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ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

SECOND SEMESTER EXAM


REVIEW

The second semester exam in chemistry covers the following chapters:


Chapter 9Chemical Bonding I: Covalent Bonds
Chapter 10Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes, and Hybrid Orbitals
Chapter 12Intermolecular Forces, Solids and Liquids
Chapter 13Solutions and Solubility
Chapter 11Introduction to Organic Chemistry
Chapter 22Organic Polymers-Synthetic and Natural
Chapter 15Chemical Equilibrium, and Le Chateliers Principle
Chapter 16Acids and Bases
Chapter 17Buffer Solutions (ka,kb,pH,pOH,); Solubility Equilibria (ksp)
Chapter 14Chemical Kinetics(rates of reactions)
Chapter 18Thermodynamics (entropy)
Chapter 19Oxidation, Reduction Reactions, and Electrochemistry
Chapter 21Nuclear Chemistry
INSTRUCTIONS: A. Vocabulary:
Know all terms write them out
B. Concepts/Problems: Answer all problems and questions
Chapter 9 Covalent Bonds/Chapter 10Molecular Shapes, and Hybridized Orbitals
A. Vocabulary: Know the following:
1.Covalent bond sharing of electrons between 2 non metals
2.Ionic bond transfer of electrons between a metal and non metal or polyatomic ion
3. Octet rule non metals must have 8 electrons around it when bonding (except H)
4. Electronegativity value that tells us how much an atom wants to gain electrons
5. Polar bond unequal sharing of electrons, creates dipoles
6. Nonpolar bond equal sharing of electrons
7. Lone pairs electrons NOT involved in bonding, those on the center atom help determine shape
8. VSEPR Theory (what does VSEPR stand for, how is it used to determine molecular shapes, etc.)
valence shell electron pair repulsion, based on lone pairs and atoms bonded to center shape can be
determined.
B. Concepts/Problems:
9.Which of the following compounds are ionic compounds and which are covalent compounds?
AgCl - ionic, NO2 covalent BaBr2 ionic, SiCl4 covalent
10. Write the Lewis Dot diagram for the following: a. Al b. C
11.Write the Lewis Dot structure for the following: a. SiCl4 b. H2O
12. Which of the following compounds is most likely to be polar? Cl2 KCl NH3 CF4
13. Identify which of the shown bonds are nonpolar: a. Na-Cl b. Cl-Cl c. Li-F d. H-Cl
14. Use the Lewis dot diagram to show the double bond in O2
For the following questions, apply the VSEPR theory.
15. Predict the shapes of a. H2O bent B. CCl4 tetrahedral C. AlBr3 trigonal planar D. NH3 trigonal
pyramidal
16. Explain why a molecule like NH3 is pyramidal while a molecule like BI3 is trigonal planer. NH3 is
pyramidal because it has a lone pair of electrons on the N, while B has no lone pairs.
17. Why is the CCl4 molecule a nonpolar molecule, while CHBr3 is a polar molecule even though both are
tetrahedral. CCl4 is nonpolar because it is symmetrical around the center atom

18. Using VSEPR theory explain why CO2 is a nonpolar molecule while H2O is a polar molecule. Carbon
dioxide is nonpolar because it has no lone pairs on the C and is symmetrical, water is polar because it has
2 lone pairs on the center and creates dipoles
Chapter 12Intermolecular forces
A. Vocabulary: Know the following:
1. solid lowest energy, particles close together, vibrate, set shape and volume
2. liquid particles flow and slide past each other, more energy than solid, but less than gas, set volume
and takes the shape of its container
3. gas highest energy, constant motion, lots of space between atoms, takes shape and volume of
containter
4. hydrogen bond strong intermolecular force when H is bonded to N,O, of F
5. intermolecular forces forces that hold molecules together, determines MP,BP
6. phase change when a substance goes from one phase to another, temp remains CONSTANT, energy
changes
7. viscosity resistance of a liquid to flow, how thick a liquid is
8. dispersion forces weak forces of attraction because atoms are close together, present in ALL
compounds
9. dipole-dipole attraction attraction when molecules have dipoles
B. Concepts/Problems:
1. State which of these liquids would have the highest viscosity, the lowest viscosity. Why?
C2H5OH CH3F CH3CH2CH2OH - has highesthas a H bond and most mass CCl4 - lowest
because it is nonpolar
2. Which of the following substances would exhibit hydrogen bonding?
SiH4 H2O H2S NH3 CH4
3. Which of the following molecules requires the most energy to overcome its intermolecular forces and
also to break all of its chemical bonds? Explain! H2 CH4 CH3CH2COOH - most because it has a
hydrogen bond and the most mass, most for breaking bonds because it has the most bonds and it has a
double bond CH3CH2OH
4. List all of the phases of matter in order, beginning with the phase where the substance contains the
least amount of heat energy, to the substance contains the most amount of heat energy.
Solid, liquid, gas
5. Identify the following processes as either endothermic or exothermic: A. Melting endo
B.
Freezing exo

C. Bond forming exo

D. Bond breaking endo E. Condensing exo

F. Evaporating endo
6.

Describe the properties and characteristics of all the phases of matter. Be specific
See definitions in vocab section
7. List all of the intermolecular forces between hydrocarbons, such as C10H22. Dispersion forces
8. Beside hydrogen, what elements are necessary in order for hydrogen bonding to occur between
molecules? N,O, F

9. Which of the following diatomic elements would have the strongest intermolecular forces/ weakest?

H2 because it has the smallest mass and amount of electrons Cl2


bromine has the most electrons and the largest mass

N2 Br2

F2 - strongest because

10. State reasons why the small water molecule has a much higher boiling point than most other small
molecules of similar molecular mass. Because water has 2 hydrogen bonds and dipoles
11. Suppose two covalent compounds, A and B, have about the same molecular mass, but compound A
has a much higher vicosity. Offer an explanation for this, in terms of intermolecular forces.
Compound A probably has a hydrogen bond and is polar while compound B is nonpolar
12. Put the substances in order of increasing boiling point: CO2, KCl, CH3F, CH3OH
CO2 CH3F CH3OH KCl
Chapter 13Solutions and Solubility
A. Vocabulary:
1. Boiling point elevation when a solute is added to a pure solvent the BP goes up
2. Freezing point depression when a solute is added to a pure solvent the FP goes down
3. Miscible 2 liquids can mix and look like one
4. Immiscible liquids dont mix and a line is visible
5. Soluble a solid can dissolve into a solvent
6. insoluble a solid will NOT dissolve into a solvent
7. Molarity unit of concentration.moles of solute divided by volume of solution
8. Molality unit of concentration..moles of solute divided by mass of solvent
B. Concepts/Problems:
1. What will be the molarity (M) of a solution if 2.15 mol of KOH is dissolved in enough solvent to make
750 mL of solution? M = mol /L 2.15 mol / 0.750 L = 2.87 M
2. Which of the following compounds should be soluble in hexane (C6H14) and which in water? Explain!
a. HCl soluble in water because both are polar b. H2O c. KCl soluble in water b/c ionic has charges
that interact with the dipoles of water d. Ca(OH)2 e. C4H10 soluble in hexane because both are
nonpolar like dissolves like
3. What is the relationship between solubility of a gas and A) Pressure B) Temperature
A) As pressure increases solubility increases (direct) B) as temperature increases solubility decreases
(inverse)
4. A solution contains 45.3 grams of magnesium sulfite (MgSO3) dissolved in 400.0 grams of water. The
Freezing point constant for water, Kf = 1.860C/m and the boiling point constant for water is .520C/m.
A. Calculate the molality of the solution. m = mol/kg 45.3 g x 1 mol = 0.434 mol / 0.400kg = 1.09m
104.4 g
B. Calculate the change in the freezing point. Tf = Kfm = (1.86)(1.09m) = 2.03 C
C. Calculate the change in the boiling point. Tb = Kbm = (0.52)(1.09m) = 0.57 C
D. Calculate the new boiling point of the water. 100 + 0.57 = 100.57 C
5. Explain the meaning of the rule like dissolves like. Substances with the same polarities can dissolve
in each other
6.

Why is important to use antifreeze in your car and how does this apply to colligative properties?

Antifreeze is added to the water in your radiator, this raises this raises the boiling point so your card
doesnt overheat in the summer. It lowers the freezing point so it doesnt freeze in the winter. This
applies to the colligative properties of boiling point elevation and freezing point depression.
Chapter 11/22 Organic Chemistry and Polymers
A. Vocabulary:
1. Hydrocarbon compounds that contain only H and C
2. Functional groups give the organic compound its properties and characteristics
3. Isomers compounds that have the same number of each element but different structures
4. Know the prefixes 1-10 for organic compounds. Meth, eth, prop, but, pent, hex, hept,oct,non,dec
5.Alcohols -contain and OH group
6. unsaturated hydrocarbon has a double or triple bond, can be broken to add more Hs
7. saturated hydrocarbon all single bonds, no room for more Hs
B. Concepts/Problems:
8. Draw two structural formulas representing isomers of C2H5O. C-C = O or C=C-OH add Hs to each
to complete
9. Organic compounds that have at least one triple bond are calledalkyne
10. Organic compounds that have at least one double bond are called... alkene
11. Organic compounds that have all single bonds are called alkane
12. Label the following as saturated or unsaturated. A. CH2=CH-CH3 unsaturated B. CH3CH2CH2OH
saturated
13. What are the names of the following organic compounds? A. CH3CH2CH2CH3 B. CH3CH2CH2OH

C.

CH3

H H

HCCC==CCCH
|

A. Butane

B. 1-propanol

H H
H H
C. 3-methyl, 3-hexne D. propane E. pentanol

Chapter 15Chemical Equilibrium and Le Chateliers Principle


Vocabulary:
1. chemical equilibrium when the forward and reverse reactions are occurring at the same rate
2. equilibrium expression concentration of products divided by concentration of reactants, coefficients
become exponents
3. equilibrium constant tells if products or reactants are favored
4. Le Chateliers principle when a stress is applied to a system at eq it will adjust and shift to counteract
the stress
5. Catalyst speeds up the reaction without being used up, speeds up both the forward and reverse, DOES
NOT change Keq value
**be able to list the factors that affect equilibrium and apply them in terms of Le Chateliers Principle.
Dont forget the I.C.E. method.
B. Concepts/Problems:
6. What is meant by a stress on an equilibrium? something that causes the equilibrium to change

7. List at least four factors that will cause a shift in the equilibrium of a chemical reaction. temp, pressure,
volume, concentration
8. Which stress will also change the value of the equilibrium constant? temperature
9. How will a catalyst affect the equilibrium of a reversible reaction? speeds up BOTH the forward
and reverse reaction
10. In the following reversible reaction, suggest at least three ways you could place a stress on the
equilibrium so as to increase the production of oxygen.
K2O(s) + 2H2O(g) ------------> 2KOH(aq) + 3O2(g)
H = -288 kJ
Add water, take away KOH, take away oxygen, lower temp
11. Write the expressions for Keq for the following reaction equations:
a. P4(s) + 5O2(g) <=> P4O10(s)
b. CH4(g) + H2O(g) <=> CO(g) + 3H2O(g)
a. Keq = 1 / [O2]5
b. Keq = [CO][H2O]3 / [CH4][H2O]
12. For the reaction 2SO2(g) + O2(g) <=> 2 SO3(g), the equilibrium concentrations are: [SO2]=
2.00 M and [SO3] = 10.0 M. What is the concentration of O2 if Keq = 800.0?
Keq = [SO3]2 / [SO2]2[O2] 800.0 = [10.0]2 / [2.00]2 [O2] = 0.0313 M

A.
B.
C.
D.

E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.

13. Water vapor decomposes into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. The reaction is reversible. A 4.00 L
flask originally contained 0.80 mol of the H2O. Then when the reaction reached equilibrium, 0.12
mol of O2 had been produced.
Write the balanced equation for this reaction. 2 H2O 2 H2 + O2
Write the Keq expression Keq = [H2]2[O2] / [H2O]
Determine the concentration of each substance at equilibrium.
2 H2O
2 H2
+ O2
0.80 mol
0
0
-0.24
+0.24
+0.12
0.56
0.24
0.12
M = 0.56 mol / 4.00L =0.14M
0.24mol/4.00L = 0.060M
0.12 mol/4.00L = 0.030M
Calculate the Keq value. Keq = [0.060]2[0.030] / [0.14]2 = 0.0055
Is the reverse or the forward reaction favored? reverse
Explain how you knew to answer part F. b/c Keq is less than one
If some of the O2 gas is removed, which way will the equilibrium shift? Whose principle is this? If
oxygen is removed the equilibrium will shift to the products (right).LeChateliers
If some water vapor is removed, which way will the equilibrium shift? It will shift to the reactants
(right)
What happens if a catalyst is used? The rate goes faster but equilibrium remains unchanged
What happens if the pressure in the flask is increased? It will shift to the left because that side has
fewer moles of gas
What will happen to the system if the temperature is increased? To decompose it needs to take in
energy (endothermic), so if heat is added it is like adding a reactant, so it would shift to the products

Chapter 16Acids and Bases


A. Vocabulary:
1. pH -potential of hydrogen, related to the strength of an acid
2. pOH potential of hydroxide
3. Indicator changes color in the presence of an acid or base
4. Weak acid ionizes only a small amount, weak electrolyte
5. Weak base - ionizes only a small amount, weak electrolyte
6. Strong acid ionizes to a large extent, strong electrolyte
7. Strong base - ionizes to a large extent, strong electrolyte
8. Conjugate acid/base pairs differ only by 1 H+

B. Concepts/Problems:
1. State a typical pH representing a A. strongly acidic solution B. a slightly acidic solution C. a weakly
basic solution. A. less than 3 B. 5-6 C. 8-9
2. What is an indicator, and how is it used with acid and basic solutions? An indicator changes color in
the presence of an acid or base to determine pH
3. Write out the conjugate acid for these species: a. HCO3- H2CO3 b. HPO42- H2PO4- c. OH- H2O
4. Write out the conjugate base for these species: a. H2SO4 HSO4-1 b. HCl Cl-1 c. CH3COOH
CH3COO-1
5. A 2.50 L solution contains 0.744 moles of formic acid, HCOOH Ka= 1.8 x 10-4
A. calculate the molarity of the solution M = mol / L = 0.744 mol / 2.50 L = 0.30M
B. write the ionization equation for the acid. HCOOH H+ + COOH-1
C. calculate the hydrogen ion concentration for this acidic solution. Ka = [H+][COOH-1] / [HCOOH]
1.8 x 10-4 = [H+][COOH-1] / 0.30 M [H+] = 0.0073 M
D. Calculate the pH of this solution. pH = -log[H+] = -log[0.0073] = 2.14
E. Calculate the pOH of this solution. pH + pOH = 14 14 2.14 = 11.86
17. If nitric acid (HNO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) react, what will be the resulting salt? NaNO3
18. What are some uses for acids and bases. Acid = food/cleaners/car battery Bases = cleaners/antacids
Chapter 17Buffer solutions, and Solubility Equilibria (Ksp)
A. Vocabulary:
1. Buffer solution contains a weak acid or base with its salt, keeps pH steady
2. Three types of titrations (know them) strong acid/strong base, strong acid/weak base, strong
base/weak acid
3. Indicator changes color in the presence of an acid or base
B. Concepts/Problems:
1. Which one of the following is a good buffer solution?
A. NaOH

B. HCl and NaOH C. HCN

D. CH3COOH E. CH3COOH and CH3COONa

2. What is the purpose for titrations? To determine moles of a substance at the equivalence point and then
the concentration
3. Explain what 2 components are used to make a buffer. Give an example of 2 substances that could be
used to make a buffer. What is the importance of buffers(why do we need them?). Give 2 examples of
where buffers are used. (things that have buffers in them) Be thorough in your answers. Buffers are made
using a weak acid or base and salt containing the conjugate. NaF and HF. Buffers keep the pH steady.
Examples = contact solution, blood/gastric juices, some powdered drink mixes, some medications
Chapter 14/Chapter 18Chemical Kinetics/Thermodynamics
A. Vocabulary:
1. Kinetics study of rates and mechanisms for chemical reactions
2. The Collision Theory (understand it) particles must collide in order to reactmust have proper angle
and energy
3. Reaction mechanism series of steps that show what happens in a reaction
4. Rate-determining step the slowest step in the mechanism
5. Activation energy energy required to start a reaction

6. Intermediate -produced in one step of a mechanism and then used up in another, does not show up in
the net reaction
7. Entropy measure of randomness/disorder
8. Gibbs free energy (G) energy available in a reaction, determines spontaneity
9. Enthalpy (H)
B. Concepts/Problems:
10 .In each of the following, state whether each systems entropy is increasing (+S), decreasing(-S),
Or not possible to say.(S0)
a. H2O(g) ----------> H2O(l) - negative
b. NaCl(s) ---------> NaCl(aq) - positive
c. evaporation of water (l) (g) positive
11.What sign must G have to indicate that the reaction will be favored? negative
12.The sum of a series of steps in a chemical reaction is called the _net__ reaction.
14. Kinetics is the study of the _rates___ and mechanisms of a chemical reaction.
15. For every 100C increase of the temperature, the rate of many reactions will go twice as fast
16. For the reaction: 2NaHCO3 (s) ------> Na2CO3 (s) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) and given:
S(kJ/mol-K) H(kJ/mol)
NaHCO3(s) +.1021
- 947.7
Na2CO3(s) +.1359
- 1130.9
H20 (l)
+ .0699
- 285.8
CO2 (g)
+. 2136
- 393.5
A. calculate S for the reaction S = products reactants
= [Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2] [ 2 NaHCO3]
= [0.1359 + 0.0669 + 0.2136] [ 2(0.1021)] = 0.2122 kJ/mol K
B. calculate H for the reaction H = products reactants
= [Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2] [ 2 NaHCO3]
= [-1130.6 + (-285.8) + (-393.5)] - [ 2(-947.7)] = +85.5 kJ/mol
C. is this reaction endothermic or exothermic? Endothermic How can you tell? H is positive
D. calculate G for the reaction at 298K. G = H - TS = 85.5 (298)(0.2122) = +22.3 kJ/mol
E. is this reaction thermodynamically favored or unfavored at this temperature? Unfavored How can you
tell? G is positive

16. For the reversible chemical system described in the following diagram, answer the following
questions with either forward reaction, reverse reaction, both, neither.
A. Which reaction is exothermic? reverse
B. Which reaction has the highest activation energy? forward
C. Which reaction is spontaneous? Probably reverse b/c reaction is exothermic
D. Which reaction would require the input of heat to begin? both
E. Which reaction would require the greatest input of heat energy to begin? forward
ENERGY

REACTION PROGRESS
17.Explain-according to the collision theory-why raising the temperature of a reaction speeds up the rate.
Particles move faster at higher temperatures and therefore would have more collision.
18. According to the collision theory what two things must occur in order for a collision to be successful.
Particles must collide at the proper angle with sufficient energy
Chapter 19Oxidation/Reduction Reactions and Electrochemistry
A. Vocabulary:
1. Galvanic (voltaic) cell - 2 half cells that generate current
2. Electrochemistry study of chemical reactions that produce electricity
3. Oxidation half reaction shows the substance that is being oxidized, electrons are products
4. electrodes - metals bars
5. Reduction half reaction shows the substance being reduced, electrons are reactants
6. Volts unit of electricity
7. Anode - electrode where oxidation takes place
8. Half cell reaction shows what happens in one side of the electrochemical cell
9. Cathode - electrode where reduction takes place
10. Salt bridge - completes the circuit and allows ions to flow
B. Concepts/Problems:
11. Using the table on page 651 in the text, calculate the E0cell for this reaction:
2 Fe2+(aq) + Cd2+(aq) ----------> 2 Fe3+(aq) + Cd(s)
Ecell = - 1.17 V
12. Is the above reaction spontaneous? No How do you know? Ecell is negative
13. Explain why a salt bridge is necessary in a voltaic cell. It allows the ions to flow from one side to the
other and it completes the circuit

14. A certain voltaic cell has for its cell reaction: Zn(s) + 2 Ag+(aq) ----- Zn2+(s) + 2 Ag (s)
Write the half reaction that occurs at the
A. anode Zn0 Zn+2 + 2 eB. cathode 2 Ag+ + 2 e- 2 Ag0
C. Using the table on pg 651, calculate the cell potential for this reaction. Ecell = +0.76 + 0.80 = 1.56 V
D. Draw a diagrm of this cell.
E. What happens if the wires are swapped? The sign becomes negative If they are unclipped? goes to
zero since circuit is broken
F. Oxidation occurs at the _anode________, while reduction occurs at the __cathode_________.
15. What is oxidized in the following reaction: Ni + CaCl2 NiCl2 + Ca
The Ni is oxidized because its oxidation # increased from 0 to +2

Chapter 21Nuclear Chemistry


Vocabulary:
1. Alpha particles same as a helium nucleus, 2 protons and 2 neutrons, weakest form of radiation
2. Beta particles same as an electron, stronger than alpah
3. Gamma rays pure energy, no mass, most dangerous form of radiation
4. Half life amount of time it takes for half a sample to decay
5. Nuclear fission splitting of a larger nucleus into 2 smaller nuclei of similar mass
6. Nuclear fusion - joining of 2 smaller nuclei into a larger one
7. Alpha decay alpha particles given of from nucleus
8. Beta decay beta particles given off from nucleus
9. Decay equations shows particles being given off and elements changing into different ones
B. Concepts/Problems:
10. List the three types of natural radiation in order from least to most penetrating. Alpha, beta, gamma
11. What kind of particle is an alpha particle? Helium nucleus
12. What kind of particle is a beta particle? - electron
13. What type of wave is a gamma ray? - pure energy
14. Of the two important nuclear processesnuclear fusion, and nuclear fissionwhich
a. requires extreme temperatures? fusion
b. joins smaller nuclei into a larger nucleus? fusion
c. is used today to generate electricity in some power plants? fission
d. is the process that heats the sun and all other stars? fusion
e. causes a large nucleus to split into smaller nuclei, and free neutrons? fission
f. produces the greatest amount of energy, pound for pound? fusion
g. produces dangerous radioactive waste? fission
15. Radon is a dangerous radioactive gas that leaks from the ground into some basements. It has a halflife of only 3.8 days. Explain why radon still exists today, even though the earth is 4.5 billion years old.
If is it always being cut in half the amount can never reach zero
16.Complete the following nuclear equations:
a. 24294Pu ---------- 42He+2
+
__238U_____
92

b.
c.

27
13Al
237

93Np

--------

27

Si_______

14

---------

_233Pa______
91

-1e

+2
2He

d.

+
1H

+
1H

--------

H________

+1e

17. What element is the first stable isotopeand therefore the end product of ALL nuclear decay
series? Pb (lead)
18. Francium223 (223Fr) has a half life of 22 minutes. A. If you begin with a 50.00 gram sample of
pure Francium223, how much would remain after 132 minutes?
132 min / 22 min = 6 half life cycles
50.00g 25 12.5 6.25 3.125 1.5625 0.78125 g LEFT