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Manuel Mata

December 1, 2015
Sludge Report
Chemistry
Executive Summary:
The e-waste recycling plant should not bellowed to set up in Pawtucket. There are metals
in the sludge that are harmful to human and cannot be dissolved in water. For example
there is Aluminum in the sludge that cannot dissolve in water. This is toxic because when
the aluminum begins to rust, it will contaminate the water. Carbon is also in the sludge
and it is toxic to humans when it touches their skin because it will cause irritation. This is
toxic because if the sludge is dumped in the water, then there is a possibility that people
will go in the water and react to the carbon in there. Finally, there is boron which also
irritates when it comes to contact with human skin. In conclusion, the e-waste recycling
plant should not be allowed to set up in Pawtucket because of the harm it would cause to
the environment and to the people.
Methods:
We first noticed dome solids inside of our sludge so we separated everything inside. We
ended up with four layers of liquids, three pieces of solids and some sand like substance.
First we separated one of the layers of liquids from the rest to do distillation on it, we
noticed it looked like a oil because it was separated from the rest. Then we found the
densities of the solids and noticed that two of them looked the same silver like metals
like aluminum. The other piece looked like copper wire. Afterwards, we separated the
other two liquids because we had spilled the other one and let them be. We then took
the sand like substance to find its density. After we were done, we went back to the other
liquids and noticed the liquid had evaporated and had left a clear crystal like substance.
We then found the saturation points of each liquid and then found its solubility in water.
Finally we did distillation on the final liquid to find its boiling point.
Table:
Component
Aluminum

Density
2.699 g/cm3

Carbon

2.266 g/cm3

Epsom Salt
Salt
Water
Boron

1.2g/cm3
1.1g/cm3
2.46g/cm3

Solubility
Not soluble
in water
Not soluble
in water
71g/100mL
36g/100mL
Not soluble
in water

Polarity
Non-Polar

Color
Silver

Magnetic?
No

Non-Polar

Bronze

No

Polar
Non-Polar

Clear
Clear
Clear
Beige

No
No
No
No

Findings:
One of our unknown substances is aluminum. To find this substance we separated it from
the rest of the sludge to find its density. Once it was separated, we made observations

and noticed that the metal had a silver color. Then we had to find its mass by weighing it
on a triple beam balance. Then we had to find its volume by measuring the amount of
water it displaced in a graduated cylinder filled with 20mL of water. As a result we found
its density to be 3g/mL. After, we compared it to the reference sheet Emily gave us to
compare our results to the densities of known metals, and we found that the metal with
the closest density was aluminum with 2.699g/mL. Finally, based off how similar our
results were to the density of aluminum we can conclude one of our unknown substances
is aluminum.
Another one of our unknown substances is carbon. To find this we separated it from the
rest of the sludge to find its density. We made observations once we separated it and
noticed it had a bronze color. We then found its density by finding its mass and volume.
To find its mass we weighed it on a triple beam balance. Then we found its volume by
measuring the amount of water it displaced in a graduated cylinder. We then divided our
results from finding the mass by the data from finding the volume. We did this 3 times
and then we compared our results (2.1g/mL) to the reference sheet Emily gave us and
found that Carbon was the closest in terms of density with 2.266g/mL. Our unknown
substance is carbon because of how similar the density that we found with the density of
the reference sheet was.
One of our unknown substances is Epsom salt. We found this by finding the saturation
point of one of the liquids that had evaporated and left a crystal looking solid. To find the
saturation point we first had to find its mass which ended up being 1.1g. Then we had to
find its saturation point by adding 1mL of water at a time and mixing it until all of it had
dissolved. Since we could only do one trial so we found that it's saturation point was
3mL, with that we found 1.1g/3mL but to find its solubility in water than it would have to
be g/100mL. So we converted our data by multiplying 1.1g and 3mL by 33.3 and found it
to be 36.63g/100mL. With that we compared our results to the reference sheet Emily
gave us and found our results to be closest to salt with 36g/100mL. In conclusion, our
unknown substance is salt by finding its saturation point.
Another one of our unknown substances is Epsom Salt. To find this we had to find its
saturation point after the liquid had evaporated and left behind a crystal like solid. To find
its saturation point we had to find its mass which was 1.2g. Then we added 1mL of water
at a time and mixed it until all of it had dissolved to find its saturation point. We could
only do one trial so we found its saturation point to be 2mL. With this information we
found 1.2g/2mL but we still had to find its solubility in water so it would have to be
g/100mL. We converted our data by multiplying 1.2g and 2mL by 50 and found it to be
60g/100mL. With that we compared our data to the reference sheet Emily gave us and
found our data to be closest to Epsom salt with 71g/100mL. In conclusion, our unknown
substance is salt by finding it saturation point.
One of our unknown substances is Boron. To find this we had to separated it from the rest
of the sludge to
find its density. We made observations once we separated it and noticed it looked and
felt like sand. We then found its density by finding its mass and volume. To find its mass
we weighed it on a triple beam balance and found it to be 7.4g. Then we found its
volume by measuring the amount of water it displaced in a graduated cylinder, we found
it to be 3mL. We then divided our results from finding the mass by the data from finding
the volume. We did this 3 times and then we compared our results (2.4g/mL) to the
reference sheet Emily gave us and found that Boron was the closest in terms of density

with 2.46g/mL. Our unknown substance is Boron because of how similar the density that
we found with the density of the reference sheet was.
Our final unknown substance is water. We first had to separate the liquid from the others
with a dropper. After that we made observations and the liquid looked clear like water.
Then we did distillation on the liquid by burning the liquid until it reaches a plateau
meaning that is the boiling point. We found the plateau to be at 100oC. Then we
compared the results to the reference sheet Emily gave us and compared it to the known
boiling points of other liquids. We found that the closest liquid was water with a boiling
point of 100o C . In conclusion, our unknown liquid was water because of the similarity in
boiling points we found to the reference sheet.
Reflections and Errors:
I feel our group did make mistakes when comparing our substances that we see to the substances
our data gave us. I know these were mistakes our data told us that one of our metals was Carbon
but we could clearly see that it was copper wire. Also our results told us that our sand like
substance was Boron but it was clear that it was sand and that the colors didnt match.
The mistakes we made are similar to what a professional scientist would make because the data a scientist
would have will not always make sense to what they are looking at or looking for. Failure in science is
important because it teaches you what not to do for your next experiment and for your current experiment it
helps you by showing what wont work and what you need to change or do again.
Rubric
Sludge Analysis (Lab Work)
Component of Identified? (5 points each)
Sludge

Total

/35

Written Report
Executive Summary
Claim (5 points)

Total
Evidence (5 points)

Reasoning (5 points)

Methods (Clearly Described)


Table (Shows characteristic chemical and physical properties)
Findings (CER Paragraphs)
Identified
Claim (2
Qualitative
Quantitative
Component
points)
Evidence? (2
Evidence? (2
points)
points)

/15
/5
/5
Reasoning (2
points)

Water

Written Report Total

/48
/73