~". -. ~.---'..---"!__-_!_--'------!'_----!'-~.

THREE

AMPERES PER CONDUCTOR'

34 500 Volts

Copper Temperature, 70·0

0 227 221 209 191 22;j 213 197 I
00 260 251 239 224 255 242 224 2
000 ,299 200 273 256 2{)S 278 256 2.
0000 341 330 312 291 336 317 291 2
250 380 367 345 322 374 352 321 2
300 422 408 382 355 416 390 356 3
350 464 446 419 389 455 426 388 3
400 502 484 451 4)9 491 4(;0 411 3
500 515 551 514 476 562 524 474 4
600 6014 616 573 528 629 584 526 4
700 710 675 626 577 690 639 5H 5
750 ta6 702 651 508 718 601 505 5,
800 765 730 676 620 747 690 611 5.
1000 875 i 832 76£ 701 852 783 698 (,
1250 994 941 864 786 967 882 782 6
1500 IWS WaG 949 859 1068 912 856 7
1750 1192 1123 1023 \125 nse 1048 \119 8
2000 1275 1197 1088 981 1234 n ts 975 8
2500 1418 1324 I 1196 1072 1367 1225 1064 9
(1.10 at ro-c, 0.89 at 30"C, 0.16 (L.lO at W·C, 0.80 et 30·C. 0.76
at 40'C, 0.51 at 50'C)' at 4U·C. 0.61 at W'C)'
------------- 7;. 17 35 55 24

96 60 14 50 36

220 I 205 187 !G9 215 I 199 171
249 234 211 190 24.1) 226 200
288 i 269 212 217 282 259 230
328 304 274 246 321 293 259
364 337 303 270 356 324 286
405 i 374 334 298 395 359 315
443 ! 408 364 324 432 392 343
478 440 390 341 466 421 368
1>47 500 442 392 532 479 416
mo 5..'")6 491 433 593 532 459
669 608 535 470 649 580 500
['96 631 551 486 675 602 SIS
723 654 574 b03 700 624 535
R2a 741 M6 564 796 706 601
930 833 722 628 898 790 670
1025 914 788 682 988 865 73U
1109 984 845 730 1066 929 780
usa 1045 1593 170 1135 985 824
1305 1144 973 834 )248 1075 893
{1.HJ nt LO"C, 0.89 at 30"'C. 0.76 (1.10 at 10·C, 0.89 at 3WC.
at 'WC. 0.60 at 50·C)' at 40·C. 0.60 at 50'C) ISB 179 204 230

253 278 302 323 364

41)1 435 450 465 520

577 6~ij 668 704 760

0.70 ,

82 05 35 67

94 24 53 79 29

46000 Volt.

Copper Tempera ture, 65'0

000 279 I 270 25() 240 274 259 23\1 ~21 268 249 226 204 262 241 214 19
0000 322 312 294 276 317 299 274 251 300 287 25\1 232 302 276 244 21
250 352 340 321 300 346 326 299 274 336 313 282 252 329 301 266 23
300 394 380 3.'18 334 385 3(,4 3:12 304 377 349 313 280 367 335 295 26
350 433 417 392 365 425 398 364 331 413 382 341 304 403 366 321 2
400 469 451 423 393 459 430 391 356 446 411 367 326 433 394 344 3
500 534 512 482 444 522 487 441 400 506 464 412 365 492 444 386 33
000 602 577 ~38 491) &89 546 494 447 570 520 46U 406 5Sa 497 430 37
700 663 633 589 542 645 598 5:18 486 626 569 502 441 605 542 468 40
750 889 658 fill WI G7Z 622 5£i9 504 050 590 .~20 457 629 562 485 42
800 717 683 638 583 G9g 645 578 522 674 612 538 412 652 582 501 I 43
1000 S16 776 718 657 70t 731 653 5S,s 7(\6 fin 604 528 740 657 562 48
1250 H27 879 810 738 GOO ! ~25 7J2 654 865 I 777 675 5S9 9.~4 736 626 54
1500 1020 968 887 805 992 \)04 ?91l 703 951 850 735 638 914 802 679 58
1750 1110 1047 959 867 1074 976 859 762 1028 I 915 788 I 682 987 862 726 62
2000 ll84 )1l5 ioie 918 1144 1035 909 805 1094 I 970 833 118 1048 913 766 ti5
2500 1314 1232 lI15 1002 12G5 I 1138 994 875 1205 i 1062 905 778 U51 \196 830 70
(1.11 at IO'C, 0.87 at 30·C. 0.73 (1.11 at IO'C, 087 at 30·C. 0.72 (1.1 I at IV-C. 0.87 at 30°C. 0.72 (1.12 at W·C. 0.87 at 30·C. (}.70
at 40°C. 0.54 at 50':'C):l" at 40"C, 0.53 at SQoC):t at 40~C. 0 . .52 at -50°C)2 "t 40'C, 0.51 at 50'C)'
-". 1 7

6 o 83 07 9

7 8 2 6 1

I 5 3 6 8

69000 Volt.

Copper Temperature, 6O'C

350 395 382 300 336 387 364 333 305 375 I 348 I 312 ! 279 365 i 332 293 I 259
400 428 413 389 362 418 393 358 328 405 375 335 300 394 358 315 278
500 48\l 470 441 409 477 446 406 370 4tH I 425 3711 I 3J7 447 405 354 31Z
600 545 524 490 454 532 496 450 409 513 , 471 419 371 497 448 391 343
700 599 573 536 495 582 543 490 444 561 514 I 455 ! 403 542 489 425 372
750 623 Ml7 556 514 605 5&2 508 460 583 533 I 472 H7 563 506 439 384
800 644 617 575 531 626 582 525 475 603 i 554 481 I 430 582 523 453 396
1000 736 702 652 599 713 660 592 533 oR;} 622 547 481 61\0 1\89 508 442
1250 832 792 734 672 806 742 664 595 772 698 610 ! 535 741 659 584 489
1500 918 872 804 733 88fj sg 724 647 848 , 7Ga 664 i 580 812 718 612 529
l750 994 942 865 788 957 876 776 692 913 818 711 818 873 770 653 563
WOO 10£6 1(}()8 I 924 840 1020 93t 822 I 732 972 808 750 I 551 927 814 688 592
2500 1163 1006 1001 903 1115 IOt3 892 191 1060 \142 811 700 1007 880 741 635
{1.L3 &-t. ro-c, 0.85 at SW·C. 0.07 (1.13 at 10'C, 0.85 at 3Q'C, 0.66 {1.13 at lO·C. 0.54 at 30°C. 0.65 (1.14 at IO'C, O.S4 at 30°C, 0.04
at 40·C. O.4~ at 50'C)' at 40'C. 0.40 at We)' at 40'C, 0.35 at 50'C)' at 40'C, 0.32 at 50'C)' lCurrent ratings am beeed on the following ccnd it.iona:

R. Ambient earth temperature=20"C. b. 60 cycle alternaHng eu rren t.

0, Sheath. bonded and grounded at one point only (open circuited eheatha),

d. Standard concentric stranded conductors,

e. Ratings include dielec tr-ic loss and skin effect.

f. One cable per duct, all cables equally leaded and in outside duets only.

:iMuhiply tabulated values by these [acton! when ear tu temperature lS other than 20"C.

92

Electrical Charactert"stics of Cables

Chapter 4

Z".=l[ro+r.+j(xs+xe-2xd)] ohms, where l=circuit length in miles, and the other terms are defined as for Eq. (19).

Zo" is defined similarly.

Za' = 1[3r.+r.+j(3x.+x.)] ohms, where the terms are defined as for Eq. (23).

Z .. ' is determined similarly.

Zc'.'= l[r.+j(3x.+x.)] ohms, where the terms are defined as for Eq. (26).

Z,,,..' is determined similarly.

Zo·o"=Zo'."=Z.· .. ·=l[r.+j(xa-3xd)] ohms, where S

Xd =0.2794 JoglO 12' using for S the eenter-to-esnter

spacing between cables," in inches.

A more general version of the above type of problem, covering those cases where the cables are not necessarily bussed together, is described by Cheek."

Example 5-The use of complex GMR's and GMD's will very often reduce a complicated problem to workable terms. The use and significance of these factors should be studied thoroughly before attempting a solution by this method (see Chap. 3).

TABLE I9-CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY FOR SINGLECONDUCTOR OIL-FILLED PAPER-INSULATED CABLES (amperes per conductor)«

Rated Line Voltage-Grounded Neutral
I j -- -rii5000 I 138000
Circular Mils. 34500 46000 69000
orA.W.G. --Deg.C.
(B.& S.) Maximum Copper Temperature
75 75 75 70 70
0 256 ..... -"" •• +.' , .. _,
00 287 286 282 ~ .... . ... ,
000 320 310 300 I "or' o •• , ~
0000 378 367 367 347 335
250000 405 395 390 365 352
300 000 450 440 430 402 392
350000 492 482 470 438 427
400000 528 512 502 470 460
500 000 592 592 568 530 522
600000 655 650 628 585 578
700000 712 710 68g i 635 630
750000 742 740 715 I 667 658
800000 767 765 740 685 680
1000000 872 870 845 775 762
1250000 900 982 955 875 852
1500000 1082 1075 1043 957 935
1750000 1165 1162 1 125 1030 1002
2000000 1240 1240 1200 1 100 1070
Deg. C. Correction Factor for Various Earth Temps.
.. __ ....... . .... _--
10 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.09
20 1.00 1.00 1.00 LOa 1.00
30 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.89 0.89
40 .79 .79 .79 .77 .77 75'l'? load lacwr .... umed.

Ratmg. include dielectric lose and skin effeet.

Ratings baeed on. open~<'.ifcuited ebee tb opere t.lcn ; i.e.-no sheath loss con ... sidered.

• Applies to three simHa.r loaded cables in a duct bank; for- alx loaded cab-lee In " duct bank, mulfiply above values by 0.91.

TABLE 20~SUGGESTEO WITHSTAND IMPULSE VOLTAGES FOR CABLES WITH METALLIC COVERING"

. I Solid-Paper Oil-Filled Paper
Basic Insulation Insulation
Insulation I Impulse
Class r Insulation Insulation WithstnnJ Insulation IWithstnnd
kv ! ~e~el for <Thickness Voltage Thic~nessl Voltage
r EqUIpment I mils ___ ~_~ __ 1 mils kv
i
1.2 I 30 78 94 .. . ...
2.5 r 45 78 94 ... ...
r 60 94 113
5.0 .. . . ..
8.7 75 141 169 . ' . ...
15 110 203 244 110 132
23 150 266 319 145 174
34.5 200 375 450 190 228
46 250 469 563 225 270
69 350 688 825 315 378
115 550 ... ., . 480 575
138 650 .. . ... 560 672
161 750 .. . ., . 648 780
230 1050 .. . ., . 925 IIlO =Based on recommend a tions by Halperin and Shanklin."

Circuit: Four paralleled cables similar to the threeconductor belted cable described in Example 1, and arranged in a duct bank as illustrated in Fig. 18.

Problem: To find the overall zero-sequence impedance of the circuit, with sheaths and ground in parallel, or with return current only in the sheaths.

GMR of three conductors,

GMR3a=O.338 inches (from example 1).

(a) Cable configuration.

o.soo

r OF ONE CONDUCTOR NO. OF CIRCUITS

CONDUCTOR 8FtANCH

0.286

. I 1!!O •

JO.838 oglo T+T

OR 0 I

. I D.

10.838 0910 (GMD) SEPARATION

(ro Hj)[ro -rjl[No.OF SHEATHS} _

""

(b) General equivalent circuit.

Fill. lS-Four three-conductor cables In a duct bank (lee Example 5).

Chapter 4

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

GMR of the four conductor groups,

GMR~g= !.V(O.338)4(5)6(1O)«15)2 =3.479 inches.

Equivalent spacing of three conductors to their sheath, ri+rG 0812' h

Seq =-- =. me es.

2

GMD among the conductors and the sheaths, GMD(4g-u) = }{:/(O.812)4(5)6(1O)4(15)2 = 4.330 inches.

From Fig. 18(b), resistance of the sheath branch,

.- 0.600 __ ~ 0.848 ohms per mile. (1.623) (0.109)( 4)

Also from Fig. 18(b), impedance of the ground branch

, 2800 X 12

=0.286+)0.838 Iog1o 4.330

=O,286+j3.260 ohms per mile.

93

DISTANCE Of' CABLES .ROM STEEL PLATE-INCHES

Fig. 19-Effect of steel plates on current-carrying capacity of single-conductor cables. Three phase system; :IIat confilluration.

12~.----r---'----.--~---.---~---'----r----r----r--;~--~~~--~ uool---------l--l------+---t--+--l------+---+---+--t--T-I/~r-----lIO

~V

INSULATION THICKNESS. MILS

Filt. 20-Summary of aome impulse tests on paper-insulated cables (based on information presented by Foust and Scott13).

Key:

1 Davis and Eddy,J2 1 :t HI negative wave, high density paper, solid insulation (Simplex Wire and Cable Co.).

:2 Held and Le1chllenring,11 negative wave, solid insulation. 3 Held and Lelchsenrlng, positive and negative waves, 011- filled insulation.

4 Held and Leichsenrtng, positive wave, solid insulation.

S An unpublished test, regular density paper, oil-filled insulation (General Cable Corporation).

(, Foust and Scott, average of five tests, 1 x 10 positive wave, regular density paper, solid insulation (General Electric ce.i,

7 An unpublished test, high density paper, oil-filled tnsuIation (General Cable Corporation).

10

12

8 An unpublished test, solid insulation (The Okonite Company),

9 Foust and Scott, 1.5 x 40 positive wave, regular density paper, solid insulation.

10 Foust and Scott, combination regular and medium den-

sity paper, solid insulation.

11 Foust and Scott, hiih density paper, solid insulation.

12 Foust and Scott, medium density paper. solid insulation. 13 Foust and Scott, 1.5 x 40 positive wave, combination reg-

ular and medium density paper, solid insulation.

14 Foust and Scott, 0.5 x 40 positive wave, regular density paper, solid Insulatlon,

15 Foust and Scott, 0.5 x 5 positive wave, regular density paper. solid insulation.

94

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

Chapter 4

The zero-sequence impedance with sheath and ground in parallel)

Za 0.848(0.286+j3.250) +0.247+ '0.0797

0.848+ (O.286+j3.260) J

== L022+jO.275 ohms per phase per mile.

The absolute value of this impedance is 1.06 ohms per phase per mile.

The zero-sequence impedance considering all return current in the sheath and none in the ground,

Zo= (0.247 +}o.on}7) +0.848

= l.095+jO.0797 ohms per phase per mile.

The absolute value of this impedance is 1.1 ohms per phase per mile, or substantially the same as with the sheath and ground in parallel. In this case the effect of high sheath resistance is minimized by the fact that four sheaths are paralleled.

V. IMPULSE STRENGTH OF CABLES

Power-transmission circuits are often made up of cables and overhead-line sections connected in series, and this construction may impose lightning-surge voltages on the cable insulation. Even when circuits are totally underground, it is possible that cable insulation will be stressed by transient overvoltages caused by switching operations. For these reasons the impulse strength of cable insulation is information of some value for predicting cable performance in an actual installation.

No industry-wide standards have been established for cable impulse strength. Test data from various sources is available, 12.13 and some of these results for paper-insulated cables are shown in Fig. 20. Several variables are inherent in the curves, so that the spread of the test points is wider than might be obtained with uniformly controlled test conditions. The factors not yet. completely investigated include the effect of normal insulation aging, the relation between actual voltage gradient within the insulation and the average gradient, wave shape and polarity of the test impulse voltage, and grade or compounding of insulation.

Using 1200 volts per mil average stress as a safe withstand impulse strength for paper-insulated cables, as suggested by Halperin and Shanklin," the withstand voltages for representative cables may be listed as in Table 20.

REFERENCES

1. Calculation of the Electrical Problems of Underground Cables, by D. M. Simmons, The Electric Journal, Vol. 29, May to November, 1932. (The first article in this series contains a cornprehensive bibliography f'or Hl32 and bof'oro.)

2. Symmetrical Components by C. F. Wagner and R. D. Evans (a book), McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1933.

3. The Tran~mis8ion of Electric Power, Vols. I and IT, by W. A.

Lewis (fl. book), Illinois Institute of Technology, 1948.

4. Current-Rating and Impedance of Cables in Buildings and Ships, by H. C. Booth, E. E. Hutchings, and S. Whitehead, I.E.E. Journal, VoL 83, Oetober 1\)38, p. 4H7.

5. Problems in the Measurement, of A-C Resistance and Reactance of Large Conductors, by E. H. Salter, A.I.E.E. Transactions, VoL 67,1948, pp. 1390-1396.

6. A-C Resistance of Large Size Conductors in Steel Pipe or Conduit, by R. J. Wiseman, A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 67, 1948, pp, 1745-1758.

7. Reactance of Large Cables in Steel Pipe or Conduit by W. A.

Del Mar, A.I.E.E. Transr;u;lions, Vol. 67, 1948, pp. 1409-1412.

8. Unbalanced Currents in Cable Groups, by C. F. Wagner and H. N. Muller, Jr., The Electric Journal, Vol. 35, October 1938, p.390.

9. Zero-Sequence Impedances of Parallel Three-Conductor Cables, by R. C. Cheek, Electric Light and Power, October 1948, p. 74.

10. The Temperature Rise of Cables in a Duct Bank, by J. H.

Neher, AJ.E.E. Technical Paper 49-134, April 1949.

11. Determination of Cable Temperature by Means of Reduced Scale Models, by Andrew Gemant and Joseph Stieber, A.l.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 65, 1946, pp, 475-482.

12. Impulse Strength of Cable Insulation by E. W. Davis and W. N. Eddy, A.l.E.E. Transactions, VoL 59, July 1940, p. 394.

13. Some Impulse-Voltage Breakdown Tests on Oil-Treated PaperInsulated Cables, by C. M. Foust and J. A. Scott, A.I.E.E. Tronsoctioue, VoL 59, July 1940, p. 389.

14. Impedance of Three-Phase Secondary Mains in Nonmetallic and Iron Conduits, by L. Brieger, F.E.I. Bulletin, February 1938.

15. Specifications for Impregnated Paper-Insulated Lead-Covered Cable: "Solid" Type (ith and 8th editions), "Oil-Filled" Type (4th edition), "Low-Pressure Gas-Filled" Type (Ist edition), prepared by Association of Edison Illuminating Companies.

16. Current Carrying Capacity of Impregnated Paper, Rubber, and Varnished Cambric Insulated Cables (1st edition), compiled by The Insulated Power Cable Engineers Association, Publication No. P-29-226.

17. The Behavior of High Tension Cable Installations Under the Effect of Voltage Impulses, by C. H. Held and H. W. Leich~cnring. Paper No. 207, C.l.G.R.E., Paris, June-July 1939.

18. Impulse Strength of Insulatad-Powor-Cnbla Circuits, by Herman Halperin and G. R Shanklin, A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 63, 1944, p. 1190.

B[)oko

40. F:leclric CableR, by W. A. Del Mar, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1924.

41. Electrical Charocterisiics of Transmission Circuits, by William Nesbit, Westinghouse Teehuieal Night Sehoul Press, East Pittsburgh, Pa., 3rd edition, H)26.

42. Underground Systems Reference Book, NELA Publication No. 0.')0, 1931.

43. Symmetrical Components, by C. F. Wagner and R. D. Evans Mctlraw-Hill Book Company, 1933.

44. Impreynated Paper Insulation, by J. B. Whitehead, John Wiley & Sons, 1935.

45. Electric Power Transmission and Distribution, by L. F. Woodruff, John Wiley & Sons, 1938.

46. The Principle» of Electric Power Transmission, by H. Waddioor, Chapman & Hall, 1939.

47. The [ransmiS,lion of Electric Power, VOlE. I and II, by W. A.

Lewis, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1948.

Impedance and Capacitance

tiu. Formulas and Tables for the Calculation of Mutual and SeIfIrrduct.n.neo, Messrs. Rosa and Glover, Bureau of Standards Scientific Papers, No. S169, 1916; also No. 8320, ]918.

61. Proximity Effect in Cable Sheaths, Dwight, A.l.E.E. Transactions, September, 1\J31, p, 9U3.

62. Calculation of tho Electr-ical Problems of Underground Cables, by D. M. Simmons, The Electric Journal, VoL 29, May, June, July, October and .November 1932, pp. 237, 283, 337, 476, and 527.

63. Calculations of Inductance and Current Distribution in LowVoltage Connections to Electric Furnaces, by C. C. Levy, A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 51, December 1932, p. 903.

Chapter 4

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

95

64. Resistance and Reactance of Three-Conductor Cables, by E. H.

Salter, G. B. Shanklin, and R. J. Wiseman, A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 53, December 1934, p. 1581.

65. Impedance Measurements on Underground Cables, by R. 1.

Webb and O. W. Manz, r-, A.I.E.E. Transactions, VoL 55, April 1936, p. 359.

66. Impedance of Three-Phase Secondary Mains in Nonmetallic and Iron Conduits, by L. Brieger, E.E.r. Bulletin, February 1938.

67. Unbalanced Currents in Cable Groups, by C. F. Wagner and H.

N. Muller,Jr., The Electric Journal, Vol. 35, October 1938,p. 300.

68. Current-Rating and Impedance of Cables in Buildings and Ships, by H. C. Booth, E. E. Hutchings, and S. Whitehead, I.E.E. Journal, Vol. 83, October 1938, p. 197.

69. Problems in the Measurement of A-C Resistance and Reactance of Large Conductors, by E. H. Salter, A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 67, 1948, p. 1300.

70. Reactance of Large Cables in Steel Pipe or Conduit, by W. A.

Del Mar, A.I.E.E. Transaclion8, Vol. 67, 1948, p. 1409.

71. A-C Resistance of Large Size Conductors in Steel Pipe or Conduit, by R. J. Wiseman, A.I.E.E. Transactiom, Vol. 67, 1948, p.1715.

72. Zero-Sequence Impedances of Parallel Three-Conductor Cables, by R C. Cheek, Electric Light and Pawer, October 1948, p.74.

73. A-C Resistance of Segmental Cables in Steel Pipc, by L. Meyerhoff and G. S. Eager, Jr., A.I.E.E. Traneaction«, VoL 68, H)19, p.816.

74. Transpositions and the Calculation of Inductance from Geometric Mean Distances, by W. B. Boast, A.J.KE. ~l'ransaction8, Vol. 60, Part II, 1950, p. 1531.

Load Rating and Heating

100. Temperatures in Electric Power Cables Under Variable Loading, by K A. Church, A.I.E.E. Transactions, September, 1931, p.982.

101. Calculation of the Electrical Problems of Underground Cables, by D. M. Simmons. The Electric Journal, VoL 29, August and September 1932, pp. 395 and 4.23.

102. Thermal Transients and Oil Demands in Cables, by K. W.

Miller and F. O. Wollaston, A.I.E.E. Transactions, March 1933, Vol. 52, p. 98.

103. Economical Loading of Underground Cables, by E. A. Church, A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 54, November 1935, p. 1166.

104. Current-Rating and Impedance of Cables in Buildings and Ships, by H. C. Booth, E. E. Hutchings, and S. Whitehead, I.E.E. Journal, Vol. 83, October 1938, p. 497.

105. Maximum Safe Operating Temperatures for 15 kv Paper-Insulated Cables, by C. W. Franklin and E. R. Thomas, A.I E.E. Transactions, October 1939, Vol. 58, p. 556.

106. Load Ratings of Cable, by Herman Halperin, A.I.E.E. Tramactions, VoL 58, October 1939, p. 535.

107. Economical Loading of High-Voltage Cables Installed in Underground Subway Systems, by E. R. Thomas, A.I.E.E. Transactions, 1939, Vol. 58, p. 611.

108. Load Ratings of Cable-II, by Herman Halperin, A.I.E.E, Transactian.s, Vol. 61, p 931, 1942.

109. Guide for Wartime Conductor Temperatures for Power Cable in Service (committee report), ALE E. Transactions, VoL 63, September 1943, p. 006.

110. Current Carrying Capa~it,y of Tmpl"p.gn9tecl Paper, Rubber, and Varnished Cambric Insulated Cables (Ist edition), compiled by The Insulated Power Cable Engineers Association, Publication No. P-29-220, 1943.

11 L Determination of Cuble Temperature by Means of Reduced Scale Models, by Andrew Gemant and Joseph Stieber, A.I.E.E. 'I'rtmsaciitm», VoL 65, 1946, p. 475.

112. Thermal Characteristics of a 120 kv High-Pressure, Gas-Filled Cable Installation, by W. D. Handerson, Joseph Sticher, and M. H. McGrath, A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 67, Part I, 1948, p.487.

113. The Temperature Rise of Buried Cables and Pipes, by J. H.

Neher, A.l.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 68, Part I, 1949, p. 9.

114. The Temperature Rise of Cables in a Duct Bank, by J. H.

Neher. A.I.E.E. Transactions, VoL 68, Part r, 1949, p. 541. n s. Transient Temperature Phenomena of 3-Conductor Cables, by F. O. Wollaston, A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 68, Part II, 1949, p. 1284.

116. The Thermal Resistance Between Cables and a Surrounding Pipe or Duct Wall, by F. H. Buller and J. H. Neher, A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 69, Part I, 1950, p. 342.

117. Heat Transfer Study on Power Cable Ducts and Duct Assemblies, by P. Greebler and G. F. Barnett, A.I.E.E. Transactions, VoL 69, Part I, 1950, p. 357.

Insulation

140. The Behavior of High Tension Cable Installations Under the Effect of Voltage Impulses, by C. H. Held and H. 'V. Leichsenring. Paper No. 207, C.LO.RE. Paris, June-July, 1939.

141. Impulse Strength of Cable Insulation by E. W. Davis and W.

N. Eddy, A.I.E.E. Transactions, VoL 59, July 1940, p. 394.

142. Some Impulse-Voltage Breakdown Tests on Oil-Treated PaperInsulated Cables, by C. M. Foust and J. A. Scott, A.I.E.E, Transactions, Vol. 59, July 1940, p. 389.

143. Impulse Strength of Insulated-Power-Cable Circuits, by Herman Halperin and G. B. Shanklin, A.I.E.B. Transactions, Vol. 63, HlH, p. 1190.

144. Power Factor Measurements on Poly-phase and Multiconductor Cable Using Single-Phase Bridges, by E. W. Greenfield, s.i.s.«. 'I'ranscciione, Vol. 69, Part 11, 1950, p. 680.

General

150. Characteristics of Oil-filled Cable, Shanklin and Buller, A.I.E.B. Transactions, December, 1931, p. 1411.

151. Oil-filled Cable and Accessories, Atkinson and Simmons, A.I.E.E. Transactions, December, 1931, p. 1421.

152. 120 kv Compression-Type Cable, by 1. T. Faucett, L. L Komives, H. W. Collins, and R W. Atkinson, A.I.E.E. Transactions, VoL 61, September 1942, p. 652.

153. 120 kv High-Pressure Gae-Pilled Cable, by L T. Faucett, L.

L Komives, H. W. Collins, and R. W. Atkinson, A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 61, September 1942, p. 658.

154. Low-, Medium-, and High-Pressure Gas-Filled Cable, by G. B.

Shanklin, A.LE.E. T'ransuctions, Vol. 61, October 1942, p. 719.

155. Cable for Power Transmission and Distribution, by C. T.

Hatcher, Electric Light and Power, September 1946, p. 38, and October 1946, p, 72.

150. High-Pressure, Gas-filled Cable Impregnated with Extra-High Viseosi ty Oi I, by Joseph Sticher, G. H. Doan, R.. W. A t.kinson, and Louis Meyerhoff, A.I.E.B. Transactions, Vol. 68, Part I, 1949, p.336.

157. Speclfications for Wire and Cable with Rubber and Rubber" Like Tnsulat.ions, 1st edition. 1946, prepared by Insulated Power Cable Engineers Association.

158. Specifications for Varnished Cambric Insulated Cable, 5th edition, 1946, prepared by Insulated Power Cable Engineers Associat ion.

159. Specifications for Impregnated Paper-Insulated Lead-Covered Cable: "Solid" Type (7th and 8th editions, 1947), "Oil-Filled" Type (4th edition, 1947), "Low-Pressure Gas-Filled" Type (Lst edition, 1948), prepared by Association of Edison Illuminating Companies.

Bibliofll'aphies

180. Calculation of the Electrical Problems of Underground Cables, by D. M. Simmons, The Electric Journal, Vol. 29, May 1932, p.237.

181. Underground Systems Reference Book, NELA Publication No. 050, 1931, Appendix II.

18~ Ratillg of Cables in Relation to Voltage, (Bibliography on Dielectrics) by D. M. Simmons, A.I.E.E. Transactions, Vol. 41, 1922, p. 601.