eTHINKING
Rational and
irrational
numbers
1
How does the speed of a car
affect its stopping distance in
an emergency? Serious car
accident scenes are often
investigated to identify factors
leading up to the crash. One
measurement taken is the
length of the skid marks which
indicate the braking distance.
From this and other
information, such as the roads
friction coefficient, the speed of
a car before braking can be
determined. If the formula
used is v = 20d , where v is the
speed in metres per second and
d is the braking distance in
metres, what would the speed
of a car have been before
braking if the skid mark
measured 32.50 m in length?
For this scenario, the
number you will obtain for the
speed is an irrational number.
In this chapter, you will find
out the difference between
rational and irrational
numbers and learn to work
with both.
areyou
2
READY?
Try the questions below. If you have difficulty with any of them, extra help can be
obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET. Either click on the SkillSHEET icon
next to the question on the Maths Quest 10 CDROM or ask your teacher for a copy.
1.1
Simplifying fractions
1.2
5
6
and
1.8
3
8
and
5
12
7
18
and
4
27
1
15
and
3
20
b 3 34
1
c 5 
10
d 4 78
21
9
24
10
17
11
9
40
3
8
3
16
8
25
d 19.687 287 28
d 0.025
1.9
1.7
1
3
1.6
12
10
1.5
27
36
a 2 1
1.4
18
72
2 Find the lowest common denominator of each of the following pairs of fractions.
a
1.3
39
52
121
27
32
1 000 000
15
99
102
Real numbers
We use numbers such as integers, fractions and decimals every day. They form part of
what is called the Real Number System. (There are numbers that do not fit into the Real
Number System, called complex numbers, which you may come across in the future.)
Real numbers can be divided into two categories rational numbers and irrational
numbers.
Real numbers
Rational numbers
Irrational numbers
integers
nonrecurring, nonterminating decimals
fractions
surds
finite (or terminating) decimals
special numbers and e
recurring decimals
This can be represented using the following Venn diagram.
Real numbers
Rationals
3 45 0.2.
2 0.6
Irrationals
0.7632......
2
e
Complex numbers
This chapter begins with a review of rational numbers such as fractions and recurring
decimals. We then move on to consider irrational numbers, including surds. As you will
see, rational numbers are those numbers which can be expressed as a ratio of two
a
integers  where b 0 (that is, a rational number can be expressed as a fraction). Why
b
are integers considered to be rational numbers?
Simplifying fractions
Fractional answers should always be expressed in simplest form. This is done by dividing
both the numerator and the denominator by their highest common factor (HCF).
WORKED Example 1
Write
32
44
in simplest form.
THINK
1 Write the fraction and divide both the
numerator and denominator by the HCF
or highest common factor (4).
2 Write the answer.
WRITE
32 8
44 11
=
8
11
WORKED Example 2
3
5
5
6
b 3 1 1 42
THINK
WRITE
3
5
18
30
43
30
5
6
25
30
= 1 13
30
b 3 1 1 42
7
9
 2
5
35
18
 10
10
17
10
7
1 10
WORKED Example 3
3
5
5
6
b 2 1
3
3
4
THINK
WRITE
3
5
5
6
13
51
=  62
15
1
2
THINK
WRITE
b 2 1
7
3
7
3
28
9
3
4
3
4
4
3
= 3 19
CASI
Fraction
calculations
remember
remember
1A
1.1
WORKED
Example
SkillS
HEET
1
Simplifying
fractions
1.2
WORKED
Example
SkillS
HEET
2
Finding and
converting
to the lowest
common
denominator
1.3
Example
3a
WORKED
Example
SkillS
1.4
3b
Converting
an improper
fraction into
a mixed
number
EXCE
et
reads
L Sp he
Adding and
subtracting
fractions
8
12
6
15
16
20
16
25
15
27
16
30
9
54
10
40
25
45
56
63
55
132
36
60
1
2
2
5
1
4
1
3
1
6
2
3
1
2
2
9
5
6
7
12
g 1 1 +
EXCE
Multiplying
fractions
2
3
5
12
5
8
1
2
7
10
5
6
EXCE
Mat
Operations
with
fractions
7
10
h 1 5 +
4
5
2
3
k 2 1 1 2
5
12
l 3 2 1 3
3
4
3
4
2 34
2
7
7
15
8
9
j 2 1 3 5
5
6
g 1 2
5
8
3
5
6
11
7

h 1 
4
9
6
17
10
k 1 1 2 5
3
10
l 1 2 3 1
3
5
2
5
1 13
4
7
15
16
2
3

k 2 11
12
3
4
g 1 1
5
8
j 2 7 1 48
5
8
11
12
1
3
3

h 1 
2
3
10
7
10
l 3 1 4
7
9
5 multiple choice
a 5 is equal to:
8
A
b
5
7
A
c
3
4
15
25
60
72
9
10
C 1 3
2
A 2 
B 1 1
D 1 17
E 1 1
15
32
If 1 of
1 3
 with
2
12
18
30
48
9
21
32
32
40
15
et
hca
j 1 1
3
4
reads
L Sp he
Dividing
fractions
8
9
et
reads
L Sp he
Converting a
mixed number
into an
improper
fraction
HEET
i 1 3
WORKED
SkillS
HEET
1
2
2
3
B
E
5
6
1
6
3
5
1
D 2 
21
E 1 23
6 Five hundred students attended the school athletics carnival. Threefifths of them wore
sunscreen without a hat and 1 of them wore a hat but no sunscreen. If 10 students wore
4
both a hat and sunscreen, how many students wore neither?
7 Phillip earns $56 a week doing odd jobs. If he spends 5 of his earnings on himself and
8
saves 1 , how much does he have left to spend on other people?
5
time
QUEST
E
NG
M AT H
CH LL
A
511
6 .
13
3 If this calculation continued forever, what would you expect the answer
to be?
1+1+ 1 + 1 + 1 +
    3 9 27 81 243
4 If this calculation continued forever, what would you expect the answer
to be?
1
1 1 1 1
1
1
 +   +   + 
2 4 8 16 32 64
1.5
SkillS
HEET
The four basic operations when applied to decimals are very straightforward using a
calculator. It is important that you are able to convert between the fractional and
decimal forms of a rational number.
All fractions can be written as finite or recurring decimals. Finite (or terminating)
decimals are exact and have not been rounded. Recurring decimals repeat the last
decimal places over and over again. They can also be described as infinite, as the
repeating pattern is neverending.
Recurring decimals are represented by a bar or dots placed over the repeating
digit(s). Many calculators round the last digit on their screens, so recurring decimal
patterns are sometimes difficult to recognise.
Converting between fractions and terminating decimals was covered in earlier years
and can be revised by clicking on the SkillSHEET icons here or in exercise 1B.
Converting a fraction to a recurring decimal requires you to recognise the recurring
pattern when it appears.
Converting a
fraction into a
decimal
1.7
SkillS
HEET
Converting a
terminating
decimal into
a fraction
WORKED Example 4
Express each of the following fractions as a recurring decimal.
a
7
12
3
7
THINK
WRITE
7
12
0.5 8 3 3 3
12 ) 7. 7010 0 4 0 4 04 0
7
12
0.4 2 8 5 7 1 4 2 8 5 7 1 4
3 2 6 4 5 1 3 2 6 4 5 1 3
7) 3.0
00 000 000 000 0
3
7
= 0.583
3
7
= 0.428 571
WORKED Example 5
Convert each of the following to a fraction in simplest form.
a 0.63
b 0.93
THINK
a 1 Write the recurring decimal and its
expanded form.
2 Let x equal the expanded form and call
it equation [1].
3 Multiply both sides of equation [1] by
100 because there are two repeating
digits and call the new equation [2].
Subtract
[1] from [2] in order to
4
eliminate the recurring part of the
decimal.
WRITE
a 0.63 = 0.636 363 . . .
x=
1
2
3
[1]
[2]
63
99
7
11
[1]
[2]
10x x = 9.333 33 . . .
0.9333 33 . . .
9x = 8.4
8 4
x = 9
x=
84
90
x=
28
30
Similarly, for three repeating digits, multiply by 1000; for four repeating digits,
multiply by 10 000; and so on. It is possible to do this using other multiples of 10.
Can you see why recurring decimals are considered to be rational numbers?
remember
remember
10
History of mathematics
S R I N I VA S A R A M A N U J A N ( 1 8 8 7 1 9 2 0 )
1
8
( 4n )! ( 1103 + 26 390n )
 =  
9801 n = 0
( n! ) 4 ( 396 4n )
1B
11
3
4
2
5
9
10
5
8
33
50
11
40
73
80
5
16
13
25
9
20
57
100
2
25
1.5
Converting a
fraction into
a decimal
3
11
8
9
5
18
5
6
1
7
11
12
1
15
10
11
7
24
17
30
7
27
Converting
fractions to
decimals
GC
2
3
Converting
fractions to
decimals
4 multiple choice
a
31
10 000
is equal to:
A 0.031
b
67
99
9
14
1.6
B 0.0031
B 0.676
E 0.31
C 0.67
D 0.67
E 0.676
Math
B 0.642 857 1
E 0.642 857 1
C 0.642 857 1
B 0.123 456 78
E 0.123 456 790
C 0.123 456 78
Finite and
recurring
decimals
is equal to:
A 0.123 456 79
D 0.123 456 79
e 0.185 is equal to:
37
A B
200
2
11
26
135
5
27
d 0.67
h 0.875
l 0.3625
WORKED
d 0.71
h 0.27
l 0.725
Converting a
terminating
decimal into
a fraction
L Spre
XCE ad
Converting
decimals to
fractions
L Spre
XCE ad
Converting
recurring
decimals to
fractions
sheet
e 0.46
f 0.18
g 0.18
i 0.363
j 0.382
k 0.616
167
900
1.7
sheet
Writing a
recurring
decimal in
short form
cad
10
81
D 0.003
is equal to:
C 0.000 31
is equal to:
A 0.676
am
progr C
asio
Example
program
GC
TI
WORKED
12
7 multiple choice
a 0.58 is equal to:
A
5
8
58
99
29
50
58
10
43
90
5
8
3
50
625
999
7
11
29
99
29
90
16
45
8
25
9
11
91
99
10
11
44
45
1
16
T
SHEE
1.1
32
99
9
10
1
1 Simplify
64
 .
88
3 Evaluate
3
8
4 Evaluate
2
 2  .
1 11
21
7
1
3
2   1 7 .
2
8
9
5 Evaluate
2
9
4
 .
5
6 Write
13
40
7 Write
1
6
as a finite decimal.
as a recurring decimal.
Irrational numbers
Irrational numbers are those which cannot be expressed as fractions. These include
1. nonrecurring, infinite (nonterminating) decimals
2. the special numbers and e
3. surds or roots of numbers that do not have a finite, exact answer; for example, 5
and 3 6 .
A surd is an exact answer but the calculator answer is an approximation because it
has been rounded.
CASI
roots
Graphics Calculator tip! Calculating
of numbers
Calculating
roots of
numbers
13
WORKED Example 6
State whether each of the following numbers is a surd or not.
a 3
b 0.49
c 38
d 5 15
THINK
WRITE
3 is a surd.
0.49 = 0.7 so
8 = 2 so
15 is a surd.
1
2
8 is not a surd.
14
WORKED Example 7
Find the value of
THINK
1 Write the surd and use a calculator to
find the answer.
Round
the answer to 2 decimal places
2
by checking the third decimal place.
WRITE
56 7.483 314 774
= 7.48 (correct to 2 decimal places)
Exact answers are the most accurate and should be used in all working. Irrational numbers that are rounded are close approximations to their true values and should be used
in the final answer only when asked for.
remember
remember
1. Irrational numbers are those which cannot be expressed as fractions. These
include:
(a) nonrecurring, infinite decimals
(b) the special numbers, and e
(c) surds.
2. A surd is an exact value. and e are also exact values.
3. Rounded decimal answers to surd questions are only rational approximations.
1C
1.8
WORKED
Example
SkillS
HEET
6
Finding square
roots, cube
roots and
other roots
Mat
hca
Irrational
numbers
Irrational numbers
64
2354
j 6
100
216
g
k
h
l
7
8
2 multiple choice
a Which of the following is a surd?
A 28.09
B
C 48.84
b Which of the following is not a surd?
A 65
B 56
C 46
c Which of the following is a surd?
A 4.48
B 0.83
C 4.84
d Which of the following is not a surd?
A 5.44
B 3 82.511
C 4 108.8844
74
4
2401
16
25
D 0.9875
64
101
D 0.83
1
4
0.9
143.489 07
15
f 4.124 242 4 . . .
16
i 5.0129
Example
k 60
l 2.714 365 . . .
15
8
L Spre
XCE ad
Square
roots
(DIY)
67
82
147
5.22
6.9
0.754
2534
1962
607.774
8935.0725
12.065
355.169
5 Find the value of each of the surds in question 4, correct to 3 decimal places.
6 Comment on how your estimates in question 4 compare with the calculations in
question 5.
7 Find approximate answers to each of the following surds, rounded to 4 significant
figures.
a
23
895
1.5
2.8856
5
9
1048
45 867
54 988
84.848 484
546
54 637
697 643
2116
Rounding
to a given
4 0.7882 number of
decimal
places
654.8
8 564 943
9 multiple choice
a
b
c
d
D 6.5888
E 6.589
D 25.646
E 15
E 61.66
56.6 + 65.5
e  rounded to 3 decimal places is:
56.6 65.5
A 49.583
B 19.389
C 6.624
D 27.402
1.9
E 5.236
sheet
WORKED
g 7 4
16
67 + 54 43
6.7 4.9
e 6.7 4.9
58.8 21.7
f 58.8 21.7
11 Ralis solution to the equation 3x = 13 is x = 4.33, while Tig writes his answer as x = 4 13 .
When Rali is marked wrong and Tig marked right by their teacher, Rali complains.
a Do you think the teacher is right or wrong?
The teacher then asks the two students to compare the decimal and fractional parts of
the answer.
b Write Ralis decimal remainder as a fraction.
c Find the difference between the two fractions.
d Multiply Ralis fraction by 120 000 and multiply Tigs fraction by 120 000.
e Find the difference between the two answers.
f Compare the difference between the two fractions from part c and the difference
between the two amounts in part d. Comment.
12 Takako is building a corner cupboard to go in her bedroom and she wants it to be
10 cm along each wall.
a Use Pythagoras theorem to find the exact length of timber required to complete
the triangle.
b Find a rational approximation for the length, rounding your answer to the nearest
millimetre.
13 Phillip uses a ladder which is 5 metres long to reach his bedroom window. He cannot
put the foot of the ladder in the garden bed, which is 1 metre wide. If the ladder just
reaches the window, how high above the ground is Phillips window?
COMMUNICATION
Some shapes appear more pleasing to the eye than others. Artists and designers take
advantage of these proportions in paintings, buildings and a variety of objects. One of
the most pleasing proportions is that of the Golden Ratio, which is seen in many
rectangular shapes. Let us construct a Golden Rectangle and investigate its properties.
1 Draw a 2 cm square ABCD.
2 Mark the midpoint of AB as the point E. Join EC. Triangle BCE is rightangled.
What are the exact lengths of EB, BC and CE? Leave your answer in surd form,
if necessary.
3 Use a pair of compasses with centre at E and radius EC to draw an arc cutting
AB extended at the point F.
4 Complete the rectangle AFGD.
5 Write the exact lengths (in surd form) of the line segments AF and BF.
6 Calculate the ratios AF : AD and GF : BF, correct to 2 decimal places.
7 The rectangles AFGD and BFGC are Golden Rectangles. What is the ratio
of the longer to the shorter side in each? This is known as the Golden Ratio.
THINKING
17
Where do I belong?
The real number system can be divided into two distinct sets rational numbers
and irrational numbers. Rational numbers are those which can be written as the
ratio of two integers. Irrational numbers cannot be written as the ratio of two
integers. Included in this set are surds, nonterminating and nonrecurring
decimals, and symbols such as . The rational numbers can be divided into the
subsets of integers and nonintegers. Further division of the integer set gives
subsets of negative integers, positive integers (natural numbers) and zero. The
relationship between these sets is illustrated in the chart below.
Real numbers
Rational numbers
Irrational numbers
(Surds, nonterminating
and nonrecurring
decimals, )
Negative
Integers
Zero
(Neither positive
nor negative)
Positive
(Natural
numbers N)
Non integers
(Fractions,
terminating
and recurring
decimals)
A Venn diagram can also be used to show the relationship between the sets.
Consider the diagram below.
Prime
numbers
H
A
F
D
G
Even
numbers
Multiples of 36
The circle labelled Prime numbers contains all the prime numbers.
The circle labelled Even numbers contains all the even numbers.
The circle labelled Multiples of 36 contains all the multiples of 36.
The region A contains all the prime numbers that are neither even nor multiples
of 36.
The region D contains all the prime numbers that are even.
The region G contains all the prime numbers that are even and multiples of 36.
The region H contains all the numbers that are not prime, not even and
nonmultiples of 36.
Similar reasoning would define all the other regions.
The size of the circle or the size of the overlapping region does not represent the
number of entries in the region.
(continued)
18
1 Consider each of the following Venn diagrams and indicate the region in which
the specified number would lie.
a
Prime
numbers
A
F
D
G
H Even
numbers
Palindromic
numbers
A
F
D
G
Perfect
cubes
d Multiples
of 2
H Multiples
of 3
Multiples of 5
Integers
H
Rational
numbers
D
G
Even numbers
H Perfect
squares
Even numbers
Multiples of 36
Perfect
squares
D
G
A
B
C
Rational
numbers
C
B
A
Integers
Natural
numbers
Irrational numbers
Irrational numbers
Where does
10
2
lie?
Where do
3
 ,
5
and
each lie?
2 Sets can be classed as discrete or continuous. Discrete sets are those that have
discrete elements; that is, the elements can assume countable values. Continuous
sets are those whose elements are continuous; that is, the elements can assume
all possible values in a given interval. Classify the following sets as discrete or
continuous.
a {Natural numbers}
b {Integers}
c {Rational numbers}
d {Irrational numbers}
3 A finite set is one with a fixed countable number of elements (even though this
number may be very large). An infinite set contains an infinite number of
elements. Classify the following sets as finite or infinite.
2
4 5
a {Positive integers}
b , , , , , 2
3 3
3 3
19
THINKING
We know that it is possible to find the exact square root of some numbers, but not
others. For example, we can find 4 exactly but not 3 or 5 . Our calculator can
find a decimal approximation of these, but because they cannot be found exactly
they are called irrational numbers. There is a method, however, of showing their
exact location on a number line.
1 Using graph paper draw a rightangled triangle with two equal sides of length
1 cm as shown below.
0
1 2 2
3 Draw another right triangle using the hypotenuse of the first triangle as one side
and make the other side 1 cm in length.
1 2 2
5 Repeat steps 3 and 4 to draw triangles that will have sides of length
6 units, etc.
4,
5,
20
QUEST
M AT H
E
NG
CH LL
A
Simplifying surds
Some surds, like some fractions, can be reduced to simplest form.
Only square roots will be considered in this section.
Consider:
Now,
Taking
9 and
36 = 6
36 = 9 4, so we could say:
94 =6
4 separately:
9 4 =32=6
42
4 2
WORKED Example 8
Simplify each of the following.
a
40
72
THINK
WRITE
40 =
=
4 10
4 10
= 2 10
THINK
WRITE
72 =
=
21
36 2
36 2
=6 2
If a smaller perfect square is chosen the first time, the surd can be simplified in more
than one step.
72 =
4 18
= 2 18
= 2 9 2
= 23 2
=6 2
This is the same answer as found in worked example 8(b) but an extra step is included.
When dividing surds into two parts, it is critical that one is a perfect square.
For example, 72 = 24 3 is of no use because an exact square root cannot be
found for either part of the answer.
WORKED Example 9
Simplify 6 20 .
THINK
1
2
3
WRITE
6 20 = 6 4 5
= 6 4 5
= 62 5
= 12 5
WORKED Example 10
Write 5 3 in the form
THINK
1
WRITE
5 3 = 5 3
Continued over page
22
THINK
2
3
WRITE
52 3
25 3
25 3
75
WORKED Example 11
Ms Jennings plans to have a climbing frame that is in the shape of a large cube with sides
2 metres long built in the school playground.
H
G
a Find the length of material required to join the opposite vertices
F
of the face which is on the ground.
E
b Find the exact length of material required to strengthen the frame
by joining a vertex on the ground to the vertex which is in the air
D
C
and which is furthest away.
A
B
c Find an approximate answer rounded to the nearest cm.
THINK
WRITE
a D
C
2m
2m
2
AC = AB + BC
= 22 + 22
=8
AC =
=2 2
G
2m
2 2m
THINK
2
23
WRITE
2
AG = CG + AC
= 22 + ( 2 2 ) 2
= 12
AG =
12
=2 3
remember
remember
1. To simplify a surd, divide it into two square roots, one of which is a perfect
square.
2. Not all surds can be simplified.
3. ab = a b
4. Some perfect squares to learn are: 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100, 121, 144 . . .
1D
Example
Example
Example
10
20
18
49
30
50
28
108
288
48
500
162
52
55
84
98
363
343
78
160
b 5 27
c 6 64
d 7 50
e 10 24
f 5 12
g 4 42
h 12 72
i 9 45
j 12 242
Simplifying
surds
Math
Simplifying
surds
L Spre
XCE ad
3 Write each of the following in the form a ; that is, write as an entire surd.
a 2 3
b 5 7
c 6 3
d 4 5
e 8 6
f 3 10
g 4 2
h 12 5
i 10 6
j 13 2
Simplifying
surds
sheet
WORKED
1.10
cad
WORKED
WORKED
Simplifying surds
24
4 multiple choice
a 1000 is equal to:
A 31.6228
B 50 2
D 10 10
b
GC p
am
rogr TI
Simplifying
surds
GC p
sio
am
rogr Ca
C 50 10
E 100 10
C 8 10
D 5 16
E 10
c Which of the following surds is in simplest form?
A 60
B 147
105
D 117
E 432
d Which of the following surds is not in simplest form?
A 102
B 110
116
150
Simplifying
surds
118
122
e 6 5 is equal to:
A 900
30
D 180
E 13.42
f Which one of the following is not equal to the rest?
A 128
B 2 32
C 8 2
D 4 8
E 64 2
g Which one of the following is not equal to the rest?
A 4 4
B 2 16
C8
D 16
h 5 48 is equal to:
A 80 3
D 21 3
B 20 3
64
C 9 3
E 15 16
675
1805
1792
578
a2c
bd 4
h 2 jk 2
f3
WORKED
Example
250 cm
220 cm
25
Braking distances
COMMUNICATION
At the start of the chapter, a formula was given to calculate the speed of a car
before the brakes are applied to bring it to a stop in an emergency. The formula
given was v = 20d where v is the speed in m/s and d is the braking distance in m.
1 What is the speed of a car before braking if the braking distance is 32.50 m?
2 Explain why your answer to part 1 is an irrational number.
3 State your answer to part 1 as an exact irrational number in simplest form and
as a rational approximation.
4 Convert the speed from m/s to km/h.
5 Calculate the speed of a car before braking if the braking distance is 31.25 m.
6 Is your answer to part 5 rational or irrational?
7 State your answer to part 5 in km/h. Is this number rational or irrational?
Speed
km/h
m/s
Reaction
distance
Braking
distance
Total stopping
distance
60
65
70
9 Compare the difference between the total stopping distance travelled at each of
the given speeds.
10 Give an example to explain how the difference between these stopping
distances could literally mean the difference between life and death.
11 What other factors could affect the stopping distance of a car?
26
Career profile
PETER RICHARDSON Analyst Programmer
I use basic mathematical skills
throughout the day to calculate screen
heights and check whether all necessary
fields and labels will fit. More advanced
mathematics, such as working with
formulas and other secondary school
mathematics, are used in Excel
spreadsheets for statistics and data
manipulation.
During a typical day, all my work is
done on computer, usually using a
software package to write code in Java or
Cobol. I create screens for use by clients,
and the supporting code to ensure screens
react as expected.
Qualifications:
Bachelor of Applied Science (Computer
Science and Software Engineering)
I entered this field as a change of career and
find it to be interesting and diverse.
Questions
1. What computer language does Peter
use to write code?
2. Name one aspect of Peters job.
3. Find out what courses are available to
become an analyst programmer.
WORKED Example 12
Simplify each of the following.
a 6 3+2 3+4 55 5
b 3 25+4 2+9
THINK
WRITE
a 6 3+2 3+4 55 5
= 8 3 5
THINK
WRITE
b 3 25+4 2+9
3 2+4 25+9
1
2
27
= 7 2+4
We need to check that all surds are fully simplified before we can be sure whether or
not they can be added or subtracted as like terms.
WORKED Example 13
Simplify 5 75 6 12 + 2 8 + 4 3 .
THINK
1 Write the expression.
2 Simplify all surds.
WRITE
5 75 6 12 + 2 8 + 4 3
= ( 5 25 3 ) ( 6 4 3 ) + ( 2 4 2 ) + 4 3
= 25 3 12 3 + 4 2 + 4 3
= 17 3 + 4 2
remember
remember
1E
WORKED
12
Math
a 6 2+3 27 2
b 4 56 52 5
c 3 3 7 3 + 4 3
d 9 6 + 6 6 + 3 6
e 10 11 6 11 + 11
h 10 5 2 5 + 8 6 7 6
i 5 10 + 2 3 + 3 10 + 5 3
j 12 2 3 5 + 4 2 8 5
k 6 6+ 24 6 2
l 16 5 + 8 + 7 11 5
m 10 7 4 2 7 7
n 6+2 2+53 2
13 + 4 7 2 13 3 7
q 5 2+ 73 74 7
7+ 7
p 8 64 3+2 67 6
r 1+ 5 5+1
cad
Example
Addition
and
subtraction
of surds
28
WORKED
Example
13
45 80 + 5
c 12 + 75 192
7 + 28 343
12 + 20 125
24 + 180 + 54
g 2 24 + 3 20 7 8
h 3 45 + 2 12 + 5 80 + 3 108
i 6 44 + 4 120 99 3 270
j 2 32 5 45 4 180 + 10 8
98 + 3 147 8 18 + 6 192
m 5 81 4 162 + 6 16 450
108 + 125 3 8 + 9 80
3 multiple choice
a
2 + 6 3 5 2 4 3 is equal to:
A 5 2 + 2 3
D 4 2 + 2 3
B 3 2 + 23
E 3
C 6 2+2 3
b 6 5 6 + 4 6 8 is equal to:
A 2 6
B 14 6
D 2 9 6
E 14 + 6
C 2 + 6
c 4 8 6 12 7 18 + 2 27 is equal to:
A 7 5
D 13 2 + 6 3
B 29 2 18 3
E cannot be simplified
C 13 2 6 3
d 2 20 + 5 24 54 + 5 45 is equal to:
A 19 5 + 7 6
B 9 57 6
D 11 5 7 6
E 12 35
C 11 5 + 7 6
4 Elizabeth wants narrow wooden frames for three differentsized photographs, the
smallest frame measuring 2 2 cm, the second 3 3 cm and the largest 4 6 cm. If
each frame is made up of four pieces of timber to go around the edge of the photograph
and one diagonal support, how much timber is needed to make the three frames? Give
your answer in simplest surd form.
Work
T
SHEE
1.2
School
7m
Vacant block 20 m
16 m
29
E=6 7 4 7
=
A=3 5+ 5
=
H=3 62 6
=
B=5 2+3 2
=
M = 7 6 54
=
A= 8+3 2
=
N = 45 20
=
F = 3 3 + 12
=
8 2
D = 2 + 2 5 +3 2 5
T = 8 + 18 2
=
E = 200 147
=
U = 12 32 + 6 2
=
H=52 2+ 9
=
E = 50 + 27 5 2
=
O = 75 + 4 5 + 12
=
W= 3+ 4+ 5
=
S = 8 5 45 20
=
A = 48 2 3 + 20
=
E = 150 + 2 6 96
=
D = 18 2 2
=
E=2 7+ 7
=
4 7
S= 5+3 5 3
=
E = 10 3 4 3
=
D=2 6+3 6
=
3 6
B = 108 5 3
=
L=7 55 5
=
C= 3+ 3
=
A=5 2+3 3 2
=
O = 6 7 28
=
2 3
4 2+3 3
2 2+2 3
5 3
4 2
82 2
2 3+2 5
2 5
4 2+ 5
2 7
6
4 5 3
4 6
3 7
7 3+4 5
2+ 3+ 5
10 2 7 3
5 2
4 5
5 6
6 3
3 5
3 3
30
a
 .
b
36 6
 = 3
9
=2
while
36
 =
9
=2
36
so  =
9
36
9
WORKED Example 14
Simplify each of the following.
3 6
7 7
c 4 5 7 6
THINK
WRITE
Simplify if appropriate.
3 6 =
=
18
9 2
=3 2
b
Simplify if appropriate.
(Note that a a = a , so the
answer could have been found in one
step.)
Simplify if appropriate.
7 7 =
49
=7
c 4 5 7 6 = 4 7 5 6
= 28 30
When dividing surds, it is easier if both the numerator and denominator are simplified
before dividing. If this is done we can then simplify the fraction formed by the rational
and irrational parts separately.
31
WORKED Example 15
40
Simplify each of the following. a 2
60
b 2
16 15
c 24 75
THINK
WRITE
40 2 10
a  = 2
2
1
2
10
= 2 2
=2 5
60 2 15
b  = 2
2
=
15
16 15 16 15
c  = 24 75 120 3
2
16 15
= 324 5 3
2
15
=  15
3
2 5
= 15
A mixed number under a square root sign must be changed to an improper fraction and
then simplified.
WORKED Example 16
Simplify
3 12 .
THINK
WRITE
3 12=
7
2
7
= 2
The same algebraic rules apply to surds when expanding brackets. Each term inside the
brackets is multiplied by the term immediately outside the brackets.
32
WORKED Example 17
Expand each of the following, simplifying where appropriate.
7(5 2)
b 5 3( 3 + 2 6)
THINK
WRITE
1
2
7(5 2)
= 5 7 14
b 5 3( 3 + 2 6)
= 5 9 + 10 18
= ( 5 3 ) + ( 10 9 2 )
= 15 + ( 10 3 2 )
= 15 + 30 2
Binomial expansions are completed by multiplying the first term from the first bracket
with the entire second bracket, then multiplying the second term from the first bracket
by the entire second bracket.
WORKED Example 18
Expand ( 2 + 6 ) ( 2 3 6 ) .
THINK
WRITE
( 2 + 6)(2 3 6)
Simplify surds.
= 2 6 ( 4 3) + (2 9 2) 6
22 3+ 2 6+ 62 3+ 6 6
= 2 6 12 + 2 18 36
= 2 6 2 3 + (2 3 2) 6
= 2 62 3+6 26
remember
remember
1F
WORKED
Example
14
33
5 5
c 5 5
5 7
6 11
32 2
25 4
30 2
7 8
12 6
k 90 5
l 3 24 2
m 5 5 6 5
n 3 10 2 8
o 7 3 4 12
p 2 3 6
q 10 5 5 125
r 3 86 9
s 8 16 10 50
7 4 49
u 2 5 3 2 6
2 multiple choice
a 2 6 5 4 6 6 is equal to:
A 13 12
B 60 12
C 132
D 156
E 720
C 48 3
D 48 3
E 4 3
C 14 5
D 100 5
E 500
b 3 8 4 6 is equal to:
A 7 48
B 12 48
c 6 5 + 4 5 2 5 is equal to:
A 6 5 + 40
WORKED
Example
15
B 6 5 + 30
10
b 5
20
c 4
32
d 16
75
e 5
30
f 10
4 5
g 4
4 5
h 5
6 10
3 2
18 18
j 2 6
24 6
k 6 12
15 15
m 20 45
3 200
n 2 2
16 125
o  10 5
6
p 6 6
14 49
q  10 81
5 33 3
r 2 28 2
2 53 6
s 4 10 2 3
2 2 56 2
t 5 82 5
5 6
10 3
4 multiple choice
75
a  is equal to:
3
A 5
5 3
B 3
C5
25 3
D 3
E 25
Math
cad
Multiplication
and division
of surds
34
10 12
b  is equal to:
20 2
2
B 6
A 2 6
6
C 2
D3
1
3
3
C 2 3
4
D 2 3
1
4
6 20 4 2
c  is equal to:
16 3 2 10
4 3
A 3
3 3
B 4
8 6 + 6 10
d  is equal to:
2 2
4
3
A 6 3+4 5
B  + 3
5
WORKED
Example
16
1.11
SkillS
HEET
WORKED
Example
17
Expanding
brackets
1.12
SkillS
HEET
WORKED
Example
18
Expanding
a pair of
brackets
C 4 3 + 6 10
D 4 3+3 5
28
E 2
2 79
1 13
36
2 14
1
3 16
b 5( 6 2)
c 6 ( 5 + 11 )
d 8( 2 + 3)
e 4( 7 5)
f 2(5 2)
g 7(6 + 7)
3( 2 + 5)
10 ( 2 + 2 )
5( 5 + 2)
6( 6 5)
14 ( 3 8 )
8( 2 + 8)
n 6 5(2 5 3)
o 2 7(3 8 + 4 5)
p 3 5 ( 2 20 5 5 )
q 5 2(5 2 3)
r 4 3(2 2 5 3)
a ( 5 + 3)(2 2 3)
b ( 7 + 2)(3 5 2)
c ( 2 + 3)( 2 3)
d ( 5 + 3)( 5 3)
e (2 2 + 5)(3 2 5) f (3 2 + 3)(5 2 3)
g ( 5 3)
h ( 2 + 3 )2
i ( 2 6 3 2 )2
35
9 The material in the front face of the roof of a house has to be replaced. The face is
triangular in shape.
GAME
002
Recurring surds
THINKING
recurring surd. Although 6 is irrational, this recurring surd actually has a rational
answer. To find it we form a quadratic equation.
1 Find an expression for x2.
2 In your expression for x2, you should be able to find the original expression for
x. Substitute the pronumeral x for this expression.
3 You should now be able to form a quadratic equation to solve. You will get two
solutions but you need consider only the positive solution.
4 Now use the same method to find the value of x =
6 6 6 6
12 + 12 + 12 + 12 +
b x =
20 + 20 + 20 + 20 +
c x =
12 12 12 12
d x =
20 20 20 20
6 Try writing a few recurring surds of your own. Some will not have a rational
answer. Can you find the condition for a recurring surd to have a rational answer?
time
a If the vertical height is half the width of the base and the slant length is 6 metres, Rational and
find the exact vertical height of this part of the roof.
irrational
numbers
b Find the exact area of the front face of the roof.
36
2
1 Express 2 1 as a finite decimal.
2 Express
4
5
11
as a recurring decimal.
81 ,
99 ,
169
6 Evaluate
72 2 36 .
7 Simplify
90 .
8 Simplify 5 2 + 8 + 3 18 .
9 Simplify 4 5 40 .
2 6
10 Simplify  .
72
WORKED Example 19
Express each of the following fractions in simplest form with a rational denominator.
1
a 5
7 2
b 4 7
THINK
WRITE
1
a 5
1
5
=  5
5
5
= 25
THINK
37
WRITE
Simplify.
5
= 5
7 2
b 4 7
7 2
7
=  4 7
7
7 14
= 4 49
7 14
= 47
7 14
= 28
Simplify by cancelling.
14
= 4
If there is a binomial denominator (two terms) such as (3 + 2 ) then the fraction can
be written with a rational denominator by multiplying numerator and denominator by
the same expression with the opposite sign. That is, ( 3 2 ) because:
(3 + 2)(3 2) = 9 3 2 + 3 2 2
=92
=7
Using the difference of two squares rule removes the surd.
WORKED Example 20
5
Express  in simplest form with a rational denominator.
2+ 3
THINK
1
WRITE
5
2+ 3
5
2 3
=  2+ 3 2 3
5(2 3)
= (2 + 3)(2 3)
5(2 3)
= 42 3+2 3 9
Continued over page
38
THINK
WRITE
5(2 3)
= 43
Simplify if applicable.
= 5(2 3)
remember
remember
1G
WORKED
Example
Mat
d
hca
Rationalising
denominators
1
a 3
1
b 5
1
c 6
1
d 7
2
e 10
5
f 5
3
g 15
6
h 30
39
2 Express each of the following fractions in simplest form with a rational denominator.
3
a 5
5
b 6
2
c 3
6
d 10
8
e 3
18
g 5
3
h 2
5 6
5
2 3
2
3 5
k 6
5 7
10
WORKED
Example
19b
12
7
3 Express each of the following fractions in simplest form with a rational denominator.
6 5
a 7 3
14 6
b 3 7
4 3
c 5 2
5 2
d 4 10
4 Express each of the following fractions in simplest form with a rational denominator.
2
a 8
4
b 12
1.13
3
c 18
5 3
d 20
Conjugate
pairs
5 Find half of each of the following fractions by first expressing each one with a rational
denominator.
24
a 32
Example
20
Applying the
difference of
two squares
6 Express each of the following fractions in simplest form with a rational denominator.
rule to
expressions
5
2
with surds
a b 
2 3
1+ 2
4
c 5+2
6
d 3 7
3 3
e 5 2
2 5
f 5+ 3
5 2
g 7 2
6 6
h 3 65 2
T
SHEE
Work
WORKED
1.14
20
b 50
1.3
40
summary
Copy the sentences below. Fill in the gaps by choosing the correct word or
expression from the word list that follows.
1
Finite and
Any roots of numbers that do not have finite answers are called
and are irrational.
Some surds can be simplified by dividing the original surd into the
product of two other surds, one of which is a
square which
can be calculated exactly.
10
11
Only
12
Surds can be
WORD
repeater
like
factor
are irrational.
cannot be simpli
LIST
decimal
multiple
surds
multiplied
fractions
perfect
rational
recurring
approximation
41
CHAPTER
review
1 Evaluate the following. a
1
4
1
3
1
4
1
3
1
4
1
3
1
4
1
3
1A
1A
2
25
13
16
2
7
5
9
1B
4 multiple choice
a
1B
11
14
A
B
C
D
E
3
10
1
3
11
30
3
11
15 is a surd and
10
33
e 0.83
16 is not a surd.
62
72 + 27
7 7
c 7+7
6 5
d 6 5
1B
1C
1C
8 A vertical flagpole is supported by a wire attached from the top of the pole to the horizontal
ground, 4 m from the base of the pole. If the flagpole is 9 m tall, what is the length of the
supporting wire?
1C
1D
99
175
c 6 32
d 4 90
42
1D
10 multiple choice
96 written in simplest form is:
A 4 6
B 2 24
C 8 12
D 16 6
E 12 3
1D
11 Express each of the following in the form a ; that is, write as an entire surd.
1E
a 5 6
b 6 5
6+3 74 7+3 6
12 + 243 108
c 11 5
d 3 2
c 5 28 + 2 45 4 112 + 3 80
1E
13 multiple choice
27 + 50 72 + 300 is equal to:
A 30 3 30 2
B 13 3 + 11 2
D 13 3 2
C 13 3 + 2
305
1E
1F
16 12
d 8 2
b a rectangle 20 cm by ( 8 + 5 ) cm.
b 4 36 7
35 32
e 20 8
2 56 6
f 4 3 3 12
1F
1F
17 multiple choice
15 48
 written in simplest form is:
20 6
a 6 5 ( 2 5 + 3 20 )
3 8
A 4
1G
CHAPTER
test
yourself
b ( 4 3 5 )2
3 2
C 2
4 2
D 3
E 6
18 multiple choice
2
 written with a rational denominator in simplest form is:
5
A
1G
4 8
B 3
13 13
2
5
2 5
B 5
5
2
5
D 2
5
E 5
19 Express each of the following fractions in simplest form with a rational denominator.
1
a 2 7
5 2
b 2 3
1
c 5+2
6
d 2 53 2