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COASTAL GEOLOGIC SERVICES, INC.

memorandum
Date: May19,2016
To:

LisaKaufman,NorthwestStraitsFoundation

From: JimJohannessen,LEG,MS,&AlexisBlue,PE,MS
Re:

SunlightShoresShoreArmorRemovalandNearshoreRestorationPreliminaryDesign

Introduction and Purpose


Thepurposeofthismemoistopresentapreliminarydesignforshorearmorremoval,fill,andbackshore
regradingatSunlightShoresCountryClub,asoriginallyproposedinashortsiteassessmentmemoby
CoastalGeologicServices,Inc.(CGS)datedFebruary9,2016(CGS2016).Thisisforaprojectsponsored
byIslandCountycalledLandownerIncentivestoReducePugetSoundShorelineArmoringinIsland
CountyandtheNorthwestStraitsMarineConservationFoundation.Thisprojectisfundedthrougha
grantfromthePugetSoundMarineandNearshoreGrantProgramusingfundingfromtheU.S.EPAto
fundactionsthatadvancePugetSoundrecoverybyprotectingandrestoringmarineandnearshore
habitatsandecosystemfunctions.
ThesubjectpropertyislocatedatthecommunitybeachoftheSunlightShoresCountryClub
neighborhoodonthenortheastshoreofUselessBayonsouthWhidbeyIsland,inIslandCounty,WA(see
Figure1,Sheet1).ThemajorityoftheSunlightShoresneighborhoodisonagentlyslopedhillsidefacing
west.Thewaterfrontpropertyheldincommonispresentwaterwardofthisbankandextendstothe
saltwaterlagoonlandwardofafairlylargesandandgravelspit,locallycalledHennySpit.
Therecommendationshereinwerebasedonselectedmeasurementsandobservationscollectedata
fieldvisitconductedbyJimJohannessen,LicensedEngineeringGeologistandMSandAdamTullis.
Informationobtainedduringtheinitialsitevisitwasdocumentedinasiteassessmentmemodated
February9,2016(CGS2016).Portionsofthatmemoareparaphrasedherewhereappropriatetothe
design.MoredetailedsitemappingandadditionalfieldassessmentwascarriedoutbyJonathan
WaggonerandRebeccaCayenwasonMarch29,2016tofurtherdocumentthesite.

Site Conditions Overview


Theshoreisapproximately350feetlonginthesouthsoutheasttonorthnorthwestdirection(Figure1,
Sheets1,6).Theentireshorecontainsaveryoldcreosotedwoodsoldierpilewall,withlargeangular
bouldersplacedonthebeachonthewaterwardside,andfillcappedbyconcreterubbleplacedonthe
landwardside.Thebulkheadwasinverypoorcondition,withwoodpilesfailedorexhibitingmuchrot,
andsomerockssettledwaterwardoftheoriginalwallfootprint.
Asignificantamountofthewoodpileswererotteninthecenterwithamorecoherentstructureonthe
rims,stronglysuggestingthattheywerecreosotetreated.Severalcongealedoilypatcheswerevisible
onpilesaswell.Someofthepilesmaynotbecreosotetreated,astheywererottenmoreuniformly.
Creosotedwoodcontainsupto90knowncarcinogensandarethereforeharmfultofishandother
organismsthatutilizethenearshore.

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Thissiteisonlyexposedtoanopenwaterdistanceoverwhichwindgeneratedwavescanform(fetch)
of430800ft.Thisareaislimitedtotheinsideofthespit.Pickleweed(Salicorniavirginica)waspresent
inmostlocationsjustwaterwardofthecoastalstructure.Allofthisinformationisindicativeofavery
lowwaveenergyclimate.Therefore,theerosionpotentialisextremelylowatthissiteevenifa
bulkheadwasnotpresent(Johannessenetal.2014).Theshoreofthesiteisnotinadriftcell;instead,it
isinanareaofnoappreciabledrift(Figure2).Noappreciabledriftmeansthereisnotameasureable
amountoflittoralsedimentintransportattheshore(JohannessenandMacLennan2007).
Itappearsthatthewaterwardportionofthelowelevationshoreareacontainsfill.Handexcavations
weremadeinthe530footwidearealandwardofthebulkhead,whichconsistentlyrevealedgravely
sand.Thismaterialcontainedamoderateamountofangularandsubangulargravelandalongwiththe
rustycoloration,wasindicativeofimportedfillanddidnotappeartobebeachsediment.
Historicalmappingfromthe1880sshowedthemeanhighwaterlinewasapproximately55ftfurther
landwardonthenorthendoftheproperty,and040ftonthesouthendoftheproperty,indicatinga
likelycombinationofnaturalaccretionintheearly1900slikelyalongwithfillplacementbymanaround
thetimeofsitedevelopmenttocreatemoredryland(Figure3,upperleftframe).Thehistoricalimages
alsoshowthatthespithasbeenadvancingnorthwardsinceatleast2006,suggestingthatprotection
providedbythespitwillcontinueintothefuture.Theremainsofabreakinthespitinthe2006image
wasnotnatural.Weunderstandthiswastheresultofabreachcutartificiallyinthemid1990s.
Theexposedbulkheadtoewasinthevicinityofthemeanhightothemeanhigherhighwaterline
(MHHW).Pocketsofnativedunegrass(Leymusmollis)werepresentinthefewsmallerodedareas
landwardofthebulkhead,wherefillhadbeenlostthroughfailingportionsofthebulkhead.Dunegrass
wasverythickontheadjacentshorelineatthesouthernpropertyline.Patchesofpickleweedwerealso
presentwithinthearmor.

Project Description
Theprimarypurposeofthisprojectisnearshorerestorationthroughshorearmorremoval,beach
regrading,andvegetationenhancement.Theshorearmorincludingangularbouldersandpilesand
immediatelyadjacentfillcovervaluablesaltmarshhabitatandothersandyupperbeachandbackshore
areas(Sheet1showsexistingconditions).Saltmarshisgenerallyonlypresentinanarrowandpatchy
bandwaterwardofthebulkheadnow.Shortandlongtermnegativeimpactsoferosionandscourare
increasedbythereflectivityoftheshorearmorasopposedtothemoregentlyslopingbeachbackshore.
Anotherimportantbenefitistheremovalofwoodcontaminatedwithcreosoteorotherpreservatives,
whichwillremovethesetoxicsfromthemarinesystemandpreventfurtherleaching.
Alongwithcrossshorecoastalprocessesrestoration,habitatrestorationwilloccurwherethebeachis
exposedbydebrisremovalandthebackshoreisexposedbyregrading.Vegetationenhancementwill
occurfromsaltmarshtransplantingandregrowth,andlimitedplantingofothernativespecies.Design
drawingssufficientforpermittingareprovidedinSheets16.

Purpose
Removaloftheshorearmor,associateddebrisandfillregradingwillprovide:

Enhancednearshorehabitats
Habitatandaestheticbenefitsofremovalofdirectburialoftheupperbeach

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Improvedbeachandwateraccessforcommunitymembers
Exchangeofterrestrialandaquaticnutrients,insects,invertebrates,andorganicmaterialdueto
restoredcrossshoreconnectivity
Creosotedtreatedwoodremoval(removaloftoxics)fromnearshoreenvironments

Preliminary Design Elements


Overview
Shorearmoranddebrisremovalshouldprovetoberelativelystraightforwardremovalofthepiles,
debrisandangularbouldersforhauloffsite.Theconstructionequipmentworkwillneedtobe
completedwithcautionduringremovalnearthepropertylinesanddrainagefeatures,andalsothesoft
sedimentoftheupperintertidal.Voidsleftbybulkheadremovalwillbefilledbyusingonsitematerial,
theregradingofnativesoilsandsuitablefill.Nonourishmentsedimentisrecommendedforimportas
thefillcurrentlylandwardofthebulkheadissuitableforbeachandbackshoresubstrate.Saltmarsh
vegetationshallbepreserved.
Theappropriateelevationsofthenewlyexposedbeachandbackshoreareawillbeplantedfor
nearshorehabitatenhancement.Apinnedboulderandlargewoodinstallationusingsalvagedonsite
materialswillbeplacednearthenorthpropertylinetoalleviateenderosionfromthebulkheadonthe
neighboringpropertythatwillremain.
Theprojectoverallincludesthefollowingmetrics:

Removalwilluncover11,294squarefeet(SF)ofbeachandbackshorearea
Removinganetofapproximately747cubicyard(CY)ofshorearmor,debrisandfill.
Approximately10,641SFoftheuncoveredareaisabovecurrentMHHW(8.67ftNAVD)while
653SFisbelowMHHW(8.67ftNAVD).
Atotalof868CYofmaterialwillberemovedfromthesite,ofwhich747CYwillbeexportedoff
site.Theremaining121CYissandyfillthatwillberegradedtofillvoidleftbyshorearmor
removal.
Approximately663CYoftheexportedshorearmor,debris,andfillisaboveMHHWand99CYis
belowMHHW.Theapproximate121CYtoremainonsiteisbelowMHHW.

Thefollowingsectionsfurtherdetailtheproject.
Angular Boulder and Debris
Theaveragewidthoftheexistingangularrockshorearmorstructureis9ftwhilethemaximumwidthis
12.5ft(Sheet1).Thelowestexposedelevationofangularbouldersis7.34ftNAVDandtheaverage
exposedrocktoeis8.1ftNAVD.Theaveragewidthofrubbleis2.5ft.
Approximately279CYofangularboulderswillberemovedwithintheprojectarea(Sheets2,3,6).
Approximately121CYofthebouldersarebelowadjacentgradeandwillleaveadepressionafter
removal.Approximately31CYofdebrisandrubblewillberemovedwiththeproject.Theareaofangular
boulderanddebristhatwillberemovedanduncoveredisapproximately3,192SF.
Thevoidsleftbyboulderandothershorearmorremovalwillbebackfilledwithadjacentsuitable
regradedfill.Tento15ofthelargestbouldersshallremainonsiteandshallbereusedtopinlargelogs
nearthenorthernpropertylinewithinthenewlygradedarea.

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Wood Pile Removal


Approximately70cubicyardsofpileswillberemovedwiththeproject(Sheets2,3,6).Removalofthe
pilesisanticipatedtobestraightforward,althoughsomewillbreakatgradeandsomeexcavationwillbe
neededbelowgrade.Asmallexcavatorwouldbecapableofremovingthemajorityofpileswithlimited
effort.Manypileshavesufficientmaterialatandabovebeachgradetoallowagripandpullmethod.
Pilesthatareseverelyweatheredatbeachgradeandthosethathavecompletelybrokenoffwillrequire
asmallamountofexcavationtoexposesufficientwoodforpulling.Ifitisdeterminedinthefieldan
entirepilecannotberemoved,minimallythepilemustbecutatleast2.0ftbelowproposedgrade.
Nochemicaltestingwascompletedaspartofthisprojecttodeterminethenatureofwoodpile
treatment.Giventhefieldindicatorsofthepresenceofcreosoteandtheprevalenceofcreosote
treatmentinthePugetSound,allpilesshouldbeconsideredcreosotetreateduntiltestingisperformed.
CreosotetreatedwoodremovalshallfollowBestManagementPractices(BMPs)tocontainsawdust,
capturealldebris,andpreventdebrisfromenteringthewater.Allcontaminatedwoodshallbehauled
toanapproveduplandfacilitythatispermittedtoacceptcreosotetreatedwood.
Beach and Backshore Earthwork
Thebeachandbackshoreoftheprojectareawillberegradedtoamorenaturalprofileaftershore
armoranddebrisremoval.Approximately488CYofsoilisproposedforexcavationand121CYofthat
willbesidecast,regraded,andleftonsitetofillthevoidsleftbyshorearmorremovalintheintertidal
(Sheets4,6).Therefore,ofthetotalamountofvolumeexportedfromthesite,approximately367CY
willbeexportedfill.
Themodifiedbeachprofilewillbeginatthewaterwardextentofshorearmoranddebrisremoval.The
waterwardelevationofregradingwillvarythroughouttheprojectfrom7ftNAVDto8.5ftNAVDand
willbegradedupto9.5ftNAVDwitha12:1slope(Horizontal:Vertical).Landwardof9.5ftNAVD,the
finishedslopeis8:1untiltheexistinggradeistiedintoasperplans.
Vegetation Enhancement
Saltmarshadjacenttoconstructionactivitiesshallbetransplantedtothenewlygradedintertidalarea.
Saltmarshvegetationcanbecultivated(harvested)andtransplantedfromneighboringareas.
Transplantingcanbeconductedbycutting6inchcubesofplantmaterial(withrootsintact)andplanting
inlowdensity(5to10ftoncenterspacing).Cuttingsshouldbetakenfromactivelygrowingherbaceous
stems,notdormantplants.Stemsshouldbeapproximately4to5inchesinlengthwithadequateroots.
Thetimebetweencollectingandplantingtransplantedmaterialshouldbeasshortaspossible.
Transplantedsaltmarshvegetationwillextendfromtheloweredgeoftheformerarmorareaupto9.5ft
ftNAVD.
Dunegrasscouldbeplantedlandwardof9.5ftNAVDandupto10.75ftNAVD.Barerootplugsof
dunegrasscouldimportedortransplantedandinstalledwith2ftspacing,withplantinginApril
preferred.
Intwoareasneareachendoftheprojectarea(Sheet5),severalnativesalttolerantshrubspecies
(snowberry;Symphoricarposalbusandoceanspray:Holodiscusdiscolor)willbeimportedandplantedin
thenewlyuncoveredbeachandbackshorearealandwardof10.75ftNAVD,alongwithdunegrassatlow

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density(6ftoncenter).Two10ftwidetrailsthroughtheplantingareawillremainunplantedfor
communityaccess(Sheet5).Vegetationotherthandunegrassshouldbeplantedinthefallorwet
seasonpreferred.
Pinned Large Wood
Salvagedonsitelargelogsandseveralbouldersshallbepinnednearthenorthernpropertycornerwithin
thenewlyregradedareatopreventpotentialfutureenderosionfromtheneighboringbulkhead(Sheet
4).The34largestwoodpiecesonsiteshallbeused.Approximatelyelevensalvagedlargeboulders
shallbeplacedasdetailedintheplan.Minimally,abouldershallbeplacedinclosecontactateach
cornerofthelog.Themostwaterwardextentoftheinstallationshallhaveatleastthreebouldersin
closecontact.
Allbouldersshallbeintightcontactwiththeadjacentlargewoodallowingthewoodcontactwiththe
newlyregradedsubstrate.
Construction Access and Logistics
Equipmentaccessandmaterialstransportcanallbeaccomplishedfromtheuplands.Cautionshallbe
usedtoavoidanytraveloverthesepticdrainfield,whichwillbeflaggedpriortotheconstructionand
whenequipmentisnearsoftintertidalsediments.Saltmarshvegetationshallbepreserved.
Thefollowingistheassumedconstructionschedule:

Preparesiteaccess
Mobilizationofconstructionequipmenttotheprojectsite
InstallBMPs
Remove,stockpile,andhaulshorearmorandpiles
Excavate,regrade,andhaulfill
Installpinnedlargewoodonsitewithsalvagedboulders
Demobilizeconstructionequipment
Importandtransplantplantings
Installplantswithinvegetationenhancementareas

Limitations of This Report


Thisreportwaspreparedforthespecificconditionspresentatthesubjectpropertytomeettheneeds
ofspecificindividuals.Nooneotherthanthelandownerandtheiragentsshouldapplythisreportfor
anypurposesotherthanthatoriginallycontemplatedwithoutfirstconferringwiththeprofessionalthat
preparedthisreport.Thefindingsandrecommendationspresentedinthisreportwerereachedbased
onabrieffieldvisit.Thereportdoesnotreflectdetailedexaminationofsubsurfaceconditionspresent
atthesite,ordrainagesystemdesigns,whicharenotknowntoexist.Itisbasedonexaminationof
surfacefeatures,bankexposures,soilcharacteristics,grossvegetationcharacteristicsandbeach
processes.Inaddition,conditionsmaychangeatthesiteduetohumaninfluences,floods,groundwater
regimechanges,orotherfactors.Thisreportmaynotbeallthatisrequiredtocarryoutrecommended
actions.Moredetaileddesignspecificationsmaybeneededforproperimplementationofahabitat
enhancementproject.

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References
CoastalGeologicServices,Inc.February9,2016.SiteVisitReportSunlightShoresCommunityAssociationCoastal
Enhancement.ToSunlightShoreCommunityAssociation,c/o:NancyBoyleandLancePorter.
Johannessen,J.W.andA.M.MacLennan,2007.BeachesandBluffsofPugetSound.PugetSoundNearshore
PartnershipReportNo.200704.PublishedbySeattleDistrict,U.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers,Seattle,WA,
http://www.pugetsoundnearshore.org/technical_reports.html.
Johannessen,J.,A.MacLennan,A.Blue,J.Waggoner,S.Williams,W.Gerstel,R.Barnard,R.Carman,andH.
Shipman,2014.MarineShorelineDesignGuidelines.WashingtonDepartmentofFishandWildlife,
Olympia,Washington.http://wdfw.wa.gov/publications/01583/
Coastal Geologic Services, Inc.

JimJohannessen,
LicensedEngineeringGeologist,MS

ATTACHMENTS:
Figure1.SunlightShoresCountryClublocationmap
Figure2.Netshoredriftneartheprojectlocation
Figure3.SunlightShoreshistoricalshorechange19902015.
PhotoPage1.Groundphotosofthesite
Sheet1.CoverSheetandVicinityMap
Sheet2.ExistingConditions,SitePlan
Sheet3.ProposedConditionsDemolitionPlan,SitePlan
Sheet4.ProposedConditionsGradingPlan,SitePlan
Sheet5.ProposedConditionsPlantingPlan,SitePlan
Sheet6.ProposedConditions,CrossSectionsandDetails
EngineersCostEstimate.PreliminaryCostestimatesheet

AlexisBlue,

CoastalEngineer,PE,MS