Ship-Theory Propulsion 2

© All Rights Reserved

70 views

Ship-Theory Propulsion 2

© All Rights Reserved

- Ameren-Illinois-Basic-Generation-Service
- Propeller Handbook
- Resistance & Propulsion
- Using KT and KQ for Design
- Cable Sizing
- Upper-Peninsula-Power-Co-Residential-Heating-Service---Urban-and-Rural
- GT Handbook
- U SECTION
- Lumo Energy - Sa Business Market Rate
- electricity tamil
- training_45646545.pdf
- 2009 Shutdown Plan
- Untitled
- Mann
- V66_N2_P3_C1023_2015_OSP_Skijaica
- Efficiency of a Pop-pop Engine
- 02propeller Test
- Marine Notes
- Sample Schematic
- Automation Practical

You are on page 1of 20

AND CAVITATION

Prof. Dr. S. Beji

2

Dimensional Analysis

The thrust of a propeller could depend upon:

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

Size of the propeller, represented by diameter .

Speed of advance, .

Acceleration due to gravity, .

Speed of rotation, .

Pressure in the fluid, .

Viscosity of the water, .

= ( , , , , , , )

= 3

Dimensional Analysis

Multiplying and equating the powers

=1

= 1 + 3 + +

= 2 2 2

Substituting and in the expression for gives = 2 + + then

= 2 2

=

2 , ,

2 ,

1

2 2

to 2 , the thrust coefficient can also be written in the form

2

1

0

2

Dimensional Analysis

If the model and ship quantities are denoted by the suffixes M and S,

=

If the propeller is run at the correct Froude speed of advance, = ,

= 1/2

propellers, therefore, the nondimensional quantity must be the same

for model and ship. Thus, as long as 2 and are the same in ship

and model

2 2

2

2

3

= ,

= 1/2 ,

=

2 2

1 1/2

1

=

,

=

= = 1/2 , = 1/2

Dimensional Analysis

The thrust power is given by = , so that

3.5

=

= ,

=

= 3.5 0.5 = 4

If the model results were plotted as values of

= 1 2 2 , = 1 3 2

2

2

ship. But the above coefficients have the disadvantage that they become

infinite for zero speed of advance, a condition sometimes occurring in practice.

Since or is the same for model and ship, may be replaced by .

= 2 4 , = 2 5

0

=

, 0 =

=

=

,

=

0 20 2 0

2 5

where = is the thrust power and 0 = 2 0 is the delivered power

of the open water propeller.

Dimensional Analysis

Propeller-Hull Interaction

Wake: Previously we have considered a propeller working

model or ship hull the conditions are considerably

modified. The propeller works in water which is disturbed

by the passage of the hull, and in general the water around

the stern acquires a forward motion in the same direction

as the ship. This forward-moving water is called the wake,

and one of the results is that the propeller is no longer

advancing relatively to the water at the same speed as the

ship, , but at some lower speed , called the speed of

advance.

Propeller-Hull Interaction

Froude wake fraction

=

,

=

1 +

Taylor wake fraction

=

,

= (1 )

fraction

=

=

1,

= (1 + )

=

=1

,

= 1

Power Definitions

Brake power is usually measured directly at the crankshaft coupling by

test and is calculated by the formula = (2) , where is the

rotation rate, revolutions per second and is the brake torque, .

Shaft power is the power transmitted through the shaft to the

propeller. For diesel-driven ships, the shaft power will be equal to the

brake power for direct-connect engines (generally the low-speed diesel

engines). For geared diesel engines (medium- or high-speed engines),

the shaft horsepower will be lower than the brake power because of

reduction gear losses. Shaft power is usually measured aboard ship as

close to the propeller as possible by means of a torsion meter. The shaft

power is given by = (2) .

Power Definitions

Delivered power is the power actually delivered to the propeller.

There is some power lost in the stern tube bearing and in any shaft

tunnel bearings between the stern tube and the site of the torsion

meter. The power actually delivered to the propeller is therefore

somewhat less than that measured by the torsion meter. This delivered

power is given the symbol .

Thrust power is the power delivered by propeller as it advances

through the water at a speed of advance , delivering the thrust . The

thrust power is = .

Effective power is defined as the resistance of the hull, , times the

ship speed , = .

Propulsive efficiency is defined as

0

1

(1 )

=

=

=

=

=

0

0 (1 ) 0 (1 ) 0

0

(1 )

= 0 ,

=

,

=

(1 )

Case 1: , , are known and . is required.

In this case the unknown parameter may be eliminated from

the diagrams by plotting /5 versus instead of versus as

follows.

5

3

2 2

2

=

=

=

=

5

5

5

2

5

2

2 5

1 4 5 4

3

5

1 4

= 0.1739 1

these charts the optimum 0 and 1/ are read off at the

intersection of known 1 4 5 4 value. Afterwards is

computed using the optimum 1/ value as = /.

Case 2: , , are known and is required.

the diagrams by plotting /3 versus instead of versus as

follows.

3

=

=

=

=

3

3

3

2

5

2

2

2

22 3

1 4 3 4

2 3

1 4

= 1.75 2

these charts the optimum 0 and 1/ are read off at the

intersection of known 1 4 3 4 value. Afterwards is

computed using the optimum 1/ value as = /.

Given Data

Service speed: = 21 = 10.8 /

Effective power with model-ship correlation allowance: = 9592

Estimated propulsive efficiency: = / = 0.75

Immersion depth of propulsion shaft: = 7.5

Estimated delivered power at 21 : = / = 9592/0.75 = 12789

Empirically determined wake fraction: = 0.20

Empirically determined thrust deduction fraction: = 0.15

Estimated relative rotative efficiency: = 1.05

Design Calculation

Selected propeller diameter (with adequate clearance): = 6.4

Selected number of blades (from consideration of vibration forces): = 4

Calculation of velocity of advance (wake speed): = 1 = 10.8(1

Wageningen B-Series charts:

1 4

12477

21.025 6.4 2 8.64 3

1 4

3 4

22 3

1 4

= 0.52039

Using the charts given on pages 197 (B4-40), 198 (B4-55), and 199 (B4-70) for

1 4 3 4 = 0.52039 from the optimum propeller efficiency curve we get

Expanded blade area ratio:

1/ at optimum efficiency:

= 60 / 1/ :

Corresponding /:

Open water efficiency 0 :

0.40

1.260

102.1

1.110

0.673

0.55

1.275

103.3

1.090

0.670

0.70

1.290

104.5

1.070

0.663

given by Keller.

The required thrust is

9592

=

=

=

=

= 1044.9

1

1

1 (1 0.15) 10.8

The Keller area criterion for a single-screw vessel gives

1.3 + 0.3

=

+

0

0 2

where 0 = . + = 98100 1750 + 1025 9.81 7.5 =

171764 /2 = 171.8 /2 , and is a constant varying from 0 to 0.2. Taking

= 0.2,

=

+ 0.2 = 0.571

0

171.8 6.4 2

Interpolating between /0 = 0.55 and /0 = 0.70 for /0 = 0.571 we get

= 103.5 , / = 1.087, and 0 = 0.669. Accordingly the value becomes:

1

1 0.15

=

0 =

0.669 1.05 = 0.746

1

1 0.20

This compares well with the value of 0.750 assumed. If a larger difference had been

found, a new estimate of the power would have to be made, using = 0.746.

Another Example of Calculating Optimum

common problem for the propeller designer is the design of a propeller when the

required propeller thrust (e.g. from a model test equal to the resistance corrected

for the thrust deduction) and the propeller diameter (e.g. from the available

clearance) are known. The advance velocity of the propeller may be estimated from

the ship speed and wake fraction. The unknowns are the required power and the

engine . Suppose that the following data is given for a container vessel.

Thrust: = 142 = 142000 9.81 = 1393000 = 1393

Ship speed: = 21 = 10.8 /

Advance velocity (Wake speed): = 21 1 0.2 = 16.8 = 8.64 /

Selected propeller diameter (with adequate clearance): = 7.0

Selected number of blades (from consideration of vibration forces): = 4

Immersion depth of propulsion shaft: = 5.0

Design Calculation

We begin by considering Kellers formula for with = 0 for the given ship

=

=

= 0.485

0 (98.1 1.75 + 1.025 9.81 5.0) 7.0 2

For single skrew wake field = 0.2, it may be less if the wake field is good.

Obviously is an important parameter affecting the value of . If it were

selected as 0.2, would be 0.685 instead of 0.485. Now that we have taken

= 0 and consequently the minimum must be 0.485. To be on the safe

side let us select = 0.55. Already we have selected = 4 therefore our

propeller now is B4-55. Consequently we can use the diagram of

B4-55 series. We know the thrust and the diameter , hence seek for the .

To use the diagram we need to know both and ; however at present we can

only calculate /2 as follows

1393000

=

=

= 0.3707

2 2 2 1025 8.652 72

Now when we select a / pair in the diagram it must be such that /2 =

0.3707. This may be done either by trial-and-error followed by linear iteration

or by the graphical method. The graphical method gives the result directly but

in order to use it we must draw the curve corresponding to = 0.37072 for a

range of values. Wherever this curve crosses a value in the diagram of B455, that particular pair corresponding to a definite / ratio in the

diagram is a correct pair. Supposing that we have established the

following table for various / ratios using the diagram (B4-55)

Our aim now is to select the propeller with maximum open-water efficiency.

The first examination indicates it may be / = 1 but to make sure we try the

close neigborhood of it; / = 0.95 and / = 1.05. From these results we

see that / = 1 really gives the maximum efficiency hence we select it. Thus

our final decision for the propeller is B4-55, / = 1, 0 = 0.651, = 0.699 so

8.65

that = =

= 1.768 , = 60 = 106 . Finally, since the

0.6997

= 1669322 . Power to be delivered = 2/1000 = 18544

Example of Calculating Optimum Diameter

In this example we suppose that from the beginning we have selected the

engine and its RPM hence we are to select a diameter for maximum efficiency.

Advance velocity of propeller: = 28 = 14.4 /

Delivered power : = 440

= 720, = 720/60 = 12

=5

= /0 = 0.75

To eliminate the unknown diameter we must use /5 as the parameter.

2 5

3

5

22

2 5

2

2 5

440000122

=0.016

2102514.4 5

previous problem we can establish the following table.

/

1.200

1.085

0.098

0.0237

0.713

0.016

1.300

1.140

0.124

0.0306

0.735

0.016

1.400

1.190

0.153

0.0387

0.747

0.016

1.350

1.165

0.138

0.0346

0.742

0.016

In this case the most efficient choice is / = 1.4 and = 1.19 so that = /,

= 14.4/(12 1.19) = 1.01 , = 1 . Since = 0.153, = 2 4 , =

23500 . If this thrust is not in accord with the resistance calculations of the boat

calculations must be repeated for a different speed till the convergence is gained.

Finally the cavitation possibility must be checked at least by using the Keller

formula. In this case Keller formula gives minimum = 0.59 hence OK.

- Ameren-Illinois-Basic-Generation-ServiceUploaded byGenability
- Propeller HandbookUploaded byJorge Hernandez
- Resistance & PropulsionUploaded byFIRDAUS BIN MAHAMAD
- Using KT and KQ for DesignUploaded byFIRDAUS BIN MAHAMAD
- Cable SizingUploaded byjjspence
- Upper-Peninsula-Power-Co-Residential-Heating-Service---Urban-and-RuralUploaded byGenability
- GT HandbookUploaded byMohiuddin Mahi
- U SECTIONUploaded bym606paz
- electricity tamilUploaded bykallady
- Lumo Energy - Sa Business Market RateUploaded byGenability
- training_45646545.pdfUploaded bymalhar
- 2009 Shutdown PlanUploaded byqwerty1234567894
- UntitledUploaded byGenability
- V66_N2_P3_C1023_2015_OSP_SkijaicaUploaded byAdi
- Efficiency of a Pop-pop EngineUploaded byJuniono Raharjo
- Marine NotesUploaded byalex bency
- MannUploaded byAnca Ciuchi
- 02propeller TestUploaded bypothirajkalyan
- Sample SchematicUploaded byMusfiqul Azad
- Automation PracticalUploaded bySABAREESH E
- Rocky-Mountain-Power--Exhibit-RMP-(CCP-1)Uploaded byGenability
- EPB-Electric-Power-(Chattanooga)-Seasonal-Large-Manufacturing-(SMSB)Uploaded byGenability
- Lec 29 ExplanationUploaded byAbhishek Saxena
- PMM Deep App Program KCS Rev.2Uploaded byChien Manh Nguyen
- Power Supplies | Power Supplies Manufacturers in Pune - GIC IndiaUploaded byPrasadPurohit
- GOS1610 Primena Matlab a u Inzenjerskim ProracunimaUploaded byMladen Divac
- Solar Charger Circuit (3)Uploaded bySanthosh Kumar Neelam
- MccUploaded bygoutam kumar patra
- CavitationUploaded byS.h. Fahad Fiaz
- Electricity Charges (Tata & Reliance)Uploaded byrnp15

- Naval Ship DesignUploaded byolarewaju Animasahun
- Kt Kq Curves for Weginengin B Series PropellerUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Propeller Calculation.docxUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- TankersUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Mastering-Personal-And-Interpersonal-Skill.pdfUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Learning Max SurfUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Marine InsuranceUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Sprinkler SystemUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Cable Laying ShipUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- YogaUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- HurricaneUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Offshore Engineering and TechnologyUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Design and Programming of Cathodic Protection for SHIPSUploaded byAnonymous mv84nhz
- Offshore Support IndustryUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Ocean Waves and TidesUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt PDFUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Merchant Shipping Act.docxUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Operation of a GeneratorUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Rivers & OceansUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Introduction to Ship ConstructionUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Oily Water SeparatersUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Stresses to Which Ship is SubjectedUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Design for ProductionUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- A Matter of Stability & TrimUploaded byJia Hann Tan
- The role of supply vessels in offshore logisticsUploaded byCharles Silva
- Barge Stability GuidelinesUploaded bynautilus73
- Training and Competence of a Marine EngineerUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Dynamic Positioning ClassUploaded byKrishna Chandra
- Dynamic Positioning SystemUploaded byKrishna Chandra

- SPDIF Transformer AN134REV5Uploaded byDave Ryan
- A Career as a Quantity SurveyorUploaded byBuddhika Lanka
- 10 Communication Specialist Interview Questions and AnswersUploaded byNii Odenkey Abbey
- SAP Parts Unitized Metal Face Seals For Tractor ApplicationsUploaded byPrasad
- pg3005eUploaded byscrbdgharavi
- Hard EesUploaded byHaroon Fareed
- B2B Technical TipsUploaded bykalva7
- BTPUploaded byMayukh Maitra
- Module 2 - Flexi EDGE BTS Installation Planning_NSN_studentUploaded byRiski Yufensius
- petex monthlyUploaded byapi-344402139
- rossetem agilewaterfallUploaded byapi-438519694
- qcs 2010 Part 14 Protective Treatments for ConcreteUploaded byRotsapNayrb
- slvu967Uploaded byPablirou CCr
- pr1308201-examrptUploaded byJon Campbell
- Windows_Server_2003_Manual_Server_Build_32-bit_and_x64_V4.1.pdfUploaded bychandrasekhar nandigam
- CAESAR IIUploaded bySabu Ekm
- Ankur Kumar_IT Recruiter-1 (1)Uploaded byvifgg
- PROCESS AUTOMATION in Fastner PartsUploaded byNakul Padalkar
- Manufacturing Manager CVUploaded bysanjay_lingot
- Metering Pumps TroubleshootUploaded byFawad Yousaf
- Best Industrial Engineering Programs 1Uploaded bydhiraj
- h7113-vplex-architecture-deployment.pdfUploaded byAbhishek Pubbisetty
- B1 AMEC Role of FS in Mining Ventures Feb1103Uploaded byDanu Putra
- Accounting Information System - Chapter 1Uploaded byLizette Oliva
- Aviation Week & Space Technology - January 6 2014Uploaded byAkhilesh Sasankan
- Hok Tall BuildingswebUploaded byPrasad Gowri
- TeamProject_Phase2_Group2Uploaded bysasiarchie
- Fabrication.pdfUploaded byLingka
- Tahanan Ng ArkitektoUploaded byRhobbie Nollora
- PSSR Punch ListUploaded byMoazam Ali Awan