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Test For Organic

Compounds
TEST FOR UNSATURATION
1. BROMINE WATER
TEST
OC/OS + bromine water[drop
by drop] gives decolourisation

2. BAYERS TEST
OS + potassium
permanganate + sodium
carbonate gives
decolourisarion
NOTE
Both of the above test need to be
confirmed for presence of
unsaturation

TEST FOR CARBONYL GROUP


1. NaHSO3 TEST
OS + NaHSO3 gives
effervences of CO2

2. 2,4-DNP TEST
OS + 2,4-DNP gives orange
red colour

TEST FOR R-OH [ALCOHOLS]


1. CERIC AMMONIUM
NITRATE TEST

OS + ceric ammonium nitrate


[limited amount] gives red
colour

2. IODOFORM TEST
OS + aq.KI + freshly
prepared NaOCl on heating
gives yello crystals

3. LUCAS TEST
OS + zinc chloride +
concentrated HCl if turbidity
formed
1- immediately then 3 degree
alcohol
2- on 1 to 5 minutes then 2
degree alcohol
3- on heating then 1 degree
alcohol

TEST FOR Ar-OH


1. FERRIC CHLORIDE
TEST
OS + ferric chloride solution
[drop by drop] gives blue,
green, violet or red colour

2. PHTHALEIN DYE TEST


OC + phthalic anhydride +
conc. H2SO4 [2 to 3 drops].
Heat the mixture in oil bath.
let it cool then add it to dil
sodium hydroxide solution
gives pink, blue, green or red
colour.

TEST FOR R-HO [ALDEHYDES]


1. SCHIFFS TEST
OS + schiffs reagent [2 to 3
drops] gives pink colour

2. FEHLINGS TEST
fehlings reagent = fehlings A
+ fehlings B
= aq.CuSO4
+ sodium pottasium tartarate
OC + fehlings reagent on
heating gives reddish brown
ppt

3. TOLLENS TEST
preperation of tollens
reagent
first add few drops of sodium
hydroxide to freshly prepared
silver nitrate solution. black
coloured solution will form of
silver oxide.then add
ammonium hydroxide
dropwise till black colour
dissolves.
OS + tollens reagent on
heating in water bath gives
silver mirror.

4. BENEDICTS TEST
OS + benedicts reagent on
heating in water bath gives
orange red ppt.

TEST FOR FOR R-COOH


[CAROXYLIC ACID]

1. LITMUS TEST
OS + wet blue litmus paper
gives red colour

2. SODIUM
HYDROGENCARBONA
TE TEST
Aq.NaHCO3 sol + OS gives
brisk efferevences of CO2

3. ESTER TEST
OC + metahnol or ethanol +
2-3 drops of con. sulphuric
acid and heat it in water bath
and let it cool. Sweet smell
indicates presence of COOH

TEST FOR FOR NH2 [ AMINO


GROUP]
1. CARBYLAMINE TEST
both AR- and R- gives this
test
OC + chloroform on heating
with base gives foul smell

2. SOLUBILITY TEST
OC + dil.HCl if compund
dissolves test is confirmed

3. AZO DYE TEST


OC + dil.HCl + sodium
nitrate and keep it in ice
in other test tube tahe napthol
+ dil.NaOH
mix both testube scarlet red
dye confirms presence.

OTHER TESTS

1. IODOFORM TEST
only methyl ketone and
aldehydes having atleast one
methyl group linked to
carbonyl group give positive
results
OC + dil.NaOH + iodine
forms pale yello ppt

PURIFICATION OF MIXTURE
OF ALDEHYDS OR KETONES
WITH NON CARBONYL
GROUP COMPUNDS
On adding NaHSO3 to the
mixture if white solid is formed
then indicates presence of aldehyde
or ketone and filter solid
constituent and add conc.HCl to it
to gain back original compound