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WATER CHEMICAL TREATMENT PLANT

MANUAL

CHAPTER I

BASICS
OF
WATER TREATMENT

CHAPTER I

1.

BASICS OF WATER TREATMENT


The formula of water is H2O which itself tells us its composition

and molecular weight. Two hydrogen atoms are located 105 O apart, adjacent
to oxygen atom, so that the molecule is asymmetrical, positively charged on
the hydrogen side and negatively charged on the oxygen side. For this
reason, water is said to be dipolar. This causes the molecules to agglomerate,
the hydrogen of one molecule attracting the oxygen of a neighbouring
molecule. The linking of molecules resulting from this attractive force is
called hydrogen bonding.
Molecules of water cannot leave the surface of body of water as
readily as they could without this intermolecular attraction. The energy
required to rupture the hydrogen bond and liberate a molecule of H 2O to form
vapour is much greater than for other common chemical compounds.
Because of this fact, the water vapor steam has high energy content and is
an effective medium for transferring energy in industrial operation.
Water also releases more heat upon freezing than do other
compounds. Furthermore, for each incremental change in temperature, water
absorbs or release more heat i.e. has great heat capacity than many
substances, so it is an effective heat transfer medium.
Water is often called the universal solvent. When it dissolves a mineral, new
materials are produced from the atoms released by the mineral. These are
fundamental particles called ions. The break-up of chemical compound by

dissolution in water forms cations, which are positively charged, and anions,
which are negatively charged. Generally, an increase in water temperature

causes an increase in the solubility of most salts. Important and notable


exceptions are CaCO3, CaSO4 all of which become less soluble as the
temperature increases.
Water ionizes so very slightly producing only 10 -7 moles of
hydrogen and 10-7 moles of hydroxyl ions per litre, so it acts like an insulator
i.e. it cannot conduct electrical current. As salts or other ionizing materials
dissolve in water electric conductivity develops.
Water, which is required for industrial or process use, is available
from two sources. Surface supplies such as from rivers, lakes and surface
wells and underground supply such as bore wells.
Natural water contains dissolved salts. The water dissolves these
salts in over limestone, gypsum, dolomite and other mineral deposits
containing them. Natural water is likely to contain different constructions of:
Alkaline salts such as Bicarbonates and (rarely) carbonates of calcium,
magnesium and sodium.
Other dissolved impurities such as silica dissolved carbon dioxide
and metals iron, manganese and organic matter may also be present to a
lesser extent.
Most industrial chemicals have a level of impurity usually
measured in percentage or part per hundred. When working with fresh water,
the impurity level is measured in parts per million (ppm), 10,000 ppm
equalling 1 %, a sample

of water from bore well, containing 150 ppm, has an impurity level of only
0.015 %. Since a liter of distilled water weighs 100 g or 1,000,000 mg, it is
apparent that 1 mg of impurity in a liter represents 1 ppm.
In Thermal Power Station-II there are two Demineralization Plants
(DM) are available to cater the need of 210 MW X 7 Boilers. The salient
features of the DM Plants of Stage-I and Stage-II are given below:
M/S TATA Consultancy provides the Stage-I DM Plant consultancy.
The DM Plant Stage-I is Designed, Supplied, Erected and Commissioned by
M/S Thermax, Pune with a capacity of 2700 M 3 per day. The total cost of the
plant is 1.24 crores. The plant contains 50 M 3 X 3 streams named as A, B and
C. Normally two streams will be in service and one is stand by. The plant is
commissioned in December 1984. Equipment details are given in the later
chapters.
M/S DCPL provides the Stage-II DM Plant consultancy. The DM
Plant Stage-II is Designed, Supplied, Erected and Commissioned by M/S
Thermax, Pune with a capacity of 3840 M3 per day. The total cost of the plant
is 3.4 crores. The plant contains 80 M 3 X 3 streams named as 1, 2 and 3. The
plant is commissioned in December 1992. Equipment details are given in the
later chapters.

WATER CHEMICAL TREATMENT PLANT


MANUAL

CHAPTER II

NORMS OF CHEMICAL REGIME


IN THE
POWER STATION

CHAPTER - II

2.

NORMS OF CHEMICAL REGIME IN THE POWER


STATION

2.1.

RAW WATER QUALITY (DESIGN)

Turbidity, ppm

50 on silica scale

pH, number

About 7.0

Total dissolved solids, ppm

270

P Alkalinity as CaCO3, ppm

NIL

M Alkalinity as CaCO3, ppm

86

Calcium hardness as CaCO3,, ppm

48

Magnesium hardness as CaCO3, ppm

38

Temporary hardness as CaCO3, ppm

86

Permanent hardness as CaCO3, ppm

NIL

Sulphate as SO4, ppm

19

Chloride as Cl, ppm

22

Dissolved silica as SiO2, ppm


Dissolved CO2 as CO2, ppm

2.2.

100
50-60

DEMINERALISED WATER QUALITY

Total dissolved solids (TDS) ppm


Conductivity umho/cm
Silica as SiO2, ppm

0.5
0.5
0.02

2.3.

BOILER WATER QUALITY

2.3.1.

LIMITING VALUES IN STAGE-I


Cond
Micro
Mho/cm

Ammoni
a
ppm

Dissolve
d
Oxygen
ppm

Phosphat
e
ppm

Silic
a
ppm

Description

Alk
ppm

pH

Condensate

5.0

9.0

0.4*

0.4

0.02

Feed water

5.0

9.0

0.4*

<0.005

0.02

5.0

9.0

0.2*

0.02

5.0

9.0

0.3*

0.02

9.6

9.1-9.4 12-24

2 -4

Saturated
Steam
Superheated
Steam
Drum
2.3.2.

Copper
ppm
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.003
0.005

LIMITING VALUES IN STAGE-II

Description
Condensate
Feed water
Saturated
Steam
Superheated Steam
Drum

0.3

Iro
n
pp
m
0.0
2
0.0
2
0.0
2
0.0
2
0.0
2

6.0
6.0

9 9.4
9 9.4

Cond
Micro
Mho/cm
0.4*
0.4*

6.0

9 9.4

0.4*

0.02

0.02

6.0
<13.
0

9 9.4
9.1
-9.8

0.4*

0.02

0.02

50 max

2 -6

0.3

0.02

Alk
ppm

pH

*After passing through cation exchange column

Ammoni
a
ppm
1.0
-

Dissolved
Oxygen ppm

Phosphate
ppm

<0.005

Silic
a
ppm
0.02
0.02

Iron
ppm
0.02
0.02

2.3.3.

CIRCULATING WATER QUALITY


MAKE UP WATER QUALITY

pH

7.5 to 8.0

Conductivity

1000 1200 s/cm

Turbidity

10 to 20 NTU

Free CO2

NIL

Silica

30 60 ppm as SiO2

Total alkalinity

260 290 ppm CaCO3

Calcium Hardness

210 250 ppm CaCO3

Total Hardness

350 400 ppm CaCO3

Chlorides

130 150 ppm CaCO3

Sulphates

100 180 ppm CaCO3

Iron

0.4 2.0 ppm CaCO3

Sodium & Potassium

180 240 ppm CaCO3

Operating COC

Restricted to system calcium load of


300 ppm CaCO3

WATER CHEMICAL TREATMENT PLANT


MANUAL

CHAPTER III

DEMENIERALISED WATER
PROCESS

DESCRIPTION

CHAPTER III
3.

DEMINERALISED WATER PROCESS

3.1.

DESCRIPTION
Unit Operations involved in Water Chemical Treatment Plant in

Thermal Station-II:
a)

Pre-treatment and

b)

on Exchange
Considering the surface water or bore well water clarification as

an example, turbid raw water contains suspended matter, both settleable


solids, particles large enough to settle quiescently, and dispersed solids,
particles which will not readily settle. A significant portion of these non
settleable solids may be colloidal. Each particle is stabilized by negative
electric charges on its surface, causing it to repel neighbouring particles,
from colliding to form larger masses called flocs, they do not settle.
Coagulation is the destabilization of these colloids by neutralizing the forces
that keep them apart.
Suspended matter (turbidity): This produces mud or sludge inside
the heaters and boilers, which may impede transfer of heat or circulation of
water and result in overheating of boiler metal. This also causes priming and
foaming and also corrosion if it has contamination of sewage of industrial
waste. For most purposes, turbidity in water should not be more than 5 NTU.
In Thermal Power Station-II Bore well water contains turbidity
around 5 NTU (Nephlometric Turbidity Units). Therefore, Coagulation may not
necessary and direct filtration through sand filter is sufficient to remove
suspended solids.

At present A & C Bore well pumps are connected to WCTP Stage-I


& II. E Bore well pump is connected to Stage-II exclusively. And in case of
emergency the water can be drawn from the Bore well grid. The capacity of
the each bore well pump is 1000 gpm
The bore well water is let into an RCC tank which has two
compartments both in Stage-I & II, each with a capacity (the capacity of
individual equipment or tanks is given in the tabular column below). The
purpose of keeping two compartments is to clean one section while the other
may by in service. Three raw water pumps are available in Stage-I & II.

3.2.

PRESSURE SAND FILTERS


There are four number Pressure Sand Filters (FPS) available in

Stage-I and three numbers in Stage-II. The water is drawn from the storage
tank through pump and discharged into the Pressure Sand Filter, which
contains graded sand a support of crushed gravel on pebbles. Here the
suspended impurities, if any, in the raw water are removed. After treating
certain quantity of raw water the sand in the filter will exhaust i.e. no more
removing of suspended particles will takes place. At this condition normally a
pressure drop of 0.5 ksc is observed. Then the filter has to given backwash to
make it ready for next cycle.

3.3.

BACK WASH OF SAND FILTER


All valves of the sand filter have to be closed. Then open air vent

valve. Open drain down valve. The water will be drained up to the top header
of the sand filter, which gives sufficient room for the back wash operation.
Put the blower into service. Open air inlet valve of the sand filter. Allow the
air

(about 5 to 10 minutes) through the pebbles, gravel and sand to loosen the
particles that were adhered during the normal operation (this is called air
scoring). Close the air inlet valve and stop the blower. Simultaneously open
the back wash inlet valve. Allow the backwash for about 5 minutes more than
the normal flow operation. Then close the back wash inlet valve. Now fill the
filter with raw water. Once the filter is filled with water close the air vent
valve and open the drain valve. Continue the operation till the water is clear.
The clear water will next goes to Activated Carbon Filter. The
normal operation flow and back wash flow are mentioned in the table.

3.4.

ACTIVATED CARBON FILTERS


There are three number Activated Carbon Filters (ACF) are

available in Stage-I and no ACF is available. The ACF contains activated


carbon of mesh size 8/10, which help to absorb Organic impurities, free
chlorine, colouring matter etc. In the DM Plant as there is no pre-treatment in
which involved chlorine dozing other impurities will be removed in the ACF.
The water coming out of ACF is called Clarified water. The Activated Carbon is
supported by gravel at bottom. Normally the filter is given back wash once in
a week.
BACK WASH OF ACF: The back wash operation is similar to the
FPS except air scoring.
The Clarified water is ready for Ion Exchange process.

3.5.

ION EXCHANGE
Ion exchange is process which removes undesirable ions from

raw water by transferring them to a solid material, called an ion exchanger,


which accepts them while giving back an equivalent number of wanted
species stored on the ion exchanger skeleton. The ion exchanger has a
limited capacity for storage of ions on its skeleton, called exchange capacity.
With this the ion exchanger becomes depleted of its desirable ions and
saturated with undesirable ions. Then the ion exchanger is washed with a
strong regenerating solution containing the desirable species of ions, and
these then replace the accumulated unwanted ions, returning the exchange
material to usable condition.
The ion exchangers used in water conditioning are skeleton like
structures having many ion exchange sites. Exchangers with negatively
charged sites are cation exchangers because they take up positively charged
ions. Anion exchangers have positively charged sites and, consequently, take
up negative ions. The exchangers are in the form of beads having an
approximate size of 0.3 to 1.2 mm. Commercial ion exchangers are synthetic
plastic materials made up of styrene and divinyl benzene. Water treatment
ion exchangers are essentially insoluble and can be expected to last at least
5 to 10 years depending on the conditions of raw water quality.

3.6.

CATIONIC FILTERS

The Cation Exchangers are produced by reacting the synthetic

plastic material with sulphuric acid so that Sulfonic groups attached to each
nucleus in the skeleton to provide exchange site. This produces strong
electrolyte which is shown as R (SO3H). Where R represents synthetic plastic
material and

SO3H as exchange site. The cation exchanger works on principle called


selectivity. When an cation ion exchanger is exhausted the first ion to
appear in the effluent is Na. Selectivity of cation ion exchanger is given as
Fe3+, Al3+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K1+, Na1+.
In Stage-I & II DM Plants there are three streams available each
with

different

capacity

(shown

in

table).

In

Stage-I

streams

are

nomenclatured as A, B & C. Whereas in Stage-II streams nomenclatured as 1,


2 & 3.
In Stage-I cation exchangers are co-current flow and in Stage-II
counter current flow. In Stage-I there is no Weak Cation Exchanger where as
in Stage-II Weak Cation Exchanger is available. Since the Stage-II DM Plant is
of higher capacity the ionic load is distributed between Weak Cation
exchanger and Strong Cation exchanger also to utilize the chemical
efficiency.
The normal operation of the cation exchanger chemical equation
is represented as:
CaCl or CaSO4

RH

RCa

HCl or

RH

RCa

H2CO3

MgCl or MgSO4

RH

RMg

HCl or H2SO4

NaCl or NaSO4

RH

RNa

HCl or H2SO4

H2SO4
Ca (HCO3) 2

It can be seen from the above equations that the product is an


acid, which is called free mineral acid. Therefore, the effluent of cation
exchanger is acidic in nature. Because of this reason the vessel, connecting
pipelines, valves etc are rubber lined. The vessel contains Strainer buttons at
the bottom so that only the passes and resin will be retained in the vessel.

3.7.

BACK WASH
Once the exchanger is exhausted the resin is to be regenerated

with Strong regenerent like HCl. Before proceeding for regeneration the resin
bed has to be back washed so that resin is loosened for free flow of
regenerent.
The back wash operation is similar to that of Pressure sand filter
and Activated Carbon filter.

3.8.

REGENERATION
In Stage-I co-current regeneration is followed whereas in Stage-II

counter current is followed. Since there is no Weak Cation exchanger is


available in Stage-I co-current regeneration is adopted. In Stage-II the
effluent of Strong Cation Exchanger is utilized in the Weak Cation Exchanger.
The Acid measuring tank is filled with Clarified water up to the
mark. Then the required quantity of 30% HCl is drawn from Acid Storage tank
to prepare the correct strength of acid to be injected. After completion of
back wash the vessel is ready for regeneration. In the beginning the vessel
ensured with full of water. Then drain valve is opened. The clarified water
rate is maintained before injecting the acid. The acid measuring tank outlet
valve is adjusted and acid is injected with 5 % strength. The following
reaction takes place during the regeneration.
RCa

HCl

RMg +

HCl

RNa +
NaCl

RH

CaCl

RH
HCl

+
RH

MgCl
+

Nearly 30 minutes is required to complete the acid in the


measuring tank. After acid injection the outlet valve is closed and clarified
water is maintained for about another 30 minutes to wash all acid in
pipelines. This is called slow rinse. After slow rinse clarified water is stopped.
Acid injection valve to the vessel is also closed. Again the filter is ensured full
of water. Then fast rinsed is carried out by opening the Inlet valve of the
vessel. The normal operation flow is maintained for about 15-20 minutes.
Free mineral acidity is checked and it should be around 30 ppm. The vessel is
ready for next cycle of operation.
In

Stage-II,

the

cation

regeneration

is

of

thorough

fare

regeneration i.e. acid that is used in the Strong cationic filter will go to the
Weak Cationic filter and the spent acid is drained. Strong cationic filter
having middle collector above the resin bed. Since the regeneration is of
counter current the acid is injected at bottom of the resin bed so that the
resin will not be carried out to the next weak cationic filter. Before starting
the regeneration middle collector flushing is to be given for about 5 10
minutes for loosening the strainer buttons free of resin particles.

3.9.

DEGASSING TOWER
The acidic water from Cationic filter next goes to the Degassed

tower. It can be seen from the raw water that the dissolved gas, Carbon
dioxide has to be removed from otherwise it will cause corrosion in the high
pressure boiler. Also the carbonic acid H 2CO3 that is coming from the effluent
of cationic filter will further split into Carbon dioxide and water. The acidic
water from cationic filter is falling from the top of the degassed tower, which
is packed with

raschig rings (random packing). The air is allowed with the help of the blower
from the bottom of the degassed tower which is having contact with falling
acidic water and removes dissolved carbon dioxide through vent. The water
is collected at the bottom of the degassed tower.
H2CO3

CO2

H2O

By stripping the carbon dioxide in this way the anionic load


(HCO3- being anionic) in the Strong Base resin down stream side.

3.10.ANIONIC FILTERS
Anion exchangers may be produced from styrene, divinyl benzene copolymer
as is used for cation exchangers. The functional group of an anion exchanger
is an amine, the organic equivalent of ammonia. Strong base exchangers
contain a quarternary amine, which can exchange all anions. The most
common quarternary resin has the formula
-RN (CH3) 3Cl.
The cationic water from degassed storage tank is pumped to the
Strong base resin of Primary stage where all anions like SO4- (H2+ SO4-), Cl(H+Cl-) HCO3- (H2+ CO3-) etc are removed. Also the water contains SiO3 (H2+
SiO3-) and free residual carbon dioxide will be removed in this Primary stage.
ROH

H2SO4

RSO 4

ROH

HCl

RCl

ROH

H 2SiO3

RSiO 3

H2O
H2O
H2O

ROH

H2CO3

RHCO 3

H2O

However, the Primary anion resin is not capable of removing all


the Silica that is present in the raw water. Therefore, a Strong base resin
which is capable of removing exclusively the Silica is made available in the
Secondary anionic filter. Both Stage-I & II DM Plants having Primary and
Secondary filters.

3.11.

BACK WASH OF ANION FILTERS


Since the regeneration is of co current the usual method is

followed. The back wash operation is similar to that of cationic filters.


3.11.1.

REGENERATION
Required quantity of 48 % Sodium hydroxide lye (NaOH) is taken

in the measuring tank from storage tank. After completing the backwash
ensure vessels (Primary and Secondary) are full of water. Open drain valve of
Primary anion filter. Open lye injection valve of Primary. Open intermediate
ejector (between Primary and Secondary) valve and adjust the flow. Open
Secondary lye inlet and outlet valves. Open power water i.e. outlet of Strong
cationic water, valve and adjust the required flow. Open the lye measuring
tank outlet valve. Check the concentration of lye. After complete injection of
lye the outlet valve of measuring tank is closed.
Continue the power water supply for about 30 minutes in Stage-I
and 60 minutes in Stage-II. This step is called slow rinse, which enables to
wash all lye that is available in the pipelines. Close the power water supply.
Close lye inlet and outlet valves of Secondary anion filter. Close intermediate

ejector valve. Close lye inlet valve of Primary anion filter. Close drain valve of
Primary anion filter. Now put the Primary anion filter into fast rinse by
opening the inlet valve.

Ensure the filter full of water and open the drain valve. Maintain
the required rinse flow. Continue the fast rinse when the conductivity is 20-30
umhos/cm. Then open the outlet valve of Primary to the Secondary anion
filter. Ensure the filter full of water by opening the inlet valve of Secondary
anion filter. Open the drain valve of Secondary anion filter and maintain the
required rinse flow. Stop the fast rinse when the conductivity is around 10
umhos/cm. If necessary the stream can be taken into service otherwise keep
it as stand by.
3.11.2.

MIXED BED
To get more pure water, the water from secondary anion unit is

passed through the mixed bed (polishing unit), which contain both cation and
anion exchange resins. Total demineralization takes place in this mixed bed.
The silica content is brought down to less than 0.02 ppm and the
conductivity of eater not greater than 0.5 umho/cm.
3.11.3.

REGENERATION OF MIXED BED


When the silica and the conductivity of the outlet water exceeds

the norms the filter is cut form service and taken up for regeneration. The
mixed unit is regenerated I steps. A middle collector provided in between the
anion and cation resins serves as the outlet of the alkali regenerant and inlet
for the acid regenerant. As there is possibility of resin fines sticking to the
strainer buttons, the middle collector is washed for 2 to 3 minutes. During
regeneration the cation and anion resins are separated with the help of

backwash. The cation being heavier settles bottom on top of it, anion resins.
During regeneration neither the cation nor the anion resins should be
disturbed. Accordingly the up flow for alkali

injection and down flow for the acid injection are maintained. The necessary
quantity of alkali and acid are drawn from respective storage tanks to
respective measuring tanks. After both the resins regenerated properly they
are mixed with the help of blower before putting into fast rinse. The fast rinse
is carried out to remove excess alkali/acid. The DM water from mixed bed is
stored in DM water storage tanks. There are 3 number tanks available in
stage-I & II, which are internally painted with Epoxy chemical resistant paint.
DM water pumps are provided for supplying DM water to condensate storage
tank from where it is supplied to the boilers.

WATER CHEMICAL TREATMENT PLANT


MANUAL

CHAPTER IV

FLOW SHEET

CHAPTER - IV
4.

FLOW SHEET

4.1.

D.M. PLANT /STAGE I


BORE WELL WATER
(270 M3/hr)

Residual Cl = Nil
Colour
= Nil
Organic Matter = Nil

STRONG ACID CATION


EXCHANGERS

STRONG BASE
ANION SECONDARY
EXCHANGERS

RAW WATER PUMPS


(90 M3/hr, 30 HP)

RAW WATER TANKS


(50 M3 each)

ACTIVATED
CARBON FILTERS

Na<1ppm
Hardness =

(Turbidity
< 2 NTU)

DEGASSER
Nil
TOWER
S

PRESSURE SAND
FILTERS

Free CO 2 DEGASSED WATER


< 5 ppm STORAGE TANKS
(75 M3 each)

Cl - < 2 ppmSTRONG BASE ANION


SO4-- <2ppmPRIMARY EXCHANGERS
SiO2 <10ppm

DEGASSED WATER
PUMPS
(50M3, 20 HP)

Free CO2 = Nil


SiO2
<0.1 ppm
MIXED BED
EXCHANGERS

EFFLUENT PIT
(150 M3)

DM WATER STORAGE
Conductivty <0.5 micro mho/cm
TANKS
pH = 6.8 7.2
(500 M3 each)
SiO2 < 0.02 ppm (Max)

To Drain as per TNPCB norms


(pH 5.5 to 9.0)

DM WATER PUMPS
(40 M3, 7.5 HP)

TO POWER HOUSE
OF STAGE - I

CHEMICAL PARAMETERS ARE BEING MONITORED IN THE MAIN LABORATORY

4.2.

D.M. PLANT /STAGE II

BORE WELL WATER


( 270 M3 /hr)

RAW WATER TANKS


( 100 M3 each)

STRONG ACID CATION


EXCHANGERS

RAW WATER PUMPS


(200 M3/hr, 45 KW)

Turbidity
SAND
< 2PRESSURE
NTU
FILTERS

M.Alk.= Nil WEAK ACID


CATION
EXCHANGERS

< 2 NTU

Na <1 ppm
Hardness = Nil
Free CO2
< 5 ppm

DEGASSER TOWERS

-- =<10
MIXED BED
EXCHANGERS
pH = 6.8 7.2
Sio2 < 0.02ppm
Cond. <0.5 micro

CO2=Nil
SiO2 <0.05 STRONG BASE ANION
SECONDARY
ppm
EXCHANGERS

Cl - < 2 ppm
STRONG BASE
SO 4-- < 2 ppm
ANION
SiO 2 <10 ppm
PRIMARY
EXCHANGERS

mho/cm

DM WATER STORAGE
TANKS
(500 M3 each)

EFFLUENT PIT
300 M3

DEGASSED WATER
PUMPS
(110 M3/hr, 35 KW)

DEGASSED WATER
STORAGE TANKS
(100 M3 each)

DM WATER PUMPS
(80 M3/hr, 45 KW)

To Drain as per the TNPCB norms


(pH = 5.5 to 9.0)

TO POWER HOUSE
OF STAGE - II

WATER CHEMICAL TREATMENT PLANT


MANUAL

CHAPTER V

EQUIPMENT DETAILS

CHAPTER V

5.

EQUIPMENT DETAILS

5.1.

DM PLANT FILTERS DETAILS STAGE-I

SL.
NO.

1
2
3

5.2.
SL.
NO.

NAME
OF
RESIN

VESSEL

STRONG
CATION
PRIMARY
ANION
SECONDAR
Y
ANION
MIXED BED

T 42
H+
A 36
MP

QTY
OF
RESIN
(LT)

2570
4180

OUTPUT
BETWEEN
REGENERATI
ON (M3)

5 % HCl

770 AS 30
%

2000

A 27
MP

1540

4 % NaOH
252 AS 100 %
8 % NaOH

T 42
H+
A MP
27

770
770

5 % HCl
5 % NaOH

1000
1000

100 AS 30
%
31 AS 100
%

6300

DM PLANT FILTER DETAILS STAGE-II

VESSEL

WEAK CATION

NAME
OF
RESIN

QTY
OF
RESI
N
(LT)

CXO-9

2540

STRONG
CATION

T 42
H+

3175

PRIMARY
ANION

A 36
MP

1305
5

SECONDARY
ANION

A 27
MP
T 42
H+

REGENERA
NT

QTY OF
REGENERA
NT (KG)

REGENERANT
QTY OF
REGENERANT (KG)

2-3 %
950 AS 30 %
5 % HCl
4 % NaOH

2300
2300
2300

540 AS 100 %
2540
1000

8 % NaOH
5 % HCl

MIXED BED
A MP
27

OUTPUT
BETWEEN
REGENERATION
(M3)

2000

5 % NaOH

100 AS
30 %
31 AS
100 %

2300

26700

5.3.

PUMPS AND BLOWER DETAILS STAGE I

NAME

TAG
NAME

QT
Y

FLOW
M3/H
R

TYPE OF
PUMP

HEAD

HP/K
W

RPM

MATERIAL

RAW WATER PUMP

PWR

90

CENTRIFUGAL

45

30/22.
5

3000

CI

DEGASSED WATER
PUMP

PDG

50

CENTRIFUGAL

52

20/15

3000

SS-316

DEMINERALIZED
WATER PUMP

PDM

40

CENTRIFUGAL

20

7.5/5.5

3000

SS-316

ALKALI TRANSFER
PUMP

PAK

10

CENTRIFUGAL

22

5.0/2.2

1500

POLY
PROPYLENE

ACID TRANSFER
PUMP

PHL

10

CENTRIFUGAL

22

5.0/2.2

1500

POLY
PROPYLENE

MIXED BED BLOWER

BMB

170

ROTARY SINGLE

0.5

7.5/5.5

1500

CI TWIN
LOBE

DEGASSED AIR
BLOWER

BDG

1700

CENTRIFUGAL
ONE

100 MMWC

/3.7

3000

MS

0.5
DISCHARG
E
PRESSURE

/3.7

1500

CI
TWIN LOBE

20/15

1500

SS-316

PRESSURE SAND
FILTER AIR BLOWERS

BFT

260

ROTARY
/SINGLE

EFFLUENT PUMP

PEF

150

VERTICAL
(CENTRIFUGE)

15

5.4.

PUMPS AND BLOWER DETAILS STAGE II


TAG
NAME

QTY
.

FLOW
M3/H
R

RAW WATER PUMP

PWR

220

CENTRIFUGAL

DEGASSED WATER
PUMP

PDG

110

DEMINERALIZED
WATER PUMP

PDM

ALKALI TRANSFER
PUMP

PAK

ACID TRANSFER
PUMP

NAME

TYPE OF
PUMP

HP/K
W

RPM

MATERIAL

45

3000

CI

CENTRIFUGAL

50

3000

SS-316

85

CENTRIFUGAL

100 MM
WC

3000

SS-316

10

CENTRIFUGAL

10 MMWC

1500

POLY
PROPYLENE

PHL

10

CENTRIFUGAL

10 MMWC

5.0/2.2

1500

POLY
PROPYLENE

MIXED BED BLOWER

BMB

170

ROTARY SINGLE

0.45 KSC

5.5/

1500

CI TWIN
LOBE

DEGASSED AIR
BLOWER

BDG

1700

CENTRIFUGAL
ONE

100 MMWC /3.7

3000

MS

0.5
DISCHARG
E
PRESSURE

/3.7

1500

CI TWIN
LOBE

20/15

1500

SS-316

PRESSURE SAND
FILTER AIR BLOWERS

BFT

260

ROTARY
/SINGLE

EFFLUENT PUMP

PEF

150

VERTICAL
(CENTRIFUGE)

HEAD

15

WATER CHEMICAL TREATMENT PLANT


MANUAL

CHAPTER VI

GENERAL MAINTENANCE
OF
FILTERS

CHAPTER VI

6.

GENERAL MAINTENANCE OF FILTERS


Inspection of the filters externally is carried out every year. When

the unit has been removed from service for internal inspection close the
manual inlet and outlet isolating valves as a safety measure and then open
the AIR release valve and DRAIN valves. Remove the manhole cover and
examine the internal linings in the unit. If the lining is a damaged shows sign
of bubbling or lifting carry out spark test and rectify. If necessary the resin
has to be siphoned out to the Resin Transfer Unit. After completion of
maintenance work the resin has retransfer to the respective unit.
Since the cation and anion resin are in continuous operation, they
are susceptible to fouling. Usually the Cation resin is fouled by Iron (Fe3+)
and Anion is by organic that is coming along with raw water. Of the two
species of iron in water, only Fe2+ is soluble, requiring an oxygen free,
reducing environment. The ferrous iron is exchangeable. However, if oxygen
is present either in the water or in the regeneration solution, the Fe2+ will be
oxidized to insoluble Fe3+, which will precipitate and foul the iron exchanger.
The check the fouling the following procedure is adopted:
6.1.

CATION FILTERS MTC


The vessel top manhole cover is opened. Extended back wash

(slightly higher than the usual back wash flow) is given for about one hour.
The dip rods (PVC pipes) are inserted at two or three locations. The water is
fully drained fully. Then the dip rods are taken out and height of resin is
measured and samples within the pipe is collected for testing. If necessary
few centimeters

of top layer (very fine resin) may be removed manually. The necessary
quantity of resin is added to make up the required operation level. This is
called topping up of resin.

6.2.

IRON FOULING TREATMENT:


The resin is soaked with 10 % HCl for about 24 hours. The next

day the spent acid is drained fully. The resin is given fast rinse till the
conductivity drops down to 300 umhos/cm. Then the resin is given double
regeneration. Only the strong cationic resin is given iron-fouling treatment.

6.3.

ANION FILTERS MTC:


The topping up of resin is same to that of Cation resin.

6.4.

ALKALI BRINE TREATMENT


The anion resin is susceptible to organic fouling. Both Strong

Base anion resins (Primary and Secondary) are given organic fouling
treatment. In a separate vessel a solution (BRINE) of 10 % Sodium chloride
(NaCl) and 1 % Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is prepared. Then both Primary and
Secondary resins are soaked with BRINE solution. After 24 hours the solution
is drained and manholes are closed and resins are given fast rinse till the
conductivity comes down to 30 umhos/cm followed by double regeneration.

6.5.

MIXED BED FILTERS MTC


The topping up of resin is same to that of Cation resin. Normally

this mixed bed is used as polishing unit neither the iron fouling treatment nor
the alkali brine treatment is given to the resins. The mixed bed vessel
contains middle collector every year the laterals and strainer buttons have to
be checked and damaged parts may be replaced with spare ones.

WATER CHEMICAL TREATMENT PLANT


MANUAL

CHAPTER VII

INTERNAL TREATMENT
OF
BOILER FEED WATER

CHAPTER - VII
7.

INTERNAL TREATMENT BOILER FEED WATER


Treatment of feed water within the boiler cycle by dosing

chemicals in the system is termed as internal or secondary treatment.


Whatever be the mode of treatment of the raw water, it is not practicable to
remove all the dissolved solids from the water completely. Traces of
impurities are bound to be present in the boiler feed water and they tend to
increase in concentration owing to high temperature and pressure.

The

solubility of salts in water decreases with increase in temperature and thus


with higher temperature and pressure more insoluble they become, till a
point is reached when solid materials begin to deposit. In addition to these
deposits, the water also picks up other impurities like iron and copper. A third
type of impurity is the gaseous ones like oxygen and carbon-di-oxide, which
cause corrosion. The harmful impurities have to be removed continuously
and kept within the limits to ensure trouble free operation of boilers.
The basic aim of the internal treatment is the prevention of

7.1.

1.

Scale formation on metal surfaces.

2.

Corrosion and consequent failure of metallic parts.

3.

Steam contaminations

4.

Embitterment of steel.

SCALE

FORMATION

AND

ITS

EFFECTS

AND

TREATMENT
The primary cause of scale formation is the fact that the
solubility of the scale forming salts decrease with increase in temperature.
First, the precipitation of salts like calcium and magnesium carbonates from
solution and

next the sedimentation of this precipitate on the boiler heating surfaces


where it gets baked in to a hardened scale. The scale thus formed posses a
low degree of heat conductivity and give rise to decrease of heat transfer
from the furnace gases to the boiler water and consequently the over all
boiler efficiency is reduced. The second harmful effect of the scale is over
heating of the boiler metal and may resultant metal failure. If the scale
formed is rather thick then there may be corrosion of the metal taking place
beneath the scale and may result in unexpected tube failures. Hence it is
essential that such scale formation should be prevented. Thus the boiler
water becomes more and more salt concentrated. If and when the salt
concentration exceeds the solubility limits, precipitation results. Also as some
salts having a reverse solubility characteristic may separate out as
temperature of water picks up.
If water treatment is not done satisfactorily to bring down the
impurities level in water to the desired value, it may lead to many problems
in operation of a boiler. Generally the problems that occur in a boiler are
scale formation, corrosion, sludge formation, steam contamination due to
carry over caustic embitterment and Silica entrainment.
In general, there is a limiting value to the amount of salt, which
may be dissolved, in a given weight of water at any one particular
temperature. When the weight of substance dissolved in the water equals
this limiting value, no more will dissolve, and the solution is said to be
Saturated solution. The Solubility of the substance in water is the weight
dissolved when the substance is in equilibrium with its saturated solution.

The solubility of various substances in water varies widely.


Practically the water used in boilers are dilute solutions of chemical
compounds. If concentration is allowed to increase slowly, then least soluble
constituents in the water will get separated. These salts tend to precipitate
and form a tightly packed and adherent layer SCALE. In other words, as
evaporates leaving back the salts in boiler water itself. The boiler water thus
becomes super saturated with salts, which separate out and forms a
adherent layers of SCALE on the metal surface.
Solubility of various substances in water varies corresponding
to temperature. In many cases solubility increases with rise in temperature
but for a significant number the reverse is true and these are said to have a
retrograde temperature/solubility relationship (reverse solubility). Many hard
salts like CaCO3, CaSO4 etc have a reverse solubility. As water temperature in
boiler increases to a maximum value (saturation temperature corresponding
to the boiler pressure) these salts separate out and form hard scales in boiler
tube metal surface.
The chief mechanism of scale formation is due to crystallization
of scale-forming salts from a solution locally supersaturated. The thin viscous
film of boiler water immediately adjacent to the heating surface tends to
become

more

concentrated

than

the

main

body

of

boiler

water.

Consequently, the solubility of the scale-forming salts is first exceeded in this


thin film on the heating surface rather than in the main body of the boiler
water.
In modern boilers with high rates of heat transfer, the presence
of even extremely thin deposits of scale will cause a serious elevation in the

temperature of tube metal. The scale coating retards the flow of heat from
the furnace gases into the boiler water. This heat resistance results in a rapid
rise in metal temperature to the point at which failure results.
With higher boiler pressure and attendant higher boiler water
temperatures, there is less temperature difference between the boiler water
temperature and the failing temperature of the metal. Consequently, tube
failure can result at higher boiler water pressure with scale of considerably
less thickness than would cause failure at lower Pressures. This condition
explains the need for the extremely close control of boiler water conditions in
high-pressure boiler operation.
Such scales formed on the metal surfaces normally posses very
low heat conductivity. Each mille meter layer of such scale will be required to
12 mm layer of insulating material. This heat resisting scale is doing
enormous harms to the boiler.
1.

Due to the poor heat conductivity scale adhering on the


waterside, heat transfer gets impeded. This leads to overheating
of metals ad there are chances of metal failure.

2.

Due

to

the

presence

of

these

non-conducting

scales

in

evaporator tube, more fuel must be supplied to maintain desired


evaporation rate.
3.

Since more fuel is supplied to the furnace overheating of other


heat recovery areas like super heaters, repeater will also take
place.

It

also

results

in

increase

in

temperature and difficulty in controlling it.

superheated

steam

4.

In view of higher fuel consumption, more heat is carried fro


furnace resulting in higher heat losses in boiler furnace.

5.

The increased scale thickness reduces the effective diameter of


the tube and induces more resistance to flow. This effects
circulation in boiler.
This problem of scale formation is countered by dozing a

chemical- Tri-Sodium Phosphate that is a softening chemical.

7.2.

SILICA CONTENT
It is also one the main scaling agents in boiler feed water. It

generally present in two forms, colloidal and soluble. The first form can be
removed during primary treatment by coagulation and filtration. But it is very
difficult to remove when present in soluble form. Silica is objectionable in
boiler water in two respects. It form calcium and magnesium silicates in heat
exchangers and regenerative system. The scales formed are very hard and
offers high resistance to heat transfer.
The second serious objection is its tendency to be carried over
along with steam and get deposited in the super heater walls or turbine
blades, which results in reduction in efficiency of operation. The overall effect
is loss in efficiency and creation of imbalance in the turbine rotor.
A number of theories have been proposed to explain silica
deposits in turbine steam passages.

1.

Normal carryover is due to mechanical entrainment of minute


droplets of boiler water in the steam. Such droplets of water will

evaporate to dryness in the super heater section of the boiler,


and the solids will continue to be carried along with steam in a
manner similar to that by which dust particles are carried in air.
2.

The silica will actually leave the boiler as a vapour. The quantity
in the steam will vary with boiler pressure and with concentration
of silica in the boiler water. It was also noted that pH value of the
boiler water has considerable influence on the quantity of silica in
the steam. A decrease in silica carryover was noted with an
increase in pH value.
Prevention of silica deposits on turbine blades is very important.

All efforts therefore must be made to keep the silica value in boiler water as
low as possible. A constant check is maintained on the silica value in boiler
water, in steam and condensate. Whenever there is a tendency for the value
to go up, the contaminated water should be drained by opening the
Continuous Blow Down.
Addition of certain salts like sodium chloride, sodium sulphate
and trisodium phosphate to boiler water will decrease the concentration of
silica in steam. Silica leaves the water as meta-mono silica acid according to
equation.
SiO3

--

+ 2H2O

H2 SiO3 + 2 OH-

Conversely it would be expected that high alkalinity would


reverse this reaction.
The amount of silica introduced into system by mechanical carry
over however is negligible at pressures above 35 Ksc compared to that
volatilized.
The concentration of silica in boiler water may be controlled in
three ways.

1.

Limiting the ingress of silica to feed water by careful control of


D.M. water.

2.

Controlling the silica level of the boiler water by blow down.

3.

By limiting the ingress of silica bearing materials into the feed


and boiler system.

7.3.

PHOSPHATE

TREATMENT

The primary purpose of the softening chemical added to the


water in the boiler is to prevent the formation of a hard carbonate scale and
forming a soft sludge type precipitate, which can be easily removed. This is
accomplished by tri-sodium phosphate. When the water is sufficiently
alkaline, magnesium is precipitated as hydroxide. These precipitates are
maintained in a fluid state and removed through blow-down.
If the water is alkaline the acidic salts mono-sodium phosphate is
used. Generally a slight excess of phosphate is maintained to keep the water
in the alkaline range. At the same time care should be taken to prevent
excess of hydroxide accumulating in the water. Presence of excess hydroxide
alkalinity at higher-pressure range (40-150) will cause Inter Crystalline
Corrosion and Caustic Embrittlement.

This danger is easily avoided with

the use of Tri-Sodium Phosphate.

Na3PO4 + H2O

Na2 + NaOH

At Neyveli Power Station feed water is deminieralised at Water


Chemical Treatment Plant and Tri-sodium Phosphate is used for internal
treatment of boiler water maintain the alkalinity and phosphate values.
Phosphate values are originally maintained at 4-6 ppm at drum.

A number of phosphate salts are used for water conditioning and


the choice depending to a great extend upon consideration of alkalinity.
Monobasic Sodium Phosphate--

NaH2PO4. H2O

Di basic Sodium Phosphate

Na2HPO4. 12H2O

--

--

--

--

--

Acidic

Neutral
Tri basic Sodium Phosphate

Na3PO4. 12H2O

Alkaline
Among these phosphate salts, Tri-Sodium Phosphate is chosen for
a specific reason i.e. if we select any other Phosphate salts, another alkali
should be dozed to maintain the alkalinity of the water, where as the excess
Tri-Sodium Phosphate hydrolyses to give Sodium hydroxide.
2Na3 PO4

3CaCO3

Ca 3 (PO4) 2

3Na2 CO3

(1)
Na3 PO4

+ H2O

2Na2 H PO4

+ 3CaCO3

Na2 H PO4

+ Na OH

[Ca 3 (PO4) 2 + 3Na2 CO3 + 2H2O

(2)
2Na H3 PO4 + 4NaOH + 3CaCO3

Ca3 (PO4) 2 + 3Na2 CO3 + 4H2O

(3)
Inter crystalline corrosion and caustic embrittlement in the boiler
is the problem in boiler due to excess alkalinity of boiler water. This danger is
avoided with the use of Tri-Sodium phosphate. We know that excess
phosphate by hydrolysis, become sodium hydroxide resulting in increasing of
alkalinity.

Before the sodium hydroxide exceeds the danger limit (3-6 %), the process of
hydrolysis of Na3PO4 slows down with increase in the concentration of NaOH

and the reverse reaction will ensure. So it is seen that PO 4 dozing prevents
scale formation and also maintains the necessary alkalinity in boiler water.
The most common chemical employed for the precipitation of the
soluble calcium salts is the Tri-sodium phosphate. Once the phosphate enters
the boiler, their action is exactly the same. They are all converted into
trisodium phosphate and as such react with the calcium to form tri-calcium
phosphate a rather flocculent precipitate. In order for this reaction to take
place, sufficient alkalinity must be present in the boiler water. At a pH value
of approximately 9.5 or less the calcium is not precipitated properly. The
choice of the phosphate to be used depends upon economics and upon the
alkalinity of the boiler water. Once the calcium and magnesium salts have
been precipitated as sludge it is necessary to maintain this sludge in fluid
form and also it is necessary to remove this sludge from the boilers by blow
down. The amount of blow down required depends upon the mount of sludge
formed and the nature of the sludge.

7.4.

PHOSPHATE

DOZING SYSTEM

In TS-II a centralized dozing system is provided at 0 meter level


in the Bunker bay zone of Boiler 3. In this pump house PO 4 & N2H4 storage
tanks and dozing pumps are provided for all the three boilers. The Phosphate
dozing rate is to be so adjusted such a slight excess phosphate value is
maintained in the boiler to avoid scale formation and also to ensure that
magnetite layer is not removed. Each unit is provided two reciprocating
pumps. The dozing is done by one of the two reciprocating pumps provided
for each boiler.

7.5.

MAIN PHOSPHATE PREPARATION TANK

In the chemical dozing pump house, there is a 10 M 3 capacity


Main tank for preparing the PO4 solution. For the above preparation PO4 salt is
added to the main tank and deminieralised water is added through the
provided water line up to the required mark and mixed well with the agitator
provided so as to prepare PO4 solution of required concentration

(10 %).

From the bottom of the tanks the PO4 supply line meanders down and
branches off into three to join three individual PO 4 dilution tanks. The PO4
solution flows by gravity from main tank to individual Unit tanks.

7.6.

PHOSPHATE (UNIT) DILUTION TANK


There are three phosphate dilution tanks one for each unit. These

are 1M3 capacity.


The tank has an overflow and drain arrangement. An air vent and
a deminieralised water supply line are also provided. In case of any
maintenance work of the main phosphate solution preparation tank, PO 4
solution can be prepared here itself or if required. The concentrated PO 4
solution is (10%) is taken through the supply line and can be diluted further
with DM water. A level indicator is fitted in the side of the tank.
Suction for the PO4 pump is taken from the bottom of the tank.
From each tank suction goes to two PO 4 pumps meant for one unit. In case of
low level in the tank, a magnetic level switch senses it and trips the pump.
Once the tank filled, the solution is sufficient for 8 hours.

7.7.

PHOSPHATE DOZING PUMPS


There are 6 number pumps, two for each unit. Both pumps of a

unit are connected in parallel and take suction from one individual PO 4

dilution tank. Normally one pump will be in service for each unit and the
other is kept as a stand by. The two discharge lines are joined together and
are taken to the boiler drum. The single supply divided into two at the drum
level. The two PO 4 pipes enter into the drum, one on the left side and the
other on right side in the rear bottom. Inside the drum the PO 4 feeding pipes
are horizontal with dummy ends. There are 7 holes of dia 6 mm drilled at 800
mm intervals in the top portion in each pipe. Through these holes the PO 4
solution is uniformly dispersed in the water space of the drum. It is to be
noted that feeding of phosphate solution is done by adding it to the drum
water and not to the feed water. There are two reasons.
1.

The scale forming matter may prematurely precipitate and


deposit in the feed lines, heaters and economizers if PO 4 is added
to the feed water.

2.

Also

solubility

of

certain

calcium

salts

decrease

at

high

temperature. As water
Temperature tends to be near the maximum value in the drum.
Solubility of salts
Is minimum and hence are likely to precipitate.
In Stage II (4,5,6 & 7) each unit has individual Phosphate dozing
pump house with 1 M3 capacity dilution tank with two dozing pumps. There is
a separate main phosphate preparation tank in the stage-I dozing pump
house

where the 4.5 % concentration solution is prepared and filled in 35 lt


carbouys and manually moved and stored in the each unit and dozing is
being carried out according the requirement.
Stage I Dozing Concentration --- 0.2 %

Stage II Dozing Concentration --- 0.2 %.

7.8.

CORROSION

CONTROL

OF

BOILER

INTERNAL

SURFACES
Corrosion of metal is a serious problem in any industry, but it is
of paramount importance in the operation of Power Station Boilers where the
high temperature and pressure aggravate the extent and rate of corrosion.
As any damage to the costly equipment would adversely affect the
economics of power generation. The subject of corrosion and its prevention is
wide one. One of the main causes of corrosion is dissolved gases particularly
oxygen and carbon-di-oxide. Oxygen dissolved in the water is liberated at
higher temperature and attacks the metal, forming pitting over the heating
surfaces such as feed lines, economizers and steam lines.
Action of O2: When iron or steel comes in contact with water it
goes into solution forming Ferrous hydroxide.
Fe2+ + 2H2O

Fe (OH) 2 + 2H2+

The dissolved oxygen in the water combines with the Ferrous


hydroxide to form Ferric hydroxide.
4Fe (OH)

+ O2 + 2H2O

4Fe (OH) 3

The dissolved oxygen in the water may be removed by either


mechanical or chemical means. Deareation is the process of removed of
dissolved gases by raising the water to the saturation temperature for
particular pressure under which the process is conducted. The basic laws of

solution of gases in water state that the solubility is directly proportional to


the partial pressure of the gas and inversely proportional to the temperature.
About 90 to 95 % of the oxygen is removed by the method. The remaining
oxygen will be removed by the Hydrazine treatment.

7.9.

HYDRAZINE HYDRATE TREATMENT


1.

Hydrazine is a powerful reducing agent is effective in removing


the last traces of oxygen in the water.

2.

It is volatile liquid and as such does not increase the solid


contents in the water either by itself or by its reaction with
oxygen.

3.

The decomposition product of excess of hydrazine is not acidic


but basic. The resultant products are Ammonia and Nitrogen.

4.

Hydrazine also reacts with the oxides of iron and copper and
remove them form the system. The magnetic oxides of iron
Fe3O4 obtained as the product of inter reaction between rust
(Fe2O3) and hydrazine forms a thin coating on the metal surface
and provides a protective layer preventing any further attacks on
the metal.
Reaction with Oxygen:

N2H4 + O2

2H2O + N2

The speed of the reaction depends largely on the temperature


and on the properties of materials of construction. Above 80 OC the reaction
proceeds swiftly and so there is rapid reaction in the boiler water.

With oxides of Iron and Copper: It reduces Ferric oxides to the


black magnetic oxides of iron.
N2H4 + 6Fe2O3

4Fe3O4 +N2 + 2H2O

Copper oxide reduced to metallic copper.

N2H4 + 2Cu2O

4Cu + N2 + 2H2O

Thermal decomposition
Excess N2H4 decomposes at 270OC and above.
3N2H4

4NH3 + N2

The presence of NH3 is alkaline in nature and it increases pH. But


it readily reacts with copper and its alloys. In fact any attack that occurs is
due to a mixture of NH3 + O2. Hence it can be prevented by keeping enough
N2H4, which remove all traces of oxygen in the water.
The Hydrazine hydrate is received in 30 Kg carboys with 30 %
concentration. It is then diluted.
STAGE-I
Name of the
pump

TAG
NAME

Flow
Lt/Hr

Type of pump

Head
Ksc

HP/K
w

RPM

Material

Phosphate

PPH

65

Simplex
plunger type

210

2/

1500

SS-316

Hydrazine
hydrate

PHD

150

Simplex
plunger

50

1.5

1500

SS-316

TAG
NAME

Flow
Lt/Hr

Type of pump

Head
Ksc

HP/K
w

RPM

Material

Phosphate

PPH

80

EMPN2
Plunger type

200

/2.2

1430

SS-316

Hydrazine
hydrate

PHD

150

PR 15
Plunger type

35

/0.75

1400

SS-316

STAGE-II
Name of the
pump

WATER CHEMICAL TREATMENT PLANT

MANUAL

CHAPTER VIII

CIRCULATING

WATER

TREATMENT

CHAPTER VIII
8.

CIRCULATING WATER TREATMENT

8.1.

DESCRIPTION
Water is precious and a renewable resource. The art of

management of water in every sphere of activity is a significant approach in


preserving water quality and conserving water. Cooling water is one of the
important and essential utilities for most of the industrial activities.

Therefore, its proper management plays a vital role in optimizing the process
operation. At the same time, its improper management hampers production
and induces problems of pollution and ultimately affects pollution control
measures seriously. This necessitates understanding of cooling water
management and formulation of guidelines and stipulations for adoption by
the cooling water users.
The Primary function of this system is to condense the LPT
Exchange Steam.
Secondary functions are: 1.

It cools Turbine tube oil in tube oil cooler.

2.

It cools Generator Seal oil Seal oil cooler.

3.

It cools Auxiliary cooling water.

4.

It is the source of water to Ash disposal system.

5.

It is the source of water for Fire system.


Scaling is the precipitation of hard and adherent salts of

relatively low soluble water constituents like Calcium and Magnesium on the
metal surface. The scales have very poor thermal conductivity and their
control is therefore absolutely essential for proper heat transfer efficiency.

CaCO3 is by far the most common scale found in cooling water


system. It normally results fro the breakdown of calcium carbonate a
naturally occurring soluble salt. The degree of scaling primarily depends on
the calcium hardness and bicarbonate alkalinity in the cooling water
increasing the temperature and pH decomposed the bicarbonate to form
CaCO3 and CO2.
Ca (HCO3) 2

CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O

Calcium bicarbonate is moderately soluble in water, but CaCO 3 is


not. It precipitates at the hot spots of the heat exchanger and a dense
adherent scale is often formed on the heat exchange.
Solubility of chemicals are those specialty that chemicals having
the ability to keep the scale forming constituents in solutions. Most of these
agents are used primarily to prevent calcium-based scales. Some works for a
limited period of time while others are not time dependent.
Factors that effects scaling:
1.

The solubility of common scalants such as CaCO 3 decreases with


increasing

temperature.

The

degree

of

scaling

generally

increases with temperature.


2.

The scaling potential is accelerated by increased alkalinity and


high temperature.
Each of the different scale forming constituents exhibit definite

solubility limit when the solution gets super saturated scaling occurs. In
addition, dissolved solids also influences scaling tendencies

8.1.1.

PREVENTIVE MEASURES
There are 3 basic methods for preventing formation of CaCO 3

scales in cooling water system.


1.

Remove the Calcium hardness or scaling minerals from water


prior to use.

2.

Keep the scale forming constituents in solution.

3.

Allow the impurities to precipitate as a removable sludge rather


than hard deposits.

8.2.

ORGANOPHOSPHONATE TREATMENT
The most desirable is the removal of the scale forming

constituents and keep them in solution without deposition by means of


chemical treatment of circulating water.
Organophosphate is the anti scaling choice of chemical treatment
of cooling water system. OP is an organic chemical containing mainly
Hyrdoxy Ethylene Diphosphonic acid (HEDP), which is capable of keeping all
Ca precipitating salts in dissolution deposition in the condensers tubes. The
formation also contains other ingredients meant for protecting the metallurgy
of the condenser tube from corrosion.
It can be split into 3 stages: 1.

Treatment of main condenser.

2.

Treatment of maxillary cooling system.

3.

Treatment of Condenser where maxillary cooling system are


lined.

The main condensers are generally made of stainless steel or


copper alloys. The metallurgy itself ensures that corrosion problem is
minimized. The normal treatment practice is to increase the scaling potential
of the circulating water, which further lowers the corrosion potential.
Operation of cooling system under several scaling conditions has been made
possible

due

to

development

of

excellent

antiflocculants

Organophosphonate (OP) and low molecular weight dispersants.

like

Generally most of the salts tend to have more solubility as the


temperature increases, for example- NaCl. But the Ca salts like CaCO 3 and
CaSO4 have retroactive solubility i.e. as the temperature increases solubility
decreases. So when the circulating water picks up temperature in the
condenser which condensing the steam, the Calcium Carbonate precipitates
and tend to form crystalline nuclei which begin to deposit in the surface of
the tubes.
At this juncture the OP chemical plays a vital role and it limits the
crystal growth by adsorption on the surface. The inhibiting OP enters into
surface reaction coating microcrystalline nuclei and blocking their growth
into a larger crystals. Therefore Calcium Carbonate is kept in dissolution form
thus preventing the scale formation in the tube surface of the condenser.
OP formulation gives compoundable protection to corrosion,
scaling and fouling and they are hydrolytically stable. This stability of OP
permits greater flexibility during operation.

Dispersants

when

used

along

with

OP

offered

excellent

synergistic control over all inorganic deposits. Dispersants enhances the


antiscaling property of the phosphates and keep the suspended matter in a
dispersed state preventing their deposition even in lower velocity areas.
Scales if and when formed are distorted in the presence of these threshold
inhibitors and crystal modifiers.
This makes the scale soft and friable which is easily disposed.
The net result is clean condenser.

Two Phosphates are most commonly used for CaCO3 scale control
in re-circulating water system.
1.

Amino Trimethylene Phosphoric Acid (ATMP)

2.

Hydroxy Ethyledene Diphosphonic Acid (HEDP)


H

O
HO

OH

O
C

OH

OH

OH

They behave similarly in chemical reaction and yet differ greatly


in stability.
The key properties of Organophosphate are:
1.

Threshold effect and crystal distortion.

2.

Hydrostatic stability.

3.

Sequestration

4.

Deflocculation

5.

Chlorine stability.

8.2.1.

THRESHOLD EFFECT (SCALE INHIBITOR)

The phenomenon of the threshold effects was discovered in


1930. Threshold effect is the prevention of precipitation from super-heated
solution of scalants by adding some inhibitor. The threshold agent is
adsorbed on the growth sites of the scalant crystallite and alters the growth
pattern so that the resultant crystallization becomes slow. The scalant
crystals are formed much lower and are highly distorted.
The retard ness in the crystal growth lowers the mount of solids
deposited on the surface needed to be kept scale free. The distortion of the
crystal structure offers the possibility of different adherence characteristic of
the solid form, so that the surface could have a lower degree of scaling.

8.2.2.

SEQUESTRATION / CHELATION
The term sequestration or chelation express the formation of

complexes with cat ion and prevention alteration of their normal reaction. In
water treatment chelating agents are used to form water-soluble complexes
with calcium, magnesium, barium etc.

OP exhibits good molecular stability towards Chloride, which is


commonly used as biocide in Circulatory water system. Since it contains N 2
ATMP is readily attacked and destroyed by Chlorine completely losing its
scale control properties. In contrast HEDP is stable ate chlorine levels
commonly encountered. It is important to be aware that both ATMP & HEDP
are weak chelating agents and usually attack copper and steel alloys. Not
only can they cause premature failure of copper alloys but their action can
result in copper transport and consequent plating out on steel surfaces.
Copper corrosion inhibitors should always be used. When Phosphates are
used for scale control particularly in the presence of copper alloys.

8.3.

MONITORING & EVOLUTION


Analytical check and control of dosage of OP based treatment is

very vital, while no equipment damage may be done by feeding excess


amount of the products needed, the cost of treatment increases. Therefore it
is necessary to maintain the required concentration level in the system
For the success of any treatment programme it is essential that
all the necessary parameters are maintained properly. Usually pH, hardness
and concentration of scale, corrosion inhibitors need utmost attention. Blow
down and makeup water rates should be also maintained on a continuous
basis.
Scaling and fouling cannot be measured directly on their extent
varies considerably throughout the system depending upon the local thermal
and hydro dynamic conditions. The best indication of control over scaling and

fouling can be obtained from the heat transfer data of heat exchanges.
Thermal power plants, condensers vacuum can give a good idea about the
extent of scaling and fouling on water side when compared on the basis of
load.
OP treatment is done to minimize the scale formation at
condenser tube. Circulating water contain Calcium / Magnesium groups of
salts. All salts are responsible for salt formation at condensers, but they are
less

responsible

when

compared

responsible for 95 % of salt formation.

to

Calcium

carbonate

salts

which

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is common salt found in Circulating


water system which comes fro breakdown of Calcium and carbonate a
naturally occurring soluble salt in water.
Circulating water system should not operate at high temperature.
The rate of Ca breakdown will increase with
1.

Increase in pH

2.

Increase in temperature.

8.3.1.

TEMPERATURE CONTROL
In condensers formation of scales in severe at high temperature

region. Hence minimum vacuum of 640 mm Hg is to be maintained in


condenser.
8.3.2.

pH CONTROL
To minimize scaling in condenser by avoiding precipitating of

Calcium salt OP treatment is carried out. Additional benefit is reduction in


blow down.

WATER CHEMICAL TREATMENT PLANT


MANUAL

CHAPTER IX

CHLORINATION PLANT

CHAPTER - IX
CHLORINATION PLANT

9.

9.1.

PROCESS FLOW SHEET

LIQUID CHLORINE

6 8 Ksc CYLINDERS

( Capacity = 900 Kg)

EVAPORATIO
N CHAMBER
8 KSC
( 65 85
o
C)

FILTER

Dry Cl2 Gas


CHLORINATOR
(110 Kg/hr)

REMOTE VACUUM
REGULATOR

1 to 1.5 KSC

PRESSURE REDUCING
VALVE

Under vacuum
500 600 mm Hg

INJECTOR
ppm

CHLORINATED WATER TO FORE BAY


TO MAINTAIN RESIDUAL CHLORINE OF 0.5
IN THE CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM.

BOOSTER PUMP
(90 M3/ hr)

WATER FROM
CIRCULATING WATER
PUMP HOUSE

9.2.

DATA ON CHLORINE

9.2.1.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Atomic weight

35.46

Molecular weight

70.91

Vapour density

2.5 kg/m3at 20 0C

Liquid

Gas

1561 kg/m3 at-35 oC

:
:

1468 kg/m3 at-ooC

1410 kg/m3 at-20oC

3.214 kg/m3 at ooC/760 mmHg

(relative density at 20o C relative to air)

9.2.2.

BOILING POINT AT

760 mm Hg

760 mm Hg

- 34.05 oC
:

- 101 oC

Critical temperature

41 oC

Critical pressure

77.1 bars absolute

Vapour pressure at 20 oC

6.7 bars absolute

Viscosity: Liquid at 20 oC
1 Volume of liquid chlorine

:
:

0.35 cp

= 457 volumes of chlorine gas


at 0oC/760 mm Hg.

1 Volume of liquid chlorine

= 4.98 cu ft. of chlorine gas at


0oC/760 mm Hg.

1 Kg of liquid chlorine

= 0.315 m3 of chlorine gas


at 0oC/760 mm Hg.

9.2.3.

THERMAL PROPERTIES
Specific heat : (Liquid chlorine between 1 oC and 27 oC)
0.236 kcal/Kg/oC (Gas at constant pressure
at 100 Pisa or less and between 1oC and 27oC)
0.113 kcal/kg/oC

9.2.3.1.

RATIO OF SPECIFIC HEAT AT CONSTANT PRESSURE TO


SPECIFIC HEAT AT CONSTANT.

Volume

1.355m3

Latent heat of fusion

21.6 Kcal/kg

Latent heat of vaporisation at 0oC

63.2 Kcal/kg

Coefficient of cubic expansion


(Liquid Chlorine at 20 oC)
Heat of reaction of Chlorine gas
with Sodium hydroxide liquor

0.0021 per oC
:

348 Kcal/kg of chlorine

While the above data give a general summary of the physical


and thermal properties of chlorine.
It is recommended that, for use in plant design calculations,
more precise information should be obtained from the literature.

9.3.

SOLUBILITY OF CHLORINE IN WATER


Chlorine dissolves slightly in water to give a solution, which has

oxidising, bleaching and germicidal properties. The solubility of chlorine in


water increases with the partial pressure of the chlorine. The table below
gives the solubility of chlorine in water for a total pressure of

7690 mm Hg.

Temperature oC
Grams of chlorine

10

15

20

25

9.97

8.5

7.29

6.41

per 4 litre of water


on cooling below 9.6 oC, crystals of chlorine hydrate (Cl2.8H2O) are deposited.
For this reason wet chlorine must always be kept above this
temperature to avoid the blockages which would otherwise occur as a result
of the formation of solid chlorine hydrate.
A solution of chlorine in water forms hydrochloric acid and
hypochlorous acid.
Cl2 + H2O

HCl + HOCl

Chlorination plant Thermal Station II is licensed to store 9


cylinders and each cylinder capacity is to hold 900 Kg. of chlorine. All the
nine cylinders are placed in a single array so as to connect the cylinders to a
common delivery line. The cylinders are attached to the common delivery
line made up of carbon steel by means of flexible copper tube.
There are three numbers of streams available for operation but
only one stream can be taken in to operation at a time.

9.3.1.

PROCESS
Liquid chlorine is drawn from the chlorine cylinder to the common

chlorine delivery header. The common delivery line is divided into three
branches with isolation valves in order to feed three streams. The liquid
chlorine is

passed

through

the

evaporator

of

selected

stream.

The

evaporator

temperature is maintained at 70-850C. The evaporator is seamless steel


cylinder and is surrounded by water bath. The water bath is heated by
immersion heater of capacity 3x15kw.
In the evaporator the dry chlorine gas comes out and is passed
through glass wool filter to remove any foreign materials. The pressure of dry
chlorine gas is reduced to 2 to 3 Kg/cm 2 by means of spring loaded pressure
reducer valve.
The chlorine gas is then passed through remote vacuum
regulator and chlorinator where the flow rate of chlorine is controlled. The
outlet of the chlorinator is connected to the ejector in which vacuum is
created by means of booster pumps. Normally 90 to 120 Kg/hr of chlorine is
mixed in 90 m3/hr of water. The chlorine gas mixed water is called chlorine
solution.
The chlorine solution line (150 mm, MSRL) is extended up to the
entire fore bay from which number of tapings with flexible hose arrangement
(40 mm size) is provided to doze chlorine solution in to the suction of
circulating water pumps.
Normally 200 Kg of chlorine is dozed for stage-I fore bay and 240
Kg of chlorine is dozed for stage-II fore bay per day.

9.3.2.

SAFETY FEATURES AND INSTRUMENTATION

Chlorine scrubber arrangement is provided with a blower and lye


circulation pump. Two chlorine sensors are provided one in the storage area
and the other in operation area for sensing chlorine leak of 3 ppm and
energise the chlorine absorption system automatically. Diaphragm type
pressure gauges (0 -- 10 Ksc) are provided in the common chlorine header,
evaporator inlet, filter inlet, pressure reducing valve outlet etc. One vacuum
gauge is provided in the chlorinator to assess the functioning of ejector
system. One thermostat is provided in the evaporator to control the water
bath temperature between 70 to 850C.

9.4.

CHLORINE ABSORPTION SYSTEM


Chlorine absorption system consist of Air Blowers, Caustic

solution circulation pumps, Chlorine absorption tower, and sensors to sense


chlorine leak. The suction of the air blower is provided with many suction
hoods and the hoods are pointed towards the chlorine storage cylinder and
process equipments. Two numbers of chlorine sensors are fixed one in
chlorine cylinder storage area and the other in process area.
Whenever there is a chlorine leak of 3ppm these sensors will
energize the caustic solution circulation pumps followed by air blowers.
The chlorine-contaminated air is sucked by means of blower and
is pushed in to the bottoms of the chlorine absorption tower. The caustic
solution pump will spray caustic solution at the top of the chlorine absorption
tower. The

tower is packed with plastic raschig rings for better contact of chlorine with
caustic solution. Chlorine will be neutralized by caustic solution and pure air
escape into the atmosphere. The quantity of caustic solution available in the
absorption tower will neutralize one tonner of chlorine.
Quality of caustic solution is tested periodically and fresh caustic
solution is changed as and when required.

9.4.1.

BLOWER
Number of blowers

Capacity

30,000 M3/hr

Motor HP/ KW

50 HP/ 37.5 KW

Number of pumps

Capacity

125m3/hr

Motor HP/

20HP/ 15KW

In case of major leak in the body of the chlorine cylinder, a


special arrangement is made to cover the leaking cylinder by means of " FRP
HOOD " attached with hose connection to the suction of air blowers so as to
evacuate the chlorine in the cylinder completely.

WATER CHEMICAL TREATMENT PLANT


MANUAL

CHAPTER x

MISCELLENEOUS SAMPLES

CHAPTER - X
10.

MISCELLENEOUS SAMPLES

10.1.

LIGNITE
The lignite supplied to TPS-II varies in quality with reference to

ash and moisture contents. Though due allowance is given in the boiler
design itself, certain unexpected aspects in the large open cast mining using
specialized mining equipment result in occasional increase in the lignite
contaminations. Such increased contaminations in lignite which in turn affect
the efficiency of steam generators, pulverizing mill, ID fan and other ash
handling system in power station.

10.2.

ANALYSIS
There are three kind of analysis.

(1)

Proximate analysis comprises of the determination of Ash,


Moisture; Volatile matter and fixed carbon.

(2)

Ultimate analysis comprised of determination of

Moisture, Ash,

Carbon, Hydrogen, Sulphur, Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Oxygen.


(3)

Chemical analysis consists of determination of silica, Aluminium,


Iron, Calcium,
Magnesium, Na2O, K2O and SO3.
Proximate analysis will give an idea about the nature of the fuel

(normal lignite contain 45 to 52

% of moisture). At this moisture level

representative sample cannot be taken, accurate weighing

is also not

possible. So the sample is to be dried and the moisture reduced to 15 to 20


%.

10.3.

HYDROSCOPIC MOISTURE

If a wet coal is dried at atmospheric temperature or in oven at


100OC and allowed to stand at

atmospheric temperature the final moisture

will be the same. This value is known as inherent or

hydroscopic moisture.

The hydroscopic property of coals due to the fact that all coals are full of
fine capillaries (pores) which are being filled with air, water and other
gases and liquids.
Infra red lamp is employed for the purpose of drying the lignite.

10.4.

INITIAL MOISTURE
Known weight (app. 5 gm) is taken in a clean crucible or plate

and put in the air oven at 100oC

for 1 hr.

Wt. Of the sample

Wt. Of the crucible + sample

(w2) -

Wt

of

the

empty

crucible (w1)
Loss in weight

Wt. Of the crucible + sample - Wt.

of

crucible + dried sample (w3)


% of Initial Moisture

Loss in weight x 100 = w2 - w3 x

100
Sample weight w2 - w1
This is also known as total moisture.

10.5.

ANALYTICAL MOISTURE
Preparation of the sample: - Raw lignite is dried by using infrared

lamp for 15 minutes. Then grind the sample using porcelain mortar and
pestle and pass through 200 mesh. The part of the total moisture is retained
by the mesh.

1 gm of the grind sample is weighed in a crucible and dried in a


air oven for 1 hr at 100oC
Wt. of the sample

Wt of the crucible + sample - Wt. of


the empty crucible.

Loss n weight

Wt.of the crucible + sample - Wt.

of

the crucible + dried sample


% of Analytical moisture

Loss in weight x 100

Sample weight

10.6.

ASH
Weigh about 1 gm of the sample in a clean dry porcelain crucible

and keep it in a muffle furnace for 1 hour at 800oC (till there is no glow) to
complete the combustion.
Wt. of the sample

of
After the combustion

the empty crucible


=

and
Wt. of the Ash

Take out the crucible and cool it


reweigh it.

the
% of Ash

Wt. of the crucible + sample - Wt.

Wt. of the crucible + ash - Wt.of


empty crucible.

Wt. of the ash x 100


Sample weight

Representative dry
basis Ash as received
(RB) basis

10.7.

VOLATILE MATTER

Analytical Ash x 100-IM


100-AM

All fuel spark appreciably when volatile matter is determined. It should be


avoided by careful lowering in the furnace. Preliminary heating is necessary
for lignite as it contain more volatiles.

If sparking is observed the

determination should be repeated. Always maintain the temperature with the


prescribed limit.
Volatile matter (VM)

100 - (Initial Moisture + Received


basis ASH) x 0.55

[100 - (IM + RB Ash)] x 0.55 (a


constant) it will vary

with Ash

percentage

RBA up to 4% = 0.55, 4.1 to 5.0 = 0.555, 5.1 to 6.0 = 0.565, 7 to8 = 0,575

10.8.

FIXED CARBON
F.C.

10.9.

100 - (IM + RB Ash + VM)

CALORIFIC VALUE
C.V. of a fuel may be defined as the amount of heat obtained by

the combustion of unit weight of

the fuel. (OR) The total quantity of heat

liberated when unit mass of the fuel is completely burnt is known as Calorific
value of a fuel.
Calorie is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature
of one gram of water through 1OC.

10.10.

GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE


This is the total quantity of heat obtained by the complete

combustion of unit weight of a solid of liquid fuel, or unit volume of gaseous


fuel and cooling the products of combustion to room temperature.
GCV =

10.11.

VM x 50 + FC x 82

NET CALORIFIC VALUE

Kcal / Kg.

This is the actual useful heat energy obtained when unit mass of
a fuel is completely burnt.
NCV

GCV - (Initial Moisture + 9 x 2.2) x 567


100

GCV - (IM + 19.8) x 5.7

Where 9 is (H2O) = 18 parts of H2O


For every 2 parts of H2, 18 parts of H2O will be produced
So, for 1 part 9 parts of water will be produced (or)
If H2 is one molecule then the wt. of water = 18 gms.
If H2 is 2.2 atoms then the mol.wt of water 18/2 x 2.2 = 19.8
567 is the Latent heat of steam
The results of the above analysis will be expressed in three ways,
such as
(1)

As Received Basis

(2)

Moisture free Basis

(3)

Moisture and Ash free Basis.

Let M be the initial or total moisture


Let m be the Analytical or Air dried moisture
Let A be the Air dried Ash
Let V be the Air dried Volatile Matter
Let F be the Air dried Fixed Carbon
Let C be the Air-dried Calorific Value.

10.12.

VALUES ON AS RECEIVED BASIS


ASH

A x (100 - M)
(100 - m)

10.13.

10.14.

V.M.

Vx

(100 - m)
(100 - m)

F.C.

Fx

(100 - M)
(100 - m)

C.V.

C x (100 - M)
(100 - m)

VALUES ON MOISTURE FREE BASIS


ASH

A x 100
(100 - m)

V.M.

V x 100
(100 - m)

F.C

Fx
100
(100 - m)

C.V.

C x 100
(100 - m)

VALUES ON MOISTURE AND ASH FREE BASIS


ASH

--

V.M.

V
x
100
100 - (m + A)

F.C.

F
x 100
100 - (m + A)

C.V.

10.15.

C
x 100
100 - (m + A)

COMPLETE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF LIGNITE ASH,


BOTTOM ASH

10.15.1. LOSS ON IGNITION

1 gm of the dried sample is taken in a clean porcelain crucible


and keep it in the muffle furnace at 950oC for 1 hr. Take out the crucible, cool
it and find out the loss of
Loss of ignition

ignition.
=

Loss in weight x 100


Sample weight

Preparation of Main solution (Fly ash and Bottom ash)


After the ignition, 1 gm of the sample is taken in a dry clean
beaker. Add 20 ml of erchloric acid (HCl O 4) for soluble purpose. Evaporate to
dryness and add; 1 ml of 1:1 HCl and boil it with 100 ml of DM water and
filter by using 40 filter paper. Wash the residue with boiling water till free of
chloride and collect the filtration a 500 ml Std. flask

and make up 500 ml

with DM water. This is the stock solution for the complete analysis.

10.15.2. SILICA
Ignite the residue in a clean platinum crucible at 900 OC. Take out
the crucible cool it and weigh it.
% of Silica

Wt. of the precipitate x 100


Wt. of the sample.

10.15.3. SILICA: METHOD - II


Take 0.5 gm of the well mixed sample in a clean dry 400 cc
beaker, add 25 cc of Perchloric acid; heat it on a hot plate and slowly
evaporate the perchloric acid. Cool the beaker; add

about 5 cc of conc.

H2SO4 through the sides of the beaker then warm (to expel all the perchloric
acid) till dense white fumes are coming out.
Cool, dilute with DM water, warm and filter using 42 filter paper.
Collect the filtrate in a

clean 500 cc std flask. Wash the residue 5 to 6 times

with hot water.


Incinerate the residue in a platinum crucible at 900oC and note
the weight of the residue

obtained (A1).

If the residue is red in colour then conduct hydroflurisation by


just stirring the residue with

conc. H2SO4, add slowly 10 cc of HF acid and

warm it on a hot plate (till dense white fumes

comes out) to dryness. Place

the crucible in a muffle furnace at 900 OC and note the weight

of the

crucible let it be (A2).


% of Silica as SiO2

A1 - A2
x 100
Sample wt.

If the ignited residue is white in colour, Hydrofluorisation is not


necessary. In that case
% of Silica as SiO2

Weight of the residue x 100


Weight of the sample

N.B: If the hydroflurisation, is carried out, fuse the material left behind
the platinum

crucible with Potassium bi-sulphate, leach it with

hot water and add to the main filtrate.

10.16.

Make up to the mark.

IRON AS Fe2O3
25 ml of the main solution is added with 1N NaOH till a faint

precipitate appears. Add 9 ml

of 1:1 HCl and

boil to 80OC. Add 5 ml of

Sulphosalicilic

acid

indicator

and

titrate

with

0.01M

EDTA

at

this

temperature.
E.P.
1000 ml of 1M EDTA

Violet to golden yellow colour.

80 gm of Fe2O3

1 ml of 0.01M EDTA

0.0008 gm of Fe2O3 (make up

solution)
% of Fe2O3

Vol. Of EDTA x 0.0008 x 100


Vol. Of the sample taken.

TV of 0.01M EDTA x 500x 100 x

0.0008
25x Weight of the sample.

10.17.

ALUMINIUM as Al2O3
25 ml of the main solution is added with 20 ml of 0.01M EDTA

(excess of few drops) and

with a drop of Phenolphthalein and 1:1 NH4OH.

Pink colour will be developed. Add 15 ml


solution becomes colourless.

of pH 4 buffer solutions till the

Then boil the solution and add

few more

drops of buffer. Add Xylenol orange indicator and titrate with 0.01M
Pb (NO3) 2. E.P

Yellow to wine red colour. Carry out


the blank titration also.

1 ml of 0.01M EDTA

0.00051 gm of Al2O3

% of Al2O3

V-V1 x

500

x 0.00051

100
25 x weight of the sample

10.18.

CALCIUM AS

Total volume of EDTA

V1

Total vol. of Pb (NO3) 2 consumed

CaO

50 ml o main solution is added with 2 drops of HNO 3 and 1 gm of


NH4Cl. Boil and add

NH3 solution till the precipitate is formed. Filter it with

41 filter paper. Make up the filtrate

to 100 ml with DM water. Take 50 ml of

this made up solution in a 250 ml beaker and

titrate with 0.02N EDTA with

Erichrome Black T indicator.


E.P

% of Ca as CaO

10.19.

MAGNESIUM
MgO

=
=

Red to Blue colour.


T.V x 100 x 0.00056 x 500 x 100
50 x 50
(dilution factor)
TV x 2 x 0.00056 x 500 x 100
50
x 1
Total Hardness - Calcium Hardness

TV x 2 x 0.00040 x 500 x 100


50 x Wt. of the sample (1 gm )

10.19.1.

MAGNESIUM - II METHOD
50 ml of the main solution is added with a drop of HNO 3 and boil.

Add 1 gm of NH4Cl and

add dil. NH3 drop by drop to form the precipitate.

Filter the precipitate with 41 filter paper.

Wash well. To this filtrate add 15

ml of Ammonium Buffer and with a pinch of Erichrome

Black T indicator.

Titrate against 0.01M EDTA till the colour changes to blue.

1ml of0.01M EDTA contains


% of Mg as MgO

=
=

0.004 gm of Mg

[V-V1] x 500 x 0.004 x 100

50 x

Wt. of the

sample
V

Consumption of EDTA

V1

Consumption

of

EDTA

for

Ca2+

10.20.

SULPHATE
Take 200 ml of acid extract in a 250 ml beaker. Boil it on a hot

plate, while boiling add 10ml of 10% Barium Chloride solution and allow to
settle for over night.
Filter the solution with 42 filter paper. Wash it with hot water
repeatedly till free of chloride. Remove the residue and keep it in a clean
porcelain crucible and incinerate in a

muffle furnace at 700 o C. and find

out the weight of the residue.


Weight of BaSO4

Wt. of the crucible with precipitate

Wt. of empty crucible

% of SO3
100

Wt. of BaSO4 x 0.343 x 500 x


Wt. of sample x

200 (Vol. of

sample)
=

0.343

Factor

as

Sulphate.

10.21.

TITANIUM
50 ml of the solution added with 5 ml of H 2SO4. Boil till the white

fumes come out. Transfer this to a Nesslers tube and add 5 ml of Phosphoric
acid + Sulphuric acid mixture,

then add 3 ml of H2O2.

Prepare the blank

with same reagents with 50 ml of DM water. Titrate the blank with std. TiO2.
Compare the colour with sample colour.
% of Ti as TiO2
80

Match value x 0.0005 x 100 x 500 x


50 x 1

x 48

10.21.1. TITANIUM (BY CALORIMETRIC METHOD


Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produces with an acidic titanium, an
yellow amount of titanium up to 0.5 TiO2 / cc. The intensity of colour is due
to the amount of element present. Comparisons is usually made with
standard titanium solution. H2O2 should be 10 volume or

3%; colour

intensity increases with rise in temperature and hence the experiment should
be

carried out at 20-25oC


Interfering radicals

Fe, Ni, Cr, V, Mo, F.

Iron is suppressed by adding phosphoric acid / Nickel and


chromium should be removed.
Iron has the most powerful effect of bleaching of colours. It
should be removed by repeated

evaporation with conc. H2SO4.

bleaching effect of H3PO4 is overcome by adding a

The

same amount to the

standard or by adding 1 cc of 0.1 % Uranyl acetate or each 0.1 mg o


Titanium present.
The sample solution should contain Ti as sulphate in H 2SO4 and
free from the interfering constituents. The final acidity may range from 1.5 to
3.5 N. If Fe is present in appreciable amount add dil H 2SO4 till the yellow
colour disappears
Add 10 cc of 3% H2O2 and dilute to 100 cc. Compare the colour
(Calorimetrically estimate using a blue filter with a wave length of 410 mm is
employed for the Spectrophotometer).

10.22.

STANDARD SOLUTION PREPARATION


Weigh out 2.2164 gm of the analar Potassium titanyl oxalate

K2TiO (C2O4) 2H2O and transfer into a Kjeldal flask and 8 gm of Ammonium
sulphate and 100 cc of conc. H2SO4. Gradually heat the mixture to boiling,
and boil for 10 minutes. Pour into it 750 cc of distilled water and dilute to

1000 ml in a standard flask.

1 cc

0.5 mg of

OF

VARIOUS

TiO2.

10.23.

SAMPLING

AND

TESTING

OILS

DIVISIONS
The Main Laboratory also carry out Oil analysis of various
divisions as mentioned below:

A.

B.

C.

FUEL OIL/FURNACE OIL


a.

Moisture

b.

% Sediments

c.

Kinematic Viscosity

d.

Flash Point

e.

Fire Point

f.

Specific gravity

g.

Calorific Value

h.

Sulphur.

LUBRICATIING OIL
I

Boiler Feed Pump- Viscosity at 50 oC

II

Main Oil Tank - Viscosity at 40 oC

a.

Moisture

b.

% Sediments

c.

Viscosity

d.

Flash point

e.

Fire point

f.

Acidity

INSULATING OIL/TRANSFORMER OIL

Oil sampling from the bottom of the transformer in a bottle by


displace method, from bottom of the bottle and fill the bottle fully
(without air gap)

a.

Moisture

b.

% Sediments

c.

Kinematic viscosity

d.

Flash point

e.

Fire point

f.

Acidity

g.

Dissolved Gas Analysis by Chromatography.

10.23.1. MOISTURE
10.23.1.1.

BY CRACKLE METHOD

Traces of moisture is determined by this method. A small portion


of oil is mixed well and taken in a perfectly dry test tube and heated over a
sprit lamp with slight agitation. The production of crackling sound indicates
the presence of moisture.

10.23.1.2.

BY DEAN AND STARK METHOD

Moisture can be determined quantitatively by Dean & Stark


method using Xylene as extractor of water.
10.23.1.3. APPARATUS REQUIRED:
(1)

Round Bottom Flask,

(2)

Leibig condenser,

(3)

Dean & Stark receiver (entire set with assembly)

(4)

Heating mantle (5) Xylene.

10.23.1.4.

PROCEDURE

Take a known weight of the oil sample and put in the Round
bottom flask, add 50 ml or required quantity of Xylene to make the sample
immersed completely in Xylene. Heat it over the heating mantle up to boiling
point. The boiling point of the solvent should be greater than 100 oC (B.P. of
Xylene is

130 oC). Carry out the analysis with all fittings are in air

tight with a slow stream of water is circulated. Heat gently on the heating
mantle and maintain uniform distillation for about an hour. The evaporated
water particles in the oil will condense and collected in D&S measuring
apparatus. Note the volume of water collected in the receiver.
% of Moisture
100

(Wt.) Volume of the water collected

Weight of the oil taken.

10.23.2. VISCOSITY
Viscosity is a measure of flow ability at definite temperature. It is
the most important property of oil as at operating temperature, it is viscosity
that determines fluid friction (friction within the oil itself). Any change in
viscosity indicates the contamination or oxidation instability. Viscosity is the
most important characteristic in the Furnace oil specification. It influences
the degree of free heat required for handling storage and satisfactory
atomization. If the viscosity of the fuel is too high it will impede the flow of
fuel to the pump giving rise to poor atomization and extensive penetration
with in effective combustion of fuel.

Viscosities are higher if the compound has ore hydorxyl groups


(network of hydroxyl bonds) which makes flow difficult. Viscosity of a liquid
decreases as temperature increases.

Kinematic viscosity deals pure motion without reference to the


masses of a fluid. Kinematic viscosity is the quotient of absolute viscosity
divided by density both at the same temperature.
Kinamatic viscosity is determined by measuring the time required
for a given volume of oil to flow through a capillary tube under the force of
gravity.
The unit of kinematic viscosity is stoke or centistokes (1/100 of
stoke).

10.23.2.1.
(1)

APPARATUS REQUIRED

A Cannon & Pensky viscometer of desired viscosity range

(2)

Water bath for temp. at 80 oC

(3)

Thermometer.

10.23.2.2.

PROCEDURE

Calibration:
Note the efflux time of the viscometer with the help of A.P.I. liquid
viscosity std. or any std. viscometer supplied by the companies whose
viscosity constant is known can be use.
Calculate the viscosity constant as under
C = Vk / t where Vk

Kinamatic viscosity of the given

std.

oil at the test


Temperature in centistokes.
t

efflux time in seconds.

Before proceeding the analysis ensure that the viscometer is


cleaned perfectly with completely volatile liquid and dried out.

Charge the viscometer with a portion of the filtered oil sample.


Provide

the

viscometer

with

firm

mounting

which

will

eliminate

disturbances in its position when it is in the bath. The water in the bath
should have its upper level at least 5 cm above the top of the liquid level in
the capillary part of the viscometer. Make certain that th viscometer is
vertical when compared with a plum line observed from two direction about
90 o apart. Introduce the stirrer to maintain uniform distribution of
temperature.
Allow the charged viscometer to remain in the bath

a long

enough to reach the test temperature. When the test temperature remains
steady for 10 mts suck the oil level a little above the graduated mark and
then allow it to pass. When the oil level crosses the mark, start a stop watch
at once. Note the time taken for the oil to flow upto the mark below from the
top one. Repeat the experiment.
Kinamatic Viscosity in centistokes / sec

Viscosity co-efficient of

viscometer x
Time taken in seconds of flow
between
two marks
= Ct.

10.23.3. ACIDITY (FOR LUBRICATING OIL ONLY)


It is defined as number of mg of KOH required to neutralize the
acidity presence in 1 gm of the sample. This should be low in order to

minimize the corrosion of metal where contact with the fuel during storage
and distribution.

10.23.3.1.

PROCEDURE

Alcoholic KOH 0.05N (3.22 gm of KOH is dissolved in 1 lr of


Methyl alcohol) 3.22 gm of KOH flakes dissolved in 2 to 3 ml of DM water and
then add Methanol. Take approximately 10 gm of the oil in a conical flask,
mix 30 ml of Toluene with 20 ml of Methanol and add alkaline blue indicator.
Add drops of alcoholic KOH until the colour changes from blue to wine red.
Add the mixture in the conical flask and titrated against alcoholic KOH. E.P.
green to blue.
T.V x 2.805
Wt. of oil

mgm of KOH / gm of oil.

Take 10 ml gm of the oil in a 250 ml conical flask. To a mixture of


30 ml of Toluene and 20 ml of Methanol in another flask, add 1 to 3 ml of 2%
alkali blue solution and a drop of 0.1N HCl to sensitize the indicator.
Neutralize the mixture with the KOH to the appearance of a strong wine red
colour. Add the neutralized mixture to the sample in the conical flask with
swirling. If the mixture assume a purple blue colour after the sample is
completely dissolved, titrate it at once with the 0.05N KOH solution at a
temp. 30oC. E.P purple to red.
Vol. of KOH consumed x Normality of KOH x 56.1
Weight of the sample taken
oil

= mg KOH / gm of

10.23.4. SEDIMENTS
Oil being a blend of residue contain some quantity of sediments.
These have adverse affect on the burners and cause blockage of filters etc.
However the typical values are normally much lower than the stipulated
value of

maximum 0.25% by mass. The higher the specific gravity and viscosity of a
fuel, the greater the quantities of sediments it can hold in suspension. Large
quantities of sediments have affect the combustion of the fuel and if abrasive
may cause excessive wear of closely fitting parts of fuel pump and injectors.
It may also clog filter and build up deposits in tank and piping.

10.23.4.1.

DETERMINATION

Sedimentation Cone Method


Shake the sample well until the sediments are homogenously
distributed and transfer 50 ml (or a lesser amount for high viscosity oils) to a
sedimentation cone. Add 50 ml of Benzene and shake well. Allow to settle for
24hrs.
Transfer the mixture in parts to two centrifuging tubes and
continue the process till all the sample from the sedimentation cone is
exhausted. Then filter the sediments through 42 filter paper. Wash it free of
oil with Benzene
The contents are transferred to a pre-weighed and dried washing
bottle and dried in an air oven and at 105 oC for 10 mts and cooled in a
desicator for the same period of time. Reweigh the weighing the bottle and
express the result in term of % sediments settled.

10.23.5. FLASH POINT


The minimum temperature to which the oil must be heated to
give enough vapour which confirm a combustible mixture with air. Otherwise
liquid having flashpoint < 20oC are considered to be highly flammable. A
liquid is highly inflammable if its flash point is lower the surrounding
temperature.

It is the lowest temperature to which an oil should be heated to


generate enough vapours and to give a momentary flash when brought in
contact with the test flame. F.P.

can be determined by using Pensky-

Marteins closed apparatus.

10.23.5.1.

DESCRIPTION OF PENSKY-MARTINS CLOSED CUP

APPARATUS
This is the most commonly used apparatus for determination of
flash-point of oils having flash points between 50oC to 370 oC.
The apparatus consists of brass cup, which is 5 cm in diameter,
5.5cm in depth. The level up to which oil is to be filled in the cup is marked at
about 1 cm below the top of the cup. Its flange supports the cup over a
heating vessel in such a way that there is a clearance between the cup and
the heating vessel. The cover for the cup is provided with four openings of
standard dimensions, which are meant for a special type of stirrer, a standard
thermometer, an air inlet and a device for introducing the standard flame.
The shutter is provided at the top of the cup has a lever mechanism. When
the shutter is turned, openings fr the test flame and air are opened and the
flame exposure device dips into the opening over the surface of the oil. The

test flame gets extinguished when it is introduced into the opening for the
test, but as soon s t returns to its original position on closing the shutter, the
flame is automatically lighted again by the pilot burner.

10.23.5.2.

PROCEDURE:

Wash the cup provided for the test and its accessories with
Benzene and dry perfectly. The oil is poured into the cup up to the mark. The
lid is placed then, and the thermometer is fixed. The oil is heated at a steady
rate by adjusting the theostat for oils with flash point between 40 oC to 150
o

C, the rate is 5 to 4 oC per minute . For higher flash point (5 to 7 oC) ensuring

constant stirring with a approximate 60 revolution/minute.


When the oil temperature reaches 15 to 20

C below the

expected flash point, start introducing the test flame. The flames size should
be adjusted to 3 to 4 mm. Do not stir the oil during the application of the
flame.
A blue halo around the test flame indicates that the flash point is
heating. The temperature recorded on the thermometer when a distinct flash
appears for the first time inside the cup is to be taken as the flash point of
the oil.
Oils containing minute quantities of volatile organic substances
are liable to flash below the true flash point of the oil. Although a small slash
may be observed in such cases, it should not be confused with the true flash,

since its intensity does not increase with increased temperature as occurs
when the true flash point reached.
The minimum closed-cup flash point required for turbine oil is
165 oC and that for insulating oils is 145 oC.
The flash point /fire point of the oils =

----o C.

This is also calculated by multiplying the


Heat of combustion Kj Mol

-1

[Heat of combustion Kj gm -1 x mol.

Wt.] by vapour pressure [in bar] at 300 K (27 oC).

10.24.

FIRE POINT
The lowest temperature to which an oil should be heated to

generate enough vapour and to give sustained fire is called Fire Point.
The fire point is higher than the flash point. So continue the
procedure until the fire point Sustained.

10.25.

POUR POINT
The pour point is the lowest temperature at which the oil ceases

to flow when cooled under standard condition.

10.25.1. PROCEDURE
Take the lubricating oil in a standard glass tube enclosed in an air
jacket, cooled in a freezing mixture. Take the glass tube out periodically
examines and replace inside immediately. Take the temperature at which a
haze appears in the oil as the cloud point. Cool the oil further, stir and test
for its flow away by tilting the tube carefully for every 2 to 3 oC rise in
temperature. Note the temperature at which the oil eases to flow is pour
point.

10.26.

CALORIFIC VALUE
It is defined as number of parts of water which will heated

through 1oC by the heat evolved by the complete combustion of one unit
weight of fuel.

10.26.1. DETERMINATION OF CALORIFIC VALUE:


Calorific value of a solid or liquid fuel can be known by burning a
definite quantity in a bomb calorimeter.

10.26.2. BOMB CALORIMETER PRINCIPLE:


When certain weighed quantity of a fuel is burnt in the
calorimeter, the heat given out is used up in heating the calorimeter and the
water in the calorimeter. If we equate the heat given out by the fuel with the
heat taken up by the calorimeter and water, the calorific value cn be
determined.

10.26.3. WORKING PROCEDURE OF CALORIMETER


1.

Switch on the Leco Instrument for stabilization.

2.

Switch on the Electronic balance and the printer.

3.

Weigh about 0.06 gm of oil sample with the oil cup provided.

4.

Operate the No. 1 key to charge the instrument.

5.

Enter the oil weight

into the microprocessor by operating the

enter switch in the balance.


6.

Put the weighed oil cup into the ring provided in lid of the bomb
calorimeter and onnect the two rods in the lid with 8 cm long
fuse wire above the oil cup.

7.

Pour a known quantity of water in the bomb calorimeter and


screw the lid with oil cup.

8.

Charge the bomb calorimeter with oxygen by the charging point


through the micro- processor which shows the display in the
screen To fill and after the filling

is (460 atmosphere)

completed the charging will be stopped itself.


9.

Collect 2 ltr of water in the bucket and put it in the place


provided in the instrument.

10.

Place the bomb calorimeter in the the bucket, check for any leak
and connect the two terminals on the top of calorimeter and
close the instrument with the door.

11.

Press start button and give the yes command in the key board.

12.

After 5 minutes of firing the bucket temperature will be displaced


(25 - 27 oC) in the screen. After the completion of firing the above
display will disappear and Delta-T will appear. This process will go
for further 3 minutes. After 3 minute of the process the actual
Calorific value will be appeared on the screen.(Cal /gm).

10.27.

CONDENSER BALLS ANALYSIS


On Line Tube Cleaning (OLTC) system is in practice in the Main

Condenser as method of cleaning the tube while the Unit is in service.


Sponge balls are introduced in the Circulating water just before inlet of the
condenser. Sample of sponge balls are being sent to the Main Laboratory for
measuring the effective density.
Condenser tube cleaning sponge balls of 24 mm and 26 mm
diameter are being received for check measurement when bulk purchase was

made. Initially the weights of the balls are taken and numbered. Then using
vernier calipers the diameter of the balls are measured. From the average
diameter and average weight, the volume of the balls and apparent density
are calculated. Using rubber matrix density the effective density of the balls
is calculated. Then the balls are soaked in the circulating water for 24 hours
after squeezing the air present in the rubber matrix. The balls are allowed to
descend and the time taken is noted. From the data the descending rate is
calculated.

10.27.1.

CALCULATION

Let the weight of the ball

gm

Let the diameter of the ball

cm

The volume of the sponge ball

v
Or

= (4/3) X (22/7) r3
(4/3) X (22/7) X (d3/8)

Apparent density

= w/v gm/cc

Density of rubber matrix

= 1.2 gm/cc

i.e. 1.2 gm of rubber = 1 cc of water


Volume of water occupied by the rubber compound

=V

Effective volume of the ball

= V-v

So effective weight of the ball

= w + x gm

Effective density

=w+x
V

cc

= x cc of water
gm/cc

WATER CHEMICAL TREATMENT PLANT


MANUAL

CHAPTER XI

MONITORING OF AIR EMISSIONS


AND
WATER

POLLUTANTS

CHAPATER - XI
11.

MONITORING OF AIR EMISSIONS AND WATER POLLUTANTS

11.1.

EVALUATIONS OF THE FLUE GAS EMISSIONS FROM


CHIMNEYS

11.1.1.

STACK

MONITORING

11.1.1.a. SOX
20 ml of 30% H2O2 is diluted to 120 ml with DM water. Take this
diluted solution in the absorption bottle, adds the mixed indicator and then
neutralized with 0.02N NaOH of 3% concentration. Initially the solution will
be in green colour due to the alkaline medium. Then arrange to operate the
rotameter to run 1 LPM in such a way to pass 5 liter of the gas for 5 minutes
through the solution. On passing through the absorption bottle the colour will
be changes from green to red due to absorption of SO2
H2O2 + SO2 +

SO3 + H2O

H2SO4.

Remove the absorption bottle and titrate with 0.02N NaOH, the
colour of the solution (EP).
Changes from red to green.
1N of 1000 ml

---

32 gm of SO2 (Gram Equivalent)

1N of 1 ml

---

32 mg of SO2

0.02N of 1 ml
SO2 in mg /Nm3 =

---

32 x 0.02 = 0.64 mg of SO2


(TV) x 0.64 mg) / (Vol. Of gas passed in
mg/Nm3

lt)

11.1.1.b. NOX
Take 120 ml of 0.1N NaOH in one absorption bottle and take 120
ml of acidified 1%
Potassium Permanganate solution in another absorption bottle.
Connect the bottles in series.
By operating the Rotameter (Lt. Per Minute), first pass 5 litre of
gas in to the KMnO4 absorption bottle to oxidise Nitric oxide to NO2 and then
pass through the NaOH absorption bottle. Disconnect the bottle and transfer
the solution from the NaOH bottle to a 500 ml std flask and make up to the
mark with DM water. Take 2 ml of this made up solution in 50 ml std flask.
Add 2 ml of NEDA (Naphthyl Ethylene Diamine Dihydro Chloride) and 2 ml of
Sulphanilamide indicators. Red colour complex will be formed. Then find out
the reading in Spectrophotometer with wavelength 540 at 109 meter.
[(NOX mg x 500)/(2ml x 1000) x (5/1000)] == mgm/NM3

11.2.

SPM (SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER)

11.2.1.

THE

STACK

MONITORING

KIT

HAVE

FOLLOWING PARTS TO MEASURE THE SPM


1.

Thermocouple

2.

Pitot Tube

3.

Manometer

THE

4.

Sampling probe

5.

Thimble,

6.

Rotameter and

7.

Vaccum pump.

It is necessary to withdraw particulate samples into the sample


probe at the same velocity as the average velocity of the gas stream at that
point in order to obtain a representative; sample. This is called ISOKINETIC
sampling.

11.3.

PROCEDURE
Place the clean pre-weighed thimble in filter holder of the probe.

Determine the gas velocity by the pitot tube and flow rate, which is to be set
on the gas meter for all the traverse points. Set the assembly in all respects
and start the suction pump, and stop watch simultaneously. Adjust flow rate.
Cool the sampler, remove the thimble, and brush down any dust
on the inside of the nozzle into the thimble. Dry at 120 oC for 2 hrs. Cool in
the desiccators and weigh.
Volume of the flue gas passed through the thimble at normal
volume at 25 oC and 760 mm Hg is calculated.

11.4.

EXAMPLE
INITIAL WEIGHT OF THE THIMBLE
FINAL WEIGHT OF THE THIMBLE

--- (A) gm
--- (B) gm

(Rate of LPM is 30 / minute) (Flue gas temperature - 165 oC)


Difference in weight = (B - A)

SPM = [(B - A gm x 1000) mg / (30 x 30 ltr/1000)M 3] = -- mg


/ Nm3

11.5.

INSTRUMENTS

RECOMMENDED

BY

POLLUTION

CONTROL BOARD
1.

ENVIRO-TECH - DELHI

2.

NETAL CHROMATOGRAPH - THANE.


Vstd = Vm x {[Pbar - Pm] / 760] x 298 / [Tm + 273 ]}
Dust Emission Rate = [(S x Qs) / 106 ]
Qs = Flue gas Rate = s = {Mn / Vstd} where Mn is mass of
dust in thimble in mg.

11.6.

STACK

11.6.1.

VELOCITY
Vs

= Kp

FLUE

GAS

MONITORING

DETERMINATION
x

Cp ( P x Ts )1/2
( Ps x Ms )1/2

Where
Kp

Cp

33.5 (Dimensional Constant) m/s [Kg - mmHg] 1/2


[Kg mole o K mm H2O]
0.842 (Pitot tube Constant)

Stack Gas Velocity Pressure mm H2O (Inclined


Manometer Reading x Density (0.83) of

Manometer

Fluid)

Ps

Absolute Stack Gas Pressure 760 mm Hg

Ms

Molecular weight of Flue Gas = 30 W/W

Ts

Flue Gas Temperature in (Degree) Kelvin.

(Of all these parameters only P and Ts are variable. So


condensing other Parameter)

=
33.5 x 0.842 x (10) 1/2
(760 x 30)
0.591
1/2
K x (P x Ts)

0.591 (P x

K
Velocity

11.6.2.

Vs

Ts) 1/2

FLOW RATE AT NOZZLE


Fn

Vs x An x 60 x 1000

[60 = to convert

To minute]

sec.

[1000 = to convert m3 to litre]


Where
Fn

Flow rate at Nozzle liters/minute

An

Area of Thimble Nozzle = 0.237 x 10

M2
(Dia. Of Nozzle 5.5 mm; Area =(22/7) D2 /
4)
3.14

X (5.5)

0.237 x 10-4 M2

4
Fn = Vs
x 0.237 x 60 / 10 lt / mt
An = Fn x TM / TS

11.6.3.

FLOW

lt / mt

RATE AT ROTAMETER:
Fr

Fn x Tm / Ts

where

Fr

Flow Rate at Rotameter litre/minute

Fn

Flow Rate at Nozzle litres / minute

11.6.4.

Tm

Absolute Temperature at Rotameter oK.

Ts

Absolute Stack Gas Temperature oK.

VOLUME OF FLUE GAS COLLECTED


V std. = D x Fr x T std.
= min x l x oK
Tm x 1000
Min x oK
Where
Vstd =

Vol. of Dry Flue gas @ 25 oC & 760 mm Hg.

Duration of sample collection in minutes.

Fr

Flow rate through Rotameter litre/minute.

Tm

Absolute meter Temperature ( in Kelvin ).

Tstd

Standard Temperature 298

Flue Gas

Composition

Kelvin.

Molecular weight X % fraction

CO2

12 %

44 x 0.12 = 5.28

O2

8%

82 x 0.08 = 2.56

N2

80 %

28 x 0.8

= 22.40
30.24

11.6.5.

DUST
S. P. M.

CONCENTRATION
=

Mn / Vstd. =

Gm x 1000 x 1000
Ltr.

SPM

Suspended Particulate Matter mg/NM3.

Mn

Mass of Dust Collected in the Thimble.

Where

Vstd
Hg.

Vol. of Dry Flue Gas @ 25 oC & 760 mm

11.6.6.

GAS DISCHARGE
= Vs x 10.5 x 298 / Ts

= m3/sec.
= m x m2 x oK
o
s
x
K

Where
Vs

10.5 =
Ts

11.6.7.

Velocity of Flue gas m/s


Area pf Masonry Duct ( 3 x 3.5 ) M2
=

Flue Gas Temperature

EMISSION MT / DAY:
= GD x SPM x 60 X 60 X 24 =

( Kelvin )

m3 x mg x 60 x 60

24
1000 X 1000 X 1000

38 ltr

1000x1000x1000
=

MT / Day

Where
GD

SPM

11.6.8.

Gas Discharge M3 / Sec.


=

Suspended Particulate Matter mg / NM3

EMISSION MT / M. W.
EMMISSION MT / DAY
24 X M.W.
Where
M.W =

116.9.

Power Generation MW / Hr.

SULPHUR DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION


SO2 = TV X 64 X 10
Qs mg / NM3
Where

Nm3 x

TV

Titre Value of 0.002 N NaOH

Qs

Vol. of Flue Gas collected in NM3 ( Time x Flow Rate x


Tstd /Tm )
* 1.0 ml of 0.0002 N NaOH 64 x 10

mg of SO2 *

49 gms of H2SO4 contins

32 gms of SO2

32/49 mg of SO2

1000 cc of 1 N NaOH

49 gm of H2SO4

0.02 N NaOH

49 x 32
50 x 49

mg of H2SO4 cntains

10
0.002 N NaOH

= 64 x

64 x 10 3 mg of SO2\

Every year officials from Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board visit
and carryout the emissions from the all seven stacks.
11.7.

WATER EFFLUENTS
In Thermal Station-II all drains are connected to SETTLING TANK

near East gate of TS-II. The effluent that is leaving the Settling tank is
collected every month and will be sent to Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board,
Cuddallore. Simultaneously one more effluent sample is collected and sent to
Center for Applied Research and Development, NLC, Neyveli. The effluent
should be within the norms stipulated by TNPCB.