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I. 4 9.

SURVEY
L. ti.A.
FEB 9 1918

Serial No. 77

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY
E . LESTER JONES, SUPERJlilTENDENT

CARTOGRAPHY

THE LAMBERT
CONFORMAL CONIC ' PROJECTION
WITH TWO STANDARD PARALLELS
INCLUDING

A Comparison of the Lambert Projection


with the Bonne and Polyconic Projections

BY

CHARLES H. DEETZ

LIBR .l'\ l':{Y

Cartogro1>hor, United States Coast nnd Geodetic Su ,vey

MAi-: 1 5 1!J' '


Special Publication No. 47

MAR

5 1991

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1918

JAN 2 41992
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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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PREFACE.

By reason of an increasing demand for information on Lambert's


projection and its relation to other well-known projections, the author
of this paper is striving not only to present the salient features of the
projection in question but also to elucidate the original formulas in
such a manner as to convey to the cartographer and the public a
thorough appreciation of the properties involved and their application to chart construction.
Very little is found in textbooks on the subject of Lambert's projection-seldom more than a paragraph and rarely more than a page.
Illustrations for a thorough understanding of projections or their constructio11 are by many authors deemed unnecessary, and scant
formulas with no connecting link toward their direct application is
the usual method. Some of the best projections have remained in
obscurity for a century or more because they are not understood.
The approximate formula for the Lambert projection, as it is
employed in France, is given first in detail, and the plates at the end
of the book are in illustration of this method.
The rigid Lambert formula as presented by Gauss, by whose name
the projection is sometimes known, is given next in detail also.
The writer believes the latter formula should prevail at all times.
It is by this rigid system that the projection becomes exactly conformal, or, as stated by Gauss," the model and the picture are made
conformal in their minutest parts."
Following the rigid Lambert formula, a demonstration of its ap:pli~
cation to a map of the United States is given, this subject bemg
further discussed in Part IL
Some repetition has been necessary in this paper. This is largely
in essentials and with the view to impress upon the reader the true
value of this projection, as well as to caution him against any haphazard selection of a projection to meet the requirements of any
particular mapping problem.

Anyone wishing data to enable him to construct a Lambert projection should consult the section commencing with "Construction
of a Lambert Conformal Conic Projection with Two Standard
Parallels," page 17. The necessary tables follow this section and the
plate explanatory of the construction is No. III at the end of this
manual.
Special tables for constructin~ a Lambert projection in the region
of the French war zone are published separately, as a supplement to
this manual; also certain essential conversion tables. All the elements were calculated by the First Army of France for their general
war map, with the origin of coordinates at the intersection of latitude 55 grades north, and longitude 6 grades east of Paris.
The author takes pleasure in acknowledging valuable assistance
rendered in the preparation of this paper by Messrs. Oscar S. Adams
and Walter D. Sutcliffe, geodetic computers, and Mr. Harlow Bacon,
cartographer, United i?tates Coast and Geodetic Survey.
2

CONTENTS.
Part 1.-LAMBERT'S CONFORMAL CONIC PROJECTION WITH TWO STANDARD
PARALLELS.
Page.

Introduction....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .
Historical. ........................................................ ~ . . .
l\fap projections................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .
Conformal (definition).................................................
Description of Lambert's conformal conic projection based on the French approximate formula......................................................
Computation of geographic coordinates for Lambert's conformal conic projection, according to the F'rench appro.kimate formula ............... ...... .-..
Construction of a Lambert conformal conic projection with two standard parallels ........... ~.......................................................
Construction of the Tables and their Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tables for constructing a Lambert conformal conic projection................
Mathemetical development of the rigid formula for Lambert's projection......
Application of the rigid formula of Lambert:
1. For a map of France................................................
2. For a map of the United States......................................
System of kilometric squares used on Lambert's projection in France........

5
5
7
7

8
10

17
19
20
34
43
45
47

Part z.-COMPARISON OF THE LAMBERT CONFORMAL CONIC PROJECTION


WITH THE BONNE AND POLYCONIC PROJECTIONS.

Lambert's projection......................................................
The Bonne projection......................................................
The polyconic projection...................................................
Lambert's zenithal equal area projection....................................
Conclusion................................................................
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ILLUSTRATIONS.

49
53
54
57
59
61

Following page.

Frontispiece.
Plate
I. Lambert's conformal conic projection; origin of meridians at Greenwich; geographic coordinates in degrees........................
Plate II. Lambert's conformal conic projection; origin of meridians at Paris;
geographic coordinates in grades............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plate III. Lambert's conformal conic projection; construction plate..........
Plate IV. The Bonne projection of hemisphere..............................
Plate V. Polyconic development of a sphere ............................. :
Plate VI. Lambert's zenithal equal area projection.........................
Plate VII. Quadrillage kilometrique systeme Lambert.......................
3

61
61
61
61
61
61
61

UMITS OF PROJtCTION

LAMBERT'S CONFORMAL CONIC PROJECTION


Diagram illu:strating the intersection, of a cone and sphere
along. the two standard parallels.
FRONTISPIECE.

THE LAMBERT CONFORMAL CONIC PROJECTION


WITH TWO STANDARD PARALLELS, INCLUDING A
COMPARISON OF THE LAMBERT PROJECTION WITH
THE BONNE AND POLYCONIC PROJECTIONS.
Part 1.-LAMBERT'S CONFORMAL CONIC PROJECTION WITH
TWO STANDARD. PARALLELS.
.:f.
~-GDUGTIOL-.. ,.

In order to meet the need for a system ~f map projeotion in whioh


a oombination of minimum angular and scale distortion may be
obtained, the French have adopted as a basis for new battle maps
the one known as "Lambert's conformal conio projection."
For a base map covering a zone of 500 kilometers in width, or 250
kilometers on either side of the central parallel 49 30' ( = 55 grades),
this projection shows a degree of precision which is unique and answers every requirement for knowledge of orientation, distances, and
quadrillage (system of kilometric squares). It is admirably adapted
to a region of predominating east and west dimensions, and with it
all the northeastern region of France, as well as Belgium and part
of Germany, can be represented on one map. It can be extended
east and west as far as desired, the projection remaining conformal
throughout.
In this projection the angular distortion is exceedingly small, and
linear distortion throughout the map no more than 0.05 per cent,
which may be considered as practically negligible.
It is this projection-Lambert's coaj:q,rmal conic-that becomes
the subject of this~ ~,..t.a,/~.
HISTORICAL. :

Lambert, Johann Heinrich (1728-1777), physicist, mathematician,


and astronomer, was born at Mulhausen, Alsace. He was of humble
origin and it was entirely due to his own efforts that he obtained his
education. In 1764, after some. years in travel, he removed to
Berlin, where he received many favors at the hand of Frederick the
Great, and was elected a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences
of Berlin, and in 1774 edited the Epliemeris.

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

He had the facility for applying mathematics to practical questions. The introduction of hyperbolic functions to trigonometry
was due to him, and his discoveries in geometry are of great value,
as well as his investigations in physics and astronomy. He was also
the author of several remarkable theorems on conics which bear his
name./
We are indebted to A. Wangerin, in Ostwald's Klassiker, 1894, for
the following tribute to Lambert's contribution to cartography:
The importance of Lambert's work consist.a mainly in the fact that he was the first
to make general investigations upon the subject of map projection. His predecessors
limited themaelves to the investigations of a single method of projection, especially
the perspective, but Lambert considered the problem of the representation of a sphere
upon a plane from a higher standpoint and stated certain general conditions that the
representation was to fulfill, the most important of these being the preservation of
angles or conformality, and equal surface or equivalence. These two properties, of
course, can not be attained in the same projection.
Although Lambert has not fully developed the theory of these two methods of
representation, yet he was the first to express clearly the ideas regarding them. The
former-conformality-has become of the greatest importance to pure mathematics
as well as the natural sciences, but both of them are of great significance to the cartographer. It is no more than just, therefore, to date the beginning of a new epoch
in the science of map projection from the appearance of Lambert's work. Not only
is his work of importance for the generality of his ideas but he has also succeeded
remarkably well in the result.a that he has attained.

The manner in which Lambert attacks and solves his problems is


very instructive. He has developed several methods of projection
that ~e not only interesting but are to-day in use among cartographers, the most important of these being the subject matter of this
treatise, the "Conformal conic projection," which appeared in his
Beitrage zum Gebrauche der Mathematik und deren Anwendung,
volume 3, Berlin, 1772.
Among other projections devised by Lambert, besides the one here
discussed, and one having unusual merit, is his "Azimuthal equivalent
projection," which is briefly described at the end of this paper.

MAP PROJECTIONS.

In the construction of maps the initial problem is the representation of a portion or all of the curved surface of the earth on a plane.
As a curved (or spheroidal) surface can not be fitted to a plane
without distortion, such a representation must necessarily involve a
certain amount of approximation or compensation.
The object, then, is to devise some system of p1ojection best adapted
to meet the requirements the map is to fulfill, whether the desirable conditions be a matter of correct angles between meridian and
parallel, scaling properties, equivalence of areas, rhumb lines, etc.
Some of the elements desired may be retained at the expense of
others, or a compromise may be adopted. A projection for an
area of predominating east and west dimensions would not be suited
for an area of predominating north and south dimensions. Thus, a
map of the United States with its wide longitude and comparatively
narrow latitude should never be drawn on a polyconic projection, as
appears to be the case in some of our Government bureaus. The
linear meridional distortion of such a projection is as much as 61
per cent on the Pacific coast. By using Lambert's conformal conic
projection the maximum linear distortion in a map of the United
States can be reduced to 1 per cent.
The use of a projection for a purpose to which it is not best suited
is therefore generally unnecessary and should be a voided.
All these projections have certain unquestionable merits as well as
equally serious defects, and each region to be mapped should be made
the subject of special study and, as a rule, that system of projection
adopted which will give the best results for the area under consideration.
CONFORMAL.

A conformal projection or development takes its name from the


property that all small or elementary figures found or drawn upon
the surface of the earth retain their original forms upon the projection.
This implies that-All angles between intersecting lines or curves are preserved;
For any given point (or restricted locality) the ratio of the length
of a linear element on the earth's surface to the length of the corresponding map element is constant for all azimuths or directions in
which the element may be taken.
Arthur R. Hinks, M. A., in his treaties on "Map projections,"
defines orthomorphic, which is another term for conformal, as follows:
If at any point the scale along the meridian and the parallel is the same (not correct,
but the same in the two directions) and the parallels and meridians of the map are at
right angles to one another, then the shape of any very small area on the map is the
same as the shape of the corresponding small area upon the earth. The projection
is then called orthomorphic (right shape).
7

DESCRIPTION OF LAMBERT'S CONFORMAL CONIC PROJECTION, BASED ON THE FRENCH APPROXIMATE


FORMULA.*

The meridian of 0 on the sphere is represented by a straight line


co on the projection, and the parallel OQ by a circle the center of
which is at c on the line co, and the radius of which is

co= OQ' = N0 ' cotL0

(See fig. 5 and key to abbreviations.)

The length a of the arcs of parallels on the initial parallel is laid off
upon the circle of radius co.
The meridians are represented by straight lines radiating from
c at intervals proportional to the longitude, the angle between any
meridian and the jnitial meridian being ( M- M 0 ) sin L 0
ra and oq_ (fig. 3) are arcs of the parallels corresponding to the
difference of longitude indicated by the angle at c.
The other parallels are also represented by circles with center
at c, spaced in such a way as to make the projection conformal;
that is, to preserve angles unchanged. t
It can be proved that in order to realize this condition the spacing
of the parall,els should be
{3

(33

+ 6P

02

(See key to abbreviations.)

This, then, will give us a conformal projection on a tangent cone;


that is, a projection with one standard parallel. The scale will be
correct along this initial parallel; beyond that the scale will be
increasingly large. Each point on the map has a scale characteristic
of that point, and meridians and parallels intersect at right angles.
But by reducing the scale of the projection by a constant ratio rn
(nearly unity; see key to abbreviations), the lengths at and near the
initial parallel are diminished, and we pass to a conformal conic
projection with two standard parallels instead of one (fig. 2), embodying all the properties involved in the definition of the term
"Conformal."
The standard parallels are usually chosen at one-sixth and :fivesixths of the total length of that portion of the central meridian to
be represented. The scale between these standard parallels is a little
too small, and beyond them too large.
* Translated from the French, wlth additions, and illustrated by figures 1 to 4.
t This is rigorously true only within certain distances from the point of origin if tho approximate formula
given here is adhered to. Ir tho less simple but rigorous formula be used, the projection is exactly
conformal.

9
THE LA.MBERT :PROJECTION.

Sp\\ere w\lh \nter;,e('tin9 c()(1e

f>phere

Fta. 2.

FJG. 1.

Lambert Projection
FIG. 3.

Fie. 4.

COMPUTATION OF GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATES FOR LAMBERT'S CONFORMAL CONIC PROJECTION, ACCORDING


TO THE FRENCH APPROXIMATE FORMULA.
LOCATION OF POINTS ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE BY GEOGRAPmc
COORDINATES.
KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS.

Let 0 be a point whose geographio coordinates are Lo Mo, located


at the center of the area to be represented and taken as the origin of
the projection.

Fm. 5.

POP'= the meridian passing through 0, whose longitude is Mo; and


OQQ' the parallel of latitude Lo.
A =any point whose coordinates are L and M, located on the
meridian PAP' and on the parallel RAR'.
a =the length of the parallel of 0 included between the two
meridians.

a'= the length of the arc of the parallel of A included between the
two meridians.
fJ =the length of the arc of the meridian included between parallels, reckoned from 0.
N0 =HQ'= the length of the normal to the surface at the parallel
. of 0, produced to the minor axis.
=radius of ourvature in the prime vertical.
10

THE LAMBERT PROJECTION.

11

Ro= radius of curvatue in the meridian.


p0

=mean radius of curvature of the ellipsoid at the origin 0.

=../Ro No.
r 0 =co=radius of circle representing middle parallel (fig. 4).
8 =the angle on the projection between the meridian of any
point A and the initial meridian= convergence of meridians.
m=constant ratio (nearly unity) by which the soale of projection is reduced. This diminishes the scale along the central parallel, preserves the scale along two selected parallels
equidistant from the center, and increases it beyond these
parallels.
m = 1-

2 ~37

is the ratio adopted at the French front, lengths

being preserved on the two parallels of 53 grades ( = 47


42') and 57 grades ( =51 18'), situated two grades on
either side of the initial parallel.
2 2
Numerical term (2037) = ;; where {3 =length of meridian from central parallel to one of the two selected parallels on which the lengths
are preserved.
This reduction factor is approximately the one used by the French and determined in the following manner:

fJ3

Ar=l'J+ 6- ,
Po

d(A!)_=l+~
d{J

2po2

We can determine a reduction factor that will make the value

d~;) equal to unity, and in this way hold the scale true upon any
two selected parallels at equal distances north and south of the middle parallel.
We must determine x so that

or approximately,

{32

1--=1-x
2po2

12

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

*N
_
a
1 _ (1- e2 sin2
ormal No- (l-e2 sin2 ~)~ or No a
*Fac t or A

(1-e2 . sin2,,~)~
asm 1

~)i

No sin I"

Then No= A sin 1 ,,


colog No= log A + log sin I"
*log A for 49 30' (middle parallel) =8. 5088750-10
log sin 1"
=4. 6855749-10
colog N0

=3.1944499-10

.. log No= 6.8055501 (I)

*R _ a(l-e2 )
0

(l -e2 sin2 <P)'

(1- e2 sin2 <P)!


*Factor B = a(l - e2 ) sin 1,,

1 .

R 0 =Bsinl"

colog R 0 =log B +log sin l''


*log B for 49 30' =8. 5101216 -10
log sin l"
=4.6855749-10
colog Ro= 3. 1956965 - 10
. .log R 0 = 6.8043035 (II)
.
ro =No cot Lo= No cot 49 30'
log N 0
= 6. 8055501 (from I)
log cot 49 30'=9. 9314989
6.7370490
..r0 =5,458,195 =radius fbr middle parallel 49 30' (III)

In order to realize the condition that the concentric circles be


spaced in such a way as to make the projection conformal-that is,
to preserve angles unchanged-the distance of any given parallel
from the middle parallel should be equal to
{33
{3+ 6po2

{3 being the arc of the meridian reckoned from 0, and Po the mean

radius of curvature of the ellipsoid at the origin 0.


*From Appendi:r. 9, Coast and Geodetic Survey Report, 1894.
tThls ls a development of Ar ln a Taylor serles to the third power.

13

THE LAMBERT PROJECTION.

The Development by Taylor's Theorem of the function


j(p) = r = K tanz '!. (1 + e cos p)~
2
1-ecosp

in terms of the arc (ft) along the meridian for the case of a cone
tangent at po, the scale being held exact upon the parallel of tangency, follows:
p c1+. cos p)
,.
j(p)=r=Ktanl -
2
1-.cosp- 2

By Taylor's theorem

f(p.+t:.p)=r.+M=f(p0 )+f'(p0 ){3+1 ~0 ){3 2 +1 ~P~) tl3+


11

11

_Jn(p.) "n+

Jn

I'

The. primes denote differentiation with regard to the arc fl, the relation between
d{3 and dp being
a(l-< 2 )dp
dfl=c1-.2 cos2 p)I
Taking logarithms the equation becomes
(

p lE

log/(p)=log K+l log tan 2+2 log (l+

COB

lE
p)--'2 log (1-E

COB

p).

By differentiation,
dp
lE2 sinp]
1-E COS p
d{3
(1- 2 cos 2 p): l(l- 2 cos2 p)l
a(l-2 )
asinp

(a)

Taking logarithms of equation (a), we have


logf'(p)-logf(p)=log

z+t log (1-<2 cos2 p)-log a-log sin p.

j)ifferentiating again,

P)

f"(p)_f<P)=( 2 sin p cos p cos


(p)
1-<2 cos2 p sin p
__ (1-< 2 cos2 p )l cos P.
a sin p

!' (p) f

~ - (l-2 ) cos p
(1- 2 cos2 p)I
dfJ (l-2 cos2 p) sin p'
a(l-e2)

Substituting the value of~~~~ from (a), the equation becomes


(b)

(l-cos p) (l- 2 cos2 p)l.


a sin p

f"(p)

f'

(p)

Differentiating equation (b ), we get


'

c)
(

/"'(p)_rf"(p)J 2 =[l- 2 cos2 p)i + (l-cos p)e2 cos p


!' (p) LJ' (p)
a
a(l-e2 cos2 p)l
2
2
_ (l-cos p) (l-e cos p)i cos p] . dp =[(l-e 2 cos2 p)l
a sin2 p
d{3
a
2
(l-e ) (l-cos p) cos EJ(l-e2 cos2 p)l (l-e2 cos2 p) 2
a(l- 2 cos2 p)i sin2 p
a(l-2 )
a 2(l-2 )
2
2
(l-cos p) (1-< cos p) cos P,
a 2 sin2 p

14

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

These derivatives roust now be evaluated for the co-latitude p0 Since the
cone is tangent at the co-latitude p 0 , we have
a tan Po
!( Po.)-r
- o (l-02 cos2 Po)!

Since the scale is to be held exact upon the parallel of tangency, we have
condition

th~

this being the general relation between a curve and its tangent.
From equation (a)

! '( Po )

l(l-2 _cos2po)}f( )=l.


a Slil Po
Po

Substituting the above value ofj(p0 ), this becomes


l(l-o2 cos! p 0 )l
a tan Po
_
1
a sin Po
' (l-E 2 cos2 p0 )i - '

or

l=cos Po

By substituting t:qjs value of l in equation (b), we find that


f"(Po)=o.

If these values of l,f'(p0 ), and f"(p 0 ) are substituted in equation (c), there results

Ill( )
Po

2
(l-E2 COS p0 ) .

a2(l-2)

If p0 is the geometric mean of the radii of curvature at the po1m p0 , we can express
this equation in the form

When these values are substituted in the Taylor's series, the series oecomes
[33

r0 +M=r0 +f3+6 2 +... ;


Po

[33

or, Ar=f3++...
6 2
Po

This is the correct value of the series to the third power of f3.

The following computations serve to illustrate the application of


this expression:
{3 (meridional arc from 49 00' to 49 30' = 55607. 3 meters.
{3 (meridional 1trc from 49 30' to 50 00' = 55612. 2 meters.

Po= ..JRoNo
log R 0 = 6. 8043035 (from II)
log N 0 = 6. 8055501 (from I)
2)13.6098536
log Po= 6. 8049268

15

THE LAMBERT PROJECTION

. . spacing of the parallels in formula (3 + (3

6 Pe2

becomes,
55607. 3 +

55 07

~ Po~

33

= 55607. 3 + 0. 7 = 55608. 0 =spacing

be~

tween parallels 49 00' and 49 30'


In like manner,
55612. 2 + 0. 7 = 55612. 9 =spacing between
parallels 49 30' and 50 00'
48 00' to 4930'=166807.2 ( = 55607.3+111199.9) + 19.0= 166826.2
49 30' to 5100' = 166851.2 ( = 55612.2 + 111239.0) + 19.0 = 166870.2
47 00' to 49 30' = 277987.4 ( = 166807.2+ 111180.2) +87.9=278075.3
49 30' to 52 00' = 278109.5 ( = 166851.2+ 111258.3) +88.0=278197.5
Combining the above with (III), the radii become:
Radius for
Radius for
Radius for
Radius for
Radius for
Radius for

47
48
49
50
51
52

00' = 5, 458, 195 + 278, 075 = 51 736, 270 meters.


00' =5, 458, 195+ 166, 826=5, 625, 021 meters.
00' ='5, 458, 195+ 55, 608=5, 513, 803 meters.
00' = 5, 458, 195- 55, 613 = 5, 402, 582 meters.
00' = 5, 458, 195-166, 870 = 5, 291, 325 meters.
00' = 5, 458, 195- 278, 197 = 5, 179, 998 meters.

Reducing scale of projection by constant ratio


1

m=l-2037
r for 47 00' = 5, 733, 454 meters.

r for 48 00' = 5, 622, 260 meters.


r for 49 00' = 5, 511, 096 meters.

r for 49 30' = 5, 455, 515 meters.


r for 50 00' = 5, 399, 930 meters.
r for 51 00' = 5, 288, 727 meters.

r for 52 00' = 5, 177, 455 meters.


Spacing between parallels becomes:
47 00'
48 00'
49 00'
49 30'
49 30'
49 30'
30264-18-2

to 49 30' = 277, 939 meters.

io 49 30' = 166, 745 meters.

to 49 30'-= 55, 581 mete:rS.


to 50 00' = 55, 585 meters.
to 51 00' = 166, 788 meters.
to 52 00' = 278, 060 meters.

(IV)

17

16

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

Fm. 6.

ll=convergence of meridians= (M- M 0 ) sin L 0


= (M- M0 ) sin 49 30'
= (M- Mo) (0. 76)
..convergence of 1 long. from central meridian= 0. 76
45' 36"
convergence of 2 long. from centralmeridian=0.76X2=1 31' 12''
convergence of 3 long. from central meridian= 0.76 X 3 =2 16' 48"
convergence of 4 long. from central meridian= 0. 76 X 4 = 3 02' 24"
convergence of 5 long. from central meridian= 0. 76 X 5 = 3 48' 00"
convergence of 6 long. from central meridian=0.76 X 6 = 4 33' 36"
convergence of 7 long. from central meridian= 0. 76 X 7 = 5 19' 12"

x=r sin(}
y=r-r cos 8=r (I-cos 0)=2 r sin2 ~
(}

or,y=x tan 2
8=45' 36" for 1 from central meridian.
Applying the above, we have the following:
FOR LATITUDE 47 00', r-5,733,454.

x ..............
y ...

1 long.

_s_ 1-6-

76,049
504

152,085
2,017

228,094
4,539

304,063

379, 9781455,827
12,
18, 149

531,595
24,698

8,068

FOR LATI'l'UD.E 52 00',

605

(V)

r~S,177,455.

x .... , 68,674, 137,337, 205,975, 274,5771343,1301411,6231480,044


71

~~

~~

~a

~~

~~

~~

CONSTRUCTION OF A LAMBERT CONFORMAL CONIC PROJECTION WITH TWO STANDARD PARALLELS.


, [See Plate Ill.]

The coordinates for the projection of northeastern France and


Germany (Plate I), given in the preceding computations, were determined from the French approximate formula for intervals of 1.
The two standard parallels chosen by the French for this map are
53 and 57 grades (1 grade= 1/100 of a quadrant in the French notation). The middle parallel is 55 grades. The equivalents in our
notation are:
53G=47 42 1
55G=49 30 1
57G=51o18 1
The notation followed on this plate is in degrees and not in grades.
Draw a straight line ab (Plate III) for a central meridian and a
construction line cd perpendicular to it, each line to be as central to
the sheet as the selected interval of latitude and longitude will
permit.
To iDBure greater accuracy on large sheets, the longer line of the two should be
drawn first, and the shorter line erected perpendicular to it.

'Let cd represent the construction line for the middle parallel


49 30'. From the preceding computations (see IV, p. 15) lay off
on the central meridian the distances representing the spacing between the middle parallel and the other parallels to be represented on
the map. For instance, the distance between parallels 47 00' and
49 30' is 277 ,939 meters. Through the upper and lower points
thus found, draw construction lines ef and gh parallel to ed.
On these upper and lower construction Jines el and gh now lay
off the x and y coordinates as given in the preceding computations.
(See V, p. 16.)
For example, in longitude 10 (=6 from center of map, Plate III) lay off to
the east on the lower construction line gh the value x (under 6) =455,827
meters; and to the north tlie value y (under 6)=18,149 meters.

At the upper end of y (indicated by a small circle on Plate III)


we then have established the intersection of parallel 47 with the
meridian 10.
In like manner the x and y coordinates will establish the intersection of paraUel 52 and the meridian 10.
17

18

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

By drawing a straight line through the two points thus determined


the meridian 10 is located on the map.
Apply the x and y coordinates along the upper and lower construction lines for the remaining meridians, which can then be drawn in.
To establish the parallels, connect they points to right and left of
the central meridian along the upper and lower construction lines,
and we then have parallels 47 and 52 located. The y points are
generally close enough together so that the chords thus drawn approximate the circle.

The remaining parallels can then be determined by subdividing all


the meridional arcs between 47 and 52 not equally but in the same
proportion as they appear along the central meridian.
The projection being completed, all meridians should be straight
lines and all parallels of latitude arcs of concentric circles.

CONSTRUCTION OF THE TABLES AND THEIR USE.


CONSTRUCTION OF THE TABLES.

The parallel of 55 was adopted as the central parallel and the


spacings of the other parallels were computed by the formula
(33

Ar={3+-62
Po

The adoption of O. 76 as an approximate value for sin 55 diminished


the constant of the cone and consequently shortened the parallels.
The radius for 55 was determined so as to hold exactly the parallel
of 53. The spacings of the parallels were then reduced 1 part in
2033, so that the scale along the meridian should be correet at 53.
This rendered the scale exactly correct at 53, both along the parallel
and along the meridian. As a result, at any given point of the map,
the scale is the same in all directions, and hence the conformal
quality is preserved. The other parallel that is held in scale is
approximately 57.

The computations are based upon the Clarke ellipsoid of 1866. ;


The meridional arcs were taken from the Polyconic Projection Tables,
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, Special Publication, No. 5.
USE OF TABLES FOR MAP PROJEC.TIONS IN NORTHEASTERN FRANCE.
[See end of preface in regard to special tables published separately.)

In Table II, under column "Spacing of parallels," we have given


the distance in meters for each parallel from the middle parallel of
the map of France; that is, the parallel of 55 grades.
By subtracting the values opposite the parallels to be represented
on any projection, we obtain the spacings in meters between these
same parallels.
In constructing a projection, however, it is better procedure to
select the middle parallel to be mapped, and find the differences in
meters between this middle parallel and all the other parallels in
the same way.
In Table III (x's and y's), the :first 10 lines give intervals of 0.02
grade and are intended for large scale projections only. The corresponding spacings of the parallels for each 0.02 grade can be
obtained by division of the spacing of 0.1 grade intervals into five
parts.

20

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.


TADLE I.
8

JI

(0.76 JI)

Log sin 8

Gradf.,
0.02.
0.04.
0.06.
0.08.

1 38.496
2 27. 744
3 16.992

49.248

6.3779635
6.6789934
6.8550847
6.9800234

2.4548970
3.0569570
3.4091396
3.6500168

0.10.
0.12.
0.14 .. .................................
0.16.
0.18.

4
4
5
6
7

06.240
55.488
44. 736
33.984
23.232

7.0769334
7.156114.6
7.2230614
7.2810532
7.3322056

3.8528368
4.0111994
4.1450930
4. 2610768
4.3633820

0.2.
0.3.
0.4.

8 12.480
12 l!l.72
16 24.96

7.3779630
7.5540538
7.6789918

4.4548968
4.8070792
/i.0569560

0.5.
0.6.
0. 7.
0.8. ..............
0.9.

20 31.20

24 37.44
28 43.68
32 4~.92
36 56.16

7. 7759009
7.8550810
7.9220265
7. 9800169
8.0311677

5.2507760
5.4091376
5.5430304
5.6590136
5.7613180

41
45
49
53
57

02.40
08.64
14.88
21.12
27.36

8.0769232
8.1183137
8.1561000
8.190&'i93
8.2230413

5.8528318
5.9356160
6.0111020
6.0807150
6.1450830

1.0.

1.1. ...................................................
1.2.
1. 3 ....................................................
1.4.
1.5. ...............................
1.6 ...................................................
1. 7 ...................................................
1. 8 ....................................................
1.9 ....................................................

1
1
1
1
1

01
05
09
13
17

33.60
39.84
46.08
52.32
58.56

8.2530015
8.2810271
8. 3073525
8.3321726
8.3556498

6.2050078
6.2610638
6.3137198
6.3633654
6.4103256

2.0 ........................' ................


2.1. ..........................
2.2. .. ...........
2.3. .......
2.4.

1
1
1
1
1

22
26
30
34
38

04.80
11.04
17.28
23.52
29. 76

8.3779222
8. 3991073
8. 4193062
8.{.386067
8.4570852

6.4548764
6.4972528
6.5376574
6.5762652
6.6132300

42
46
50
54
59

36.00
42.24
48.48
00.96

8.4748090
8. 4918371
8.5082220
8.5240107
8.5392447

6.6486846
6.6827486
6. 7155268
6. 7471126
6. 7775896

2
2
2
2
2

03
07
11
15
19

07.20
13.44
19.68
25.92
32.16

8.5539619
8.5681960
8. 5819778
8. 5953351
8.6082931

6.8070330
6. 8355106
6.8030842
6.8898086
6. 9157350

3.6.
3. 7. ..
3.8. ...
3.9.

2
2
2
2
2

23
27
31
35
40

38.40
44.64
50.88
57.12
03.36

8.6208750
8.6331023
8.6449940
8.6565680
8.6678412

6.9409100
6.9653752
6.9891696
7. 0123296
7.0348878

4.0. ....
4.1. ....
4.2. ...
4.3.
4.4. .

2
2
2
2
3

44
48
52
56
00

09.60
15.84
22.08
28.32
34.56

~-6788284

8.6895439
8. 7000008
8. 7102112
8. 7201865

7.0568744
7.0783178
7.0092446
7.1196784
7.1396424

4.5.

3 04 40.80

8. 7299371

7.1591574

2.5.
2.6. ......

2.T. ......

2.8.
2.9.
3.0 . .....................
3.1. ....................................................

3.2.

3.3 .. ...............
3.4. .........

3.5 .. -

54. 72

21

THE LAMBERT PROJEOT10N.


TABLE

II.
Spacing of
parallels

Latitude L

Radius r

Log r

Grades.

52.5 ................................................... .
52.6 .................................................. ..

52.8 ................................................... .
52.9 ................................................... .

250
240
230
22{1
210

53.0 ................................................... .
53.1. ................................................. ..
113.2 ................................................... .
63.3 ................ : .................................. .
63.4 ................................................... .

200 097. 7
190 091.4
180 085.2
170 079.4
160 073. 7

5 658
5 648
6 638
5 628
5 618

660.0
653. 7
647. 5
641. 7
636.0

6. 7527186
6. 7519449
6. 7511750
6. 7504036
6. 7496309

53.5 .................................................. ..

150 ()(18.5
140 063.4
130 058.3
120 053. 6
110 049.0

5
5
5
5
5

61\8
598
588
578
568

(130. 8
62/J. 7
620.6
615.9
611.3

6.7488569
6. 7480814

5 558 606.8
5
5
5
5

648 602.4
538 598. 0
5'28 5\l3.~
5tS 589.5

6. 7449659
6. 7441836
6. 7433998
6.742&147
6. 7418281

5
5
5
5
5

508
498
488
478
468

6. 7410400
6. 7402500
6. 7394597
6. 7386674

52.7 .................................................. ..

53.6 .................................................. ..
53.7 .................................................. ..
03.8 .................................................. ..
63.9 ................................................... .
64.0 ................................................... .

54.1. .................................................. .
54.2 ................................................... .

54.3 .................................................. ..

135.2
126.9
119. l
lll.5
104.4

044. 5
040.1

100
\){)
80
70
60

035. 7

50
40
30
20
10

022. 7
018.~
013. 8
009.4

Oi\1.3
027.2

004.8
0.0

10
20
30
40

55.8 .................................................... 1

!ll
ft:

+
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~I

005.0
010. 0
015.2
020.8

50
\\0
70
80

6. 7550116
6. 75424119
6. 7534809

5 458 5\\2.3
5 448 557.3

5 438 552.3
5 428 547.1
5 418 541.5

6. 7473046

6. 7465264
6. 74574.69

6. 73787ll6
6.7370783
6. 7362815
6. 7354833
6. 7346836
6. 7338824

5
5
5
5
5

408 535.6
398 529.4
388 523.1
378 516.5
368 509.3

6,7330797

100 060. 4
110 068. 2
12() 070. 4
130 085, 2

140 O\l4.4

5
5
5
5
5

3/J8
348
338
328
318

501. 9
494.1
485.9
477.1
467.9

6. 7290433
6. 7282315
6. 7274180
6. 7266031
6.7207866

150
160
170
180
190

5
5
5
5
5

308 458.2
298 448.0
288 437.1
278 425.8
268 413.8

6. 7249684

258 401. 2
248 388.0
23.~ 374. 2
228 359.5
218 344.2
208
198
188
178
1118

104. l

ll-i.3
125. 2
136. 5
148.5

210
220
230
240

174.3
188.1
202.8
218.1

5
5
5
5
5

57.9 ................................................... ..

250
260
270
280
290

234.2
250. 9
2118.5
2S7. 2
306.5

5
5
5
5
li

58.0 .................................................. ..

300 326.6

585.0
580. 6
576.1
571. 7
0\\7.1

6. 7557750

026. 7
O:l2.ll
039.2
<H5.8
90 053.0

200 161.1

i:11: :

6. 7565370

5 708 697.5
5 6D8 689.2
5 688 681. 4
5 678 673.8
5 668 666. 7

6. 7322755
6. 7314097
6.7300625
6. 7298537

6. 7241486
6. 7233273
6. 7225044

6. 7216798

6. 7208537
6. 7200259
6. 7191966
6. 7183tl54

6. 7175327

328.1
311.4
293.8
275. l
255.8

6. 7158622
6, 7150246
6. 714Ul51
6.7133440

5 158 235. 7

6. 7125012

6. 7166983

22

U. S. COAST AND GEODET'IC SURVEY.

III

TABLE
----.

Latitude
Langitu de

52.5G

52.fiG

52.70

II

52.So

11

Meters

J.fcters

Meters

Meters

Meters

Meter a

.'deters

52.9G

I
i

x
Meters

11

Grades
0.02 ...
0.04 ..
0.06 ...
0.08 ...

Met era
1363. 0
2726. 0
4089. 0
541i2.l

0.2
0.7
1.5
2.6

0.10 ..
0.12 ...
0.14 ...
0.16 ...
0.18 ..

6815.1
8178.1
9541.1
10 904. l
12 267.1

4.1
5.9
8.0
10.4
13.2

0.2 ....
0.3 ...
0.4 ....

13 630.1
~ 445.2
260.2

16.3
36.6
65.1

0.5 ....
0.6 ....
0.7 ....
0.8 ....
0.9 ....

34
40
47
54
61

075.2
890.1
705.0
519. 8
334.5

101. 7
146.4
199.3
260.3
329.5

34
40
47
54
61

015. 4
818. 4
C.21. 3
424.2
227.0

101.5
146.2
199.0
259.9
328.9

33
40
47
54
61

955. 7
746. 7
537. 7
328. 6
119. 4

101. 3
145.9
198.6
259.4
328.3

33
40
47
54
61

896. 0
675.1
454.1
233.0
011. 9

101.2
14.5. 7
108.3
259.0
327.8

33
40
47
54
60

836.2
60:l.4
370 5
137.5
904.4

101.0
145. 4
197.9
258.5
327.2

1.0 ....
1.1.. ..
1.2 ....
1.3 ....
1.4 ....

68
74
81
88
95

149.1
963. 6
778.1
592.4
406.6

406.8
492.2
585.S
687.5
797.3

68
74
81
88
95

029. 7
832.2
634. 7
437.1
239.3

406.1
491. 4
584. 7
680.3
795.9

67
74
81
88
95

910.
700. 8
491. 4
281. 8
072.1

405.4
490.5
583. 7
685.1
794.5

67
74
81
88
94

790. 7
569. 4
348. 0
126. 5
904. 9

404.6
489.6
582.7
683.9
793.1

67
74
81
87
94

671. 3
438. 0
204. 7
971. 2
737. 6

403.9
488.8
581. 7
682.6
791. 7

0.2
0.6
1. 5
2.6

1358. 2
2716.5
4074. 7
5432.9

0.2
0.6
1.5
2.6

1355. 8
2711. 7
4067.5
6423.4

0.2
0.6
1.5
2.6

1353. 5
2706. 9
4060. 4
6413.8

6803.1
8163. 7
9524. 4
10 885.0
12 245.6

4.1
5.8
8.0
10.4
13.2

6791. 2
8149. 4
9507.6
10 86.5.9
12 224.1

4.1
5.8
7.9
10.4
13.1

6779. 2
8135.1
9490.9
10 846.8
12 202.6

4.0
5.S
7.9
10.4
13.1

6767. 3
8120. 7
9474. 2
10 827. 7
12 181.1

13 606. 2
20 409.3
27 212. 4

16.2
3G.5
65.0

13 582.3
20 373.5
27 164. 6

16.2
36.5
64.9

13 558. 4
20 337. 7
27 116.8

16.2
36.4
64. 7

13 534. 6
20 301.8
27 069.0

1360. 6
2721.2
4081. 9
5442. 5

Mete..rs

0.2
0.6
1.5
2.6
4.0
5.8
7.9

10.3
13.1

16.2
36.3
64.6

1.6 ....
1. 7 ....
1.8 ....
1.9 ...

1.5 ... - 102 220.6


109
115
122
129

034. 5
848. 3
661. 9
475. 3

915.3
1041.3
1175. 6
1318. 0
1468. 5

102
108
11.5
122
129

041. 4
843. 4
645. 2
446. 8
248.3

913. 7
1039. 4
1173. 5
1315. 6
1465. 9

101
108
115
122
129

862.2
652.3
442.1
231. 8
021.3

912.1
1037. 6
1171. 5
13I:l. 3
1463.3

101
108
115
122
128

683.1
461.2
239.0
016. 8
794. 4

910.4
1035.8
1169. 4
1311.0
1460. 7

101
108
115
121
128

503.9
270.0
036.0
801. 8
567. 4

908.8
1034.0
1167.3
1308. 7
1458.2

2.0 ...
2.1.. ..
2.2 ....
2.:r....
2.4 ....

136
143
149
156
163

288.5
101. 6
914.3
727
539

1627.1
1793.9
1968. 8
2152
2343

136
142
149
156
163

049. 6
850. 7
651.6
452
253

1624. 2
1790. 7
1965.3
2148
2339

135
142
149
156
162

810. 7
599. 9
388.8
178
966

1621. 4
1787. 6
1961. 9
2144
2335

135
142
149
155
162

571.8
349.0
126.0
903
679

1618.5
1784. 4
1958.4
2141
2331

135 332.9
142 098.1
148 863.2
155 628
162 393

1615. 7
1781.3
1955.0
2137
2327

2.5 .. ..1110
2.6 ... 177
2.7 .... 183
2.8 ... 190
2.9 .... 197

352
164
975
787
598

2542
2750
2965
3189
3421

170
176
183
190
197

053
853
653
452
251

2538
2745
2!JGO
3183
3415

169 754
170 043
183 330
190 905

2533
2740
2955
3178
3409

169
176
183
189
196

456
232
008
783
558

2529
2735
2950
3172
3403

169
175
182
189
196

157
921
685
449
212

2524
2730
2944
3167
3397

3.0..
3.1. ..
3.2 ....
3.3 ...
3.4 ....

204
211
218
224
231

408
219
029
839
649

3661
3909
4165
4429
4702

204
210
217
224
231

050
849
647
445
213

3654
3902
415S
4422
4691

203
210
217
224
230

692
479
21l5
051
837

3648
3895
4150
4414
4685

203
210
216
223
230

334
108
883
657
431

3642
3888
4143
4406
4677

202
209
216
223
230

975
738
500
263
025

3635
3881
4136
4398
4669

3.5 .... 238


3.6 .... 245
3.7 .... 252
3.8 .... 1258
3.9 .... 265

458
267
076
884
692

4982
5271
5568
5873
6186

238
244
251
258

040
837
634
430
265 226

4974
5262
5558
586.3
6175

237
244
251
257
264

622
407
192
976
760

4965
5253
5549
5853
6165

237
243
250
257
264

204
977
750
522
294

4956
5244
5539
5842
6154

236
24:l
250
257
263

786
547
308
069
829

4948
5234
5529
5832
6143

4.0 ....
4.1. ..
4.2 ....
4.3 ....
4.4 . - .

499
306
113
919
725

6507
6837
7174
7520
7874

272
278
285
292
299

022
817
612
406
200

6496

271
278
285
291
298

544
327

7162
7507
7860

893
675

6485
6813
7149
7494
7846

271
277
284
1291
298

066
838
609
379
149

6473
6801
7137
7480
7832

270
277
284
290
297

589
348
107
866
624

6462
6789
7124
7467
7818

4.5 ... 306 531

I 8236

305 993

8221

305 456

8207

304 919

8102

304 381

8178

272
279
286
292
299

-----

6825

mo 11s

110

-----

23

.THE LAMBERT PROJECTION.


TABLE

III-Continued.
Latitude

Lonr,i-

tuue

53,00

53,10

53.20

53.3

l--x--/-11--l---x--1-11-- -x------11-i--x--/--v-l___x___
1
----

---1----:---Grades

Meters

0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08

l:l51. l
2702.1
4053. 2
5404.3

0.10
0.12
0.14

675.5. 3
8100. 4

o.rn ..

9457.5
10 808. 5
12 159. 6

0.2... .
0.3.
0.4.. .

20 260. 0

0.5 .
0.6 .
0.7 .
0.8 .
0.9

33
40
47
54
60

776.5
531. 7
286. 8
041. 9
790. 9

1.0 ..
J .1.
1.2.
1.3 .
1.4 .

67
74
81
&7
ll4

061. 3
8lli.9
570. 4

0.18

13 !HO. 7
27 021. 3

.Meters

----1-----1----1----1--------1--Netcrs

0.2
0.6
1.5
2.0

1343. 7
2697. 4
40!G. 0
5394. 7

4.0
5.8
7, 0
10. 3
13-1

6743. 4
8092. l
9440. 7
10 789. 4
12 138. l

16. l
36. 3
64. 5

13 486. 8
20 230. 1
26 973. 5

100.R

Y_

Meters
0.2
0.6
1.4
2.6

Meters

Meters

1346. 3
2692.ti
4038.\l

o.o

0.2

5385.2

4.0
5.8

6731. 4

7.9

Meters

10. 3
13.0

4.0
5.8
7.9
10.3
13.0

6719.5
8063. 4
9407.3
10 751. 2
12 095. l

4.0
5.8

9424.0
10 770.3
12 116.6

10.3
13.0

6707. 6
!'-049. l
9390. 6
10 732.1
12 073. 6

5.8
7.8
10.3
13.1

16. 1
36. 2
64. 4

13 462. 9
20 194. 3
26 925. 7

16, 1
36. 2
64. 3

13 439. 0
20 158. 5
26 877. 9

16. 0
36. 1
64. 2

13 415. I
20 122. 6
26 830. 1

16.0
3ii.O
54.l

8077. 7

100.1
33537.t)I
40 245.0
144.1
46 952.4
196.2
53 659. 7
256.2
60 366. 9
324.3

67 193.5

87 350.0
94 068. 7

401.1
485. 3
577.6
677.8
786.1

67
73
80
87
03

074.0
781. 0
4R/l.O
194. 7
901. 4

576.5

100
107
114
120
127

787. 2
505.5
223. 7
941. 8
559.6

902.4
1026. 8
1150.1
129P. 5
1447. 9

100
107
114
120
127

608.0
314. 4
020.6
726. 8
432. 7

000.8
1024.9
1157.0
1297. 2
1445. 3

1607.1
1771. 9
1944.6
2125
2314

134
HI
147
104
101

377. 3
094.8
812. l
529
246

1604.3
1768. 7
1941. 2
2122

134
HO
147
154
160

138. 4
8-14.0
549. 3
254
959

lf>Ol. 4
176.1. 6
1937. 7
2118
2306

2511

963
679
395
111
827

2711
2924
3144
3373

174
181
187
194

lfi7 664

369
073
777
480

2.102
2706
2018
313\1
3367

201
207
2H
221
227

184
887
590
292
994

3603
3847
4099
43fi0
4628

2~4

6100

241
218
254
2tll

G96
398
099
800
500

4904
5188
5-180
5780
6089

2fi8
274
281
288
294

200
900
599
298
997

6405
6729
7061
7401
7750

301 695

8100

67
74
80
87
94

432. 4
175. 2
918.0
660.6
403. l

402.5
487.0
570.6
680.2
788.9

67 312.9
74 04a. 8
80 774.6
87 505.3
94 235. 9

401. 8
486.2
578.6
679.0
787.5

73 912. 4
80 631.3

1306. 4
1455.6

101
107
114
121
128

145. 5
887. 8
629. 8
371. 8
113.5

905.6
1030. 4
1163. 2
1304. 1

100
107
114
121
127

966. 3
696. 6
426. 7
156. 7
886.5

904.0
1028.6
1161. 2
1301. 8
1450.4

1012.8
1778. l
1951. 5
2133

134
141
148
155

855.1
596. 4
337. 6
079

161 819

2318

134
141
148
154
161

616.2
31i'i. 5
074. 8
!'-04

2.4 . I 162 106

2322

1610.0
1775.0
1948.1
2129

2.5 168 858

2520
2726
2939

560
300
040
780
5Hl

2516
2721
2934
3155
3385

168 201

259
997
736
474
212

3622
3868
4121
4383
4652

t.5 ... 101 324. 7


J.G . 103 078. 9
1.7 lU 832.\l
1.3 . .... 121 586. 8
1.9 128 340.5
2.0
2.1....
2.2....
2.3 .

135
141
148
155

094.0
847. 3
600. 4
353

907.2

1032. 2
1165. 3

175
182
189
195

611
363
114
866

3161
3391

168
175
182
188
1U5

202
209
216
222
3.'l . 229

617
368
118
809
618

3629
3R75
4129
4:!91
4G61

202
208
215
222
229

3.5
3.6 .
3.7
3.8
3.9

236
243
249
256
263

368
117
866
615
363

4939
5225
5519
5822
6132

235
242
249
256
262

4.0 270
4.1.. i75
4. 2.... 2p.3
4.3 ... 200
4.4 . 297

lll
858
605
352
098

0150
6777
7111
7454

269
276
283
289

303 844

8lli3

2.6 .
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.1.
3.2 .
3.3 .

4.5 . .

7805

1453.o

533

2310
2507

181 718

2929

188 445
195 173

3150
3379

167
174
181
188
191

201
208
215
222
228

3616
3861
4114
4:l75
16'14

201
208
214
221
228

542
257
972
680
4()0

3609
3851
1107
4367

11-t

4913
.5197

174

ooo
900
ft27
354
080
800

4.0

100.3
111. 4
196.5
256. 7
324.9

100.5
144.6
196.9
257.2
325.5

790-3

1. 4

2.6

597. 3
316. 7
036. 0
755.2
60 474. 4

657.0
388. 3
119. 6
850. 8
581. 9

681.4

7.9

0.6

33
40
47
53

33
40
47
53
60

4m.2
487.9
580.6

o. 2

2.6

1. 4

100.6
144.9
197.2
257.6
326.0

3\lf\.(\

Meters

1341. 5
26S:l.O
4024. 5
5:l66. 0

716.8
460. 0
203. 2
9-16.3
689. 4

551. 8

Meters

0.2
0.6
1. 4
2.6

33
40
47
53
60

11!;.2

197.6
258.1
326.6

.Meters

1343. 9
2687. 8
4031. 7
5375.6

2711\

4636

950
687
424
161
897

4930
5216
5510
5811
6121

235
242
248
255
262

532
258
983
707
432

4921
5207
5500
.1'<01
6110

235
241
248
255
261

633
369
104
839
295 573

6439
6765
7099
7!11
.7791

2r,9
275
282
289
296

1.56
s7n
602
325
018

6128
6753
7086
7428
7777

268 678
275 WO
2S2 101
28~ 812
295 522

6116
1)741
7074
7-114
7763

303 307

8140

302 770

8135

302 232

8120

828
541
254
900

5490
5701

400.4
484.4

676.6
784. 7

24

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.


TABLE

III-Continued.
Latitude

Long!-

53,50

tu de

53.60

53.70

53.l)G

53.80

---

11

Grades
0.02--0.04
___
0.06 .

.Meters

.Meters

Meter

_il,feters

Meters

Meters

o.os...

o. 2
0.6
1. 4
2.6

Meters

1339. l
2678. 2
4017. 4
5356.5

0.10 .
0.12 .
0.14 .
0.16 .
0.18 .

6695.6
8034. 7
9373. 9
10 713.0
12 052.1

4.0

0.2
0.3
0.4

13 391. 2
20 086.8
26 782.4

0.5 .
0.6 .....
0.7 0.8 ..
0.9

33
40
46
53
60

477. 9
173.3
868.8
564.1
259.4

99.9
143. 9
195.8
255.8
323. 7

33
40
46
53
60

418.2
101. 6
785.2
468. 5
151. 9

99. 7
143.6
195_5
255.3
323.1

33
40
46
53
60

358.4
029.9
701.6
373.0
044.4

99.6
143. 4
195.1
254.9
322.6

298. 7
958. 3
618.0
277. 4
59 936. 9

1)9, 4
143.1
194.8
254.4
322.0

1.0 ..
1.1. .
1.2. - .
1.3
1.4 ..

66
73
80
87
93

954.6
649.6
344.6
039.5
734.2

399. 7
483.6
575.5
675.4
783.3

66
73
80
86
93

835.2
518. 2
201. 3
884.2
567 0

398.9
482. 7
574.5
674.2
781. 9

66
73
80
86
93

715. 7
386.8
057. 9
728.9
399.8

398.2
481. 9
573.4
673.0
780.5

66
73
79
86
93

596.3
255.4
914-6
573.6
232.6

1.5 .. 100 428.8


1.6 . 107 123.3

899.2
1023.1
1155.0
1294. 9
1442. 7

100
106
113
120
126

249. 7
932. 2
614-5
296. 8
978. 8

897.6
1021.3
1152. 9
1292. 6
1440. 2

100
106
113
120
126

070.5
741. l
411. 5
751. 9

896.0
1019.4
1150. 9
1290. 2
1437. 6

99
106
113
119
126

1598.6
1762. 4
1934.3
2114

600. 7
342.4
023.8
705
386

1595. 7
1759. 3
1930.8
2110
2298

133
140
146
153
160

421. 9
091. 5
761.0
430
100

1592.9

2302

133
140
147
153
160

1927.4
2106
2294

133
139
146
153
159

442
134

2498
2702
2913
3133
3361

167
173
180
187
193

067
747
427
108
787

2493
2697
2908
3128
3355

166
173
180
186
193

768
437
105
774
441

3.0 ... 200 825


3.1. . 207 517
3.2 ... 214 208
3.3 .... 220 898
3.4 . 227 588

3597
3840
4092
4352
4620

200
207
213
220
227

468
147
826
503
182

3590
3833
4085
4344
4611

200
206
213
220
226

278
968
657
346
035

4895
5179
5470
5770
6078

233
240
247
253
260

4886

723
411
098
785
472

6393
6717
7048
7388
7736

4.5 .... 301 158

I 8091

1.7 . 113 817. 6


1.8 120 511. 8
1.9 ... 127 205. 7
2.0 .
2.1.. 2.2 .
2::i ...
2.4

133
140
147
153
160

899.5
593. 2
286. 5
980
673

2.5 ...
2.6 ...
2.7 .
2.8 ..
2.9 .

167
174
180
187
194

365
058

3.5 ...
3.6 ..
3.7 ..
3.8 ..
3.9 .
4.0 ....
4.1. ...
4.2 ..
4.3
4.4

234
240
247
254
261
267
274
281
287
294

750

Meters

Meters
1329. 6

11

-Meters

133H. 7
2673. 5
4010.2
5346.9

0.2
0.6
l. 4
2.6

1334. 3
2668. 7
4003.1
5337. 4

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.5

1332. 0
2663. 9
3995. 9
5327.8

0.2
0.6
1. 4
2.5

5318. 2

0.2
0.6
1. 4
2.5

7.8
10.2
12.9

6683. 7
8020.4
9357. 1
10 693. 9
12 030.6

4-0
5. 7
7.8
10.2
12. 9

6671. 7
8006.1
9340. 4
10 674.8
12 009.1

4.0
5. 7
7.8
10.2
12.9

6659. 8
7991. 7
9323. 7
10 655. 7
11 987.6

4.0
5.7
7.8
10.2
12.9

6647. 9
7977.4
9307.0
10 636.6
11 9tl6. l

4.0
5.7
7.8
10.2
12.9

16.0
36.0
63.9

13 367.3
20 050. 9
26 734. 6

16.0
35,9
63.8

13 343. 4
20 015.1
26 686. 8

15.9
35.8
63. 7

13 319. 5
19 979. 3
26 639.0

15. 9
35.8
63.6

13 295. 6
19 943.4
26 591.2

15.9
35. 7
63.5

33
39
46
53
59

239.0
886. 6
534.4
181. 9
829.4

99.2
142.8
194.4
254.0
321.4

397.5
48!.0
572.4
671. 8
779.1

66
73
79
86
93

476. 8
124. 0
771. 3
418.3
065.4

396.8
480.1
571.4
670.6
777.7

891-4
550. 0
208. 5
806. 8
525.0

894.4
1017. 6
1148. 8
1287. 9
1435.0

199
106
113
119
126

712. 2
358. 9
005.4
651. 8
298.1

892.8
1015.8
1146. 7
1285.6
1432.4

183. 0
498.3
1.55
813

1590.0
1753. 0
1923. 9
2103
2290

132 944.2
139 689. 9
146 235.5
152 880
159 526

1587.2
1749. 8
1920.4
2099
2285

3122
3349

166
173
179
186
193

470
126
783
439
095

2484
2687
2898
3116
3343

166
172
179
186
192

171
8Hl
461
105
748

2480
2682
2892
3111
3337

109
776
444
100
776

3584
3827
4077
4336
4603

199
206
213
219
226

751
406
062
715
370

3577
3820
4070
4328
4595

199
206
212
219
225

393
036
680
321
964

3571
3813
4063
4321
4581>

442
109
774
438
103

4878
5160
5451
5750

024
679
332
985
637

4869

5441
5739
6045

232
239
245
252
259

606
249
890
531
171

48(l()
5142
5432
5729
6034

5.8

081. 8

1756.1

2489
2692
2903

33
39
46
53

840. 7

2659. l
3988. 8

569

6067

233
240
246
253
260

6056

233
239
246
252
259

245
922
597
272
946

6382
6705
7036
7375
7722

266
273
280
286
293

768
432
095
758
421

6370
6u93
7023
7362
7708

266
272
279
286
292

290
943
594
245
895

6359
6681
7011
7349
7694

265
272
279
285
292

812
453
092
731
370

6348

300 620

8077

300 083

8062

299 546

8048

299 009

8033

267
271
280
287
293

860
538

215
892

5170
5461
5760

5151

66tl9
6998
7335
7680

25

THE LAMBERT PROJECTION.


TABLE

III-Continued.
Lntltudo

Langi
tude I

Grades

54.oo

54.10

54,20

5-t3G

54,40

----

!I

11

Jfetera

Meters

Meters

Meters

Meters

Meters

- - - -I
Meters

Meters

.Meters

I
y

Meters

0.08 ..

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.5

0.10 ..
0.12 ..
0.14 .
0.16 ..
0.18

6635.9
7963. l
9290.3
10 617. 5
11 944.6

4.0
5. 7
7.8
10.1
12.8

6624.0
7948. 7
9273. 5
10 598.3
11 923. l

4.0
5.7
7.7
10.1
12.8

6612.0
7934.4
9256.8
10 579.2
11 901. 6

0.2 ..
0.3
0.4 .

13 271. 7
19 907. 6
26 543,5

15.8
35.6
63.4

13 247.9
19. 871. 8
26.495. 7

15.8
35.6
63.3

13.224.0
19 836.0
26 447 9

0.5 .
0.6 .
0. 7 .
0.8 .
0.9 ..

33
39
46
53
59

179. 3
814. 9
450. 8
086.3
721. 9

99.0
142.6
194.1
253.5
320.8

33
39
46
52
59

119.6
743. 4
367.1
990.8
614.4

98.8
142.3
193. 7
253.0
320.3

33
39
46
52
59

059.8
671. 7
283. 5
895.3
506.9

98. 7
142. l
193. 4
252.6
319. 7

33
39
46
!i2
59

000.1
600.0
199. 9
799. 7
39\J.4

98.5
141. 8
103.0
252.1
319.1

32
39
46
52
59

940. 4
528.4
116. 3
704. 2
292.0

98.3
141. 6
192. 7
251. 7
318.5

1.0 ..
1.1. .
1.2 ..
1.3 ..
1.4 ...

66
72
79
86
92

357. 4
992. 7
628.0
263. l
898.2

396.1
479.3
570.4
669.4
776.3

66
72
79
86
92

237. 9
861. 4
484. 7
107. 9
731.0

395.4
478.4
569.3
668.2
774.9

66
72
79
85
92

118.5
730. 0
341. 4
952. 6
563.8

3Q4. 7
477. 5
568.3
667.0
773.5

65
72
79
85
92

999.1
598.6
198. l
797. 4
306.6

394.0
476. 7
567. 3
665.8
772.1

65
72
79
85
92

879.6
467. 2
054.8
642.1
229.4

393.2
475.8
566.3
664.ti
770. 7

1.5 ...
1.6 ...
1. 7
1.8 ..
1.9 ....

99
106
112
119
126

533.0
167.8
802.4
436. 9
071. 2

891.2
1014. 0
1144. 7
1283. 3
1429.8

99
105
112
119
125

353.9
976.8
599.4
222. 0
844. 3

889.6
1012. 2
1H2.6
1281. 0
1427. 3

99
105
112
119
125

174.8
785. 7
396.4
007. 0
617. 4

888.0
1010.3
1140. 6
1278. 7
1424. 7

98
105
112
118
125

995. 7
594. 6
ma. 4
792. 0
390. 5

88&.4
1008.5
1138. 5
1276.4
1422.1

98 81fi.5
105 403.5
111990.3
118 577.1
125 163. 0

884.8
1006. 7
1136. 4
1274.1
1419.6

2.0
2.1. ..
2.2 ....
2.3 ....
2.4 ...

132
139
145
152
159

705. 3
339. l
972.8
606
240

lu84.3
1746. 7
1917.0
2095
2281

132
139
145
152
158

466:4
088.4
710.1
332
953

1581. 5
1743. 6
1913. 6
2091
2277

132
138
145
152
158

227. 6
837. 6
447. 4
057
666

1578. 6
1740. 4
1910.1
2088
2273

131
138
145
151
158

988. 7
5R6. 8
184. 7
782
380

1575. 8
1737. 3
1906.6
2084
2269

131
138
144
151
158

749. 9
336.1
922. 0
508
093

1572.9
1734. l
1903.2
2080
2261)

2.5 ....
2.6 ....
2. 7 ....
2.8 ....
2.9 .

165
172
170
185
192

872
505
138
770
402

2475
2677
2887
3105
3331

165
172
178
185
192

574
195
816
436
056

2471
2673
2882
3100
3325

165
171
178
185
191

275
885
493
102
710

2466
2668
2877
3094
3319

164
171
178
184
191

977
574
171
767
364

2462
3088
3313

164
171
177
184
191

679
264
848
433
017

2458
2658
2866
3083
3307

3.0 ....
3.1.. ..
3.2 ...
3.3 ...
3.4 ...

199
205
212
218
225

035
666
298
927
558

3564
3806
4056
4313
4578

198
205
211
218
225

676
296
915
534
152

3558
3799
4048
4305
4570

198
204
211
218
224

317
925
533
140
747

3552
3792
4041
4297
4562

197
204
211
217
224

90
555
151
746
340

3545
3786
4034
4290
4254

lll7
204
210
217
223

601
185
769
352
935

3539
3779
4026
4282

3.5 ....
3.6 ....
3. 7 ....
3.8 ....
3.9 ..

232
238
245
252
258

188
819
448
078
706

4852
5133
0422
5719
6024

231
238
245
251
258

771
389
006
624
241

4843
5123
5412
5708
6013

231
237
244
251
257

353
059
565
170
775

4834
5114
5402
5698
6002

230
237
244
250
257

935
529
123
716
310

4825
5105
5392
5688
5991

230
237
243
250
256

517
099
681
263
844

4817
5096

4.0 ... 265 835


4.1. . 271 964
4.2 .... 278 591
4.3 .... 285 218
4.4 .. 291 845

6336
f\657
6986
7322
7667

264' 857
271 474
278 089
284 705
291 320

6325
6645
6973
7309
7653

264
270
277
284
290

880
984
588
192
795

6314
6633
6960
7296
7639

263
270
277
283
290

902
495
086
678
269

6302
6621
6948
7283
7625

263
210
276
283
289

425
005
585
165
744

6291
6609
6935
7270
7612

4.5 . 298 472

8019

297 934

8005

297 397

7990

296 860

7976

296 823

7961

0.01l

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.5

'

1327.2
2654. 4
3981. 6
5308. 7

0.02 ..
0.04 ..

1324.8
2649. 6
3974.4
5299.2

1322. 4
2644. 8
3967.2
5289.6

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.5

1320. 0
2640.0
3960.0
5280.0

0.2
0.6
1. 4
2.5

3.9
5. 7
7. 7
10. l
12.8

6600.1
7920.1
9240.1
10 560.1
11 880.1

3.9
5. 7
7. 7
10.1
12.8

6588.1
7005. 7
9223. 4
10 541. 0
11 858.6

3.9
5.7
7. 7
10.1
12. 7

15.8
35.5
63.l

13 200. 1
19 800. 2
26 400.2

15.8
35.5
63.0

13 176. 2
19 764. 3
26 352.4

15.7
35.4
62.9

2ti63
2872

1317. 6
2635.2
3952.9
5270.5

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.5

4545

5383

5678
5980

--

26

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

III-Continued.

TABLE

Latitude
Longitu de

--

54.60

54.5G

.Meters

Jfeters

0.02 ...
0.04 ...
0.06 ...
0.08 ...

1315.2
2630.5
3945. 7
5260.9

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.5

0.10 ...
0.12 ...
0.14 ...
0.16 ...
0.18 .

6576.2
7891.4
9206.6
10 521. 9
11 837.1

0.2 ....
0.3 ....
0.4 ....

Meters

.Meters

54,90

Meters

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.5

1310. 5
2620.9
3931. 4
5241.8

3.9
5.6
7.7
10.0
12. 7

6564.2
7877.1
9189.9
10 502.8
11 815.6

3.9
5.6
7. 7
10.0
12. 7

6552.3
7862. 7
9173.2
10 483. 7
11 794.1

13 152.3
19 728.5
26 304.B

15. 7
35.3
B2.8

13 128. 4
19 692. 7
26 256.8

15. 7
35.3
62.7

13 104.6
19 656. B
26 209.1

0.5 .... j 32 880. 7

Meters

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.5

Meters

Meters

--

---

1312. 8
2625. 7
3938. 5
5251.4

54.SG

---

Grada

54.7G

Meters

Meters

1308.1
2616.1
3924.2
5232.3

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.5

1305. 7
2611. 4
3917.1
5222.8

3.9
5.6
7.7
10.0
12. 7

6540.3
7848.4
9156.5
10 464.6
11 772.6

3.9
5.6
7.6
10.0
12.6

6528.4
7834.1
9139. 8
10 445.5
11 751.1

15.6
35.2
62.6

13 080. 7
19 621.0
26 161.3

15.6
35.1
ll2.5

13 056.8
19 585. 2
26 113.5

15.6
35.1
B2.3

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.5
I

3.9
5.6
7.6
10.0
12.6

98.0
141.1
192.0
250.8
317.4

32
39
45
52
58

761.3
313.4
865.5
417.5
969.5

97.8
140.8
191.6
250.3
316.8

32
39
45
52
58

701.5
241. 8
781. 9
322.0
862.0

97.6
140.5
191.3
249.8
316.2

32 641.8
39170.1
45 698.3
52 226.4
58 754.5

97.4
140.3
190.9
249.4
315.6

640.8
204.5
768.1
331. 6
895. 0

391. 8
474.1
564.2
662.2
768.0

65
72
78
85
91

521. 4
073.1
624. 8
176.-1
727. 8

391.1
473.2
563.2
661.0
766.6

65
71
78
85
91

401. 9
941.8
481. 5
021.1
560. 6

390.4
472.4
562.2
659.8
765.2

65
71
78
84
91

282.5
810.4
338. 2
8(\5. 8
393. 4

389.7
471.5
.561.1
6..'i8.5
763.8

98
105
111
118
124

458.2
021.4
584. 3
147.1
709.8

881.6
1003.0
1132. 3
1269. 4
1414.4

98
104
111
117
124

279.1
830.3
381.3
932. 2
482.9

880.0
1001.2
1130.3
1267.1
1411. 8

98
104
111
117
124

100.0
639. 2
178. 3
717.2
256.0

878.4
999.4
1128.2
1264.8
1409.3

97
104
110
117
124

920.8
448.1
975.2
502.2
02\l.1

876.8
997.6
1126.1
1262. 5
1406. 7

1570.1
1731. 0
1899.8
2076
2261

131
137
144
150
157

272.2
834. 5
396.6
958
520

1567.2
1727.8
1896.3
2073
2257

131
137
144
150
157

033.4
583. 7
133.8
684
233

1564.4
1724. 7
1892. 8
2069
2253

130
137
143
150
156

704.5
332. 9
871.1
409
947

1561.5
1721. 6
1889.4
2065
2248

130
137
143
150
156

55.1. 7
082.1
608.4
134
660

1558. 7
1718.4
1886.0
2061
2244

380
953
526
099
671

2453
2653
2861
3077
3301

164
170
177
183
190

082
643
204
764
325

2449
2648
2856
3072
3295

163
170
176
183
189

783
332
881
430
978

2444
2644
2851
3066
3289

163
170
176
183
189

484
022
559
096
632

2440
2639
2846
3060
3283

163
169
176
182
189

186
711
236
761
286

2435

2841
30.15
3277

3.0....
3.1. ...
3.2 ....
3.3 ....

197
203
210
216
3.4 .... 223

243
815
386
958
529

3532
3772
4019
4274
4537

196
203
210
216
223

885
445
004
564
123

3526
3765
4012
4266
4529

196
203
209
216
222

527
075
622
170
717

3520
3758
4004
4259
4521

196
202
209
215
222

168
704
240
776
311

3513
3751
3997
4251
4512

195
202
208
215
221

810
334
858
382
905

3507
3744
3990
4243
4504

3.5 ....
3.6 ....
3.7 ....
3.8 ....

099
670
240
809
378

4808
5086
5373
5667
5969

229
236
242
249
255

681
240
798
355
913

4799
5077
5363
5657
5958

229
235
242
248
255

263
810
356
902
447

4790
5069
5353
5647
5948

228
235
241
248
254

846
380
914
448
981

4782
5059
5344
5636
5937

228
234
241
247
254

428
950
472
994
516

4773
5050
5334
5626
5026

4.0 .... 262 947

6279
6597
6923
7256
7598

262
269
275
282
288

470
02B
582
138
694

6267

516
084
652
219

6910
7243
7584

261
268
275
281
288

992
537
081
625
168

6256
6573
6898
7230
7570

261
268
274
281
287

5l4
047
580
112
643

6241!
6561
6885
7217
7556

261
267
274
280
287

037
558
078
598
118

6234
6549
6873
7204
7543

4.5 .... 295 786

7947

295 248

7932

294 711

7918

294 174

7904

293 637

7889

0.6 ....
0.7 ....
0.8 ....
0.9 ....

39
46
52
59

456. 7
032. 7
608. 6
184. 5

98.l
141.3
192.3
251.2
318.0

32
39
4.5
52
59

821.0
385.1
949.1
513.1
077.0

1.0 ....
1.1. ... I
1.2 ... .,
1.3 .... 1
1.4 .... 1

65
72
78
85
92

760.2
335.9
911. 4
486.9
062.2

392.5
475.0
565.2
663.4
769.3

65
72
78
85
91

1.5 ....
1.6 ....
1.7 ....
1.8 ....
1.9 ....

98
105
111
118
124

637.4
212. 5
787.3
362.1
936. 7

883.2
1004.8
1134.4
1271. 8
1417.0

2.0 ....
2.1. ...
2.2 ....
2:'3 ....
2.4 ....

131
138
144
151
157

511.1
085.3
659.3
233
807

2.5 ....
2.6 ....
2.7 ....
2.8 .
2.9 ....

164
170
177
184
190

230
236
243
249
3.9 .... 256
4.1. ... 269
4.2 .... 276
4.3 .... 282
4.4 .... 289

6585

2634

27

THE LAMBERT PROJECTION.


TABLE

III-Continued.
Latitude

------

-----------

L ongitude

55.00

x
Grades

Met era

55.10

Meters

Meters

55,20

y
---

----

Meters

:Meters

0. 02 ...
0. 04 ...
06 ..
0. OS

1303.3
2606.6
3909. 9
5213.2

0,2
0.6
1.4
2.5

0. 10 .
0. 12.
0. 14 .
0. 16 ..
o. 18 .

6516. 5
7819.8
9123. l
10 42tl.4
11 729.6

0. 2 ..

13 032.9
19 549. 3
26 065. 7

0.5
0 ,6 .

32
39
45
52
58

582.1
098.4
614. 7
130.9
647. 0

97.2
140.0
190. 6
248.9
315.l

32
39
45
52
58

522.4
026.8
531.1
035.3
539. 5

97.1
139.8
190.2
248.5
314.5

32
38
45
51
58

65
71
78
84
91

1&~.1

679.0
194. 9
710. 6
226.2

389.0
470.6
560.1
657.3
762.4

65
71
78
84
91

043.6
547. 6
051.5
555. 3
059.0

388.3
469.8
559.1
656.1
761.0

64
71
77
84
90

.5 ..... 97 741. 7
.6 . 104 257. 0
7... no 112. 2
.8 .. 117 287. 3
.9 .... 123 802. l

875.2
995. 7
1124.1
1260.2
1404.1

97
104
110
117
123

562.5
065. 9
569. 2
072. 3
575.2

873.6
993.9
1122.0
1257. 9
1401.5

97
103
110
116
123

o.

0.3
0.4

0 7 ...
0 .8 ..
0.9
.0 ...

.1. ...

.2 ..
.3 ....
.4 ....

1300.9
2601. 8
3902. 7
5203.6

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.5

3.9
5.6
7.tl
10.0
12.6

6504.5
7805.5
9106.4
10 407:3
11 708.1

15.6
35.0
62.2

13 009.0
19 513.5
26 018.0

55,30

Meters

.Meters

1W8.5
2597.0
:1895.6
5194.1

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.5

1296.1
2592. 3
3888.4
5184. 5

3.9
5.6
7.6
9.9
12.6

6492.6
7791.1
9089.6
10 388.1
11686.6

3.9
5.6
7.6
9.9
12.6

15.5
34.9
62.1

12 985.1
19 477. 7
25 970. 2

55.40

11

Meters

----

Meters i-Meters

0.2
0.6
l.4
2.5

1293.8
258i.5
3881. 2
5175.0

6480.6
7776.8
9072.9
10 369.0
11 665.1

3.9
5.6
7.6
1).9
12.5

6468. 7
7762. 4
9056. 2
10 349. 9
11 643. u

3.9
5.6
7.6
9.9
12.5

15.5
34.9
62.0

12 961. 2
19 441. 8
25 922.4

15.5
34.8
61. 9

12 937. 4
19 406. 0
25 874. 6

15.4
34.8
61.8

462. 7
955. l
447. 5
939. 8
432.0

96.9
139.5
189. 9
248.0
313.9

32 402.9
38 883.4
45 363.9
51844.2
58 324.5

96. 7
139. 3
189.5
247.6
313.3

32
as
45
51
58

343.2
811.s
280.3
748. 7
217. 0

96.5
139.0
189.2
247.1
312.8

924. 2
416. 2
400.0
891.8

387.5
468.9
558.1
654.9
759.6

64
71
77
84
90

804. 7
284.8
764. 9
244. 7
724.5

386.8
468. l
557.0
653. 7
758.2

64
71
77
84
90

685.3
153.5
621. 6
089.5
557. 3

386.1
467. 2
656.0
652.5
756.8

383.4
874. 8
366. l
857. 3
348. 3

871.9
992.1
1120.0
1255. 6
1399, 0

97
103
110
116
123

204.2
683. 7
lll:l. l
642. 3
121. 3

870.3
990.3
1117. 9
1253. 3
1396. 4

97
103
109
116
122

025.0
492.6
960.0
427. 3
894. 4

868.7
988.4
1115. 8
1251.0
1393.S

1550.1
1709.0
1875. 6
2050
2232

129 600. 2
136 078.9
142 557. 4
149 036
155 514

1547. 2
1705.8
1872.1
2046
2228

129
135
142
148
155

361. 4
828.1
294.6
761
227

1544. 4
1702. 7
1868. 7
2042
2224

!JOS.~

0.2
0.6
l. 4
2.5

2 .1
2.2 ..
2 .3 ....
2.4 ...

2.o .... 130 316. 8

136 831.3
143 345.6
149 860
156 374

1555.8
1715.3
1882.5
2058
2240

130
136
143
149
156

078.0
580.5
082. 9
585
087

1552. 9
1712.1
1879. l
2054
2236

129 839. l
136 329. 7
142 820.1
149 310
155 800

2.5 ....
2.6....
2 . 7
2 .8 ..
2 .9

162 887
169 401
175 914
182 427
188 940

2431
2629
2835
3049
3271

162
169
175
182
188

589
090
592
093
593

2426
2624
2830
3044
3265

162
168
175
181
188

290
780
269
758
247

2422
2620
2825
3038
3259

161
168
174
181
187

992
469
947
424
901

2418
2615
2820
30:!2
32&3

161 693
168 159
174 624
181 089
187 554

2413
2610
2815
3027
3247

3 .0
3 .1. ...
3.2 ...
3.3 ....
3 .4 .

195
201
208
214
221

452
964
476
988
499

3500
3738
3983
4235
4496

195
201
208
214
221

094
594
094
593
093

3494
3731
3975
4228
4488

1114
201
207
214
220

735
224
712
199
687

3488
3724
3968
4220
4479

194
200
207
213
220

377
854
330
805
281

3481
3717
3961
4212
4471

194
200
206
213
219

019
483
947
411
875

3475
3710
3953
4204

3 .5
3.6..
3 . 7 ....
3.8 ..
3.9 ...

228
234
241
247
254

010
520
031
540
050

4764
5040
5324
5616
5915

227
234
240
247
253

592
091
589
087
584

4755
5031
5314
5904

227
233
240
246
253

174
661
147
633
119

4747
5022
5305
5595
5893

226
233
239
246
252

756
231
705
179
653

4738
5013
5295
5585
5883

226
232
239
245
252

338
801
263
726
187

4729
5003
5285
5575
5872

4.0 ... 260


4.1. ... 267
4 .2 .... 213
4 .3 .... 280
4.4 .... 286

559
068

6222
6537

082
579
075
571
067

6211
6525
6847
7177
7515

259
266
272
279
285

604
089
574
058
542

6199
6513
6835
7164
7501

259
265
272
278
285

127
600
072
545
017

6187
6501
6822
7151
7487

258
265
271
278
284

649
110
571
031
491

6176
6489
6810
7138
7474

7860

292 025

7846

291 488

7831

290 950

7817

085
593

7190
7529

260
266
273
279
286

4 .5 .... 293 100

7875

292 562

rm

!1860

5605

4463

28

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.


TABLE

III-Continued.
Latitude

Longitude

55,50

I
!

55.60

1--'--~---

Grades

Meters

0.02
o.04
0.06
0.08

1291.4
2582. 7
3874.1
5165.4

0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18

.Meters

Meters
0.2

55.7G

I
x

55.80

55.90

11

J,feters

J,Jctera

11

Meters

Meters

3.9
5.6
7.6
9.9
12.5

6444.8
7733. 8
9022. 7
10 311. 7
11 600.6

3.8
5.5
7.5
9.8
12.5

6432.8
7719.4
9006.0
10 292.5
11 579.1

3.8
5.5
7.5
9.8
12.4

8989.3
10 273.4
11 557.6

3.8
5.5
7.5
9.8
12.4

6408.9
7690. 7
8972.5
10 254.3
11 536.1

3.8
5.5
7.5
9.8
12.4

0.2
0.3
0.4

12 913.5
19 370.2
25 826.8

15.4
34.7
61. 7

12 889.6
19 334.3
25 779.1

15.4
34.6
61.6

12 865. 7
19 298. 5
25 731.3

15.4
34.6
61.4

12 841.8
19 262. 7
25 683.5

15.3
34.5
61.3

12 817. 9
19 226.8
25 635. 7

15.3
34.4
61.2

0.5
0.6

32
38
45
51
58

283.5
740.1
196.6
653.1
109.5

96.4
138. 7
188.8
246. 7
312.2

32
38
45
51
58

223.8
668.4
113.0
557.6
002.0

96.2
138.5
188.5
246.2
311.6

32
38
45
51
57

164.0
596.8
029.4
462. 0
894.5

96.0
138.2
188.1
245.7
311.0

32
38
44
51
57

104.3
525.1
945.8
366.4
787.0

95.8
138.0
187.8
245.3
310.4

32
38
44
51
57

044.6
453.4
862. l
270.8
679.5

95.6
137. 7
187.5
244.8
309.9

64 565.8
71 022.l
77 4i8.2
83 934.2
90 390.1

385.4
466.3
555.0
651. 3
755.4

64 446.4
70 890. 7
77 334.9
83 778.9
90 222.9

384. 7
4G5.5
553.9
650.l
754.0

64 326.9
70 759.3
77 191.5
83 623.6
90 055. 7

384.0
464.6
552.9
648.9
752.6

64 207.5
70 627.9
77 048.2
83 468.3
89 888.4

383.3
463.7
551.9
647.7
751. 2

64
70
76
83
89

088.0
496.4
904.8
721. l

382.5
462.9
550.9
64C>.5
749.8

666. 7

96
102
109
115
122

487.5
919. 3
350.9
782. 3
213.6

863.9
983.0
1109. 7
1244. 0
138G. l

96
102
109
115
121

308.3
728.1
147. 8
567. 3
986.6

862.3
981.1
1107. 6
1241. 7
1383.5

96
102
108
115
121

129.1
537.0
944. 7
352.3
759.6

800.7
979.3
1105.5
1239.4
1381.0

1.0

1.1
1.2
1.3

1.4
1.5
1.6

1. 7

1.8
1.9

96
103
109
116
122

845.9
867.1
301.5
986.6
757.0 1113.8
212.3. 1248. 7
667.5 1391.3

96
103
109
115
122

110.4
553.9
997,4
440.6

865.5
984.8
1111. 7
1240.4
1388. 7

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.5

1284.2
2568.4
3852.5
5136. 7

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.5

1281.8
2563.6
3845.4
5127.2

6420.9

Meters

6456.8
7748.1
9039.4
10 330.8
11 622.1

0.8
0.9

1286.6
2573.1
3859. 7
5146.3

Meters

1.4
2.5

o. 7

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.5

Meters

1289.0
25i7. 9
3866.9
5155.8

0.6

7705.l

313.0

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.4

129 122.5
135 577.3
142.031.9
148 486
154 940

1541. 5
1()99.5
180.5.2
2039
2220

128
135
141
148
154

883.6
326.5
769.2
212
654

1.538. 7
1696.1
1861. 8
2035
2216

128
135
141
147
154

644. 7
075. G
506.4
937
367

1535.8
1693.3
1858.3
2031
2212

128
134
141
147
154

405.8
824. 8
243.5
662
080

1533.0
1690.1
1854.9
2027
2207

128
134
140
147
153

166.9
573.9
980. 7
387
794

1530.1
l68i.O
1851.4
2024
2203

394
848
302
755
208

2409
2605
2809
3021
3241

161
167
173
180
186

096
538
979
421
862

2404
2600
2804
3016
3235

160
1G7
173
180
186

797
227
657
086
515

2400
2595
2799
3010
3229

160
166
173
179
186

499
917
334
752
169

2395
2591
2794
3005
3223

160
166
173
179
185

200
606
012
417
823

2391
2586
2789

2.8
2.9

161
167
174
180
187

3217

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

193 661
200 113
206 565
213 017
219 469

3468
3703
3946
4197
4455

193 302
199 743.
206183
212 623
219 063

3462
3696
3939
4189
4446

192 944
199 373
205 801
212 220
218 657

3455
3690
3931
4181
443S

192
199
205
211
218

586
002
419
835
251

3449
3683
3924
4173
4430

192
198
205
211
217

227
632
037
441
845

3443
3676
3917
4165
4422

3.5
3.6

225
2:i2
238
245
251

920
371
822
272
722

4721
4994
5275
5564
5861

225
231
238
244
251

502
941
380
818
256

4712
4985
5266
5554
5850

225 084
231 511
237 938
244 364
250 790

4703
4976
5256
5544
5839

224
231
237
243
250

666
081
496
910
325

4694
4966
5246
5533
5828

224
230
237
2:g
24

248
651
054
457
859

4686
4957
5236
5523
5918

171
621
069
518
966

6164
6477
6797
7125

694
131
568
004
441

6465
6785
7111
7446

257
2G3
270
276
282

216
641
066
491
915

6142
6453
6772
7098
7432

256
263
269
275
282

738
152
565
977
390

6131
6441
6759
7085
7418

256
262
269
275
281

261
662
063
464
864

6120

74GO

257
264
270
277
283

6152

4.4

258
264
271
277
283

4.5

290 413

7803

289 876

7788

289 339

7774

288 802

7759

288 264

7745

2.0

2.1
2.2

2.3
2.4

2.5
2.6

2. 7

3. 7
3.8

3.9
4.0
4.1
4.2

4.3

---------~--

2999

6429
6747
7072
7404

29

THE LAMBERT PROJECTION.


TABLE

III-Continued.
Latitude

Longitude

56.0G

56.lG

56.2G

56.JG
--------,---

-~-1---,---1--

---1--X----1--Y--1---x--1--Y--1--x--'l--v-l ___x__

Grades

.Meters

Meters

Meters

Meters

Met era

Meters

.Meters

~_t __x__

Meters

Meters

Meters

0.02 ..
0. 04
0.06 .
0.08

1279.4
2558. 8
3838.2
5117.6

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.4

1277.0
2554.0
3831.0
5108.0

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.4

1274. 6
2549.2
3823.9
5098.5

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.4

1272. 2
2544. 5
3816. 7
5088. 9

2.4

1269. 8
2539. 7
3809.5
5079. 4

0.10 .
0.12

6397.0
7676. 4
8955. 8
10 235. 2
11 514.6

3.8
7.5
9.8
12.4

6385.1
7662.1
8939.1
10 216.1
11 493.1

3.8
5.5
7.5

3.8
5.5
7.5

12.3

6373. l
7647. 7
8922.3
10 197. 0
ll 471. 6

12.3

6361.2
7633. 4
8905.6
10 177. 9
11 450.1

3.8
5.5
7.4
9. 7
12.3

6349. 2
7619. l
8888.9
10 158. 7
11428.6

12.3

15. 3
34. 4
61. l

12 770. 1
19 155. 1
25 540.1

61.0

12 746. 2
19 119. 3
25 492.3

60. 9

12 722. 3
19 OS3. 4
25 444. 6

15. 2
34. 2
60. 8

12 698. 4
l9 047. 6
25 396. 8

15.2
34.1
60.6

95.5
137. 5
187.1
244.4
309.3

31 925.1
38 310.0
44 694. 9
51079.7
57 464.4

95.3
137.2
186. 8
243.9
308. 7

31
38
44
50
57

865. 4
238. 3
611. 3
984. l
356.9

95.1
136. 9
186.4
243.5
308. l

31
38
44
fiO
57

94.9

888. 5
249. 4

136. 7
186.1
243.0
307.6

31
38
44
50
57

745. 9
095. 0
444. 0
793. 0
141. 9

94. 7
136. 4
185. 7
242.5
307.0

63 849.1

381.1
461.2
548.8
644.1

729.6
102.2
474. 7
847.1
219.4

380.4
460.3
547. 8
642.9

745.6

63 610.1
69 970. 8
76 331. 4
82 691. 8
89 052. l

379. 7
459. 4
546. 8
641. 7
744. 2

63 490. 7
69 839.4
76 188. 0
82 536.5
88 884. 9

379.0
458.6
545. 7
640.5
742.8

591. 5
963. 6
335.4
707. 2
078. 7

855.9
973. 8
1099.4
1232. 5
1373.2

95 412. 3
101772.4
108 132.3
114 492.1
120 851. 7

854.3
972. 0
1097. 3
1230. 2
1370. 7

95
101
107
114
120

233. l
581. 3
921l. 2
277. 1
624. s

970.2
1095. 2
1227. 9
1368.1

1521. 6
l!l77. 5

152 034

1841.1
2012
2191

127
133
139
146
152

211. 2
570. 5
929.5
288
647

1518. 7
1674. 4
1837. 6
2008
2187

126
133
139
146
152

072.3
319. 6
666. 7
014

159 304
165 674
l'i'2 044
178 414
184 783

2377
2571
2773
2982
3199

159
165
171
178
184

005
364
722
079
437

2373
2567
2768
2977
3193

158
165
lil
177
184

707
053
399
745

090

3187

191
197
203
210
216

152
521
890
258
626

3423
3655
3895
4142
4397

190 794
197 151

20.1 508

3417
3648
3888
4134

190
196
203
209
215

436
781
125
470
814

3411
3642
3880
4127
4380

4939
5217
5503
5796

222 994
229 361
235 728
242 095
248 462

4059
4929
5207
5492
5785

222
228
235
241
247

931
286
641

5774

158
501
845
187
530

4911
5187

996

222
228
234
241
247

6097
6405

254 828
261 193

267 558

7045
7377

273 923
280 288

6085
6393
6709
7032

7363

254
260
267
273
279

350
704
057
410
763

6074

6722

7349

266 555
272 896
279 237

7716

286 652

7701

286 115

7687

285 577

0.14 .
0.16
0.18

o. 2....
o. 3....

0.4....

o. 5....

12 794. 0
19 191. 0

25 587.9
31 984. 8

5. 5

9.8
15. 2
34. 3

0.6....
0.7 .
0.8....

38 381. 7
44 778.5
51 175.3

0. 9. .

57 571. 9

1. 0. .
1. 1....
). 2.. .

63 968. 5
70 365. 0
76 761. 4

1. 3....

83 15i. 7

1.4....

89 553.9

381.8
462.0
549.8
645.3
748. 4

747. 0

63
70
76
82
89

95 949.9
102 345. 9
1. 7 108 741. 6
). 8 115 137. 2
1.9 ... 121532.7

859.1
977.5
1103. 5
1237.1
1378. 4

95
102
108
114
121

770. 7
154. 7
538. 5
022. 2
305. 7

857.5
975. 7
1101. 4
1234. 8
1375. 8

95
101
108
114
121

2.0 .. 127
2.1. . 134
2.2 .. 140
2.3 ... . 147
2.4 ... . 153

1527. 3
1683. 8

1848.0
2020
2199

127
134
140
146
153

689.0
072.2
455. l
838
220

1524. 4
1680. 7

127 450. l
133 821. 3
140 192. 3

U::::

927. 9
323.0
717. 9
113
507

2.li ... . 159 901


2.6 ... . 166 295
2. 7 172 !\89

2386
2581

278:l

2.8 ... . 179 083


2.9 ... . 185 476

2993
3211

3.0 .. 191
3.1. ... 198
3.2 . 204
3.3 .... 211
3. 4 217

869
262
654
047
439

3436
3669
3910
4158
4413

3.5 .... 223 830

4677

70 233.6
76 618.1

83 002. 4
89 386. 6

159 603
165 985
172 367
178 748
185 130

191 511
197
204
210
217

892
272
652
<J."l2

5513
5807

223
229
236
242
248

412
791
170
549
927

4.2 .. 268 562


4.3 .... 274 950
4. 4 .. 281 339

6108
6417
6734
7059
7391

261
268
274
280

4. 5_. - . 287 727

7730

287 189

3.6 ..
3. 7 ... .
3.8 ... .
3.9 ... .

230
236
243
249

221
612
003
393

4.0 .. 255 783


4.1. ... 262 172

4948

5227

255 305
683
060
437
813

1844. 5
2016
2195
2382
2576

2778
2988
3205

3430
3662

3902
4150
4405
4668

146 563

9. 7

15. 2
34. 2

805.6
166.6
527. 6

209 864
216 220

576

0.2
0.6

1. 4

4389
4651
4920
5197
5482

6381
6696
7019

360

253 872

260 214

0.2

0.6
1.4
2.4
3.8

5.5
7.4

9. 7

852. 7

1515. 9
1671.2
1834. 2
2005
2183

2368
2562
2763

2971

4642
5472
5763
6063
6369
6684

7006
7335
7673

---'---------''----'----_c,______________________________________ _

80

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.


TABLE

III-Continued.
Latitude

Longitu de

------ ------------ -- ----

--~----

56.50

------ - - - - -

Grades

.Meters

56.60

I
Meters

56,80

56.70

i
II

Meters

Meters

-------

Meters

Meters

56.90

------

..

Meters

11

:Meters

Meters

Meters

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.4

1260.3
2520.6
3780.8
.5041.1

6313.4
7576.0
8838. 7
10 101. 4
11 364.0

3.8
5.4
7.4
9.6
12.2

15.1
34.0
60.4

12 626. 7
18 940.0
25 253.4

15.1
33.9
60.3

626.4
951. 5
276. 7
601. 7
926. 7

04.4
135.9
185.0
241.6
305.8

31 566.6
37 879.8
4'l 193.0
50 506. l
56 819.2

94.2
135. 7
184.6
241.2
305.2

31
37
44
50
56

506.8
808.l
109. 4
410.5
711.6

94.0
135.4
184.3
240. 7
304. 7

31
37
44
50
56

447.1
736.4
025. 7
314. 9
604.0

93.8
135.2
184.0
240.3
304.1

63
69
75
82
88

251.6
576.4
901.2
225. 7
550.3

377.6
456.8
543. 7
638.1
740.0

63
69
75
82
88

132.1
445.0
757. 8
070.4
382.9

376.8
456.0
542.6
636.9
738.6

63
69
75
81
88

012.6
313. 5
614.3
915.0
215.6

376.1
455.1.
541. 6
635.6
737.2

62
69
75
81
88

893.1
182.0
470. 9
759. 6
048.3

375.4
454.2
540.6
634.4
735.8

0.02 ...
0.04 ...
0.06 ...
0.08 .

1267.4
2534. 9
3802.4
5069.8

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.4

1265.1
25.'l0.1
3795.2
5060.2

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.4

0.10 ...
0.12 ...
0.14 ...
0.16 ..
0.18 ..

6337.3
7604. 7
8872.2
10 139.6
11 407.1

3.8
5.4
7.4
9. 7
12.3

6325.3
7590. 4
8855. 4
10 120. 5
11 385.5

3.8
5.4
7.4
9.6
12.2

0.2 ....
0.3!'...
0.4 ....

12 614.5
19 011. 8
25 349.0

15.1
34.0
60.5

12 650.6
18 975.9
25 301.2

0.5 ....
0.6 ....
o. 7 ---
0.8 ....
0.9 ....

31
38
44
50
57

686.1
023.3
360.3
697. 4
034.3

94.6
136.2
185.4
242.l
306.4

31
37
44
50
56

1.0 ....
1.1.. ..
1.2 ....
1.3 ....
1.4. ..

63 371.1
69. 707.9
76 044.6
82 381.1
88 717.6

378.3
457. 7
544. 7
639.3
741.4

1262. 7
2525.3
3788.0
5050. 7

0.2
0.6
1. 4
2.4

1257. 9
2515.8
3773. 7
5031.6

6301.4
7561. 7
8822.0
10 082.2
11 342.5

3.8
5.4
7.4
9.6
12.2

6289.4
7547.3
8805.2
10 063.1
11 321.0

3.8
5.4
7.4
9.6
12.2

12 602.8
18 904.2
25 205.5

15.0
33.8
60.2

12 578. 9
18 868.3
25 157. 7

60.1

0.2
0.6
1. 4
2.4

15.0
3.1. 8

1.5 ....
1.6 ....
I. 7 ....
1.8 ....
1.9 ....

95
101
107
114
120

053.9
390.1
726.1
062.0
397. 7

851.1
968.4
1093.2
1225.6
1365. 5

94
101
107
113
120

874.6
198. 9
522.9
846. 9
170.6

849.5
966.5
1091. l
1223.2
1362. 9

94
101
107
113
119

695.3
007.6
319. 7
631.8
943.6

847.9
964. 7
1089.0
1220.9
1360.4

94
100
107
113
119

516.1
816.4
116.6
416.6
716.5

846.3
962.9
1087.0
1218.6
1357.8

94
100
106
113
119

336.8
625.2
913.4
201.5
489.4

844. 7
961.0
1084.9
1216.3
1355.2

2.0 ....
2.1. ...
2.~ ...
2.3 ....
2.4 ...

126
133
139
145
152

733.3
068.6
403.8
739
074

1513.0
1668.1
1830. 7
2001
2179

126 494.2
132.817. 7
139140. 9
145 464
151 787

1510.2
1665.0
1827.3
rn97
2175

126
132
138
145
151

255.2
566. 7
878.0
189
500

1507.3
1661. 8
1823.8
1993
2170

126
132
138
144
151

016.2
315. 7
615.0
914
213

1504. 5
1658. 7
1820.4
1990
2166

125
132
138
144
150

777.2
064.8
352. l
639
926

1501.6
1655. 5
1816.9
1986
2162

2.5 ....
2.6 ....
2. 7...
2.8 ....
2.9 .

158
164
171
177
183

408
742
076
410
744

2364
2557
2757
2965
3181

158
164
170
177
183

109
432
754
076
397

2360
2552
2752
2960
3175

157
164
170
176
183

811
121
431
741
051

2355
2547
2747
2954
3169

157
163
170
176
182

512
810
108
407
704

2351
2542
2742

213

3163

157
163
169
176
182

786
072
358

2346
2538
2737
2943
3157

190
196
202
209
3.4 .. 215

077
410
743
076
408

34'04
3635
3873
4119
4372

189
196
202
208
215

719
040
361
681
002

3398
3628
3866
4111
4364

189
195
201
208
214

360
670
978
287
595

3391
3621
3858
4103
4356

189
195
201
207
214

002
299
596
893
189

3385
3614
3851
4096
4348

188
194
201
207
213

643
929
214
498
783

3378
3607
3844
4088
4339

4633

067

3.0 ....
3.1. ...
3.2 ....
3.3 ....

2949

500

3.7 .... 234 403

3.5 .... 221 740


3.6 .... 228 071

4902

3.8 .... 240 733


3.9 .... 247 064

5178
5461
5752

221
227
233
240
246

322
641
960
279
598

4624
4892
5168
5451
5742

220
227
233
239
246

903
211
518
825
132

4616
4883
5158
5441
5731

220
226
233
239
245

485
781
076
371
666

4607
4874
5148
5430
5720

220
226
232
238
245

634
917
200

4598
4865
5139
5420
5709

4.0 ....
4.1.. ..
4.2 ....
4.3 ....

394
724
054
383
712

6051
6358
6671
6993
7322

252
259
265
271
278

916
234
552
869
186

6040
6346
6659
6980
7308

252
258
265
271
277

438
744
050
355
660

6028
6334
6646
6966
7294

251
258
264
270
277

960
255
548
842
134

6017
6322
6634
6953
7280

251
257
264
270
276

483
765
046
328
609

6006
6310
6621
6940
7266

4.5 .... 285 040

7658

284 502

7644

283 965

7629

283 427

7614

282 889

7600

253
259
266
272
4.4 .... 278

351

31

THE LAMBERT PROJECTION.


TABLE

III-Continued.
Latitude

Longitude

Grades

57,lO

57.00

57.20

57,30

57,40

11

11

11

11

11

ldeters

Meters

}deters

Meters

Meters

Meters

Met era

Meters

Meters

Meter a

0.2
0.6
1.4
2.4

1253.1
2506.2
3759.3
5012.4

6277.5
7533.0
8788.5
10 044.0
11 299.5

3.8
5.4
7.3
9.6
12.1

6265.6
7518. 7
8771. 8
10 024.9
11 278.0

3. 7
5.4
7.3
9.6
12.1

6253.6
7504.3
8755.0
10 005.8
11 256.5

3.7
5.4
7.3
9.6
12.1

6241. 6
7400.0
8738.3
9986. 6
11 234. 9

3.7
5.4
7.3
9..5
12.1

6229. 7
7475. 6
8721. 5
9967. 5
11 213.4

3.7
5.4
7.3
9.5
12.0

0.2 ...
0.3 ....
0.4 ....

12 555.0
18 832. 5
25 109.9

15.0
33.7
60.0

12 531.1
18 796. 6
25 062.1

15.0
33. 7
59.8

12 507.2
18 760. 8
25 014.3

14.9
33.6
59. 7

12 483.3
18 724. 9
24 966.5

14.9
33.S
59.6

12 459.4
18 689. 0
24 918. 6

14.9
33.5
59.5

0.5 ...
0.6 ....
o. 7 ....
0.8 ....
0.9 ...

31
37
43
50
56

387.3
664. 7
942.0
219.3
496.5

93. 7
134.9
183. 6
239.8
303.5

31
37
43
50
56

327. 6
593.0
858.4
123. 7
388.9

93.5
134.6
183.3
239.4
302.9

31
37
43
50
56

267. 8
521.3
774. 7
028.0
281. 3

93.3
134.4
182.9
238.9
302.4

31
37
43
49
56

208.0
449. 5
691.0
932.4
173. 7

93.1
134.1
182.6
238.4
301.8

31
37
43
49
56

148.2
377. 8
607.3
836. 7
066.1

93.0
133.9
182.2
238.0
301.2

1.0 ....
1.1. ...
1.2 ....
1.3 ....
1.4 ....

62
69
75
81
87

773.6
050.6
327. b
604.2
881.0

374. 7
453.4
539.6
633.2
734.4

62
68
75
81
87

654.0
919.1
184.1
448. 9
713. 6

374.0
452.5
538.5
632.0
733.0

62
68
75
81
87

534 ..5
787. 6
040.6
293.5
546. 3

373.3
451. 7
537.5
630.8
731.6

62
68
74
81
87

414. 9
656. l
897. 2
138. l
378.9

372.6
450.8
536.5
629.6
730.2

62
68
74
80
87

295.4
524.6
753. 7
982.6
211. 5

371.8
449.9
535.5
628.4
728.8

1.5 ...
1.6 ....
1. 7 ....
1. 8 ....
1.9 ....

94
100
106
112
119

157. 5
434.0
710.2
986. 4
262.3

843.1
959.2
1082.9
1214.0
1352. 6

93
100
106
112
119

978.2
242. 7
507. 0
771. 3
035.3

841.5
957.4
1080.8
1211. 7
1350.0

93
100
106
112
118

799. 0
051. 5
303. 9
.556. l
sos. 2

839.9
955.6
1078. 7
1209. 4
1347.5

93
99
106
112
118

619.6
860.2
100. 6
340. 9
581.0

838.2
9.53. 7
1076. 7
1207.1
1344. 9

93
99
105
112
118

440.3
668.9
897.3
12.). 7
353. 8

836.6
951.9
1074.6
1204. 8
1342.3

125
131
138
144
2.4 .... 150

538.2
813. 8
089.2
364
639

1498.8
1652.4
1813. 5
1982
2158

125
131
137
144
150

299.1
562. 8
826.3
090
353

1495. 9
1649.2
1810.0
1978
2154

125
131
137
143
150

060.1
311. 8
563.4
815
066

1493.0
1646. l
1806.6
1974
2150

124
131
137
143
149

821. 0
060. 8
300.3
540
779

1400. 2
1642. 9
1803.1
1971
2146

124
130
137
143
149

581. 8
809. 6
'17.3
265
492

1487.3
1639. 8
1799. 7
1967
2142

2.5 .. 156 914


2.6 .... 163 189
2.1 .... 169 463
2.8 .... 175 737
2.9 .... 182 011

2342
2533
2731
2937
3151

156
162
169
175
181

616
878
140
403
665

2337
2528
2726
2932
3145

156
162
168
175
181

317
568
818
068
318

2333
2523
2721
2926
3139

156
162
168
174
180

018
257
495
733
971

2328
2518
2716
2921
3133

155
161
108
174
180

719
946
172
399
625

2324
2514
2711
2915
3127

3.0 ...
3.1. ...
3.2 ....
3.3 ...
3.4 ....

188
194
200
207
213

285
558
831
104
376

3372
3600
3836
4080
4331

187
194
200
206
212

926
188
449
710
970

3366
3594
3829
4072
4323

187
193
200
206
212

568
817
066
315
564

3359
3587
3822
4064
4314

187
193
199
205
212

209
<U7
684
921
158

3353
3580
3815
4057
4306

186
193
199
205
211

851
076
301
526
751

3346
3573
3807
4049
4298

3.5 ....
3.6 ...
3. 7 ...
3.8 ....
3.9 ..

219
225
232
238
244

649
920
192
463
734

4590
4855
5129
5410
5698

219
225
231
238
244

230
400
750
009
268

4581
4846
5119
5400
5687

218
225
231
23"1
243

812
060
308
555
802

4572
4837
5109
5389
5676

218
224
230
237
243

394
630
866
101
336

4563
4828
5100
5379
5666

217
224
230
236
242

975
200
423
647
870

4555
4818
5000
5369
5655

4.0 ....
4.1. ...
4.2 ....
4.3 ....
4.4 ...

251
257
263
269
276

005
275
545
814
083

5994
6298
6608
6927
7252

250
256
263
269
275

527
785
043
300
558

5983
6286
6596
6914
7239

250
256
262
268
275

049
295
541
787
032

5971
6274
6583
6fl00
7225

249
255
262
268
274

571
805
039
273
506

5960
6262
6571
6887
7211

249
255
261
267
273

093
315
537
759
980

5948
6250
6558
6874
7197

4.5 .... 282 352

7586

281 814

7572

281 277

7557

280 739

7543

280 201

7528

0.02 .
0.04 ...
0.06 ...
0.08 ...

1255. 5
2511.0
3766.5
b022.0

0.10
0.12 ...
0.14 ...
0.16 ...
0.18 ...

2.0 ...
2.1. ...
2.2 ....
2.3 ....

0.2
0.6
1. 3
2.4

'

1250. 7
2501.4
3752. 2
5002.9

0.2
0.6
1.3
2.4

1248. 3
2496. 7
3745.0
4993.3

-----

30264-18--3

0.1
0.6
1.3
2.4

1245. 9
2491. 9
3737. 8
4983. 7

0.1
0.6
1.3
2.4

32

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.


TABLE

III-Continued.
""

Latitude

re-

Lon

57.50

tu e

GTadu
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08

57.60

57,7G

57.8G

57.9G

11

11

11

11

:i:

11

Metera

Metera

Meters

Metera

Met era

Meters

Metera

Meters

Meters

Meters

1243.5
2487.1
3730.6
4974.2

0.1
0.6
1.3
2.4

0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18

6217. 7
7461. 3
8704.8
9948.3
11 191. 9

0.2
0.3
0.4

12 435.4
18 653.1
24 870.8

0.6
0.6
o. 7
0.8
0.9

31
37
43
49
55

088.4
306.0
523.6
741. 0
958.6

92.8
133.6
181.9
237.5
300.6

31
37
43
49
65

028.6
234.3
439. 9
645.4
850.8

92.6
133.4
181. 5
237.1
300.0

30
37
43
49
55

968. 8
162.5
356.1
549. 7
743.2

92.4
133.1
181. 2
236.6
299.5

30
37
43
49
55

909.1
090.8
272.4
454.0
635.6

92.2
132.8
180.8
236.2
298.9

30
37
43
49
65

849.3
019.0
188. 7
358.4
627. 9

92.1
132.6
180.5
235, 7
298.3

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

62
68
74
80
87

175. 8
393.0
610.2
827.2
044.1

371.1
449.1
534.4
627.2
727.4

62
68
74
80
86

056.2
261.5
466. 7
671. 7
876. 7

370.4
448.2
633.4
626.0
726.0

61
68
74
80
86

936.6
129.9
323. 2
516.2
709.3

369. 7
447.3
532.4
624.8
724.6

61
67
74
80
86

817. 0
998.4
179. 7
360.8
641.8

369.0
446.6
531.3
623.6
723.2

61
67
74
80
86

697. 4
866.8
036. l
205.3
374.4

368.3
446.6
530.3
622,4
721.8

1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9

93
99
105
111
118

260.9
477.6
694.0
910. 4
126.6

836.0
950.1
1072.6
1202. 4
1339.8

93
99
105
111
117

081.5
286.2
490. 7
695. 2
899. 4

833.4
948.3
1070.5
1200.1
1337.2

92
99
105
111
117

902.1
094.9
287.6
479. 9
672. 2

831.8
946.4
1068.4
1197.8
1334.6

92
98
105
111
117

722.8
903.6
084.2
264. 7
446.0

830.2
944.6
1066.4
1195.5
1332.0

92
98
104
111
117

543.4
712.2
880.9
049. 5
217. 8

828,6
942.8
1064.3
1193.2
1329,4

2.0
2.1

2.~

2.3
2.4

124
130
136
142
149

342. 7
558.5
774.2
990
205

1484. 5
1636. 6
1796.2
1963
2138

124
130
136
142
148

103.5
307. 4
511.1
716
918

1481.6
1633.5
1792. 7
1959
2133

123
130
136
142
148

864.4
056.3
248.1
440
631

1478.8
1630.3
1789.3
1956
2129

123
129
135
142
148

625.2
805.2
985.0
166
344

1475.9
1627. 2
1785.8
1962
2125

123
129
135
141
148

386.0
554.1
721. 9
890
067

1473.1
1624,0
1782, 4
1948
2121

2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9

155
161
167
174
180

420
635
849
064
278

2319
2509
2705
2909
3121

155
161
167
173
179

121
324
627
729
931

2315
2504
2700
2904
3115

154
161
167
173
179

822
013
204
394
684

2311
2499
2695
2898
3109

154
160
166
173
179

523
702
881
060
238

2306

2494
2690
2893
3103

164
160
166
172
178

224
391
658
725
891

2302
2489
2685
2887
3097

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

186
192
198
205
211

492
705
919
132
346

3340

186 133
192 335
198'036
204 737
210 938

3333
3559
3793
4033

185
191
198
204
210

774
964
154
343
532

3327
3553
3785
4026
4273

185
191
197
203
210

416
594
771
948
125

3321
3546
3778
4018
4265

185
191
197
203
209

057
223
388
554
719

3314
3539
3771
4010
4257

3.5

3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9

217
223
229
236
242

557
769
981
192
404

4546
4809
5080
5358

5644

217
223
229
235
241

138
339
639
738
937

4537
4800
5070
6348

216
222
229
235
241

720
908
096
284
471

4528
4791
6061
6338

5622

216
222
228
234
241

302
478
654
830
005

4520
4781
5051
5327

883
048
212
375
539

4511
4772
5041
5317

6611

215
222
228
234
240

4.0
4.1
4.2
4. 3
4.4

248
254
261
267
273

614
825
035
245
454

5937
6238
6546
6861
7184

248
254
260
266
272

136
335
533
731
928

6533
6848
7170

247
263
260
266
272

658
846
031
217
402

5914
6214
6520
6834
7166

247
253
259
266
271

180
355
629
703
876

6903
6202
6508
6821
7142

246
262
259
265
271

702
864
027
189
350

6891
6190
6496
6808
7128

4.5

279 663

7614

279 125

7499

278 587

7485

278 049

7470

277 511

7456

1241. 2
2482.3
3723.5
4964.6

0.1
0.6
1.3
2.4

3. 7
5.3
7.3
9.6
12.0

6205.8
7446.9
8688.1
9929.2
11 170. 4

3.7
5.3
7.3
9.6
12.0

6193.8
7432.6
8671.3
9910.1
11 148.8

14. 8
33.4
69.4

12 411. 5
18 617. 3
24 823.0

14. 8
33.3
69.3

12 387. 6
18 581. 4
24 775.1

3566

3800
4041

4290

4282

6633
5926
6226

1238. 8
2477. 5
3716.3
4955.0

0.1
0.6
1.3
2.4

1236.4
2472. 7
3709.1
4945.5

0.1
0.6
1.3
2.4

1234.0
2468.0
3701. 9
4935.9

0.1
0.6
1.3
2.4

3.7
5.3
7.2
9.5
12.0

6181. 8
7418. 2
8654.6
9890.9
11 127. 3

3. 7
6.3
7.2
9.4
12.0

6169.9
7403.9
8637. 8
9871.8
11105.8

3. 7
5.3
7.2
9.4
11.9

14.8
33.3
59.2

12 363. 7
18 545. 6
24 727.3

14. 8
33.2
69.0

12 339.8
18 509. 6
24 679.5

14. 7
33.1
58.9

5601

33

THE LAMBERT PROJECTION.


TABLE

III-Continued.

Latitude, 1>8.00

Latitude, 58.oo

1J

Graiks
0.02
0.04 ..........
0.06
o.os

Meters

Meters

0.10 ..........
0.12 ..........
0,14
0.16
o.1s

6157.9
7389.5
8621.1
9852. 7
11 084.3

3.7
5.3
7.2
9.4
11.9

0.2 ...........
0.3 ...........
0.4 ...........

12 315.8
18 473. 7
24 631. 6

14. 7
33.1
.58. 8

0.5 ...........
0.6 ...........
o. 7 ..
0.8
0.11 ..

30
36
43
49
05

1231. 6
2463.2
8694.8
4926.3

789. 5
947. 3
105.0
262. 7
420.3

0.1
0.6
1.3
2.4

91. 9
132.3
180.1
235.2
297.7

Grailes

1.0 ...........
1.1. ..
1.2 ...........
1.3 ..
1.4 .

Latitude, 58.00
Longitude

Longitude

Longitude

11

Meters

Metera

~7.0

3.0 ...........
3.1. ..........
3.2 ...........
3.3 ...........
3.4

1.5 92 364.0
1.6 ... 98 520.9
1. 7 ... 104 677.6
1.8 ........... 110 834.2
1.9 ........... 116 990.6

827.0
940.9
1002.2
1190.9
1326.9

3.5 ...........
3.6 ...

146.9 1470. 2
303.0 1620.9
458.8 1778. 9
615
1944
770
2117

123
129
135
141
147

577. 8
735.3
892.6
049.9

Grades

867.6
444.8
629. 3
621.2
720.4

2.0 ...........
2.1 .
2.2
2.3 ...........
2.4 ...........

61
67
73
80
86

2.5 ........... 153 925


2.6 .. 160 080
2.1 ......... 166 235
2.8 .... 172 890
2.9 . 178 644
~--~---

2297
2485

2679
2881
3091

!I

:i:

Metera

Meters
3308

184
100
197
203
209

698
81;2
006
11;9
312

3.8 ....
3.9 ...........

215
221
227
233
240

465
617
769
921
072

4.0 ...........
4.1 .....
4.2 ....
4.3 ........
4.4 ...........

246
252
258
264
270

224
374
525
675
824

5880

4.5

276 974

7441

3. 7 .....

3532

3763

4002
4249

4502

4763
0031
5307
6590
6178
6483
6795
7114

MATHEMATICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE RIGID FORMULA


FOR LAMBERT'S PROJECTION.*
If a curved surface is represented by paremetrio equations in terms
of two variables, u and v, in such a way that the element of length
upon the surface becomes

Fm. 7.

the surface can be represented upon a plane so as to preserve the


similarity of infinitesimal elements. The quantity M may be a constant or a function of u and v, but must be independent of differentials.
Let the element in the plane corresponding to dS be

pq2 =ds2 =dx

+d'!/

Fm. 8.

34

By Oscar S. Adams, Coast and Geodetic Survey.

THE LAMBERT PROJECTION.

35

If another curve upon the surface starts at the same point P, the
element of this curve may be represented by
2

PR =aS/= Jr (au12 +av12 ),


M being a constant at the point P.
the plane is

The corresponding element in

If x is set equal to u and y to v, the relation becomes

as2_ M 2_as1 2
ds
as
2 -

since Mis constant for the point P, and the same for both elements
of arc.
This gives

as as
as1 = as1
If as and as 1 are referred to axes in the tangent plane at P with
the point P as origin, .we may write

aS=ue16
aS 1 =

u' eW

u and u' being the lengths of the elements and () and

(J' the angles


that they make with the initial line and i denoting as usual .J-1.
In like manner with p as origin,

as='TJe'<t>
as1 ='TJ'eW
The proportion now becomes

or,
Hence,
and

(}-(}'=-'.

'rherefore the elementary triangle PQR is similar to the elementary


triangle pqr, having two sides of the one proportional to two sides

36

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

of the other and the included angles equal. This establishes the
similarity of elementary parts of the surface and the plane. This
is called by Gauss conformal representation. It is also called the
orthomorphic projection. After the curved surface is mapped in
this manner upon the plane, this plane can be conformally mapped
upon another plane by setting
x+iy=f (u+iv),
the symbolf denoting au arbitrary function.
By differentiation,
dx+idy=f' (u+iv) (du+idv).
dx-idy=f' (u-iv) (du-idv).

Also,

By multiplication,
dx2 +dy2 =f' (u+iv) f' (u-iv). (du 2 +dv2 )
or,
in which

m 2M 2 =f' (u+iv) f' (u-iv).

Thus the second plane is a conformal representation of the original


surface as well as of the first plane. The same thing will be true if
any one of the following relations is used:
x-iy=f1 (u+iv)
x+iy=f2 (u-iv)
or,

x-iy=fs (u-iv).

These are the general solutions of the problem given by Gauss.


If the surface to be represented is an ellipsoid of revolution, the
parametric equations may be used in the following form:
x =a cos

},f sin

y=asin Msin u
Z=O COS U

a is the semimajor axis, b is the semiminor axis, Mis the longitude,


and u the eccentric angle of the generating ellipse, or the complement of the reduced latitude.

31

THE LAMBERT PROJECTION.

Fm. 9.

The element of length upon the spheroid becomes


ds 2 = dx2 + dy 2 + dz2
But,

dx=a cos M cos u du-a sin Msin u dM


dy=a sin M cos u du+. a cos Msin u

<IM

dz= -b sin u.du,


hence,
If

a2

b,

is put equal to E2, this equation becomes


ds 2 =a2 sin2 u

[aM + (cot
2

u+l-E2 )du2

J.

If p is the complement of the latitude L, the relation between p


and u is
b
- tan u=tan p
a

or

..jl -E2 tan u=tan p


cos2 u=

(1- E2 ) cos 2 p

1-E2 cos2 p

(From the relation cos2!'-1+~nu)

sin2 u=

sin2 p
1-E2 cos2 p

..j~'i

du
cos2 u

dp
cos2 p

du=..j~dp
1-E2 cos2 p

38

hence,

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

(l -E2)2 dp2
(cot2 u+ l -E2 ) du 2 = (l -E2 cos 2 p )" sm
2
p
2

dS 2 =

a sin p
---~
2
2

1-E cos p

c-dM

-2

2 2

(1 - E ) dJJ
+ ~-.,-~__,_.,~~
(l-E cos p) sin p
2

Let,
d(}(l-E2) dp
- (l-E2 cos2 p) sin p

then,

O=f _dp _!JE sin p dp +!J-E sin p_ dp


Sill p
2 1 - E COS p 2
1 + E COS p
O=log tan~-~ log (1-E cos p) +~log (1 +E cos p) +log G
8 =lo

[e tan 'IL2 ( 11-E


+ E cos P)~-J
p
COS

G being a constant of integration which by a proper choice of limits


may be :made equal to unity. This gives
= - a2 sin2 P (dM2 + ao2)
1-E2 cos 2 p

as2

As has been shown by the theory of functions of a complex variable the spheroid may be conformally mapped upon a plane by letting
x+iy=f (M iO)

denoting an arbitrary function.

If

(v) =kv,

by using the lower sign it is found that

P)i

x+iy=kM-ik log tan~ ( 1 +E cos


~
1-E COS p

By equating the real parts and the imaginary parts, there result
x=kM

JJ)!_J

p (1-E COS
Y = k 1og [ cot 2 1 + E cos p

p being the complement of the latitude and the log sign denoting
the Naperian logarithm. This is the Mercator projection for the
spheroid.
If,

(v) = J(eizv,

with the lower sign again, the equations become


X

. =
+ iy

[ p

Keilm+log tan2 .

x+iy = K tan.1 l!..


2

cl+

p) ]l

cos
<
1- cos P ~

(i +E cos pP)~(cos ZM +i sin llir[)


-E COS

39

THE LAMBERT PROJECTION.

On equating the real parts and the imaginary parts,

x = K tand~ ( 1 + E cos P)~ cos ZM


1-E COS

y= K tan 1 'l!. ( 1 +e cos P)~ sin lM


2

1-E COS

This projection makes the parallels concentric circles of radius

- Kt an -p2

r-

( 1 + E cos -P)~2
I -E cos p

The meridians become radii of these concentric circles. This method


of mapping is called Lambert's conformal conic projection.
If an angle z is assumed such that,
(1)

p ( 1 + E COS p)..!.

,Z t
t an-= an-
2
2

1-E COS

ZJ

this angle z is very nearly equal to the complement of the geocentric


latitude.

Pm. 10.

If L' is the geocentric latitude and L the geodetic latitude (see fig.
10), then,
(2)

b2

tan L' =3 tan L


a

a being the semimajor axis and b the semiminor axis of the spheroid.
Then to a suffi.cent degree of approximation,

(3)

z=90-L'.

40

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

The equations now become

x=Ktanz z cos lM

y= KtanZ~ sin lM

r=Ktan'2

With these values xis reckoned downward from the center of the concentric circles and y to the right of the central meridian if M is reckoned positive in that direction. This leaves K and l arbitrary constants. l may be so determined that the ratio of the lengths of two
arcs on the map that represent given arcs on the parallels may be
in the same ratio as the arcs upon the earth.
If N is the radius of curvature perpendicular to the meridian or
the length of the normal to the minor axis, a radian of the parallel of
L 1 has the length N1 cos L 1 ; of parallel L 2 the length is likewise N2
cos L 2

Hence the ratio of the lengths is represented by

~12 cos
cos

Since the A factor in the tables for the computation of geodetic posi.
* is equ al to N .1 ,,, t his rat10
. b ecomes A
A 2 cos L
L1
t 10ns
Sln 1
i COS
2

The arc upon the map that represents the radian of parallel Li has
the length

lri =lK tanZ

iz

so, also, that for parallel L 2

z
lr2 =lKtanl .J
2
The ratio of lengths will be preserved if

or,
(4)

l =log cos Li - log cos L2 -log A 1 +log A 2


z - l og tan ~
z
log tan ]

K may now be determined so as to hold not only the ratio of the


arcs of parallels Li and L 2 but also to hold the exact length of these
"' See United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Special Publication No. 8.

THE LAMBERT PROJECTION,

41

parallels. This is an excellent determination for the mapping of an


area such as that of the United States. This would give

Hence,
(S) K-

cos L 1
A 1 sin 1" Z tan i ~
2

2
A 2 sin 1" Z tan i ~
2

If the parallels to be held are chosen about one-sixth of the


distance from the bottom and the top of the area to be mapped,
the proper balance will be preserved. The top and bottom of the
map will then be about as much too large in scale as the central part
is too small. The scale along 1 and 2 will be exactly correct.
With this value of Kone can tell how much any parallel is off in scale
by computing a radian of the parallel and the length of the arc which
represents it. With this projection a map could be made of an area
such as that of the United States so that it would not be in error of
scale in any part of it by more than It per cent. A polyconic pro- '
jection of the same area is in error of scale as much as 6! per cent in
some parts. A Lambert projection for the United States should hold
the correct scale on parallels 29 and 45.
If coordinates are to be computed for the mapping of the parallels
with origin at the place where the parallel crosses the central meridian,
the formulas for computation are then
(6)

r = K tan 1 ~ for the corresponding latitude L

(7)

x=r sin lM
. 2 lM

(8)

y=2rsm

or

lM
y=xtan 2

The difference of the radii gives the spacing upon the central
meridian. If the top and bottom parallels are constructed by determining the coordinates of the intersections with the meridians, the
meridians can then be drawn and each of them subdivided as was
done in the case of the central meridian. This will give the coordinates of the other parallels ,without computation.
If l is set equal to unity, the original equations become
x=Ktan

z
2 cos M,

y = K tan ~sin M.

42

. U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

This gives a projection for the spheroid analogous to the stereographic


projection for the sphere. If the sphere is considered, the value of E
is zero and the angle z becomes the polar distance. The south pole
is the pole of projection, and the plane upon which the projection
is made is tangent at the north pole.
In the calculation of the elements of a projection on the Lambert
rigid formula as deduced on pages 39 and 41, equations (2), (3), (6),
(7), and (8), the following nomenclature is observed:
L 11 L 2 are parallels of latitude chosen for the computation; K
and l are constants depending on the latitudes Lu L 2
L/, L 2 ' are geocentric latitudes corresponding to L 1 and L 2
z11 z2 are complements of the geocentric latitudes L 1 ', L/.
r 11 r 2 are radii in meters of the circles representing the parallels of latitude Lu L 2
(9)
x and y are coordinates in meters, for mapping the parallel,
the origin being at the point where the parallel crosses the
central meridian.
(10) J! is distance in degrees of point x, y, from the central meridian
measured along the parallel.
(11) fJ = lM is the angle of convergence of the meridian drawn
through the point x, y.
log A 11 log A 2 are factors corresponding to Lu L 2 from United
States Coast and Geodetic Survey Special Pubiication No. 8.

APPLICATIO~

OF THE RIGID FORMULA OF LAMBERT.

1. For a Map of Northeastern France in the same geographic area


as that covered by the French approximate formula, the standard
parallels chosen are the same:

Ll = 47 42' (53)

L2 = 51 18' (57)
NoTE.-In the case of the French approximate formula, the projection was based
on these parallels, but the x and y coordinates were not computed for them, the projection being constructed on even.degrees. The sample computations arc merely
given to illustrate the application of the rigid formula.

From (1) and (2), page 39, we have


tan L 1'

ab22 t.an L 1*

log tan Li' =2 log b-2 log a+log tan 47 42'


L/=47 30' 22".4
From (3), page 39, z1 =90-L 1 '
Hence,
Z1 =

42 29' 37 11 .6

~=21 14' 48".8


In like manner,

L/ =51 06' 36".0


Z2

=38 53' 24".0

~=19 26' 42".0


From (4), page 40, we have

l =log cos L 1 - log cos L 2 -log A 1 +log A 2


'
z
z
log tan
log tan ~

1-

*a=cquatorlal semlaxls=6 378 206 meters.


b-polar semiaxls
-6 356 584 meters.

43

44

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

Substituting the values of the functions of L 11 L 2 , ~'

i' and taking

log .A.1 and log .A. 2 corresponding to L 11 L 2 from the tables (Special
Publication No. 8), we have
Z=0.760528, log Z=9.8811152-10
From (5), page 41, we have
cos L

1
K=----~--

.A.1 sin 1" l tanZ ~


2

or,

.A.2 sin 1" l tan z ~~

log K =log cos L1 -(log .A. 1 +log sin 1" +log l + Zlog tan ~)
log .A.1

= 8. 5089210 -10

log sin 1" = 4. 68557 49 -10


log Z

=9. 8811152-10

z
*Z log tan ]=9. 6879891-10
2. 7636002 -10
log cos L 1 =9. 8280231-10
log K
= 7-:-0644229----Solving for K with L 2 = 51 18' gives the same value.
!rom (6), page 41, we have
=Ktanl~
2

log r 1

=log K+Z log tan]

log K

=7. 0644229

Zlog tan
log r 1

z~=9. 6879891-10
= 6. 7524120

r 1 =5654732 meters for parallel of latitude L 1 (47 42')


~

Jog tan 2 -9.5897444-10, Z-0.760528; ! log tan 2-7. 29326111-7.60528


Add and subtract 2.39i72 from last term,-

;f-2. 39472 -2. 39i72


Z1

, Zlog tan 2-9. 6879891-10

THE LAMBERT PROJECTION.

To compute the coordinates for mapping the parallel 47 42'.


(7) and (8), p. 41, and (9), p. 42.)

45
(See

x=r1 sin ZM

ZM

y=2r1 sm2 2
Take
M =7. (See ,iO), p. 42.)
Then
O=ZM=7X.760528=5 19' 25".3. (See(ll),p.42.)
Then
x=r1 sin 0=5654732 xsin 5 19' 25".3 =524659.3 meters.

y = 2r1 sin2 ; = 2 X 5654732 X sin2 2 39' 42".65 = 24392.2 meters.


This gives the coordinates of intersection of parallel 47 42' with
the meridian 7 distant in loJ1,gitude from the central meridian. By
choosing corresponding values of M, the coordinates of intersection
of other meridians with the parallel may be compnted.
In the same manner compute the value of r 2 for latitude L 2 = 51
18', using the same values of Kand Z
r~=5254471

meters.

For

M=7, ZM=5 19' 25".3,


a:= 487522.2 meters,
y = 22665.6 meters.
Other coordinates for the intersection of parallel 51 18' with the
meridians may be computed by taking the desired values of M.
With the coordinates of intersection of the meridians with the top
and bottom parallels computed and mapped, the other parallels may
be obtained by subdivision, or the proper spacings may be determined by computing the radii for the desired parallels.
2. For a map of the United States, the middle parallel is 37 and
the limits in latitude 25 and 49. The parallels chosen for computation are 29* and 45.
Whence, L 1 =29, L 2 =45.
*By assuming parallels 31 and 4li 0 BS standards, the scale error in the central part of the United States
could be reduced, while the scale error would be increased for only a small portion of southern Florida
BDd TeltllS.

46

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

Computing the values of the different quantities as expressed by


the equations we have

L' 1

=28 50' 07".0

Z1

=61 09' 53".0

Z1

2
L' 2

=30 34' 56".5

Z2

=45 11' 40".4

Z2

=22 35' 50".2

= 44 48' 19" .6

log Z = 9. 7809125 -10

=0. 603827

log

J( =

7. 10388_03

For latitude 29 (L1 )


r 1 =9245940 meters.
Take
ill= 1, fJ=lM = (.603827) (1) =36' 13".8,
x = 97 440.0 meters,
y=513.5 meters.

For latitude 45 (L 2 ),
r 2 =7481820 meters.

FoiM

1, fJ=lM =36' 13".8,

x=78848.6 meters,
y=415.5 meters.

SYSTEM OF KILOMETRIC SQUARES USED ON LAMBERT'S


PROJECTION IN FRANCE.
[See Plates II and VII.)

In the maps and quadrangled areas of the eastern part of France,


the ce:itral point chosen for the projection is
L 0 = 55a, M0 =

6a (6G east of Paris)

This point is found ESE. of Treves and is the initial point of


gebgraphic ~oordinates. (See Plate IL)

.Y

55G
0

Fm. 11.

The y-axis (fig.11) is the straight line which represents the initial
meridian of -6a, and the x-axis is the tangent to the circle which
represents the parallel of 55a at its point of intersection with the
y-axis. The point a of the projection will be defined by x and y.
In order not to hl:].ve negative values west and south of the central
point, the point o is given the coordinates
X 0 =500,000 meters
Y 0 =300,000 meters
The coordinates of a will be

30264-18--4

X =500,000+x
y = 300,000 + y

47

48

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

At the point a, the meridian of the place makes an angle with the
y-axis equal to the convergence of the meridians.
= (M-M0 ) sin L 0 = (M +6a) X0.76, with sign such that the direction geographic north shall converge toward the initial meridian of
-6a (6G east of Paris).
ExAMPLE.-The map on the scale 1-80,000 is issued in rectangular sheets 64 kilometers east and west, by 40 kilometers north and south. The vertical border is
parallel to the meridian of Paris. What will be the inclination of the y-axis of the
system of squares on Lambert's projection to the vertical line of the border?
'fhis angle c1 =(0+6G)X0.76=4.56G toward the west.

To place the system of kilometric grids on a map or projection that


does not have the system printed thereon:
1. Construct a kilometric grid to the proper scale on tracing paper.
2. Place the geographic points (shown in red on Plate VII) by
their rectangular coordinates on the grid. Only one such point
appears on this plate.
3. Superimpose the tracing paper grid on the map and locate its
exact position by the coincidence of geographic points on grid and
map.
4. Transfer the grid by pricking points through the boundaries of
the squares and complete the system by ruling lines through these
points.
On many quadrillages (systems of kilometric squares), the eastern
and western neat lines are not parallel to the meridian of Paris, but
conform to the meridian which passes through the origin of the sys~tem of squares. The true and magnetic north are indicated on the
margin and their angular departure from the meridional lines of the
kilometric system of squares is expressed in grades and tenths.
On French maps the prime meridian is Paris (2 20' 14" east of
Greenwich), and in recent practice the geographic projection has been
subdivided into grades which are one-hundredth of a quadrant, or
nine-tenths of a degree.

Part 2.-COMPARISON OF THE LAMBERT CONFORMAL


CONIC PROJECTION WITH THE BONNE AND
POLYCONIC PROJECTIONS.
~

LAMBERT'S PROJECTION.
[See Plates, I, II, and nq

This projection is of the simple conical type in which all meridians


are straight lines that meet in a common point beyond the limits of
the map, and the parallels are concentric circles whose center is at
the point of intersection of the meridians. Meridians and parallels
f!l;;:..
:-,e"
-~~
l!J-0'
rY

,.cs

~e

'?'-0:

L.~~

Diagram showing maximum distortion for map of United States

as based an Lambert'$ Conformal Conic Projection.


Fm. 12.

intersect at right angles and the angles formed by any two lines on
the earth's surface are correctly represented on this projection.
It employs a cone intersecting the spheroid at two parallels known
as the standard parallels for the area to be represented. In general,
for equal distribution of scale error, the standard parallels are chosen
at one-sixth and five-sixths of the total length of that portion of the
central meridian to be represented. It may be advisable ii1 some
localities, or for special reasons, to bring them closer together in
49

50

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

order to have greater accuracy in the center of the map at the expenJe
of the upper and lower border areas.
On these two selected parallels, arcs of longitude are represented
in their true lengths.
Between these selected parallels the scale will be a trifle too small
and beyond them the scale will be too large.
This projection is specially suited for maps having a predominating
east and west dimension.
On page 45, the preliminary operations for constructing a map of
the United States on this projection are given. The standard
parallels selected are 29 and 45.
The chief advantage of this projection over the polyconic, as used
by several Government bureaus for maps of the United States, consists in reducing the scale error along the western border of the
United States from 6t to 1 per cent. It would, also, by the application of this rigid Lambert formula here presented, give us a projection
that is exactly conformal.
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE LAMBERT PROJECTION.

In the construction of the map of France (Pis. I, II, and III),


which was extended to 7 of longitude from the middle meridian for
purposes of comparison with the polyconic projection of the same
area, th& following results were noted:
Maximum scale error, Lambert =0.05 per cent.
Maximum scale error, polyconic=0.32 per cent.

Azimuthal and right line tests for orthodrome (great circle) also
indicated a preference for the Lambert projection in these two vital
propertie8, these tests indicating accuracies for the Lambert projection well within the errors of map construction and paper distortion.
In respect to areas, in a map of the United States, it should be
noted that while in the polyconic projection they are misrepresented
along the western margin in one dimension (that is, by meridional
distortion of 6~ per cent), on the Lambert projection they are distorted along both the parallel and meridian as we depart from the
standard parallels, with a resulting maximum error of 2 per cent.
The maximum enor in scale for a map of the United States on a
Lambert projection would be about 1 per cent.
In the Lambert projection for the map of France, the maximum
scale errors do not exceed 1-2,000 and are practically negligible,
while the angles measured on the map made by this system are
practically equal to those on the earth.
It should be remembered, however, that in the Lambert conformal
conic, as well as all other conic projections, the scale errors vary

THE LAMBERT PROJECTION.

51

increasingly with the range of latitude north or south of the standard


parallels.
It follows, then, that this type of projections is not suited for
maps having extensive latitudes.
AREAS.-For areas, as stated before, the Lambert projection is
better than the polyconic for maps like the one of France or for the
United States, where we have wide longitude and comparatively
narrow latitude. On the other hand, areas are not represented as
well in the Lambert projection or in the polyoonic projection as they
are in the Bonne or in other conical projections.
'
For the purpose of equivalent areas of large extent the Lambert's
zenithal (or azimuthal) equal area projection offers advantages
desirable for census or statistical purposes superior to other projections, excepting in areas of wide longitudes combined with narrow
latitudes, where Albers' conical equal area projection with two
standard parallels, is preferable.
In measuring areas on a map by the use of a planimeter, the distortion of the paper, due to the method of printing and to changes
in the humidity of the air, must also be ta.ken into consideration.
It is better to disregard the scale of the map and to use the quadrilaterals formed by the latitude and longitude lines as units. The
areas of quadrilaterals of the earth's surface are given for different
extents of latitude and longitude in the Smithsoitlan Geographical
Tables, 1897, Tables 25 to 29.
It follows, therefore, that for the various purposes a map may be
put to, if the property of areas is slightly sacrificed and the several
other properties more desired are retained, we can still by judicious
use of the planimeter or Geographical Tables overcome this one
weaker property.
The idea seems to prevail among many that, while in the polyconic
projection every parallel of latitude is developed upon its own cone,
the multiplicity of cones so employed necessarily adds strength to
the projection; but this is not true.
The ordinary polyconic projection has, in fact, only one line of
strength; that is, the central meridian. In this respect then it is
no better than the Bonne.
The Lambert projection, on the other hand, employs two lines of
strength which are parallels of latitude suitably selected for the region
to b(' mapped.
A line of strength is here used to denote a singular line characterized by the fact that the elements along it are truly represented in
shape and scale.
The Lambert, besides this advantage, is adapted to indefinite
east and west extensions, a property belonging to this general class
of single cone projections, but not found in the polyconic, where ad-

52

U. S.- COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

jacent sheets have a" rolling fit" because the meridians are curved in
opposite directions.
The question of choice between t3.e Lambert and the polyconic
system of projection resolves itself largely into a study of the shapes
of the areas involved.
The merits and defects of the Lambert and the polyconic projections
may briefly be stated as being, in a general way, in opposite directions,

THE BONNE PROJECTION.


[See Plate IV.~

In this projection a central meridian and a standard parallel are


assumed with a cone tangent along the standard parallel. The central meridian is developed along that element of the cone which is
tangent to it and the cone developed on a plane.
The standard parallel falls into an arc of a circle with its center
at the apex of the developing cone, and the central meridian
becomes a right line which is divided to true scale. The parallels
are drawn as concentric circles at their true distances apart, and all
parallels are divided truly and drawn to scale.
Through the points of division of the parallels the meridians are
drawn. The central meridian is a straight line; all others are curves,
the curvature increasing with the difference in longitude.
The scale along all meridians, excepting the central, is too great,
increasing with the distance from the center, and the meridians
become more inclined to the parallels, thereby increasing the distortion. The developed areas preserveastrict equality, in which respect
this projection is preferable to the polyconic.
UsEs.-The Bonne* system of projection, still used to some extent
in France, will gradually be discontinued and superseded by the
Lambert system.
It is also used in countries like Belgium, Netherlands, and Switzerland. In Stieler's Atlas we find a number of maps with this projection; less extensively so, perhaps, in Stanford. This projection
is strictly equal area and this has given it its popularity.
In maps o~ France having the Bonne projection, the center of projection is found at the intersection of the meridian of Paris and the
parallel of latitude 50G. The border divisions and subdivisions
appear in grades, minutes (centesimal), seconds, or tenths of seconds.
LIMITATIONs.-Its distortion, as the difference in longitude increases, is its chief defect. On the map of France the distortion at
the edges reaches a value of 18' for angles, and if extended into
Alsace, or western Germany, it would have errors in distances which
are inadmissible in calcUlations. In the present rigorous tests of
the military operations these errors became too serious for the purposes to which the map is intended to serve.
*Tables for this projection were computed by Plessis.

53

THE POLYCONIC PROJECTION.


[See Plate V.~

The polyconic projection, devised by Ferdinand Hassler, the first


Superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, possesses great
popularity on account of mechanical ease of construction and the
fact that a general table* for its use has been calculated for the whole
spheroid.
It may be interesting to quote Prof. Hasslert in connection with
two projections, viz, the intersecting conic projection and the polyconic projection:
1. Projection on an intersecting cone.-The projection which l intended to use was
the development of a part of the earth's surface upon a cone, either a tangent to a
certain latitude, or cutting two given parallels and two meridians, equidistant from
the middle meridian, and extended on both sides of the meridian, and in latitude,

scale di:stortioil

Polyconic development
Fm. 13.
only so far as to admit no deviation from the real magnitudes, sensible in the detail
surveys.
2. 1'he polyconic projection.-* * * This distribution of the projection, in an
assemblage of sections of surfaces of successive cones, tangents to or cutting a regular
succession of parallels, and upon regularly changing central meridians, appeared to
me the only one applicable to the coast of the United States.
Its direction, nearly diagonal through meridian and parallel, would not admit any
other mode founded upon a single meridian and parallel without great deviations
from the actual magnitudes and shape, which would have considerable disadvantages
in use.

Figure on left above shows the centers (K, K 11 K 2 , K3 ) of circles


on the projection that represent the corresponding parallels on the
0

"'Tables for the polyconlc projection of maps, Coast and Geodetic Survey, Special Publication No. 5.

t Papers on various subjects connected with the survey of the coast of the United States; by F.R. Hassler,

communicated March 3, 1820 (in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., Vol. 2, pp. 40G-408, Philadelphia, 1825).

54

THE LAMBERT PROJECTION.

55

earth. Figure on right above shows the distortion at the outer


meridian due to the varying radii of the circles in the polyconic
development.
A central meridian is assumed upon which the interseotions of the
parallels are truly spaced. Each parallel is then separately developed by means of a tangent cone, the centers of the developed arcs
of parallels lying in the extension of the central meridian. The arcs
of the developed parallels are subdivided to true scale and the meridians drawn through the corresponding subdivisions. Since the
radii for the parallels decrease as the cotangent of the latitude, the
circles are not concentrio and the lengths of the arcs of latitude
gradually increase as we recede from the meridian.
The central meridian is a right line; all others are curves, the
curvature increasing with the longitudinal distance from the center.
The intersections between meridians and parallels also depart from
right angles as the distance increases.
From the construction of the projection it is seen that errors in
meridional distances, areas, shapes, and intersections increase with
the longitudinal limits. It therefore should be restricted in its use
to maps of wide latitudes and narrow longitudes.
The polyconic projection may be considered as in a measure only
compromising various conditions impossible to be represented on
any one map or chart, such as relate toFirst. Rectangular intersections* of parallels and meridians.
Second. Equal scale* over the whole extent (the error in scale in
latitude 39 00' not exceeding 1 per cent for distances within 560
statute miles of the great circle used as its central meridian).
Third. Facilities for using great circles and azimuths within distances just mentioned.
Fourth. Proportionality of areas* with those on the sphere, etc.
If the map should J.iave a predominating east and west dimension,
the polyconic properties may still be retained, however, by applying
the developing cones in a transverse position. A great circle at right
angles to a central meridian at the middle part of the map can be
made to play the part of the central meridian, the poles being transferred (in construction only) to the Equator. By transformation of
coordinates a projection may be completed which will give all poly*The errors ln meridional scale and area are expressed very closely by the formula

"COSq>).
8.1

E-+0.01 ( 1

In which z -distance or point from central meridian expressed in degrees of longitude, and</>= latitude.
EXAMPLE.-For latitude 39 the error for 10 27' (560 statute miles) departure in longitude is 1 per cent
for scale along the meridian and the same amount for area.
The angular distortion ls a variable quantity not easily expressed by an equation. In latitude 40 this
distortion is 1' .1 on the meridian 10 distant from the central meridian; at 30 distant it increases t.o 28' .7.
The greatest angular dlstortlon In this projection is at about latitude 37, decreasing t.o zero as we atiproach
the Equator or the pole.

56

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

conic properties in a transverse relation. This process is, however,


laborious and has seldom been resorted to.
Since the distance across the United States from north to south is
on1ythree-fifths of that from east to west, it follows, then, by the above
manipulation that the maximum distortion can be reduced from
6! to 2! per cent.
A projection of this type is peculiarly suited to a map covering an important section
of the North Pacific Ocean. If a great circle passing through San Francisco and Manila
is treated in construction as a central meridian in the ordinary polyconic projection, we can cross the Pacific in a narrow belt so as to include the American and
Asiatic coasts with a minimum scale distortion. By transformation of coordinates the
meridians and parallels can be constructed so that the projectiqn will present the usual
appearance and may be utilized for ordinary purposes.
The configuration of the two continents is such that all the prominent features of
America and eastern Asia are conveniently close to this selected axis, viz, Panama,
Brito, San Francisco, Straits of Fuca, Unalaska, Kiska, Yokohama, Manila, Hongkong, and Singapore. It would be a typical case of a projection being adapted to the
configuration of the locality treated. A map on a transverse polyconic projection as
here suggested, while of no special nl!_vigational value, would be of interest from a
geographic standpoint as exhibiting in their true relations a group of important localities covering a wide expanse.

The polyconic projection is by construction not conformal, neither


do the parallels and meridians intersect at right angles, as is the case
with all conical or single cone projections, whether these latter are
conformal or not.
It is sufficiently olose to other types possessing in some respects
better properties that its great tabular advantages should generally
determine its choice within certain limits.
Ai?,-stated in Hinks' Map Projection, it is a link between those projections which have some definite scientific value and those generally
called conventional, but possess properties of convenience and use.
The three projections herein compared may be considered as
practically identical within areas not distant tnore than 3 from a
central point, the errors from construction and distortion of the
paper-exceeding those due to the system of projection used.

LAMBERT'S ZENITHAL (OR AZIMUTHAL) EQUAL AREA


PROJECTION.*
(See Plate VI.)

This is probably the most important of the azimuthal equivalent


projections.
In this projection the zenith of the central point of the surface
to be represented appears as pole in the center of the map; the azimuth
of any point within the surface, as seen from the central point, is the
same-as that for the corresponding points of the map; and from the
same central point, in all directions, equal great circle distances to
points on the earth are represented by equal linear distances on the
map.
It has the additional property that areas on the projection are
proportional to the corresponding areas of the sphere.
Within the limits of the map shown the maximum scale error is but
3! per cent (polyconic projection has 6! per cent), while the error in
angles (excluding the center of the map where they are true) is at
most 1! 0
The center used for this projection (Plate VI) is a point in the
eastern part of Kansas, in latitude 38 00' and longitude 95 00'.
The geographic center t of the United States is approximately in
latitude 39 50' and longitude 98 35'.
Areas being true, this projection is admirably suited for census
purposes. It has been employed by the Survey Department,
Ministry of Finance, Egypt, for the wall map of Asia.
For a map of the whole of the North Atlantic Ocean, this projection
offers advantages superior to others. The somewhat circular configuration of the Atlantic .basin is more correctly represented by this
system of projection than by any other, and with less scale error.
The projection can be carried from a central point for 30 of arc
of great circle with a scale error of but 3! per cent, and for 40 with
a scale error of 6! per cent.
This projection would be admirably suited to a map covering the ..
whole of North America.

The inconvenience of plotting the transcendental curves of parallels and meridians, the nonintersection of these systems at right
A projection or this type was constructed in the Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1894, but not published.

t "Geographic center or tho United States" is here considered as a point analagous to tho center of gravity
of a spherical surface equally weighted (per unit area) and of the outline of the country, and hence it may
be found by means similar to those employed to find the center of gravity.

57

58

U. S. COAST AND GEODE'.L'IC SURVEY.

angles, and the consequent inconv.enience of plotting positions, all


tend to make this one of the most difficult projections to construct.
It should be remembered also that in areas smaller than the whole
United States (areas in which the radius from a center common to
both projections is not more than 5 ) the two projections, Lambert's
zenithal and the polyconic, are so nearly identical that the greater
labor involved in constructing the Lambert's zenithal projection
would hardly justify its use in preference to the polyconic.
The formulas for this projection are not included in this paper, as
they are rather complicated and the projection itself is not well known.
The fact that it is one of the several devised by Lambert, whose
conformal conic projection is receiving considerable attention of late,
is the main reason for its appearance in this connection.

CONCLUSION.

Lambert's conformal conic projection, recently adopted by the


French, also used for a map of Russia, the basin of the Mediterranean,
as well as for maps of Europe and Australia in Debes' N euer Handatlas, has unquestionably superior merits for maps of extended
longitudes. Furthermore, it is conformal, all elements 1etaining
their original forms.
Its meridians and parallels cut at right angles and it belongs to the
same general formula as Mercator's and the Stereographici which have
stood the test of time, both being likewise conformal projections.
It is an obvious advantage to the general accuracy of the scale of a
map to have two standard parallels of true lengths; that is to say, two
axes of strength instead of one. As an additional asset, all meridians
are straight lines, as they should be ..
Furthermore, we may supply in this projection a border scale for
each parallel of latitude (see fig. 12), and in this way the scale variations may be accounted for when extreme accuracy becomes necessary.
Caution should be exercised, however, in the use of this projection,
or any conic projection, in large areas of wide latitudes. The projection is not suited to this purpose. The extent to which this projection may be carried in longitude* is immaterial. It would be a
better projection than the Mercator in the higher latitudes when
charts have extended longitudes, and when the latter (Mercator)
becomes objectionable. It can not, however, displace the latter for
general sailing purposes, nor can it displace the Gnomonic (or central)
projection in its application and use to navigation.
Thanks to the French, it has again, after a century and a quarter,
been brought to prominent notice at the expense, perhaps, of other
projections that are not conformal-projections that misrepresent
*A map on the Lambert Conformal Conic Projection of the North Atlantic Ocean, including the eastern
part of tho United States and the greater part of Europe, is now In preparation in the Coast and Geodetic
Survey. The western limits are Duluth to New Orleans; the eastern limits, Dagdad to Cairo; extending
from Greenland in the north to the West Indies in the south, scale 1:10,000,000. The selected standard
parallels are 36 and M0 north latitude, both parallels being, therefore, true scale. The scale on parallel 41
(middle parallel) Is but It per cent too small; beyond the standard parallels the scale ls Increasingly largo.
This map, on certain other well-known projections covering the same area, would have distortions and
scale errors so great as to render their use lnadmissable. It ls not Intended for navigational purposes, but is
being constructed for the use of another department of the Government, and ls designed to bring the two
continents v.fs.8'-vfs In an approximately true relation and scale. The projection ls based on the rigid formula of Lambert and covers a range of longitude on the middle pamllel of 165 degrees.

59

60

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

forms when caITied beyond certain limits. Unless these latter types
possess other special advantages for a subject at hand, such as the
polyconic projection which, besides its special properties, has certain
tabular superiority and facilities for constructing field sheets, they
will sooner or later fall into disuse.
On all recent French maps the name of the projection appears in the
margin. This is excellent practice and should be followed at all times.
As different projections have different distinctive properties, this
feature is of no small value and may serve as a guide to an intelligible
appreciation of the map.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.
LAMBERT, J. H. Beitrage zum Gebrauche der Mathematik und deren Anwendung,
vol. 3, Berlin, 1772.
GAuss, C. F. Allgemeine Aufiosung der Aufgabe; die Theile einer Gegebenen
Flache auf einer andem gegebenen Fliiche so abzubilden dass die abbildungdem
Abgebildeten in den kleinsten Theilen ahnlich wird, Altona, 1825.
LAGRANGE, J. L. Nouv. Mero. de l'Acad. Roy. de Berlin, 1779. Collected Works,
t. IV, pp. 635-692.
GERMAIN, A. Traite des Projections, Paris (1865?).
GRETCHEL, H. Lehrbuch der Karten-Projection, Weimar, 1873.
TrssoT, M.A. Memoire sur la Representation des Surfaces, Paris, 1881.
CoAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY. Report for 1880 (pub. 1882), Appendix 15. A
Review of Various Projections for Charts.
CRAIG, THOMAS. A Treatise on Projections, Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1882.
PILLSBURY, Lieut. JoHN E. Charts and Chart Making. Proceedings U. S. Naval
Institute, 1884.
HERZ, Dr. NoRBERT. Lehrbuch der Landkartenprojectionen, Leipzig, 1885.
HAMMER, E. Uber die Geographisch Wichtigsten Kartenprojektionen, Stuttgart,
1889.
ZoPPRITz, Prof. Dr. KARL. Leitfaden der Kartenentwurfslehre, Leipzig, 1899.
FoRSY.TH. Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable, Cambridge, 1893.
LINDENKOHL, A. A Review of Zoppritz, Science, N. S., Vol. XI, No. 266, 1900.
MORRISON, G. J. Maps, their Uses and Construction, London, 1902.
CRAIG, J. I., M.A. The Theory of Map-Projections, Cairo, 1910;
ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA, 11th edition, 1910-11.
.
HINKS, ARTHUR R., M.A. Map Projections, Cambridge, 1912.
MANUALS RELATING TO MAP PROJECTIONS, translated from the French, 1917, not
published.
61

Plate I
2

6'

10

)
I

Cherbourg

?
0

Strassburg

Lamherf's Conformal Conic Pro)ecflon; origin ormerid/ans af Greenwich;geographiccoordinates in degrees.


0

10

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200 Statute MHH

8: G, S. Pnnt

Scale I: 2, 710,000

zG

IG

Plate II
9G

SG

IG

c:j

~ . ~~.,,~ -<.5",J'\
f:1~\
,'C.J~;~

LON ON0

,,____

i.

........,._~Aotwecp
I

I \

---"'._'-5 ,/L,

BRUSSELS

.,,--\\~,..__' ~ IE,\ l G I u ~

\ ..
1'-._--t---~.---_(:___

v-. (

~-

I'----I

/-
I

ll>I

-t-----~ I -------1------'\

oCologne

) )

I~)~-- t--1
I
' ------- ------r':
,
M
/ \
m
:
\
R
A
G \E
I
"
:

\..

"'

:~Ij

>

.'-

0Trev es

.._;:.~::-.-

-t .

I+

\NJ.

eMetz

(See Plafe VII)

= 500

y0

= 300 kilometers

kilometers

ihtr=iassssburs-

--

--------t--- --

'

.
'

./

---1----t-----+---J-____J___________

---f-________

c:..)

BERN

50

100

150

200 Kilometers

..,

__

_.,

s}w rrz

,'

Lam/Jerf 's Conf'orma/ Conic Prqjecfion; origin ofmeridians at Paris; geographic coordinates in grades (Igrade= 10~ of quadrant).

_L~---+\.,..___:\--,--...-.-t--..------~~:~~-.\~J::\-...:;;;c=;::.::--1
,r-\.._...F

---

_-_._'--+.......------~
.r

__'--_--_. . . .

'

\.l

~-"*-.,

v
u

,-+- '----origio of ~stem of kilometer, squares.


Lat. = 55
Long. = -6G (6 6 east of Pan7;

'\..
PARIS

Mainz

. . __ ~ _-- -+- -

''--.,___'v-_.) Lwf~b'"g I

r------+---------+--------1------l------'

I
r ~ L~lNl [))
\
C.& GS Pr1rit

Scale I: 2,710,000

54
,

Plate Ill

lo

lo

10

52

~--

_jJ

i'

....

I,_

_J

_[..__

c::
~
~
I._
Cl)

c ,__ ____ --------- ---------

---------~----------------------------~~-----------------~-------....... \

--------- ---------r----------- -----

e ':!

'i...

c::

Cl)

---

- - - 49

'

'

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48

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JI

la mberf's Conf"orma/ Conic Prqjection

Construction Plate

- -

---- ---- .......................................................... X

--_y

-0---470

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=455,827 ... ...........

C.&G.S P,-/,.t

Plate IV

BONNE. PROJECTION OF HEMISPHERE


Development of cone tangent along parallel 45 N.

Plate V
olyconic Development
of the

I I

C&GS Pr/n+

100

Plate VI

LAMBERT'S
ZENITHAL EQUAL AREA PROJECTION
for Map of the United States
Scale 25.Wo:-ooo

. t
- -t
Central Point of ~rojection
(Lat. 38"00'; Lon9 95 00)

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110

c.& G.s.

Print

Echelle de /- 2Qooo

BAZANCOURT
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Plate VII

(Juadrillage kilometrique Systeme Lambert

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