# Electronic Communication

EG 245 Frequency Modulation Generation and Detection
Dr. Amit Mehta Slides References
Louis E. Frenzel Jr: Principles of Electronic Communication Systems Beasley and Miller: Modern Electronic Communication

FM Generation
• Need Frequency Sources
– LC Oscillators – Crystal Oscillators
• When controlling them using external voltage: VCOs

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LC Oscillator

f = ½.π.√LC

If we can amplify and feedback, we got an oscillator

With Amplifier and Feedback
• Hartley oscillator

With spark generate first sinusoid

2

Variable Frequency
f = ½.π.√LC
If we very C or L electronically, we change frequency, so get FM HOW

Varactor Diode

Texture Notes
• A frequency modulator is a circuit that varies carrier frequency in accordance with the modulating signal. • The carrier is generated by LC or crystal oscillator circuits. • In LC oscillators, the carrier frequency can be changed by varying either the inductance or capacitance. • The idea is to find a circuit or component that converts a modulating voltage to a corresponding change in capacitance or inductance. • In crystal oscillators, the frequency is fixed by the crystal. • A varactor is a variable capacitance diode used to change oscillator frequencies. – Varactor Operation • A reverse-biased diode acts like a small capacitor • More reverse bias, less is the capacitance

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Direct FM Generation

Direct-frequency-modulated carrier oscillator using a varactor diode. This concept of changing frequency with voltage makes a VCO

Notes
– The capacitance of varactor diode D1 and L1 form the parallel tuned circuit of the oscillator. – The value of C1 is made very large so its reactance is very low. – C1 connects the tuned circuit to the oscillator and blocks the dc bias on the base of Q1 from being shorted to ground through L1. – The values of L1 and D1 fix the center carrier frequency. – The modulating signal varies the effective voltage applied to D1 and its capacitance varies, hence in turn the output frequency vary – No mod Vol, output is carrier. – More Vol, Less C, Higher Frequency, and vice versa

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Varactor with Crystal
– Most LC oscillators are not stable enough to provide a carrier signal. – The frequency of LC oscillators will vary with temperature changes, variations in circuit voltage, and other factors. – As a result, crystal oscillators are normally used to set carrier frequency

Crystal Oscillators

Voltage

Equivalent circuit Very stable frequency output. Used as local oscillator

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FM With Crystal

No feedback Transistor only as amp. Series

Direct FM- Frequency modulation of a crystal oscillator with a VVC

Notes
– Crystal oscillators provide highly accurate carrier frequencies and their stability is superior to LC oscillators. – The frequency of a crystal oscillator can be varied by changing the value of capacitance in series or parallel with the crystal. – By making the series capacitance a varactor diode, frequency modulation can be achieved. – The modulating signal is applied to the varactor diode which changes the oscillator frequency. – Limitation: Limited frequency shift

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Use of Multipliers
4 MHz 96 MHz +75MHz Broadcast FM Deviation of +3.125 KHz

Frequency multipliers increase carrier frequency and deviation

VCO-In Chip Form
– Oscillators whose frequencies are controlled by an external input voltage are generally referred to as voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs, E.g. before). – Voltage-controlled crystal oscillators are generally referred to as VXOs. – VCOs in chip form are primarily used in FM. – VCOs are also used in voltage-to-frequency conversion applications

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Phase Modulation
• Most modern FM transmitters use some form of phase modulation (PM) to produce indirect FM (Remember: FM can be extracted from PM). • The output of the carrier oscillator is fed to a phase modulator where the phase shift is made to vary in accordance with the modulating signal.
– A simple phase-shift circuit can be used as a phase modulator if the resistance or capacitance can be made to vary with the modulating signal. – A varactor can be used to vary capacitance and achieve phase shift modulation.

Phase Shift Circuitry

RC phase-shifter basics Leading effect from RL Circuit No electronic variable inductor Varactor is capacitive, Transistor can be variable R, we use RC circuit

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Indirect FM
– Two main disadvantages.
1.The amount of phase shift they produce and the resulting frequency deviation are relatively low. 2.All the phase-shift circuits produce amplitude variations as well as phase changes

The first FM Broadcast by Edwin Armstrong in 1930 was based on Indirect FM

FM Demodulators
AND

fc Digital: Analog: Differential Amp

A quadrature FM detector

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Phase Detector

As frequency increases phase differences reduces

Calibration Shift = 90 deg; f2 = fc No output

Shift > 90 deg; f1 Decreasing

Shift < 90 deg; f3 Increasing

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Quadrature Detector
– The quadrature detector is probably the single most widely used FM demodulator. – The quadrature detector is primarily used in TV demodulation. – Working – Due to C1, A and B phase always stays at 90 deg quad – C2 and L tuned always to fc; – When no mod signal, A =fc; • Shift is of 90 degrees, output calibrated to zero – When input frequency decreases • Phase shift between B and A increases, hence lower output – When input frequency decreases • Phase shift reduces, thus higher output

PLL
• Used in Radios • Available in chip form – It is a frequency- or phase-sensitive feedback control circuit used in frequency demodulation, frequency synthesizers, and various filtering and signal-detection applications. PLLs have three basic elements. They are: • Phase detector • Low-pass filter • Voltage-controlled oscillator (instead of LC oscillator, crystallized VCO, all in chip form)

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PLL- FM Demodulator

Capacitor store Voltage value and continue to give to vco

Block diagram of a PLL

Working
RC LPF

• No mod signal (Similar to Quadrature detector)
– Phase shift of 90, VCO at fc (running frequency), no output

• As input frequency increases, phase difference decreases, error voltage increases and vice versa. • The error voltage is the recovered signal. • Capacitor hold the error signal so as to keep VCO at a frequency where the error is zero.

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