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Gintare Meizys

Annotated Source List


"Alternative Cancer Treatments (Don't Underestimate Mother Nature)."Cancer Tutor. N.p., n.d.
Web. 26 Oct. 2015. <http://www.cancertutor.com/>.
Summary: Website
This article is on a webpage dedicated to researching alternative treatments for cancer. It
claims that doctors and scientists lie when they say that alternative treatments do not
work - they just want money.
Application to Research
The article is very biased, but it seems I have some scientific explanations or proofs to its
claims. This would be helpful in giving me perspective on cancer treatments, if I were to
research alternative treatments. It would give me information from alternative doctors
and people who really believe in them.
Altman, Roberta, and Michael J. Sarg. Cancer Dictionary: A-to-Z Guide to Over 2, 500 Terms.
Revised ed. New York: Facts on File, 1994. Print.
Summary: Reference Book
The reading is a reference book that defines and explains any word associated with often
heard with cancer. The book itself is in the form of a dictionary. It lists words that have
any sort of connection to cancer, and explains what they are, what they mean, their
histories, and/or how theyre related to cancer. It lists drugs, treatments, stages of cancer,
protocols, names of diseases, vaccines, preventative measures, detection methods,
medical procedures, and many other things. The book describes lung cancer as one of the
most deadliest forms of cancer, and hardest to detect early. Smoking is a big part in the
development of lung cancer, but there are other substances that lead to the development
of lung cancer in people who dont smoke or are exposed to it. It lists some possible and
known carcinogens, then explains that lung cancer can be categorized into two basic
kinds. There is the small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. These
categories have subcategories and the subcategories have sub-subcategories. The book
then lists procedures used in the diagnosis of lung cancer and explains the staging and
treatments for it. It states that surgery is usually used for non-small cell lung cancer when
possible, and so is radiation. Chemotherapy and radiation is recommended for small cell
lung cancer.
Application to Research

This is informational, unbiased data. I can use it to improve my understanding of lung


cancer and standard treatments for it. I can use this source to find information on
anything else related to cancer and use these definitions as starting points.
Bakewell, Lisa, and Karen Bellenir. Cancer Information for Teens: Health Tips about Cancer
Awareness, Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment including Facts about Cancers of Most
Concern to Teens and Young Adults, Cancer Risk Factors, and Coping Strategies for Teens
Fighting Cancer or Dealing with Cancer in Friends or Family Members. 3rd ed. Detroit, MI:
Omnigraphics, 2010. Print.
Summary: Book
This book gives a few statistics on cancer and explains how it works. It explains that
there are over 100 different kinds of cancer. It also gives the different categories for
cancer and explains how a tumor forms, which is when cells grow out of control.
Application to Research
This book is a little biased towards conventional treatments, but it did help me understand
more about cancer in general. I can also use the statistics it gave to help with my research
and explain how cancer works and what categories there are.
"Biological Therapies for Cancer." National Cancer Institute. National Institutes of Health, 12
June 2013. Web. 01 Dec. 2015. <http://www.cancer.gov/aboutcancer/treatment/types/immunotherapy/bio-therapies-fact-sheet>.
Summary: Website
The reading is solely informational, intended to educate those who know little about
biological therapies. It explains that biological therapy involves living organisms. It may
be used to fight the cancer itself or just for treating side effects. Many forms of biological
therapy have been approved by the FDA, but there are some that are just available for
patients through clinical trials. The reading explains that the immune system is a network
of specialized cells that find and destroy harmful cells. It is triggered by antigens, which
are foreign substances that are harmful to the body. There are many different kinds of
biological therapies, but some that are currently approved by the FDA include
monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, vaccines, bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy, oncolytic
virus therapy, gene therapy, and adoptive T-cell transfer therapy. It also lists some side
effects of the different biological therapies, and then lists some clinical trials that are
underway.
Application to Research
This is really helpful, detailed information that I could use to understand biological
therapy better. It would help me find other things I may have to research. The information

details the treatments that are approved, and how they work, which is perfect because it
helps me understand why side effects occur and how these procedures compare to
chemotherapy and radiation.
"Cancer." Monoclonal Antibody Drugs for Cancer: How They Work. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan.
2016. <http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/in-depth/monoclonal-antibody/art20047808>.
Summary: Website
The article explains more on monoclonal antibodies. This is a biological treatment.
Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies produced in laboratories. They bind to specific
antigens that occur in cancer cells. These antigens can also sometimes occur in normal
cells. This binding helps the immune system find and get rid of these cells. They can also
be used to block the signals that tell the cancer cell to grow. This blocking can also stop
the formation of new blood vessels because to form them, cancer cells send out growth
signals to attract blood vessels. These monoclonal antibodies can also be used to deliver
radiation or chemotherapy directly to cancer cells, lowering the risk of affecting normal
cells.
Application to Research
This article explains about one type of biological treatment, and gives an idea of how it
affects cells. I can use this information in my comparisons in the efficacy and side effects
of each treatment.
"Cancer Treatment." Cancer.Net. Conquer Cancer Foundation, 18 Mar. 2008. Web. 02 Dec.
2015. <http://www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/older-adults/cancer-treatment>.
Summary: Website
The reading explains what protocols are usually followed when treatments are designed
for patients, and why they are followed. The key message says that the only options for
treatment are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. It explains that treatment
options should not be based on age alone, but should consider the type and stage of the
cancer, how much and where it has spread, available options, the risks of each treatment,
the benefits of each treatment, the goal of the patient (whether they want to just control
the symptoms of cancer, or get rid of it, or both), medical history, current medical
conditions, costs and financial restrictions, and several other factors. Older people have
the option to undergo single treatment, or combination therapy. Palliative care is also
recommended, to help soothe side effects. Before undergoing surgery, the functions of
major organs are evaluated, and it is decided whether there is too much risk involved in
proceeding with the option. The reading also describes the side effects of chemotherapy
and radiation, and the quality of life under treatment.

Application to Research
This explains the protocols used by most oncologists, but it doesnt mention anything
about biological therapy. I can use it to improve my understanding of protocols used, and
to give an example of how oncologists work and what they recommend to patients. I am
going to look for other sources that may explain protocols and compare those to this
description.
"CancerQuest | How Targeted Therapy Differs from Conventional Chemotherapy." CancerQuest.
N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Nov. 2015. <http://www.cancerquest.org/targeted-versus-standardtreatment.html>.
Summary: Website
The reading is an article written on a website sponsored by Emory University and the
Winship Cancer Institute. The website itself is dedicated to explaining and researching
cancer. This source begins with a video of a doctor talking about chemotherapy as
compared to targeted therapy, then continues to explain the differences in text under the
video. The source describes chemotherapy as a treatment that targets rapidly-dividing
cells. The problem with this is, however, that not only do cancer cells divide rapidly, but
so do some normal cells, which do very important jobs. Chemotherapy therefore, kills
cancer cells and normal cells, sometimes having a very toxic effect. It has a larger effect
on cancer cells and kills more of them, but it does affect other cells in the body, like cells
lining the digestive tract, which divide rapidly. Because of this, there are many severe
side effects from chemotherapy. Scientists have been trying to improve chemotherapy for
better results and its effectiveness has slowly been increasing. The article goes on to
explain targeted therapy, but it is not important to my research.
Application to Research
This is informational, unbiased data. I can use it to explain how conventional
chemotherapy differs from other treatments, and I can use some of this information, like
the side effects, for comparison.
"Chemotherapy." National Cancer Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Jan. 2016.
<http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/types/chemotherapy>.
Summary: Website
The article is on a government site. It explains a lot about chemotherapy and how it
works. It can be used to treat cancer, or to relieve its symptoms. It is often used with other
treatments, most commonly radiation. The article explains that chemotherapy can cause
side effects, why they happen, and how to deal with them, but doesnt go into identifying
what they are. It also doesnt identify the costs of undergoing chemotherapy, nor give any

ways on how to estimate it, other than calling the center for financial assistance. The
treatment can be given by mouth, IV, injection, IP, and topically. This often depends on
the type of cancer the patient has. The source describes the factors that go into how the
doctor decides the best way to administer chemotherapy.
Application to Research
This article is informational, though not as much as it seems to be in the beginning. I can
still use this information on chemotherapy in my explanations on how it works, and as an
example of how information on treatments can be hard for people to find.
"The Chemotherapy Drug Industry." Chemotherapy for Cancer Treatment RSS. N.p., n.d. Web.
14 Jan. 2016. <http://chemoth.com/economics>.
Summary: Website
The article explains the different costs for chemotherapy, and overall costs of cancer in
general. Chemotherapy costs range depending on the doses taken, for how long, and what
drug is used. The cost of eight weeks of chemotherapy can range from $100 to $30,000
or more. This only accounts for the drug, not for hospital charges, transportation, or any
other additional costs. The average cost of chemotherapy drugs per patient was calculated
for the ten most common cancer to be about $22,353. This is the yearly cost. The costs
change every year, in accordance to new chemotherapy drugs that are introduced. One
report claims that patients on chemotherapy spend four times as much as those who are
not. The number of cancer drugs sold every year increases at almost double the rate of
other medicinal drugs.
Application to Research
This article gives me a little background on the costs of cancer and chemotherapy and
cancer drugs in general. I can use this information in my treatment comparisons. This will
be a part of the examination of the quality of life under treatment. It also gives an idea as
to why big businesses dont want oncologists to give information on other treatments
(because they earn a lot off of chemotherapy drugs).
Chodorov, Jill. "High Radon Levels May Be a Downside to Having a Tight, Energy-efficient
House." Washington Post. The Washington Post, 30 Jan. 2014. Web. 4 Dec. 2015.
<https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/where-we-live/wp/2014/01/30/high-radon-levels-maybe-a-downside-to-having-a-tight-energy-efficient-house/>.
Summary: Online News Article
The reading is an article written for The Washington Post about radon levels in houses. It
starts by explaining how one man found dangerous levels of radon in his home. When he
had bought the house 13 years before, the level was way below the United States

Environmental Protection Agencys recommended level, but after recent testing, he found
that they had soared to unsafe levels. It is claimed that radon is easy to remediate, but can
be very dangerous if not fixed. Radon is a carcinogen related to lung cancer, and is one of
the leading causes, second only to frequent cigarette smoking. This means that people
who have never even touched a cigarette could develop lung cancer. Radon is the
number one cause of lung cancer deaths among non-smokers, according to EPA
estimates. Most of Maryland, District of Maryland, and Virginia is in Zone 1. Zone 1 has
the highest risk of radon, of the three Zones.
Application to Research
This explains one of the carcinogens of lung cancer, and how it may be encountered. This
is important in explaining that there are ways one can develop lung cancer other than
smoking. I can use it to improve my understanding of lung cancer and carcinogens.
"Complementary and Alternative Medicine." National Cancer Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Oct.
2015. <http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam>.
Summary: Website
The article defines the different types of treatment for cancer and explains that CAM
(complementary and alternative medicine) approaches are not always safe. It says that
some are proven to be effective and safe, but others are ineffective and even harmful. The
article states that these treatments should be tested and researched more, to really have a
better look at the effects, but this cannot be done because there are issues concerning
time, funding, and people and places that would be willing to research. Lastly, it tells the
readers to consult their doctors if they are considering alternative treatments.
Application to Research
This article is on a webpage dedicated to researching cancer and informing people of
cancer types and treatments. It really should not be biased, but it seems like the article
favors conventional medicine over alternative. This article could help me in my research
by giving me more information about CAMs, and why the treatments are not being
researched and considered completely safe. The article was useful because I learned a
little about what bad effects CAMs may have.
Dreyer, ZoAnn. Living with Cancer. New York, NY: Facts On File, 2008. Print.
Summary: Book
This book gives a few statistics on cancer, and explains that it is not a contagious, but
may be a hereditary disease. It explains that protocol is the accepted method of treating
any particular type of cancer," then lists a few protocols. It explains that treatments can
last for varied periods of time.

Application to Research
This book is biased towards conventional treatments, but it does give good information
on the various kinds of chemotherapy and radiation treatments. This helps in my research
because I can use a few statistics in my analysis of cancer and it may help me compare
treatments.
Hodi, FS, and SJ O'Day. "Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S.
National Library of Medicine, 23 Sept. 2010. Web. 06 Jan. 2016.
<http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20525992>.
Summary: Scholarly Article
The reading is a description of scientific research proving that biological therapy
improves the chance of survival in cancer patients. Two separate drugs were used for
treatment of metastatic melanoma, and the efficacy of both were compared. 676 patients
participated in this trial, with stage 3 or 4 melanoma. They had slim chances of survival.
Ipilimumab was used as an immunotherapy. It is a monoclonal antibody, which is an
antibody produced in a laboratory. The ipilimumab was shown to increase the amount of
time the patients survived.
Application to Research
This is a good source, based on scientific results. I can use this to argue that biological
therapy increases the chance of recovery in patients. This, however, is not research done
for lung cancer, so I may have to look for some done specifically for that type of cancer.
"Immunotherapy." National Cancer Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Nov. 2015.
<http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/types/immunotherapy>.
Summary: Website
The reading is an informational article written by the National Cancer Institute about
immunotherapy and how it works. It defines immunotherapy as a cancer treatment which
focuses on stimulating the immune system to work against cancer cells. Immunotherapy
is a type of biology treatment, which are cancer treatments that use substances made from
living organisms. There are five types of immunotherapy, which are monoclonal
antibodies, adoptive cell transfer, cytokines, treatment vaccines, and BCG. It is not
widely used, but it has been approved to treat certain kinds of cancer. The reading also
lists side effects that may occur during immunotherapy. These side effects are fairly
minor, and sometimes resemble an allergic reaction. Immunotherapy may be given
intravenously, orally, topically, or intravesically.
Application to Research

This is informational, unbiased data that I could use to explain how immunotherapy
works and I could use it to search up some of the types of immunotherapy and for what
kinds of cancer it has been approved. I also can use some of this information, like the
listing of side effects, to compare to conventional chemotherapy and radiation.
"JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst." 13-cis-Retinoic Acid and Interferon -2a: Effective Combination.
Therapy for Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2015.
<http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/84/4/235.short>.
Summary: Scholarly Article
The reading is an entry in the Oxford Journals under Journal of the National Cancer
Institute. It explains that two FDA-approved immunotherapy drugs were used in
combination to treat advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in patients in whom
local therapy hadnt worked. These two drugs were 13-cis-retinoic acid and interferonalpha. The authors claim that their purpose in the research was to see if at least a 20%
response rate could be achieved using the a combination of the two drugs. Their results
showed a 68% response rate, 25% of those who responded having a complete response.
The median duration of the response was more than 5 months, with no life-threatening
side effects The major effect that occurred was fatigue, which may be because the
patients were mostly elderly. The median age was 67 years. In conclusion, the entry said
that the treatment was highly effective in people with advanced squamous cell carcinoma
of the skin.
Application to Research
This is good, unbiased data, which was conducted by scientists to determine whether an
alternative treatment was effective. I could use it in my research to compare this
treatment and chemotherapy. The only problem might come from the data dating from
1991.
"Known and Probable Human Carcinogens." Known and Probable Human Carcinogens. N.p.,
n.d.Web.27Oct.2015.
<http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/othercarcinogens/generalinformationaboutcarcinoge
ns/known-and-probable-human-carcinogens>.
Summary: Website
The reading is an informational article written by the American Cancer Society about
carcinogens. It explains that carcinogens are environmental factors that can cause cancer.
There are many substances and exposures that are currently classified in categories
known as known, probable, possible, unclassifiable, and probably not carcinogens. These
are categories widely used and made by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.
The article also states that many groups and organizations contribute to the research on

carcinogens, but its very hard to determine for sure that something causes cancer. The
website then lists all the factors currently classified in each category.
Application to Research
This really interests me and it seems like good, unbiased data. I could use it to search up
some of the substances and exposures listed and find out what they are and where they
may be found. I may also search for what the factor needs to do to be qualified in a
specific category.
Longe, Jacqueline L. The Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer: A Guide to Cancer and Its Treatments.
Vol. 2. Detroit: Thomson/Gale, 2005. Print.
Summary: Book
This book describes what cancer is, how it works, treatments, and gives definitions to
words commonly associated and used with cancer. For example, it lists FDA-approved
drugs that are used in immunotherapy, and explains what immunotherapy is and how and
when it is used.
Application to Research
This is a good, unbiased source of information for any details I may need to know related
to cancer. I can use this in my research to help me find further information on
immunotherapy.
"Lung Cancer Treatment." Radiology Info. Radiological Society of North America, 09 May
2013. Web. 16 Dec. 2015. <http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=lung-cancer-therapy>.
Summary: Website
The reading explain the details of treating lung cancer. To determine if someone has it, a
biopsy is performed, then blood tests and imaging help determine the stage. Treatment
options for lung cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery and
radiation are more often used in earlier stages, and chemotherapy is used in later stages.
Lobectomy is also stated as a treatment option. It is a procedure that removes an entire
lobe of the lung. Its recommended for patients who have well functioning lungs, and
mortality risk is greater in older people. There is also a possible lesser risk of recurrence
of the cancer when a lobectomy is done. When a patient has inoperable lung cancer,
which means that factors such as age, stage, or the state of their lungs dont allow
surgery, intense radiation therapy is used. Esophagitis is a common side effect of
radiation therapy for lung cancer. Its when the tube that connects the mouth to the
stomach swells and makes it hard for patients to swallow. Radiation pneumonitis may
also occur weeks after therapy is over, causing fever, coughing, and shortness of breath.

The article also mentions the immunotherapy and how some studies have shown better
survival rates if it is given to patients after surgery.
Application to Research
This explains how treatments are applied to lung cancer specifically, and what side
effects may occur. This is important in applying my knowledge of treatments to a specific
cancer.
Newton, David E. Sick! Diseases and Disorders, Injuries and Infections. Detroit: U X L, 2000.
Print.
Summary: Book
This book explains that cancer is not just one disease, but a group of diseases. It causes
cells in the body to grow abnormally fast and have the ability to spreading to other parts
of the body.
Application to Research
This book is unbiased and very informational. This is important to my research because it
gives me basic information about cancer. It helped me understand more about my topic.
"Radiation Therapy for Cancer." National Cancer Institute. National Institutes of Health, 30 June
2010. Web. 16 Dec. 2015. <http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/types/radiationtherapy/radiation-fact-sheet>.
Summary: Website
The source explain what radiation therapy is, how it works, why its used, how its
personalized for each individual patient, how its given, when its given, potential side
effects, and research being done to improve it. Radiation therapy uses high-energy
radiation such as x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles to kill cancer cells, and may
be delivered outside of the body by a machine, or placed inside of the body. When it is
delivered by a machine, it is called external-beam radiation therapy, when it is placed in
the body near cancer cells, its called internal radiation therapy, and when its placed in
the blood systematically targeted towards cancer cells, its called systemic radiation
therapy. This radiation kills cells by directly damaging their DNA, or by creating free
radicals (charged particles) inside of the cell that can damage the DNA. This radiation
may, however, affect normal cells, creating side effects. Doctors try to prevent this from
happening by taking into account the amount of radiation normal cells various parts of
the body can receive without being greatly affected, and then deciding where to aim the
radiation. Radiation is often combined with surgery or chemotherapy, and it is stated that
almost half of all patients undergo radiation therapy while treating their cancer.

Application to Research
This is helpful in understanding radiation therapy better, and getting more information on
the side effects, and how it works.
"Side Effects." National Cancer Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Jan. 2016.
<http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/side-effects>.
Summary: Website
The source lists some common side effects of cancer treatments. And provides links for
more information of each side effect. This source was a link from the chemotherapy
information page, which said that more information on side effects could be found here.
This doesnt outright show which side effects are causes of chemotherapy, but clicking on
each gives more information on which treatment causes it. All in all, the side effects of
chemotherapy end up including the whole list, which is anemia, appetite loss, bleeding
and bruising (thrombocytopenia), constipation, diarrhea, edema, fatigue, hair loss
(alopecia), infection and neutropenia, lymphedema, memory and concentration problems,
mouth and throat problems, nausea and vomiting, nerve problems (peripheral
neuropathy), pain, sexual and fertility problems, skin and nail changes, sleep problems,
and urinary and bladder problems.
Application to Research
I can use this information to give an example of how difficult it is to find information on
chemotherapy, and how its side effects are often hidden, or just generalized as common
side effects for all treatments, which is misleading. I can also use the side effects listed in
my comparisons of the treatments.
Total Cost of Cancer Care by Site of Service: Physician Office vs Outpatient Hospital (2012): 022. Avalere Health, LLC, Mar. 2012. Web. 18 Nov. 2015.
<http://www.communityoncology.org/pdfs/avalere-cost-of-cancer-care-study.pdf>.
Summary
The reading is a packet put together by Avalere Health about the costs of chemotherapy
and radiation therapies. It explains the methods used for data collection, and says that the
episodes they refer to in the data refer to one lapse of therapy. The average number of
episodes that the subjects of examination had gone through was 1.2 for chemotherapy and
1 for radiation therapy. The average cost per episode for people with lung cancer was
$32,913 for chemotherapy and $24,669 for radiation therapy. This was for people who
were treated in conventional hospitals or offices. Costs for outpatient hospitals were
much greater. It was also explained that the subjects for this evaluation were at least over
20, with most over 60. They claim that older patients were picked because treatment for
younger patients tend to vary and are known to be far more expensive.

Application to Research
This is informational, numeric data that I could use to compare costs between
chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It would help in my comparisons between
treatments. The data had already been collected and evaluated, I can now just include it in
my research.
"Understanding Immunotherapy." Cancer.Net. N.p., 25 Mar. 2013. Web. 27 Oct. 2015.
<http://www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/how-cancer-treated/immunotherapy-andvaccines/understanding-immunotherapy>.
Summary: Website
The reading is an informational article about immunotherapy on a cancer website
sponsored by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and with support from the
Conquer Cancer Foundation. The article explains that immunotherapy is also called
biology therapy, boosting the bodys natural immune system to fight cancer.
Immunotherapy uses monoclonal antibodies, which are infection-fighting proteins made
in laboratories. They may be used in combination with other treatments, providing a
boost to the immune system to keep the patient strong, or helping deliver drugs or
radiation to the cancer cells, or diagnosing certain types of cancer. The article then lists a
few monoclonal antibodies that are FDA-approved. There are also some non-specific
immunotherapies that are commonly used with chemotherapy and radiation, but can
sometimes be used as the primary treatment. These non-specific immunotherapies dont
use monoclonal antibodies. Symptoms for any immunotherapy treatments are mild.
Application to Research
This source should be unbiased because it gives information on how the treatment works,
how it is used, and when it is commonly used. It helped me in my research because I
learned more about immunotherapy and I may be able to search up some of the FDAapproved drugs and see how effective they are and compare this with chemotherapy.
Verhoef, M.J., M.S. Rose, M. White, and L.G. Balneaves. "Declining Conventional Cancer
Treatment and Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Problem or a Challenge?"
Current Oncology. Multimed Inc., 15 Aug. 2008. Web. 4 Dec. 2015.
<http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2528553/>.
Summary: Scholarly Article
The source is a scientific journal typed about an experiment conducted to determine why
people decide not to use conventional treatments to treat their cancer. It explains that the
scientists drew their results from their own research and from existing literature. Their
results revealed that there was poor communication between doctors and patients, and

poor empathy and understanding shown by doctors. Patients were shown to value checkups from their oncologists, and wanted to feel as if the doctor was making an effort to
fight the cancer with them and find the best possible treatment. Patients who declined
conventional treatment also seemed to want to have the final decision on the treatment
they would like to use. They wanted to consider the opinions of their oncologist and be
offered information on different treatments available. The background explains that there
has been reports of people declining conventional treatments since the 1980s.
Application to Research
This is really helpful in understanding how some patients feel about conventional
therapy. It also shows how some doctors may approach treatment, how people perceive it,
and what they want to know. The information gives psychological evaluations of patients
who decline conventional therapy, but explains that there is not enough research done to
draw conclusions about physician methods and responses. This source may be a little
biased, favoring conventional treatments.
"What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Cancer?" Cancer.org. American Cancer Society, 06 Feb.
2015. Web. 05 Jan. 2016. <http://www.cancer.org/cancer/lungcancer-nonsmallcell/moreinformation/lungcancerpreventionandearlydetection/lung-cancer-prevention-andearly-detection-risk-factors>.
Summary: Website
The source lists some risk factors in developing lung cancer. It lists tobacco smoke,
radon, asbestos, carcinogens that show up in workplaces, air pollution, radiation therapy,
arsenic, genetics, and various dietary supplements as factors proven to increase risk.
Marijuana smoke and talc and talcum powder are listed as uncertain or unproven to
increase risk. The source explains that smoking tobacco is a major factor in developing
lung cancer. At least 80% of lung cancer deaths are thought to result from smoking.
The longer and more one smokes, the greater the risk. Smoking cigarettes, cigars and
pipes all have similar magnitude in consequence. Secondhand smoke also raises risk.
Radon is second to tobacco smoke in causing cancer for smokers, and the leading cause
for nonsmokers. It is a radioactive gas that occurs naturally, resulting from uranium
breaking down in rocks and soil. It has no color, smell, or taste, and can only be detected
by conducting special tests. It is most harmful indoors, where it is far more concentrated.
Radon exposes the lungs to radiation as it is breathed in. The article also mentions
radiation therapy as another risk.
Application to Research
This information can be used to explain how lung cancer develops. It also mentions
radons, and that radiation causes cancer. I can use this to show that radiation therapy has
the risk of developing other forms of cancer after treatment of current cancer.

"What Is Cancer?" National Cancer Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2015.
<http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/what-is-cancer>.
Summary: Website
The article explains that cancer is not one, but many different diseases, which are all
related in some way. Cancer develops when cells mutate and do not die when they are
supposed to. These cells keep growing and dividing and making new cells too early,
while the old ones havent died yet. All these excessive cells clump together and form a
tumor. Malignant tumors can spread, whereas benign tumors do not. It also explains the
differences between normal and cancer cells, such as that cancer cells can ignore signals
that normal cells obey. This enables them to keep dividing, and to even influence normal
cells to provide for the tumor. They can also manipulate or hide from the immune
system. The article also explains what genes are usually mutated when cancer cells form
and some risks for developing cancer. It also tells of some different types of cancer.
Application to Research
This article is on a government domain, the website of which has all sorts of information
on cancer, and sponsors research for cancer treatments. It may have bias favoring humanmade medicine, since it sponsors research for such. This information could still help me
understand more about cancer because the explanation of what it is shouldnt be biased
because they seem to base it on well-known facts.