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unit conversion in heat transfer

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y (1)

(2)

n

z

x

Z

(X,Y,Z)

p

How to compute CS e V n dA ------ (A)

V n v n cos

(1)

N

(2)

V 2

: mean kinectic energy

2

2

V

------ (D)

e

gy U gy : potential energy

2

U : internal energy

V2

V2

p

p

gy U x x Vx

gy U x y z

Vx

2

2

Y

(4)

y

z

(3)

x

Z

(X,Y,Z)

Similarly, applying (A), (B),(C) & (D) at planes (3) and (4), one obtains:

V2

V2

p

p

gy

V

gy U y x z

y

y y

y

2

2

(5) (6)

z

x

Z

(X,Y,Z)

Applying (A), (B),(C) & (D) at planes (5) and (6), one obtains:

V2

V2

p

p

gy

V

gy U z x y

z

z z

z

2

2

DT

Dt

T T T

,

where T

,

,

x y z

kT q Cv

T T T

k T k

,k

,k

y

z

x

, ,

x y z

T T T

k T k

,k

,k

y

z

x

A ? where A= (a1,a2,a3)

a

a a

1 2 3

------ divergence of a vector is scalar

x

y

z

gradient

scalar

vector

divergence

kT

T

T

(k

) (k

) (k

)

x x

y y

z z

DT

: Substantial derivative

Dt

T

T

T

T

ux

uy

uz

t

x

y

z

This term vanishes if there is no convective flow contribution

: dissipation function

2

2

V 2 V y 2 V 2

V

V y V y Vz Vz Vx 2

x

x

z

2

x z

y x

z

x y z

y

Attached please find the four questions for the CN2125 assignment #1. The numbers

cited refer to the following main textbook listed in the module website. (WRF) WELTY

J.R., RORRER G. & FOSTER D.G. (2015) Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass

Transfer, International Student Version, 6th Edition. Publisher John Wiley & Son, New

York.

(1) Problem 1: WRF Chapter 14 Question (5)

corkboard (k=0.025 Btu/h-ft-oF), and in. of plastic (k = 1.5 Btu/h-ft-oF).

a. Draw the thermal circuit for the steady-state conduction through the wall.

b. Evaluate the individual thermal resistance of each material layer.

c. Determine the heat flux if the steel surface is maintained at 250oF and the plastic

surface held at 80oF.

d. What are the temperatures on each surface of the corkboard under these

conditions?

A 2-in. schedule-40 steel pipe carries saturated steam at 60psi through a laboratory that is

60 ft long. The pipe is insulated with 1.5 in. of 85% magnesia that costs $0.75 per foot.

How long must the steam line be in service to justify the insulation cost if the heating

cost for the steam is $0.68 per 105 Btu? The outside-surface convective heat-transfer

coefficient may be taken as 5 Btu/h-ft2-oF. Hints: You may assume the room temperature

to be 70oF. The energy saving (comparing the difference between with-insulation and

without-insulation cases) has to recover the cost for adding the insulation.

How long will a 1-ft concrete wall subject to a surface temperature of 1500oF on one side

maintain the other side below 130oF? The wall is initially at 70oF. Hint: You may solve

the problem by the solution for semi-infinite wall with finite resistance. In general, the

accuracy is greater than 99.5% when the following relationship is true: L/2(t)^0.5 > 2.

Otherwise, the solution accuracy is compromised and the solution is only an approximate

solution.

L/(2 (t)^0.5 =

1ft/(2(0.0231t)^0.5)> 2

t < 2.70 hrs

This estimated time actually go beyond the 99.5% accuracy hence it is taken as a rough

estimate.

Due 2:00pm, Feb. 12, 2015@ LT7

Kindly submit your assignment through your tutorial group class representative. The

graded assignments will be returned to you through the same class representative roughly

2 week after your submission.

Sincerely yours,

Chi-Hwa Wang

CN2125 Co-instructor

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