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# INDEX

NO

TITLE

PAGE

INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVES

BACKGROUND STUDY

METHODOLOGY

RESULT

DISCUSSION

15

CONCLUSION

15

REFERENCE

16

APPENDIX

16

INTRODUCTION
The Italian physicist Galileo Galilei has discovered the term of speed by defining that speed is
the distance covered by a certain period of time. The definition of Galileo are shown in the
formulae for a simple understanding:

V=

d
t

## V = speed of the particle

d = distance between the two consecutive points
t = time that the two points covered

## Speed is an important element that presents in transportation engineering because it creates a

very deep influence in other factors such as safety, time, comfort, and etc. But there are also
other factors that influence the speed.
For the civil and traffic engineers to understand and study the speed factor of the vehicles, the
spot speed studies are being carried out at the specific locations. The specific locations are the
places where it has serves for the society as the main medium for the transportation. Moreover,
that particular location should possess the majority movement of the vehicles by taking in the
weather, road conditions, presence of traffic signals and many others. This studies are held over
to obtain the raw distribution of different speed of vehicles in a particular location on the
highway or roadways. The speed is recorded in km/h (kilometres per hour).
The data such as recorded time of vehicles in and out in the selected lane and the speed of the
vehicle travels are gathered to measure the vehicle speed percentiles and the cumulative graphs
were plotted.

OBJECTIVE

The objective of spot speed study is mainly to learn how to using the radar gun effectively in
measuring velocity of vehicle on the road. Radar gun work on the signal emitted or transmitted
to vehicle that moving on the road and have many other purpose. The other function of radar gun
is can measuring how fast the vehicle moving on the road. The radar gun has many modes of
Secondly, the aim of this study is to detect plus point and minus point of the roadway. From this
objective, we can know when the time of peak hour or off peak hour of the road used.
Furthermore, we can investigate the size of the road because it is also can be the one of the factor
of the vehicle moving slow on the road at the certain time.
Thirdly, we also can learn about the concurrent existing traffic operation on the selected road.
This is because the road must be suitable and able to support the vehicles moving on the road
with the latest traffic system.
Lastly, we can identify the peak hour and off peak hour at the specific location based on the
observation on the road using by the vehicle. From this observation, we can give more focus for
improve the facilities and the traffic system of the road so the road become more smooth and

## BACKGROUND OF THE STUDIES

Spot speed studies are very important in order to obtain the various amount of requirements and
factors in the design and analysis of the modern highways and roadways. Through these studies,
we are able to invent and build an efficient and life long quality service of the highways and
roadways too. The speed of different types of vehicles that are recorded will be used for capacity
and traffic volume analysis, safety measurements, additional instalments of the new traffic
signals at every required intersections or junctions and many more. Also, the speed studies
enables us to make a proper and wise decision in maintaining and preserving the efficiency of
our highways.
Each and every data are collected very carefully because it implies the most of safety
implications where; the concurrent existing traffic operation will be up to date, the traffic signals
and the law enforcement of the traffic will be studied thoroughly and further additional steps will
be introduced for a better improvement.
We did our survey at the Sg Besi town on top of the pedestrian bridge. The road leads to the
highway. We have to record the speed of the vehicle and also the time in and out of the vehicle
from one point to another point. We used the radar gun to obtain the speed of the vehicle. But
how does the radar gun functions? It works in a systematic way. The change or the difference in
between the transmitted signal and and the reflected signal from the surface of the radar gun is
linear to the speed of the moving vehicle. Then, frequency difference is measured by the radar
gun again and later converted to km/h. The time or the period that measured between the points
are taken by the aid of our digital watch.
One more thing, the day of the survey carried out is also very important too. This is because it is
highly recommended to do during off-peak hours so that we will able to obtain an optimum
result and it will be not affected by other factors. The minimum number of vehicle speeds is
necessary for plotting any necessary statistical data analysis. Usually, the time duration is about 1
hour and the sample size depends on the frequency of the usage of the road by the vehicles.