You are on page 1of 4

Name: _______________________

Unit 3 review Short Answer questions


Questions on igneous rocks:
1. Briefly describe how a geologist would use texture and mineral composition to determine the type of igneous
rock.
Igneous rocks can be classified according to its texture and mineral composition. The texture refers to
the size, shape, and arrangement of minerals within an igneous rock and is determined by the
environment and the rate at which the molten rock cools. The faster the cooling, the smaller the
crystals. This can form a glassy or fine (aphanitic) texture. The slower the cooling rate, the larger the
crystals. This can form a coarse (phaneritic) texture. Mineral composition refers to the mineral make
up of the igneous rock. Minerals in igneous rocks are generally dark in color or light in color. Igneous
rocks are classified as mafic, intermediate and felsic. Each of these three classifications are based on
the mineral composition and are reflected by the relative color of the igneous rock.
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________

Questions on sedimentary rocks:


2. In relation to the rock cycle, explain two processes responsible for the formation of sedimentary rocks.
Lithification is the process that turns sediment into rock. The first stage of the process is compaction.
Compaction occurs as the weight of the overlying material increases. Compaction forces the grains
closer together, reducing pore space and eliminating some of the contained water. The second stage
of the process is called cementation. Some of this water may carry mineral components (silica/calcite)
in solution, and these chemicals may later precipitate as new minerals in the pore spaces. This causes
cementation, which will then start to bind the individual particles together.
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________

Questions using igneous composition.


3. Using the chart below, compare the chemical composition of a sample of granite with that of peridotite.

The chemical composition refers to what minerals are found in each rock type. With reference to the
diagram above granite and peridotite are found on opposite ends of the chart and are composed of
different minerals. Granite has a felsic composition and contain minerals such as quartz, potassium
feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, biotite, and hornblende (amphibole). Peridotite has a mafic composition
and contain minerals such as, plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, and olivine.
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________

Questions on mineral group types:


4. Place the following chemical formulae in the chart below under the corresponding mineral groups.

Questions on specific gravity:


5. A mineral sample was studied and the following data obtained. Using the data, determine the minerals
specific gravity.

As outlined in the core lab on determining specific gravity, a minerals specific gravity is equal to the
density of that mineral. To find the density, the mass is divided by the volume.

Questions on the rock cycle:


6. Explain how sedimentary rocks may eventually form metamorphic rocks.
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
Heat generally bakes a rock and causes the texture and/or mineral composition to change form
resulting in the formation of metamorphic rock.
Pressure causes sedimentary particles (minerals) to compress which may result in the reorganization
of the particles (elements) to form metamorphic textures and/or metamorphic minerals.
Chemical fluids often cause the rock texture and chemical composition of the minerals to alter,
forming a metamorphic rock.

Questions on identifying minerals:


7. A geologist found an unknown colourless, transparent mineral. List and describe two mineral properties that
can be used to identify this mineral.

________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
Answer: A scientist could rely on a number of different physical properties to identify minerals,
however, the four most reliable include the following; hardness, cleavage, specific gravity and streak.
The streak, which is the true color of the mineral in powdered form may not be of much use in this
case since the minerals in question are colorless and transparent. Hardness, which is the resistance of
a mineral to scratching would be one property used to help identify the colorless mineral. Cleavage,
which is the minerals ability to split or break along definite planes of weak bonding would be another
property used to identify the colorless mineral. Specific gravity, which is the weight of a mineral
compared to that of an equal volume of water could also be used to identify the colorless mineral.
Other properties can be used depending on the minerals in question, such as, fluorescence, and acid
test.

Questions on metamorphic rocks:


8. Explain the difference between regional metamorphism and contact metamorphism within a mountain
environment. Include a labeled diagram with your answer.
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
Answer: Two of the main factors that affect metamorphism is temperature and pressure. During
regional metamorphism, both heat and pressure are present which cause rocks to change
(metamorphosis) over a large area. For example, the interior of mountainous environments experience
regional metamorphism, ( see diagram). Whereas, during contact metamorphism, only heat is needed
to cause rocks to change (metamorphosis) over a relatively smaller area. For example, the area
immediately surrounding (in contact with) hot molten rock (see diagram).