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# Y

y (1)

(2)

## (left & right)

n

z
x
Z

(X,Y,Z)

p
How to compute CS e V n dA ------ (A)

V n v n cos

(1)

## At plane (2), V n v cos 1 Vx 1 ------- (C)

N
(2)

V 2
: mean kinectic energy
2
2
V
------ (D)
e
gy U gy : potential energy
2
U : internal energy

V2
V2
p
p

gy U x x Vx
gy U x y z
Vx

2
2
Y
(4)
y

## ( bottom & top)

z

(3)
x
Z

(X,Y,Z)

Similarly, applying (A), (B),(C) & (D) at planes (3) and (4), one obtains:

V2
V2
p
p

gy

V
gy U y x z
y
y y
y

2
2

(5) (6)

## (front & back)

z

x
Z

(X,Y,Z)

Applying (A), (B),(C) & (D) at planes (5) and (6), one obtains:

V2
V2
p
p

gy

V
gy U z x y
z
z z
z

2
2

DT
Dt
T T T
,
where T
,
,
x y z
kT q Cv

## ------gradient of a scalar is vector

T T T
k T k
,k
,k

y
z
x

, ,
x y z

T T T
k T k
,k
,k

y
z
x
A ? where A= (a1,a2,a3)
a
a a
1 2 3
------ divergence of a vector is scalar
x
y
z

scalar

vector
divergence

kT

T
T
(k
) (k
) (k
)
x x
y y
z z

DT
: Substantial derivative
Dt

T
T
T
T
ux
uy
uz
t
x
y
z
This term vanishes if there is no convective flow contribution

## q : Heat generation per unit volume unit time

: dissipation function
2
2
V 2 V y 2 V 2
V
V y V y Vz Vz Vx 2
x
x
z

2

x z
y x
z
x y z
y

## Dear CN2125 Students:

Attached please find the four questions for the CN2125 assignment #1. The numbers
cited refer to the following main textbook listed in the module website. (WRF) WELTY
J.R., RORRER G. & FOSTER D.G. (2015) Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass
Transfer, International Student Version, 6th Edition. Publisher John Wiley & Son, New
York.
(1) Problem 1: WRF Chapter 14 Question (5)

## A composite wall is to be constructed of in stainless steel (k=10Btu/h-ft-oF), 3 in. of

corkboard (k=0.025 Btu/h-ft-oF), and in. of plastic (k = 1.5 Btu/h-ft-oF).
a. Draw the thermal circuit for the steady-state conduction through the wall.
b. Evaluate the individual thermal resistance of each material layer.
c. Determine the heat flux if the steel surface is maintained at 250oF and the plastic
surface held at 80oF.
d. What are the temperatures on each surface of the corkboard under these
conditions?

## (2) Problem 2: WRF Chapter 16 Question (8)

A 2-in. schedule-40 steel pipe carries saturated steam at 60psi through a laboratory that is
60 ft long. The pipe is insulated with 1.5 in. of 85% magnesia that costs \$0.75 per foot.
How long must the steam line be in service to justify the insulation cost if the heating
cost for the steam is \$0.68 per 105 Btu? The outside-surface convective heat-transfer
coefficient may be taken as 5 Btu/h-ft2-oF. Hints: You may assume the room temperature
to be 70oF. The energy saving (comparing the difference between with-insulation and
without-insulation cases) has to recover the cost for adding the insulation.

## (3) Problem 3: WRF Chapter 17 Question (17)

How long will a 1-ft concrete wall subject to a surface temperature of 1500oF on one side
maintain the other side below 130oF? The wall is initially at 70oF. Hint: You may solve
the problem by the solution for semi-infinite wall with finite resistance. In general, the
accuracy is greater than 99.5% when the following relationship is true: L/2(t)^0.5 > 2.
Otherwise, the solution accuracy is compromised and the solution is only an approximate
solution.

L/(2 (t)^0.5 =
1ft/(2(0.0231t)^0.5)> 2
t < 2.70 hrs

## = k/( Cp) = 0.7/(144*0.21)=0.0231 ft2/h

This estimated time actually go beyond the 99.5% accuracy hence it is taken as a rough
estimate.
Due 2:00pm, Feb. 12, 2015@ LT7