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Scope of Presentation

Introduction to fermentation process

Ethanol Fermentation

Chemical reactions involved in process

Equipment used for fermentation process

Process Flow diagram of sugar fermentation

Quality enhancement of alcohol


Fermentation in general is referred to any process in which energy in form of electrons is

taken from a nutrient molecule and transferred to another molecule. Fermentation is also
used more broadly to refer to the bulk growth of microorganisms on a growth medium,
often with the goal of producing a specific chemical product.

Fermentation results in the production of energy in the form of two ATP molecules

2CO2 + 2C2H5OH + 2 ATP

Fermentation Processs

Anaerobic Fermentation

Anaerobic means in the absence of oxygen".

Complex organic compounds, such as glucose, are
broken down by the action of enzymes into
simpler compounds without the use of oxygen

Aerobic Fermentation

Aerobic means in the presence of oxygen. Some types of fermentation processes

require oxygen for the reproduction and growth of microorganisms (Yeast/Bacteria

Ethanol Fermentation

It is type of Anaerobic Fermentation

Ethanol fermentation, also called alcoholic fermentation, is a metabolic process that converts
sugar to acids, gases or alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, and also in oxygen-starved
muscle cells. It produces cellular energy, through production of ethanol and carbon dioxide as a


In ethanol fermentation, one glucose molecule breaks down into two pyruvates.
The energy from this exothermic reaction is used to bind inorganic phosphates to
ADP and convert NAD+ to NADH. The two pyruvates are then broken down into
two acetaldehydes and give off two CO2 as a waste product . (1) The two
acetaldehydes are then converted to two ethanol by using the H- ions from
NADH; converting NADH back into NAD+ (2).