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SUMMARY OF STRUCTURAL CALCULATION OF 1-BARREL BOX CULVERT

1 Design Dimensions and Bar Arrangements


Type of box culvert

Class I Road (BM100)

B0,4 x H0,4

Clear width
Clear height
Height of fillet

m
m
m

0,40
0,40
0,15

Thickness Side wall


Top slab
Bottom slab

cm
cm
cm

20,0
20,0
20,0

Cover of reinforcement bar (between concrete surface and center of reinforcement bar)
Side wall
Outside
cm
6,0
Inside
cm
6,0
Top slab
Upper
cm
6,0
Lower
cm
6,0
Bottom slab Lower
cm
6,0
Upper
cm
6,0

Bar arrangement

(dia - spacing per unit length of 1.0 m)

Side wall

Lower outside Tensile bar


Distribution bar
Middle inside Tensile bar
Distribution bar
Upper outside Tensile bar
Distribution bar

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

12@150
12@250
12@250
12@250
12@150
12@250

Top slab

Upper edge

mm
mm
mm
mm

12@150
12@250
12@150
12@250

Bottom slabLower edge

Tensile bar
Distribution bar
Upper middle Tensile bar
Distribution bar

mm
mm
mm
mm

12@150
12@250
12@150
12@250

Upper edge
Lower edge

mm
mm

12@250
12@250

Fillet

Tensile bar
Distribution bar
Lower middle Tensile bar
Distribution bar

Fillet bar
Fillet bar

2 Design Parameters
Unit Weight

Reinforced Concrete
Backfill soil
(wet)
(submerged)

c=
s=
s'=

Live Load

Class of road
Truck load at rear wheel
Impact coefficient(for Class I to IV road)

P=
Ci=

Pedestrian load

(for Class V roads)

3
2,4 tf/m
3
1,8 tf/m
3
1,0 tf/m

Class I
10,0
0,3
0,0
0

(BM100)
tf
(D<4.0m)
(D>4.0m)
tf/m2

Concrete
(K175)

Design Strength
Allowable Compressive Stress
Allowable Shearing Stress

ck=
ca=
a=

2
175 kgf/cm
2
70 kgf/cm
2
5,5 kgf/cm

Reinforcement Bar
(U24, deformed bar)

Allowable Tensile Stress


Yielding Point of Reinforcement Bar

sa=
sy=

2
2.100 kgf/cm
2
kgf/cm
3.000

Young's Modulus Ratio


Coefficient of static earth pressure

1/1

n=

24

Ka=

0,5

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/Summary

STRUCTURAL CALCULATION OF BOX CULVERT

Type: B0,40m x H0,40m Class I Road


Soil Cover Depth: 0,4 m

1 Dimensions and Parameters

Gwd
D

t2

H
Hf

HT
Hf
t3

t1

t1

B
B

Cover of R-bar
Top Slab d2
Side Wall d1
Bottom Slab d3

0,06 m
0,06 m
0,06 m

Basic Parameters
Ka:
Coefficient of static earth pressure
w:
Unit weight of water (t/m3)
d:
Unit weight of soil (dry) (t/m3)
s:
Unit weight of soil (saturated) (t/m3)
c:
Unit weight of reinforced concrete (t/m3)
ck:
Concrete Design Strength
ca
Allowable Stress of Concrete
sa:
Allowable Stress of Reinforcement Bar
a:
Allowable Stress of Shearing (Concrete)
sy:
Yielding Point of Reinforcement Bar
n:
Young's Modulus Ratio
Fa:
Safety factor against uplift

0,5
1,00
1,80
2,00
2,40
175
70
2100
5,5
3000
24
1,2

Basic Dimensions
H:
Internal Height of Box Culvert
B:
Internal Width of Box Culvert
Hf:
Fillet Height
t1:
Thickness of Side Wall
t2:
Thickness of Top Slab
t3:
Thickness of Invert (Bottom Slab)
BT:
Gross Width of Box Culvert
HT:
Gross Height of Box Culvert
D:
Covering Depth
Gwd:
Underground Water Depth
for Case 1, 2
hiw:
Internal Water Depth
for Case 1, 2
for Case 3, 4

0,40
0,40
0,15
0,20
0,20
0,20
0,80
0,80
0,41
0,41
0,00
0,40

Basic Conditions
Classification of Live load by truck
Class
PTM:
Truck load of Middle Tire
Ii:
Impact coefficient (D4.0m:0, D<4.0m:0.3)
am:
Ground contact length of Middle Tire
bm:
Ground contact width of Middle Tire
PTR:
Truck load of Rear Tire
ar:
Ground contact length of Rear Tire
br:
Ground contact width of Rear Tire
PTF:
Truck load of Front wheel
af:
Ground contact length of Front Tire
bf:
Ground contact width of Front Tire
qp:
Pedestrian load

1
10,00
0,3
0,20
0,50
10,00
0,20
0,50
2,50
0,20
0,50
0,00

t/m3
t/m3
t/m3
t/m3
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
kgf/m2

m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m

(> 0.25m)
(> 0.25m)
(> 0.25m)

(= D)

t
m
m
t
m
m
t
m
m
t/m2

Dimension of frame
t1

t1
D1

t2

H0:
B0:
D1:

Height of frame
Width of frame
Covering depth at middle of top slab

t2/2 + H + t3/2
B + t1
D + t2/2

0,600 m
0,600 m
0,510 m

H0

t3
B0

1/6

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/Load

Load distribution of truck tire


(1) Middle tire's acting point: center of the top slab
a) distributed load of middle tire
Pvtm:
distributed load of middle tire
am':
length of distributed load
bm':
width of distributed load
b) distributed load of rear tire
Pvtr:
distributed load of rear tire
ar':
length of distributed load
br':
width of distributed load
c) distributed load of front tire
Pvtf:
distributed load of front tire
af':
length of distributed load
bf':
width of distributed load
(2) Middle tire's acting point: on the side wall
a) distributed load of middle tire
Pvtm:
distributed load of middle tire
am':
length of distributed load
bm':
width of distributed load
b) distributed load of rear tire
Pvtr:
distributed load of rear tire
ar':
length of distributed load
br':
width of distributed load
c) distributed load of front tire
Pvtf:
distributed load of front tire
af':
length of distributed load
bf':
width of distributed load
(3) Rear tire's acting point: on the side wall
a) distributed load of rear tire
Pvtr:
distributed load of rear tire
ar':
length of distributed load
br':
width of distributed load
b) distributed load of middle tire
Pvtm:
distributed load of middle tire
am':
length of distributed load
bm':
width of distributed load
c) distributed load of front tire
Pvtf:
distributed load of front tire
af':
length of distributed load
bf':
width of distributed load

2PTM(1+Ii)/(am'bm') =
2D+1.75+bm =
2D+am =

8,3030 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,600 m

not reach to top slab


2D+1.75+br =
2D+ar =

0,0000 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,000 m

not reach to top slab


2D+1.75+bf =
2D+af =

0,0000 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,000 m

2PTM(1+Ii)/(am'bm') =
2D+1.75+bm =
2D+am =

8,3030 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,600 m

not reach to top slab


2D+1.75+br =
2D+ar =

0,0000 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,000 m

not reach to top slab


2D+1.75+bf =
2D+af =

0,0000 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,000 m

2PTR(1+Ii)/(ar'br') =
2D+1.75+br =
2D+ar =

8,3030 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,600 m

not reach to top slab


2D+1.75+bm =
2D+am =

0,0000 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,000 m

not reach to top slab


2D+1.75+bf =
2D+af =

0,0000 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,000 m

(4) Combination of load distribution of track tire


Case.L1:
Case.L2:

Pvt1 =
Pvt2 =
Pvt1 =
Pvt2 =

8,3030
0,0000
8,3030
0,0000

tf/m2,
tf/m2,
tf/m2,
tf/m2,

B=
B=
B=
B=

0,600
0,000
0,600
0,000

m
m
m
m

Combination for Case.L2

(2)
a) + b)
8,3030

(2)
(3)
a) + c) a) + b)
Distributed load total
8,3030 8,3030
Select the combination case of
8,3030 tf/m2,
for Case.L2, which is the largest load to the top slab.

(3)
a) + c)
8,3030

In case of covering depth (D) is over 3.0m, uniform load of 1.0 tf/m2 is applied on the top slab of culvert instead of live load calculated above.

Distribution load by pedestrian load


Pvt1 =

0,000 tf/m2

2 Stability Analysis Against Uplift


Analysis is made considering empty inside of box culvert.
Fs=Vd/U > Fa
Fs=
where, Vd:
Total dead weight (t/m)
Vd=
U:
Total uplift (t.m)
U=BT*HT*w
U=
Ws:
Wc:
Fa:

Weight of covering soil


Self weight of box culvert
Safety factor against uplift

Ws =
Wc =
Fa=

2,8913 > 1,2


1,850 tf/m

ok

0,640 tf/m
BT*{(D-Gwd)*(sw)+Gwd*d}
(HT*BT-H*B+2*Hf^2)*c
1,2

2/6

=
=

0,590 tf/m
1,260 tf/m

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/Load

3 Load calculation
Case 1: Box Culvert Inside is Empty, Underground Water up to Top slab, Track load Case. L1
1) vertical load against top slab
Acting Load
Wtop= (t2*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0
Pvd=Gwd*gd+(D-Gwd)*gs
Pvt1
Pvt2

2) horizontal load at top of side wall


Acting Load
P1=Ka*we1
P2=Ka*we2
P3=Ka*gd*Gwd
P4=Ka*gs*(D1-Gwd)
P5=gw*(D1-Gwd)

3) horizontal load at bottom of side wall


Acting Load
P1=Ka*we1
P2=Ka*we2
P3=Ka*d*Gwd
P4=Ka*s*(D1+H0-Gwd)
P5=w*(D1+H0-Gwd)

4) self weight of side wall


Acting Load
Wsw=t1*H*c

5) ground reaction
Acting Load
Wbot=(t3*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0
Wtop
Ws=Wsw*2/B0
Pvd
Pvt1
Pvt2
Wiw=(hiw*B-2Hf^2)*w/B0
Up=-U/B0

summary of resistance moment


Item
Self weight

load on top slab

soil pressure

top slab
side wall (left)
side wall (right)
invert
Pvd
Pvt1
Pvt2
side wall (left)
side wall (right)

internal water
uplift
total

Wtop=
Pvd=
Pvt1=
Pvt2=
Pv1=

(tf/m2)
0,7300
0,7380
8,3030
0,0000
9,7710

P1=
P2=
P3=
P4=
P5=
Ph1=

(tf/m2)
4,1515
0,0000
0,3690
0,1000
0,1000
4,7205

P1=
P2=
P3=
P4=
P5=
Ph2=

(tf/m2)
4,1515
0,0000
0,3690
0,7000
0,7000
5,9205

Wsw=

(tf/m)
0,1920

Wbot=
Wtop=
Ws=
Pvd=
Pvt1=
Pvt2=
Wiw=
U=
Q=

(tf/m2)
0,7300
0,7300
0,6400
0,7380
8,3030
0,0000
0,0000
-1,0667
10,0743

V
(tf/m)
0,4380
0,1920
0,1920
0,4380
0,4428
4,9818
0,0000
0,0000
-0,6400
6,0446

H
(tf/m)
3,1923
-3,1923
-

Horizontal pressure by track tire


we1=
8,3030 tf/m2
we2=
0,0000 tf/m2

hiw: internal water depth

x
(m)
0,3000
0,0000
0,6000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000

y
(m)
0,2887
0,2887
-

M
(tf.m/m)
0,1314
0,0000
0,1152
0,1314
0,1328
1,4945
0,0000
0,9217
-0,9217
0,0000
-0,1920
1,8134

0,00 m

acting point of resultant force


X = M/V =
0,300 m
e = B0/2 - X =
0,000 m
ground reaction
q1 = V/Bo + 6Ve/Bo^2 = 10,0743 tf/m2
q2 = V/Bo - 6Ve/Bo^2 = 10,0743 tf/m2

6) load against invert


Acting Load
(tf/m2)
Pvd
0,7380
Pvt1
8,3030
Pvt2
0,0000
Wtop
0,7300
Ws
0,6400
Pq= 10,4110

3/6

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/Load

Case 2: Box Culvert Inside is Empty, Underground Water up to Top slab, Track load Case. L2
1) vertical load against top slab
Acting Load
Wtop= (t2*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0
Pvd=Gwd*gd+(D-Gwd)*gs
Pvt1
Pvt2

2) horizontal load at top of side wall


Acting Load
P1=Ka*we1
P2=Ka*we2
P3=Ka*gd*Gwd
P4=Ka*gs*(D1-Gwd)
P5=gw*(D1-Gwd)

3) horizontal load at bottom of side wall


Acting Load
P1=Ka*we1
P2=Ka*we2
P3=Ka*d*Gwd
P4=Ka*s*(D1+H0-Gwd)
P5=w*(D1+H0-Gwd)

4) self weight of side wall


Acting Load
Wsw=t1*H*c

5) ground reaction
Acting Load
Wbot=(t3*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0
Wtop
Ws=Wsw*2/B0
Pvd
Pvt1
Pvt2
Wiw=(hiw*B-2Hf^2)*w/B0
Up=-U/B0

summary of resistance moment


Item
Self weight

load on top slab

soil pressure

top slab
side wall (left)
side wall (right)
invert
Pvd
Pvt1
Pvt2
side wall (left)
side wall (right)

internal water
uplift
total

Wtop=
Pvd=
Pvt1=
Pvt2=
Pv1=

(tf/m2)
0,7300
0,7380
8,3030
0,0000
9,7710

P1=
P2=
P3=
P4=
P5=
Ph1=

(tf/m2)
4,1515
0,0000
0,3690
0,1000
0,1000
4,7205

P1=
P2=
P3=
P4=
P5=
Ph2=

(tf/m2)
4,1515
0,0000
0,3690
0,7000
0,7000
5,9205

Wsw=

(tf/m)
0,1920

Wbot=
Wtop=
Ws=
Pvd=
Pvt1=
Pvt2=
Wiw=
U=
Q=

(tf/m2)
0,7300
0,7300
0,6400
0,7380
8,3030
0,0000
0,0000
-1,0667
10,0743

V
(tf/m)
0,4380
0,1920
0,1920
0,4380
0,4428
4,9818
0,0000
0,0000
-0,6400
6,0446

H
(tf/m)
3,1923
-3,1923
-

Horizontal pressure by track tire


we1=
8,3030 tf/m2
we2=
0,0000 tf/m2

hiw: internal water depth

x
(m)
0,3000
0,0000
0,6000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000

y
(m)
0,2887
0,2887
-

M
(tf.m/m)
0,1314
0,0000
0,1152
0,1314
0,1328
1,4945
0,0000
0,9217
-0,9217
0,0000
-0,1920
1,8134

0,00 m

acting point of resultant force


X = M/V =
0,3000 m
e = B0/2 - X =
0,0000 m
ground reaction
q1 = V/Bo + 6Ve/Bo^2 = 10,0743 tf/m2
q2 = V/Bo - 6Ve/Bo^2 = 10,0743 tf/m2

6) load against invert


Acting Load
(tf/m2)
Pvd
0,7380
Pvt1
8,3030
Pvt2
0,0000
Wtop
0,7300
Ws
0,6400
total
Pq= 10,4110

4/6

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/Load

Case 3: Box Culvert Inside is Full, Underground Water up to invert, Track load Case. L1
1) vertical load against top slab
Acting Load
Wtop= (t2*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0
Pvd=D*d
Pvt1
Pvt2

2) horizontal load at top of side wall


Acting Load
P1=Ka*we1
P2=Ka*we2
P3=Ka*d*D1
WP=-w*0

3) horizontal load at bottom of side wall


Acting Load
P1=Ka*we1
P2=Ka*we2
P3=Ka*d*(D1+H0)
WP=-w*H

4) self weight of side wall


Acting Load
Wsw=t1*H*c

5) ground reaction
Acting Load
Wbot=(t3*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0
Wtop
Ws=Wsw*2/B0
Pvd
Pvt1
Pvt2
Wiw=(hiw*B-2Hf^2)*w/B0
Up=0

summary of resistance moment


Item
Self weight

load on top slab

soil pressure

top slab
side wall (left)
side wall (right)
invert
Pvd
Pvt1
Pvt2
side wall (left)
side wall (right)

internal water
uplift
total

Wtop=
Pvd=
Pvt1=
Pvt2=
Pv1=

(tf/m2)
0,7300
0,7380
8,3030
0,0000
9,7710

P1=
P2=
P3=
P4=
Ph1=

(tf/m2)
4,1515
0,0000
0,4590
0,0000
4,6105

P1=
P2=
P3=
P4=
Ph2=

(tf/m2)
4,1515
0,0000
0,9990
-0,4000
4,7505

Wsw=

(tf/m)
0,1920

Wbot=
Wtop=
Ws=
Pvd=
Pvt1=
Pvt2=
Wiw=
U=
Q=

(tf/m2)
0,7300
0,7300
0,6400
0,7380
8,3030
0,0000
0,1917
0,0000
11,3327

V
(tf/m)
0,4380
0,1920
0,1920
0,4380
0,4428
4,9818
0,0000
0,1150
0,0000
6,7996

H
(tf/m)
2,8083
-2,8083
-

Horizontal pressure by track tire


we1=
8,3030 tf/m2
we2=
0,0000 tf/m2

hiw: internal water depth

x
(m)
0,3000
0,0000
0,6000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000

y
(m)
0,2985
0,2985
-

M
(tf.m/m)
0,1314
0,0000
0,1152
0,1314
0,1328
1,4945
0,0000
0,8383
-0,8383
0,0345
0,0000
2,0399

0,400 m

acting point of resultant force


X = M/V =
0,3000 m
e = B0/2 - X =
0,0000 m
ground reaction
q1 = V/Bo + 6Ve/Bo^2 = 11,3327 tf/m2
q2 = V/Bo - 6Ve/Bo^2 = 11,3327 tf/m2

6) load against invert


Acting Load
(tf/m2)
Pvd
0,7380
Pvt1
8,3030
Pvt2
0,0000
Wtop
0,7300
Ws
0,6400
total
Pq= 10,4110

5/6

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/Load

Case 4: Box Culvert Inside is Full, Underground Water up to invert, Track load Case. L2
1) vertical load against top slab
Acting Load
Wtop= (t2*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0
Pvd=D*d
Pvt1
Pvt2

2) horizontal load at top of side wall


Acting Load
P1=Ka*we1
P2=Ka*we2
P3=Ka*d*D1
WP=-w*0

3) horizontal load at bottom of side wall


Acting Load
P1=Ka*we1
P2=Ka*we2
P3=Ka*d*(D1+H0)
WP=-w*H

4) self weight of side wall


Acting Load
Wsw=t1*H*c

5) ground reaction
Acting Load
Wbot=(t3*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0
Wtop
Ws=Wsw*2/B0
Pvd
Pvt1
Pvt2
Wiw=(hiw*B-2Hf^2)*w/B0
Up=0

summary of resistance moment


Item
Self weight

load on top slab

soil pressure

top slab
side wall (left)
side wall (right)
invert
Pvd
Pvt1
Pvt2
side wall (left)
side wall (right)

internal water
uplift
total

Wtop=
Pvd=
Pvt1=
Pvt2=
Pv1=

(tf/m2)
0,7300
0,7380
8,3030
0,0000
9,7710

P1=
P2=
P3=
P4=
Ph1=

(tf/m2)
4,1515
0,0000
0,4590
0,0000
4,6105

P1=
P2=
P3=
P4=
Ph2=

(tf/m2)
4,1515
0,0000
0,9990
-0,4000
4,7505

Wsw=

(tf/m)
0,1920

Wbot=
Wtop=
Ws=
Pvd=
Pvt1=
Pvt2=
Wiw=
U=
Q=

(tf/m2)
0,7300
0,7300
0,6400
0,7380
8,3030
0,0000
0,1917
0,0000
11,3327

Horizontal pressure by track tire


we1=
8,3030 tf/m2
we2=
0,0000 tf/m2

hiw: internal water depth

V
(tf/m)
0,4380
0,1920
0,1920
0,4380
0,4428
4,9818
0,0000
0,1150
0,0000
6,7996

H
(tf/m)
2,8083
-2,8083
-

x
(m)
0,3000
0,0000
0,6000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000

y
0,2985
0,2985
-

Ph2
(tf/m2)
5,9205
5,9205
4,7505
4,7505

Pq
(tf/m2)
10,4110
10,4110
10,4110
10,4110

Wsw
(tf/m)
0,1920
0,1920
0,1920
0,1920

q1
(tf/m2)
10,0743
10,0743
11,3327
11,3327

(m)

M
(tf.m/m)
0,1314
0,0000
0,1152
0,1314
0,1328
1,4945
0,0000
0,8383
-0,8383
0,0345
0,0000
2,0399

0,400 m

acting point of resultant force


X = M/V =
0,3000 m
e = B0/2 - X =
0,0000 m
ground reaction
q1 = V/Bo + 6Ve/Bo^2 = 11,3327 tf/m2
q2 = V/Bo - 6Ve/Bo^2 = 11,3327 tf/m2

6) load against invert


Acting Load
(tf/m2)
Pvd
0,7380
Pvt1
8,3030
Pvt2
0,0000
Wtop
0,7300
Ws
0,6400
total
Pq= 10,4110

Summary of Load Calculation


Item
Case
Case.1
Case.2
Case.3
Case.4

Pv1
(tf/m2)
9,7710
9,7710
9,7710
9,7710

Ph1
(tf/m2)
4,7205
4,7205
4,6105
4,6105

6/6

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/Load

4 Analysis of Plane Frame


Case 1: Box Culvert Inside is Empty, Underground Water up to Top slab, Track load Case. L1
1) Calculation of Load Term
Ph1
Horizontal Pressure at top of side wall
Ph2
Horizontal Pressure at bottom of side wall
Pv1
Vertical Pressure(1) on top slab
Pv2
Vertical Pressure(2) on top slab
Pq
Reaction to bottom slab
a
Distance from joint B to far end of Pv2
b
Distance from joint B to near end of Pv2
H0
Height of plane frame
B0
Width of plane frame
t1
Thickness of side wall
t2
Thickness of top slab
t3
Thickness of invert (bottom slab)

4,720
5,920
9,771
0,000
10,411
0,600
0,000
0,600
0,600
0,200
0,200
0,200

tf/m
2
tf/m
tf/m2
tf/m2
tf/m2
m
B
m
m
H0 (t1)
m
m
A
m
m

(t2)

C
(t1)

(t3)

B0
CAB = CDC = (2Ph1+3Ph2)H02/60

CBA = CCD = (3Ph1+2Ph2)H02/60

0,15601 tfm

CBC = CCB = Pv1B02/12 + {(a2-b2)B02/2 - 2B0(a3-b3)/3 + (a4-b4)/4}Pv2/B02

0,29313 tfm

CDA = CAD = PqB02/12

0,31233 tfm

0,16321 tfm

2) Calculation of Bending Moment at joint


k1
=
k2 = H0t23/(B0t13) =

1,0
1,0000

k3 = H0t33/(B0t13) =

1,0000

2(k1+k3)

k1

k3

-3k1

k1

2(k1+k2)

k2

-3k1

CBC - CBA

k2

2(k1+k2)

k1

-3k1

= CCD - CCB

k3

k1

2(k1+k3)

-3k1

CDA - CDC

k1

k1

k1

k1

-4k1

CAB - CAD

As load has bilateral symmetry, the equation shown below is formed.


B = -C

A = -D
2k1+k3

k1

k1

2k1+k2

3,0000
1,0

1,0
3,0000

A
B

R =0
=

CAB - CAD
CBC - CBA
-0,14911493
0,13711493

By solving above equation, the result is led as shown below.


A
B

= -0,07306
= 0,07006

C
D

1 / 16

=
=

-0,07006
0,07306

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

MAB = k1(2A +B) - CAB

MBA = k1(2B+A)+CBA

0,2231 tfm

MBC = k2(2B+C) - CBC

-0,2231 tfm

MCB = k2(2C+B)+CCB

0,2231 tfm

MCD = k1(2C+D) - CCD

-0,2231 tfm

MDC =k1 (2D+ C)+CDC

0,2393 tfm

MDA = k3(2D+A) - CDA

-0,2393 tfm

MAD = k3(2A+D)+CAD

0,2393 tfm

-0,2393 tfm

2) Calculation of Design Force


2-1) Side Wall in left
a) Shearing Force at joint

MBA
w2

5,920 tf/m2
4,720 tf/m2
-0,2393 tfm

w1
w2
MAB

Load at end A
Load at end B
Bending moment at end A

MBA
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end B


Length of member (=H0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

0,2231
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

L
x
A
w1

SAB = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MAB+MBA)/L


=
1,683 tf
=
-1,509 tf
SBA = SAB - L(w1+w2)/2

MAB

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=

c) Bending Moment
MA = MAB
MB = -MBA

0,280
0,104
0,320
-0,109

m
tf
m
tf

-0,239 tfm

-0,223 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
1,6831
-5,9205 x
+
1,0000 x2 ,
x =
Bending moment at x = 0,2994

5,621
0,299

m is;

Mmax = SABx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MAB

2 / 16

0,008 tfm

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

2-2) Top Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
a
b
MBC
MCB
L
ch
t
d

Uniform load
9,771 tf/m2
Uniform load
0,000 tf/m2
Distance from end B to near end of w2 0,000 m
Length of uniform load w2
0,600 m
Bending moment at end B
-0,2231 tfm
Bending moment at end C
0,2231 tfm
Length of member (=Bo)
0,600 m
Protective covering height
0,060 m
Thickness of member (height)
0,200 m
Effective height of member
0,140 m

w2
w1
C

B
MBC

SBC = (w1L+w2b)/2-(MBC+MCB)/L

2,931 tf

SCB = SBC -w1L - w2b

-2,931 tf

MCB
L

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SBC - w1x - w2(x-a)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=
c) Bending Moment
MB = MBC
MC = -MCB

=
=

0,000 m <= x <=

in case of
0,280
0,195
0,320
-0,195

0,600 m

m
tf
m
tf

-0,223 tfm
-0,223 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the center of member due to symmetry loading distribution.
Bending moment at x = 0,300 m is;
=
0,217 tfm
Mmax = SBCx - w1x2/2 - w2(x-a)2/2 + MBC

2-3) Side Wall in right


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
MCD
MDC
L
ch
t
d

Load at end C
Load at end D
Bending moment at end C
Bending moment at end D
Length of member (=H0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

4,720
5,920
-0,2231
0,2393
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tf/m
tf/m2
tfm
tfm
m
m
m
m

MCD
C
L

w1

x
D

w2

MDC

SCD = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MCD+MDC)/L


=
1,509 tf
SDC = SCD - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-1,683 tf

3 / 16

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=
c) Bending Moment
MC = MCD
MD = -MDC

0,280
0,109
0,320
-0,104

m
tf
m
tf

-0,223 tfm

-0,239 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
1,5091
-4,7205 x
-1,0000 x2 ,
x =

-5,021
0,301

Bending moment at x = 0,3006 m is;


Mmax = SCDx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MCD

= 0,00825 tfm

2-4) Bottom Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
MDA

Reaction at end D
Reaction at end A
Bending moment at end B

MAD
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end C


Length of member (=B0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

10,411 tf/m2
10,411 tf/m2
-0,23927 tfm
0,23927
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

L
MAD

MDA

w2

w1

SDA = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MDA+MAD)/L


=
3,123 tf
SAD = SDA - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-3,123 tf
b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint
Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SDA- w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
0,280 m
Sx1
=
0,208 tf
(ii) In case of x2 =
0,320 m
Sx2
=
-0,208 tf
c) Bending Moment
MD = MDA
=
-0,239 tfm
MA = -MAD
=
-0,239 tfm
The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SDA - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
3,1233
-10,4110 x
,
x =

0,300

Bending moment at x = 0,3000 m is;


Mmax = SDAx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MDA

4 / 16

0,229 tfm

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

Case 2: Box Culvert Inside is Empty, Underground Water up to Top slab, Track load Case. L2
1) Calculation of Load Term
Ph1
Horizontal Pressure at top of side wall
Ph2
Horizontal Pressure at bottom of side wall
Pv1
Vertical Pressure(1) on top slab
Pv2
Vertical Pressure(2) on top slab
Pq
Reaction to bottom slab
a
Distance from joint B to far end of Pv2
b
Distance from joint B to near end of Pv2
H0
Height of plane frame
B0
Width of plane frame
t1
Thickness of side wall
t2
Thickness of top slab
t3
Thickness of invert (bottom slab)

4,720
5,920
9,771
0,000
10,411
0,600
0,000
0,600
0,600
0,200
0,200
0,200

tf/m2
tf/m2
2
tf/m
2
tf/m
2
tf/m
m
B
m
m
H0 (t1)
m
m
A
m
m

(t2)

C
(t1)

(t3)

B0
CAB = CDC = (2Ph1+3Ph2)H02/60

CBA = CCD = (3Ph1+2Ph2)H02/60

0,15601 tfm

0,29313 tfm

0,31233 tfm

CBC = CCB = Pv1B0 /12 + {(a -b )B0 /2 - 2B0(a -b )/3 + (a -b )/4}Pv2/B0

CDA = CAD = PqB02/12

0,16321 tfm

2) Calculation of Bending Moment at joint


k1
=
k2 = H0t23/(B0t13) =

1,0
1,00000

k3 = H0t33/(B0t13) =

1,00000

2(k1+k3)

k1

k3

-3k1

k1

2(k1+k2)

k2

-3k1

CBC - CBA

k2

2(k1+k2)

k1

-3k1

k3
k1

0
k1

k1
k1

2(k1+k3)
k1

-3k1
-4k1

D
R

= CCD - CCB
CDA - CDC
0

CAB - CAD

As load has bilateral symmetry, the equation shown below is formed.


A = -D

R =0

B = -C

2k1+k3

k1

k1

2k1+k2

3,0000
1,0

1,0
3,0000

A
B

CAB - CAD
CBC - CBA
-0,14911493
0,13711493

By solving above equation, the result is led as shown below.


A

= -0,07306

-0,07006

0,07306

0,07006

5 / 16

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

MAB = k1(2A +B) - CAB

MBA = k1(2B+A)+CBA

0,2231 tfm

MBC = k2(2B+C) - CBC

-0,2231 tfm

MCB = k2(2C+B)+CCB

0,2231 tfm

MCD = k1(2C+D) - CCD

-0,2231 tfm

MDC =k1 (2D+ C)+CDC

0,2393 tfm

MDA = k3(2D+A) - CDA

-0,2393 tfm

MAD = k3(2A+D)+CAD

0,2393 tfm

-0,2393 tfm

2) Calculation of Design Force


2-1) Side Wall in left
a) Shearing Force at joint

MBA
w2

w1
w2
MAB

Load at end A
Load at end B
Bending moment at end A

5,920 tf/m
4,720 tf/m2
-0,2393 tfm

MBA
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end B


Length of member (=H0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

0,2231
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

L
x
A
w1

SAB = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MAB+MBA)/L


= 1,6831 tf
SBA = SAB - L(w1+w2)/2
= -1,5091 tf

MAB

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=

c) Bending Moment
MA = MAB
MB = -MBA

0,280
0,104
0,32
-0,109

m
tf
m
tf

-0,239 tfm

-0,223 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
1,6831
-5,9205 x
+
1,0000 x2 ,
x =
Bending moment at x = 0,2994

5,621
0,299

m is;

Mmax = SABx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MAB

6 / 16

0,008 tfm

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

2-2) Top Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
a
b
MBC

Uniform load
9,771
Uniform load
0,000
Distance from end B to near end of w2 0,000
Length of uniform load w2
0,600
Bending moment at end B
-0,2231

tf/m2
2
tf/m
m
m
tfm

MCB
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end C


Length of member (=Bo)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

tfm
m
m
m
m

0,2231
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

SBC = (w1L+w2b)/2-(MBC+MCB)/L

2,931 tf

SCB = SBC -w1L - w2b

-2,931 tf

w2
w1
C

B
MBC

MCB
L

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SBC - w1x - w2(x-a)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=
c) Bending Moment
MB = MBC
MC = -MCB

0,000 m <= x <=

in case of
0,280
0,195
0,320
-0,195

0,600 m

m
tf
m
tf

-0,223 tfm

-0,223 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the center of member due to symmetry loading distribution.
Bending moment at x = 0,300 m is;
=
0,217 tfm
Mmax = SBCx - w1x2/2 - w2(x-a)2/2 + MBC

2-3) Side Wall in right


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
MCD

Load at end C
Load at end D
Bending moment at end C

MDC
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end D


Length of member (=H0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

4,720 tf/m2
5,920 tf/m2
-0,2231 tfm
0,2393
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

MCD
C
L

w1

x
D

w2

MDC

SCD = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MCD+MDC)/L


=
1,509 tf
SDC = SCD - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-1,683 tf

7 / 16

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
0,280 m
Sx1
=
0,109 tf
(ii) In case of x2 =
0,320 m
Sx2
=
-0,104 tf
c) Bending Moment
MC = MCD
MD = -MDC

-0,223 tfm

-0,239 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
1,5091
-4,7205 x
-1,0000 x2 ,
x =

-5,0211
0,3006

Bending moment at x = 0,3006 m is;


Mmax = SCDx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MCD

0,0083 tfm

2-4) Bottom Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
MDA

Reaction at end D
Reaction at end A
Bending moment at end B

MAD
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end C


Length of member (=B0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

10,411 tf/m2
10,411 tf/m2
-0,2393 tfm
0,2393
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

L
MAD

MDA

w2

w1

SDA = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MDA+MAD)/L


=
3,123 tf
SAD = SDA - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-3,123 tf
b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint
Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SDA- w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
0,280 m
Sx1
=
0,208 tf
(ii) In case of x2 =
0,320 m
Sx2
=
-0,208 tf
c) Bending Moment
MD = MDA

=
-0,239 tfm
MA = -MAD
=
-0,239 tfm
The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SDA - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
3,1233
-10,4110 x
,
x =

0,3000

Bending moment at x = 0,3000 m is;


Mmax = SDAx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MDA

8 / 16

0,229 tfm

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

Case 3: Box Culvert Inside is Full, Underground Water up to invert, Track load Case. L1
1) Calculation of Load Term
Ph1
Horizontal Pressure at top of side wall
Ph2
Horizontal Pressure at bottom of side wall
Pv1
Vertical Pressure(1) on top slab
Pv2
Vertical Pressure(2) on top slab
Pq
Reaction to bottom slab
a
Distance from joint B to far end of Pv2
b
Distance from joint B to near end of Pv2
H0
Height of plane frame
B0
Width of plane frame
t1
Thickness of side wall
t2
Thickness of top slab
t3
Thickness of invert (bottom slab)

4,610
4,750
9,771
0,000
10,411
0,600
0,000
0,600
0,600
0,200
0,200
0,200

tf/m2
tf/m2
2
tf/m
2
tf/m
2
tf/m
m
B
m
m
H0 (t1)
m
m
A
m
m

(t2)

C
(t1)

(t3)

B0
CAB = CDC = (2Ph1+3Ph2)H02/60

CBA = CCD = (3Ph1+2Ph2)H02/60

0,13999 tfm

0,29313 tfm

0,31233 tfm

CBC = CCB = Pv1B0 /12 + {(a -b )B0 /2 - 2B0(a -b )/3 + (a -b )/4}Pv2/B0

CDA = CAD = PqB02/12

0,14083 tfm

2) Calculation of Bending Moment at joint


k1
=
k2 = H0t23/(B0t13) =

1,0
1,00000

k3 = H0t33/(B0t13) =

1,00000

2(k1+k3)

k1

k3

-3k1

k1

2(k1+k2)

k2

-3k1

CBC - CBA

k2

2(k1+k2)

k1

-3k1

k3
k1

0
k1

k1
k1

2(k1+k3)
k1

-3k1
-4k1

D
R

= CCD - CCB
CDA - CDC
0

CAB - CAD

As load has bilateral symmetry, the equation shown below is formed.


A = -D

B = -C

2k1+k3

k1

k1

2k1+k2

3,0000
1,0

1,0
3,0000

A
B

R =0
=

CAB - CAD
CBC - CBA
-0,17149493
0,15313493

By solving above equation, the result is led as shown below.


A
B

= -0,08345
= 0,07886

C
D

9 / 16

=
=

-0,07886
0,08345

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

MAB = k1(2A +B) - CAB

= -0,22888 tfm

MBA = k1(2B+A)+CBA

= 0,21427 tfm

MBC = k2(2B+C) - CBC

= -0,21427 tfm

MCB = k2(2C+B)+CCB

= 0,21427 tfm

MCD = k1(2C+D) - CCD

= -0,21427 tfm

MDC =k1 (2D+ C)+CDC

= 0,22888 tfm

MDA = k3(2D+A) - CDA

= -0,22888 tfm

MAD = k3(2A+D)+CAD

= 0,22888 tfm

2) Calculation of Design Force


2-1) Side Wall in left
a) Shearing Force at joint

MBA
w2

w1
w2
MAB

Load at end A
Load at end B
Bending moment at end A

4,750 tf/m
4,610 tf/m2
-0,2289 tfm

MBA
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end B


Length of member (=H0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

0,2143
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

L
x
A
w1

SAB = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MAB+MBA)/L


=
1,435 tf
SBA = SAB - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-1,373 tf

MAB

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=

c) Bending Moment
MA = MAB
MB = -MBA

0,280
0,115
0,320
-0,073

m
tf
m
tf

-0,229 tfm

-0,214 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
1,4355
-4,7505 x
+
0,1167 x2 ,
x =
Bending moment at x = 0,3045

40,414
0,304

m is;

Mmax = SABx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MAB

10 / 16

-0,011 tfm

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

2-2) Top Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
a
b
MBC

Uniform load
Uniform load
Distance from end B to near end of w2
Length of uniform load w2
Bending moment at end B

MCB
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end C


Length of member (=Bo)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

9,771
0,000
0,000
0,600
-0,214

tf/m2
2
tf/m
m
m
tfm

0,214
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

SBC = (w1L+w2b)/2-(MBC+MCB)/L

2,931 tf

SCB = SBC -w1L - w2b

-2,931 tf

w2
w1
C

B
MBC

MCB
L

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SBC - w1x - w2(x-a)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=
c) Bending Moment
MB = MBC
MC = -MCB

in case of
0,280
0,195
0,320
-0,195

0,000 m <= x <=

0,600 m

m
tf
m
tf

-0,214 tfm

-0,214 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the center of member due to symmetry loading distribution.
Bending moment at x = 0,300 m is;
=
0,225 tfm
Mmax = SBCx - w1x2/2 - w2(x-a)2/2 + MBC

2-3) Side Wall in right


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
MCD

Load at end C
Load at end D
Bending moment at end C

MDC
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end D


Length of member (=H0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

4,610 tf/m2
4,750 tf/m2
-0,214 tfm
0,229
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

MCD
C
L

w1

x
D

w2

MDC

SCD = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MCD+MDC)/L


=
1,373 tf
SDC = SCD - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-1,435 tf

11 / 16

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
0,280 m
Sx1
=
0,073 tf
(ii) In case of x2 =
0,320 m
Sx2
=
-0,115 tf
c) Bending Moment
MC = MCD
MD = -MDC

-0,214 tfm

-0,229 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
1,3728
-4,6105 x
-0,1167 x2 ,
x =

-39,81
0,296

Bending moment at x = 0,2955 m is;


Mmax = SCDx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MCD

-0,011 tfm

2-4) Bottom Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
MDA

Reaction at end D
Reaction at end A
Bending moment at end B

MAD
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end C


Length of member (=B0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

10,411 tf/m2
10,411 tf/m2
-0,229 tfm
0,229
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

L
MAD

MDA

w2

w1

SDA = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MDA+MAD)/L


=
3,123 tf
SAD = SDA - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-3,123 tf
b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint
Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SDA- w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
0,280 m
Sx1
=
0,208 tf
(ii) In case of x2 =
0,320 m
Sx2
=
-0,208 tf
c) Bending Moment
MD = MDA

=
-0,229 tfm
MA = -MAD
=
-0,229 tfm
The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SDA - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
3,1233
-10,4110 x
,
x =

0,300

Bending moment at x = 0,3000 m is;


2
3
Mmax = SDAx - w1x /2 - (w2-w1)x /(6L) + MDA

12 / 16

0,240 tfm

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

Case 4: Box Culvert Inside is Full, Underground Water up to invert, Track load Case. L2
1) Calculation of Load Term
Ph1
Horizontal Pressure at top of side wall
Ph2

Horizontal Pressure at bottom of side wall

Pv1

Vertical Pressure(1) on top slab

Pv2
Pq
a
b
H0
B0
t1
t2
t3

Vertical Pressure(2) on top slab


Reaction to bottom slab
Distance from joint B to far end of Pv2
Distance from joint B to near end of Pv2
Height of plane frame
Width of plane frame
Thickness of side wall
Thickness of top slab
Thickness of invert (bottom slab)

4,610 tf/m2
4,750 tf/m2
9,771 tf/m2
0,000 tf/m2
10,411 tf/m2
0,600 m
B
0,000 m
0,600 m
H0 (t1)
0,600 m
0,200 m
A
0,200 m
0,200 m

(t2)

C
(t1)

(t3)

B0
CAB = CDC = (2Ph1+3Ph2)H02/60

CBA = CCD = (3Ph1+2Ph2)H02/60

0,13999 tfm

CBC = CCB = Pv1B02/12 + {(a2-b2)B02/2 - 2B0(a3-b3)/3 + (a4-b4)/4}Pv2/B02

0,29313 tfm

CDA = CAD = PqB02/12

0,31233 tfm

0,14083 tfm

2) Calculation of Bending Moment at joint


k1
=
k2 = H0t23/(B0t13) =
k3 = H0t33/(B0t13) =

1,0
1,00000
1,00000

2(k1+k3)

k1

k3

-3k1

k1

2(k1+k2)

k2

-3k1

CBC - CBA

k2

2(k1+k2)

k1

-3k1

= CCD - CCB

k3
k1

0
k1

k1
k1

2(k1+k3)
k1

-3k1
-4k1

D
R

CDA - CDC
0

CAB - CAD

As load has bilateral symmetry, the equation shown below is formed.


A = -D

R =0

B = -C

2k1+k3
k1
k1
2k1+k2

A
B

CAB - CAD
CBC - CBA

3,0000
1,0

A
B

-0,17149493
0,15313493

1,0
3,0000

By solving above equation, the result is led as shown below.


A
B

= -0,08345
= 0,07886

C
D

13 / 16

=
=

-0,07886
0,08345

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

MAB = k1(2A +B) - CAB

= -0,22888 tfm

MBA = k1(2B+A)+CBA

= 0,21427 tfm

MBC = k2(2B+C) - CBC

= -0,21427 tfm

MCB = k2(2C+B)+CCB

= 0,21427 tfm

MCD = k1(2C+D) - CCD

= -0,21427 tfm

MDC =k1 (2D+ C)+CDC

= 0,22888 tfm

MDA = k3(2D+A) - CDA

= -0,22888 tfm

MAD = k3(2A+D)+CAD

= 0,22888 tfm

2) Calculation of Design Force


2-1) Side Wall in left
a) Shearing Force at joint

MBA
w2

w1
w2
MAB

Load at end A
Load at end B
Bending moment at end A

4,750 tf/m
4,610 tf/m2
-0,229 tfm

MBA
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end B


Length of member (=H0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

0,214
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

L
x
A
w1

SAB = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MAB+MBA)/L


=
1,435 tf
SBA = SAB - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-1,373 tf

MAB

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=

c) Bending Moment
MA = MAB
MB = -MBA

0,280
0,115
0,32
-0,073

m
tf
m
tf

-0,229 tfm

-0,214 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
1,4355
-4,7505 x
+
0,1167 x2 ,
x =
Bending moment at x = 0,3045

40,414
0,304

m is;

2
3
Mmax = SABx - w1x /2 - (w2-w1)x /(6L) + MAB

14 / 16

-0,011 tfm

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

2-2) Top Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
a
b
MBC

Uniform load
Uniform load
Distance from end B to near end of w2
Length of uniform load w2
Bending moment at end B

MCB
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end C


Length of member (=Bo)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

9,771
0,000
0,000
0,600
-0,214

tf/m2
2
tf/m
m
m
tfm

0,214
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

SBC = (w1L+w2b)/2-(MBC+MCB)/L

2,931 tf

SCB = SBC -w1L - w2b

-2,931 tf

w2
w1
C

B
MBC

MCB
L

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SBC - w1x - w2(x-a)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=
c) Bending Moment
MB = MBC
MC = -MCB

in case of
0,280
0,195
0,320
-0,195

0,000 m <= x <=

0,600 m

m
tf
m
tf

-0,214 tfm

-0,214 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the center of member due to symmetry loading distribution.
Bending moment at x = 0,300 m is;
=
0,225 tfm
Mmax = SBCx - w1x2/2 - w2(x-a)2/2 + MBC

2-3) Side Wall in right


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
MCD

Load at end C
Load at end D
Bending moment at end C

MDC
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end D


Length of member (=H0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

4,610 tf/m2
4,750 tf/m2
-0,214 tfm
0,229
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

MCD
C
L

w1

x
D

w2

MDC

SCD = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MCD+MDC)/L


=
1,373 tf
SDC = SCD - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-1,435 tf

15 / 16

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
0,280 m
Sx1
=
0,0727 tf
(ii) In case of x2 =
0,320 m
Sx2
= -0,1145 tf
c) Bending Moment
MC = MCD
MD = -MDC

-0,214 tfm

-0,229 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
1,3728
-4,6105 x
-0,1167 x2 ,
x =

-39,8
0,296

Bending moment at x = 0,2955 m is;


2

Mmax = SCDx - w1x /2 - (w2-w1)x /(6L) + MCD

-0,011 tfm

2-4) Bottom Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
MDA

Reaction at end D
Reaction at end A
Bending moment at end B

MAD
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end C


Length of member (=B0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

10,411 tf/m2
10,411 tf/m2
-0,229 tfm
0,229
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

L
MAD

MDA

w2

w1

SDA = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MDA+MAD)/L


=
3,123 tf
SAD = SDA - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-3,123 tf
b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint
Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SDA- w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
0,280 m
Sx1
=
0,208 tf
(ii) In case of x2 =
0,320 m
Sx2
=
-0,208 tf
c) Bending Moment
MD = MDA

=
-0,229 tfm
MA = -MAD
=
-0,229 tfm
The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SDA - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
3,1233
-10,4110 x
,
x =

0,300

Bending moment at x = 0,3000 m is;


Mmax = SDAx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MDA

16 / 16

0,240 tfm

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

Summary of Internal forces

Member
Side wall
(left)

Case
Case.1

Case.2

Case.3

Case.4
Top slab
Case.1

Case.2

Case.3

Case.4
Side wall
(right)

Case.1

Case.2

Case.3

Case.4
Invert
Case.1

Case.2

Case.3

Case.4

Check
Point
A
Middle
B
A
Middle
B
A
Middle
B
A
Middle
B
B
Middle
C
B
Middle
C
B
Middle
C
B
Middle
C
C
Middle
D
C
Middle
D
C
Middle
D
C
Middle
D
D
Middle
A
D
Middle
A
D
Middle
A
D
Middle
A

M
(tfm)
-0,239
0,008
-0,223
-0,239
0,008
-0,223
-0,229
-0,011
-0,214
-0,229
-0,011
-0,214
-0,223
0,217
-0,223
-0,223
0,217
-0,223
-0,214
0,225
-0,214
-0,214
0,225
-0,214
-0,223
0,008
-0,239
-0,223
0,008
-0,239
-0,214
-0,011
-0,229
-0,214
-0,011
-0,229
-0,239
0,229
-0,239
-0,239
0,229
-0,239
-0,229
0,240
-0,229
-0,229
0,240
-0,229

1/1

N
(tf)
3,123
3,027
2,931
3,123
3,027
2,931
3,123
3,026
2,931
3,123
3,026
2,931
1,509
1,509
1,509
1,509
1,509
1,509
1,373
1,373
1,373
1,373
1,373
1,373
2,931
3,027
3,123
2,931
3,027
3,123
2,931
3,026
3,123
2,931
3,026
3,123
1,683
1,683
1,683
1,683
1,683
1,683
1,435
1,435
1,435
1,435
1,435
1,435

S
at joint
1,683
0,000
-1,509
1,683
0,000
-1,509
1,435
0,000
-1,373
1,435
0,000
-1,373
2,931
0,000
-2,931
2,931
0,000
-2,931
2,931
0,000
-2,931
2,931
0,000
-2,931
1,509
0,000
-1,683
1,509
0,000
-1,683
1,373
0,000
-1,435
1,373
0,000
-1,435
3,123
0,000
-3,123
3,123
0,000
-3,123
3,123
0,000
-3,123
3,123
0,000
-3,123

(tf)
at 2d
0,104
-0,109
0,104
-0,109
0,115
-0,073
0,115
-0,073
0,195
-0,195
0,195
-0,195
0,195
-0,195
0,195
-0,195
0,109
-0,104
0,109
-0,104
0,073
-0,115
0,073
-0,115
0,208
-0,208
0,208
-0,208
0,208
-0,208
0,208
-0,208

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/Sum MSN

Calculation of Required Reinforcement Bar

5-1 Calculation of Required Reinforcement Bar


1) At Joint "A"of side wall
Case.1
M=
0,2393 tfm
ca =
N=
3,1233 tf
sa =
S0=
1,6831 tf
n=
S2d=
0,1038 tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
7,66 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 20,727 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+125,68 c^2
-975,55 c
-42680,20
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1915
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Case.2
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2393
3,1233
1,6831
0,1038

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

d
d

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
7,66 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 20,727 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+125,68 c^2
-975,55 c
-42680,20
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1915
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Case.3
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2289
3,1233
1,4355
0,1145

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
7,33 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 20,389 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+125,83 c^2
-947,7 c
-41462,03
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1890
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Case.4
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2289
3,1233
1,4355
0,1145

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
7,33 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 20,389 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+125,83 c^2
-947,7 c
-41462,03
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1890
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is
Case.
Requirement

2) At Joint "B"of side wall


Case.1
M=
0,2231 tfm
N=
2,9313 tf
S0=
1,5091 tf
S2d=
0,1090 tf

1
0,0000

2
0,0000

ca =
sa =
n=

0,0000 cm2 in Case.1


3
0,0000

from above calculation.

4
0,0000 (cm2)

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
7,61 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 19,943 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,04 c^2
-911,58 c
-39881,76
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1856
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Case.2
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2231
2,9313
1,5091
0,1090

tfm
tf
tf
tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

d
d

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
7,61 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 19,943 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,04 c^2
-911,58 c
-39881,76
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1856
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2

1/5

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/R-bar req

Case.3
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2143
2,9313
1,3728
0,0727

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
7,31 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 19,648 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,18 c^2
-888 c
-38849,92
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1834
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Case.4
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2143
2,9313
1,3728
0,0727

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
7,31 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 19,648 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,18 c^2
-888 c
-38849,92
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1834
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is
Case.
Requirement
3) At Joint "B"of top slab
Case.1
M=
0,2231
N=
1,5091
S0=
2,9313
S2d=
0,1954

1
0,0000

2
0,0000

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

0,0000 cm2 in Case.1


3
0,0000

from above calculation.

4
0,0000 (cm2)

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
14,78 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 17,985 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,91 c^2
-759,21 c
-33215,43
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1705
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3035 cm2
Case.2
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2231
1,5091
2,9313
0,1954

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

d
d

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
14,78 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 17,985 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,91 c^2
-759,21 c
-33215,43
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1705
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3035 cm2
Case.3
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2143
1,3728
2,9313
0,1954

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
15,61 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 17,472 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+127,13 c^2
-721,02 c
-31544,46
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1664
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3156 cm2
Case.4
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2143
1,3728
2,9313
0,1954

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
15,61 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 17,472 kgf/cm2
( 5,1E-07 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+127,13 c^2
-721,02 c
-31544,46
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1664
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3156 cm2
The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is
Case.
Requirement

1
0,3035

2
0,3035

0,3156 cm2 in Case.3


3
0,3156

from above calculation.

4
0,3156 (cm2)

2/5

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/R-bar req

4) At Joint "A"of invert


Case.1
M=
0,2393
N=
1,6831
S0=
3,1233
S2d=
0,2082

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
14,22 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 18,799 kgf/cm2
( 4,7E-08 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,56 c^2
-821,25 c
-35929,50
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1768
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3067 cm2
Case.2
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2393
1,6831
3,1233
0,2082

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

d
d

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
14,22 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 18,799 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,56 c^2
-821,25 c
-35929,50
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1768
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3067 cm2
Case.3
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2289
1,4355
3,1233
0,2082

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
15,94 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 18,087 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,87 c^2
-766,87 c
-33550,47
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1713
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3492 cm2
Case.4
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2289
1,4355
3,1233
0,2082

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
15,94 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 18,087 kgf/cm2
( 1,7E-07 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,87 c^2
-766,87 c
-33550,47
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1713
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3492 cm2
The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is
Case.
Requirement

5) At Middle of side wall


Case.1
M=
0,0083 tfm
N=
3,0275 tf

1
0,3067

2
0,3067

ca =
sa =
n=

0,3492 cm2 in Case.3


3
0,3492

from above calculation.

4
0,3492 (cm2)

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
0,27 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c =11,6723 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
h
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+129,27 c^2
-346,47 c
-15158,20
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1177
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
Case.2
M=
N=

0,0083 tfm
3,0275 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

d
d

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
0,27 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 11,672 kgf/cm2
(
0,0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+129,27 c^2
-346,47 c
-15158,20
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1177
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member

3/5

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/R-bar req

Case.3
M=
N=

0,0109 tfm
3,0259 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
0,36 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 11,798 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+129,23 c^2
-353,41 c
-15461,54
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1188
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Tensile is on outside of member
Case.4
M=
N=

0,0109 tfm
3,0259 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
0,36 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 11,798 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+129,23 c^2
-353,41 c
-15461,54
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1188
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Tensile is on outside of member
The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is
Case.
Requirement
Side
6) At Middle of top slab
Case.1
M=
0,2166 tfm
N=
1,5091 tf

1
0,0000
inside

2
0,0000
inside

ca =
sa =
n=

0,0000 cm2 in Case.1


3
outside

4
outside

from above calculation.

(cm2)

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
14,35 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 17,754 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
h
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+127,01 c^2
-741,93 c
-32459,57
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1687
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,2796 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
Case.2
M=
N=

0,2166 tfm
1,5091 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

d
d

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
14,35 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 17,754 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+127,01 c^2
-741,93 c
-32459,57
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1687
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,2796 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
Case.3
M=
N=

0,2254 tfm
1,3728 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
16,42 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 17,875 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,96 c^2
-750,91 c
-32852,27
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1696
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3570 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
Case.4
M=
N=

0,2254 tfm
1,3728 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
16,42 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 17,875 kgf/cm2
( 2,5E-07 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,96 c^2
-750,91 c
-32852,27
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1696
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3570 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is
Case.
Requirement
Side

0,3570 cm2 in Case.3

1
2
3
0,2796 0,2796 0,3570
inside
inside
inside

from above calculation.

4
0,3570 (cm2)
inside

4/5

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/R-bar req

7) At Middle of invert
Case.1
M=
0,2292 tfm
N=
1,6831 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
13,62 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c =18,4488 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
h
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,71 c^2
-794,33 c
-34751,76
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1741
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,2693 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
Case.2
M=
N=

0,2292 tfm
1,6831 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

d
d

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
13,62 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 18,449 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,71 c^2
-794,33 c
-34751,76
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1741
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,2693 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
Case.3
M=
N=

0,2396 tfm
1,4355 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
16,69 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 18,466 kgf/cm2
( 8,7E-08 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,7 c^2
-795,64 c
-34809,07
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1743
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3891 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
Case.4
M=
N=

0,2396 tfm
1,4355 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
16,69 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 18,466 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,7 c^2
-795,64 c
-34809,07
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1743
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3891 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is
Case.
Requirement
Side

0,3891 cm2 in Case.3

1
2
3
0,2693 0,2693 0,3891
inside
inside
inside

from above calculation.

4
0,3891 (cm2)
inside

8) Summary of required reinforcement


Required reinforcement for design is the maximum required reinforcement calculated above in 1) - 4).
Item
Point
Side
Calculation
Requirement

Side wall Side wall Top slab Invert


bottom
top
end
end
outside outside outside outside
1)
2)
3)
4)
0,000
0,000
0,316
0,349

Side wall Top slab Invert


middle
middle middle
inside
inside
inside
5)
6)
7)
0,000
0,357
0,389 (cm2)

5/5

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/R-bar req

6 Bar Arrangement and Calculation of Stress

Bending moment
M
Shearing force (joint)
S
Shearing force (2d)
S2d
Axial force
N
Height of member
h
Covering depth
d'
Effective height
d
Effective width
b
Effective area
bd
Young's modulus ratio
n
Required R-bar

Asreq

kgfcm
kgf
kgf
kgf
cm
cm
cm
cm
cm2
-

0,00

cm2

R-bar arrangement
Reinforcement
Perimeter of R-bar
M/N
Dist. from neutral axis

bottom
outside
23.927
1.683
115
3.123
20
6
14
100
1400
24

12@150
As
U
e
c
a'
b'

cm2

cm
cm

c'

x
(check)
Compressive stress
Allowable stress

c kgf/cm2
ca kgf/cm2

Tensile stress
Allowable stress

s
sa

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

Shearing stress at joint


Allowable stress

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

Shearing stress at 2d
Allowable stress

2d kgf/cm2
2da kgf/cm2

Resisting Moment
Mr for compression
x for Mrc
s for Mrc
Mr for tensile
x for Mrs
c for Mrs

Mr
Mrc

Mrs

kgfcm
kgfcm
cm
kgf/cm2
kgfcm
cm
kgf/cm2

Distribution bar (>As/6 and >Asmin)


Reinforcement
As
cm2
Reinforcement bar for fillet
Reinforcement
As

cm2

Type: B0,40m x H0,40m


Side wall
Top slab
middle
top
end
middle
inside
outside
outside
inside
825
22.307
21.427
22.543
0
1.509
2.931
0
109
195
3.027
2.931
1.373
1.373
20
20
20
20
6
6
6
6
14
14
14
14
100
100
100
100
1400
1400
1400
1400
24
24
24
24
0,00
12@250

Invert
end
middle
outside
inside
22.888
23.962
3.123
0
208
1.435
1.435
20
20
6
6
14
14
100
100
1400
1400
24
24

0,00

0,32

0,36

0,35

0,39

12@150

12@150

12@150

12@150

12@150

7,54
25,13
7,661
4,00
-7,0
126,6
-1772,5
10,69
0,000
ok

4,52
15,08
0,273
4,00
-29,2
27,8
-389,3
28,69
0,001
ok

7,54
25,13
7,610
4,00
-7,2
126,1
-1764,8
10,74
0,000
ok

7,54
25,13
15,608
4,00
16,8
212,9
-2980,6
7,52
0,000
ok

7,54
25,13
16,421
4,00
19,3
221,7
-3104,1
7,40
0,000
ok

7,54
25,13
15,944
4,00
17,8
216,5
-3031,6
7,47
0,000
ok

7,54
25,13
16,692
4,00
20,1
224,7
-3145,4
7,37
0,000
ok

6,5
70,0
ok
48,6
2100,0
ok
1,20
11,00
ok
0,08
5,50
ok

2,0
70,0
ok
0,0
2100,0
ok
0,00
11,00
ok
-

6,1
70,0
ok
44,4
2100,0
ok
1,08
11,00
ok
0,08
5,50
ok

6,2
70,0
ok
128,6
2100,0
ok
2,09
11,00
ok
0,14
5,50
ok

6,6
70,0
ok
140,3
2100,0
ok
0,00
11,00
ok
-

6,7
70,0
ok
139,5
2100,0
ok
2,23
11,00
ok
0,15
5,50
ok

7,0
70,0
ok
150,9
2100,0
ok
0,00
11,00
ok
-

235.438
235.438
5,884
2317,2
379.690
7,789
109,7

199.883
199.883
4,897
3122,5
218.260
6,329
72,2

235.421
235.421
5,862
2332,3
375.059
7,749
108,5

235.378
235.378
5,685
2457,0
338.900
7,420
98,7

235.378
235.378
5,685
2457,0
338.900
7,420
98,7

235.377
235.377
5,692
2451,9
340.307
7,434
99,1

235.377
235.377
5,692
2451,9
340.307
7,434
99,1

12@250 12@250 12@250 12@250 12@250 12@250 12@250


4,52
4,52
4,52
4,52
4,52
4,52
4,52
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
12@250
12@250
4,52
4,52

Minimum requirement of reinforcement bar

As min =

1/1

4,5 cm2

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/R-bar stress

DATA PLOT PEMBESIAN

h1

h2
Ha

h3
b1

b1

b2
Bb

Section of Culvert

1. Design Data
b1 =
0,200
h1 =
0,200
Bb =
0,800

m
m
m

2. Data Pembesian
Bottom slab :
As1 (cm2)
:
As2 (cm2)
:

Tumpuan
O 12 @ 150
O 12 @ 150

Lapangan
O 12 @ 150
O 12 @ 150

Tulangan bagi :
O 12 @ 250

b2 =
h2 =
Ha =

0,400
0,400
0,800

m
m
m

h3 =
Fillet =

0,200 m
0,15 m

0,06 m

Side wall :
As1 (cm2)
As2 (cm2)

:
:

Tumpuan
O 12 @ 150
O 12 @ 250

Lapangan
O 12 @ 250
O 12 @ 150

Tulangan bagi :
O 12 @ 250

Top slab :
As1 (cm2)
As2 (cm2)

:
:

Tumpuan
O 12 @ 150
O 12 @ 150

Lapangan
O 12 @ 150
O 12 @ 150

Tulangan bagi :
O 12 @ 250

3. Tulangan Miring (fillet) :


Bottom slab :
O 12 @ 250
Top slab
:
O 12 @ 250
4. Nama Bangunan
Lokasi

:
:

Culvert Type 2 (0,4 m x 0,4 m)


Kantor Bupati

Surabaya, 04 April 2016

1/2

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/PlotRebar

SUMMARY OF STRUCTURAL CALCULATION OF 1-BARREL BOX CULVERT

1 Design Dimensions and Bar Arrangements


Type of box culvert

Class I Road (BM100)

B0,4 x H0,4

Clear width
Clear height
Height of fillet

m
m
m

0,40
0,40
0,15

Thickness Side wall


Top slab
Bottom slab

cm
cm
cm

20,0
20,0
20,0

Cover of reinforcement bar (between concrete surface and center of reinforcement bar)
Side wall
Outside
cm
6,0
Inside
cm
6,0
Top slab
Upper
cm
6,0
Lower
cm
6,0
Bottom slab Lower
cm
6,0
Upper
cm
6,0

Bar arrangement

(dia - spacing per unit length of 1.0 m)

Side wall

Lower outside Tensile bar


Distribution bar
Middle inside Tensile bar
Distribution bar
Upper outside Tensile bar
Distribution bar

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

12@150
12@250
12@250
12@250
12@150
12@250

Top slab

Upper edge

mm
mm
mm
mm

12@150
12@250
12@150
12@250

Bottom slabLower edge

Tensile bar
Distribution bar
Upper middle Tensile bar
Distribution bar

mm
mm
mm
mm

12@150
12@250
12@150
12@250

Upper edge
Lower edge

mm
mm

12@250
12@250

Fillet

Tensile bar
Distribution bar
Lower middle Tensile bar
Distribution bar

Fillet bar
Fillet bar

2 Design Parameters
Unit Weight

Reinforced Concrete
Backfill soil
(wet)
(submerged)

c=
s=
s'=

Live Load

Class of road
Truck load at rear wheel
Impact coefficient (for Class I to IV road)

P=
Ci=

Pedestrian load

(for Class V roads)

2,4 tf/m
3
1,8 tf/m
3
1,0 tf/m
Class I
10,0
0,3
0,0
0

(BM100)
tf
(D<4.0m)
(D>4.0m)
tf/m2

Concrete
(K175)

Design Strength
Allowable Compressive Stress
Allowable Shearing Stress

ck=
ca=
a=

175 kgf/cm2
2
70 kgf/cm
2
5,5 kgf/cm

Reinforcement Bar
(U24, deformed bar)

Allowable Tensile Stress


Yielding Point of Reinforcement Bar

sa=
sy=

2.100 kgf/cm2
2
3.000 kgf/cm

Young's Modulus Ratio


Coefficient of static earth pressure

1/1

n=

24

Ka=

0,5

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/Summary

STRUCTURAL CALCULATION OF BOX CULVERT

Type: B0,40m x H0,40m Class I Road


Soil Cover Depth: 0,4 m

1 Dimensions and Parameters

Gwd
D

t2

H
Hf

HT
Hf
t3

t1

t1

B
B

Cover of R-bar
Top Slab d2
Side Wall d1
Bottom Slab d3

0,06 m
0,06 m
0,06 m

Basic Parameters
Ka:
Coefficient of static earth pressure
w:
Unit weight of water (t/m3)
d:
Unit weight of soil (dry) (t/m3)
s:
Unit weight of soil (saturated) (t/m3)
c:
Unit weight of reinforced concrete (t/m3)
ck:
Concrete Design Strength
ca
Allowable Stress of Concrete
sa:
Allowable Stress of Reinforcement Bar
a:
Allowable Stress of Shearing (Concrete)
sy:
Yielding Point of Reinforcement Bar
n:
Young's Modulus Ratio
Fa:
Safety factor against uplift

0,5
1,00
1,80
2,00
2,40
175
70
2100
5,5
3000
24
1,2

Basic Dimensions
H:
Internal Height of Box Culvert
B:
Internal Width of Box Culvert
Hf:
Fillet Height
t1:
Thickness of Side Wall
t2:
Thickness of Top Slab
t3:
Thickness of Invert (Bottom Slab)
BT:
Gross Width of Box Culvert
HT:
Gross Height of Box Culvert
D:
Covering Depth
Gwd:
Underground Water Depth
for Case 1, 2
hiw:
Internal Water Depth
for Case 1, 2
for Case 3, 4

0,40
0,40
0,15
0,20
0,20
0,20
0,80
0,80
0,41
0,41
0,00
0,40

Basic Conditions
Classification of Live load by truck
Class
PTM:
Truck load of Middle Tire
Ii:
Impact coefficient (D4.0m:0, D<4.0m:0.3)
am:
Ground contact length of Middle Tire
bm:
Ground contact width of Middle Tire
PTR:
Truck load of Rear Tire
ar:
Ground contact length of Rear Tire
br:
Ground contact width of Rear Tire
PTF:
Truck load of Front wheel
af:
Ground contact length of Front Tire
bf:
Ground contact width of Front Tire
qp:
Pedestrian load

1
10,00
0,3
0,20
0,50
10,00
0,20
0,50
2,50
0,20
0,50
0,00

t/m3
t/m3
t/m3
t/m3
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
kgf/m2
kgf/m2

m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m

(> 0.25m)
(> 0.25m)
(> 0.25m)

(= D)

t
m
m
t
m
m
t
m
m
t/m2

Dimension of frame
t1

t1
D1

t2

H0:
B0:
D1:

Height of frame
Width of frame
Covering depth at middle of top slab

t2/2 + H + t3/2
B + t1
D + t2/2

0,600 m
0,600 m
0,510 m

H0

t3
B0

1/6

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/Load

Load distribution of truck tire


(1) Middle tire's acting point: center of the top slab
a) distributed load of middle tire
Pvtm:
distributed load of middle tire
am':
length of distributed load
bm':
width of distributed load
b) distributed load of rear tire
Pvtr:
distributed load of rear tire
ar':
length of distributed load
br':
width of distributed load
c) distributed load of front tire
Pvtf:
distributed load of front tire
af':
length of distributed load
bf':
width of distributed load
(2) Middle tire's acting point: on the side wall
a) distributed load of middle tire
Pvtm:
distributed load of middle tire
am':
length of distributed load
bm':
width of distributed load
b) distributed load of rear tire
Pvtr:
distributed load of rear tire
ar':
length of distributed load
br':
width of distributed load
c) distributed load of front tire
Pvtf:
distributed load of front tire
af':
length of distributed load
bf':
width of distributed load
(3) Rear tire's acting point: on the side wall
a) distributed load of rear tire
Pvtr:
distributed load of rear tire
ar':
length of distributed load
br':
width of distributed load
b) distributed load of middle tire
Pvtm:
distributed load of middle tire
am':
length of distributed load
bm':
width of distributed load
c) distributed load of front tire
Pvtf:
distributed load of front tire
af':
length of distributed load
bf':
width of distributed load

2PTM(1+Ii)/(am'bm') =
2D+1.75+bm =
2D+am =

8,3030 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,600 m

not reach to top slab


2D+1.75+br =
2D+ar =

0,0000 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,000 m

not reach to top slab


2D+1.75+bf =
2D+af =

0,0000 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,000 m

2PTM(1+Ii)/(am'bm') =
2D+1.75+bm =
2D+am =

8,3030 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,600 m

not reach to top slab


2D+1.75+br =
2D+ar =

0,0000 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,000 m

not reach to top slab


2D+1.75+bf =
2D+af =

0,0000 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,000 m

2PTR(1+Ii)/(ar'br') =
2D+1.75+br =
2D+ar =

8,3030 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,600 m

not reach to top slab


2D+1.75+bm =
2D+am =

0,0000 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,000 m

not reach to top slab


2D+1.75+bf =
2D+af =

0,0000 tf/m2,
3,070 m
1,020 m

B=

0,000 m

(4) Combination of load distribution of track tire


Case.L1:
Case.L2:

Pvt1 =
Pvt2 =
Pvt1 =
Pvt2 =

8,3030
0,0000
8,3030
0,0000

tf/m2,
tf/m2,
tf/m2,
tf/m2,

B=
B=
B=
B=

0,600
0,000
0,600
0,000

m
m
m
m

Combination for Case.L2

(2)
a) + b)
8,3030

(2)
(3)
a) + c) a) + b)
Distributed load total
8,3030 8,3030
Select the combination case of
8,3030 tf/m2,
for Case.L2, which is the largest load to the top slab.

(3)
a) + c)
8,3030

In case of covering depth (D) is over 3.0m, uniform load of 1.0 tf/m2 is applied on the top slab of culvert instead of live load calculated above.

Distribution load by pedestrian load


Pvt1 =

0,000 tf/m2

2 Stability Analysis Against Uplift


Analysis is made considering empty inside of box culvert.
Fs=Vd/U > Fa
Fs=
where, Vd:
Total dead weight (t/m)
Vd=
U:
Total uplift (t.m)
U=BT*HT*w
U=
Ws:
Wc:
Fa:

Weight of covering soil


Self weight of box culvert
Safety factor against uplift

Ws =
Wc =
Fa=

2,8913 > 1,2


1,850 tf/m

ok

0,640 tf/m
BT*{(D-Gwd)*(sw)+Gwd*d}
(HT*BT-H*B+2*Hf^2)*c
1,2

2/6

=
=

0,590 tf/m
1,260 tf/m

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/Load

3 Load calculation
Case 1: Box Culvert Inside is Empty, Underground Water up to Top slab, Track load Case. L1
1) vertical load against top slab
Acting Load
Wtop= (t2*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0
Pvd=Gwd*gd+(D-Gwd)*gs
Pvt1
Pvt2

2) horizontal load at top of side wall


Acting Load
P1=Ka*we1
P2=Ka*we2
P3=Ka*gd*Gwd
P4=Ka*gs*(D1-Gwd)
P5=gw*(D1-Gwd)

3) horizontal load at bottom of side wall


Acting Load
P1=Ka*we1
P2=Ka*we2
P3=Ka*d*Gwd
P4=Ka*s*(D1+H0-Gwd)
P5=w*(D1+H0-Gwd)

4) self weight of side wall


Acting Load
Wsw=t1*H*c

5) ground reaction
Acting Load
Wbot=(t3*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0
Wtop
Ws=Wsw*2/B0
Pvd
Pvt1
Pvt2
Wiw=(hiw*B-2Hf^2)*w/B0
Up=-U/B0

summary of resistance moment


Item
Self weight

load on top slab

soil pressure

top slab
side wall (left)
side wall (right)
invert
Pvd
Pvt1
Pvt2
side wall (left)
side wall (right)

internal water
uplift
total

Wtop=
Pvd=
Pvt1=
Pvt2=
Pv1=

(tf/m2)
0,7300
0,7380
8,3030
0,0000
9,7710

P1=
P2=
P3=
P4=
P5=
Ph1=

(tf/m2)
4,1515
0,0000
0,3690
0,1000
0,1000
4,7205

P1=
P2=
P3=
P4=
P5=
Ph2=

(tf/m2)
4,1515
0,0000
0,3690
0,7000
0,7000
5,9205

Wsw=

(tf/m)
0,1920

Wbot=
Wtop=
Ws=
Pvd=
Pvt1=
Pvt2=
Wiw=
U=
Q=

(tf/m2)
0,7300
0,7300
0,6400
0,7380
8,3030
0,0000
0,0000
-1,0667
10,0743

V
(tf/m)
0,4380
0,1920
0,1920
0,4380
0,4428
4,9818
0,0000
0,0000
-0,6400
6,0446

H
(tf/m)
3,1923
-3,1923
-

Horizontal pressure by track tire


we1=
8,3030 tf/m2
we2=
0,0000 tf/m2

hiw: internal water depth

x
(m)
0,3000
0,0000
0,6000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000

y
(m)
0,2887
0,2887
-

M
(tf.m/m)
0,1314
0,0000
0,1152
0,1314
0,1328
1,4945
0,0000
0,9217
-0,9217
0,0000
-0,1920
1,8134

0,00 m

acting point of resultant force


X = M/V =
0,300 m
e = B0/2 - X =
0,000 m
ground reaction
q1 = V/Bo + 6Ve/Bo^2 = 10,0743 tf/m2
q2 = V/Bo - 6Ve/Bo^2 = 10,0743 tf/m2

6) load against invert


Acting Load
(tf/m2)
Pvd
0,7380
Pvt1
8,3030
Pvt2
0,0000
Wtop
0,7300
Ws
0,6400
Pq= 10,4110

3/6

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/Load

Case 2: Box Culvert Inside is Empty, Underground Water up to Top slab, Track load Case. L2
1) vertical load against top slab
Acting Load
Wtop= (t2*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0
Pvd=Gwd*gd+(D-Gwd)*gs
Pvt1
Pvt2

2) horizontal load at top of side wall


Acting Load
P1=Ka*we1
P2=Ka*we2
P3=Ka*gd*Gwd
P4=Ka*gs*(D1-Gwd)
P5=gw*(D1-Gwd)

3) horizontal load at bottom of side wall


Acting Load
P1=Ka*we1
P2=Ka*we2
P3=Ka*d*Gwd
P4=Ka*s*(D1+H0-Gwd)
P5=w*(D1+H0-Gwd)

4) self weight of side wall


Acting Load
Wsw=t1*H*c

5) ground reaction
Acting Load
Wbot=(t3*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0
Wtop
Ws=Wsw*2/B0
Pvd
Pvt1
Pvt2
Wiw=(hiw*B-2Hf^2)*w/B0
Up=-U/B0

summary of resistance moment


Item
Self weight

load on top slab

soil pressure

top slab
side wall (left)
side wall (right)
invert
Pvd
Pvt1
Pvt2
side wall (left)
side wall (right)

internal water
uplift
total

Wtop=
Pvd=
Pvt1=
Pvt2=
Pv1=

(tf/m2)
0,7300
0,7380
8,3030
0,0000
9,7710

P1=
P2=
P3=
P4=
P5=
Ph1=

(tf/m2)
4,1515
0,0000
0,3690
0,1000
0,1000
4,7205

P1=
P2=
P3=
P4=
P5=
Ph2=

(tf/m2)
4,1515
0,0000
0,3690
0,7000
0,7000
5,9205

Wsw=

(tf/m)
0,1920

Wbot=
Wtop=
Ws=
Pvd=
Pvt1=
Pvt2=
Wiw=
U=
Q=

(tf/m2)
0,7300
0,7300
0,6400
0,7380
8,3030
0,0000
0,0000
-1,0667
10,0743

V
(tf/m)
0,4380
0,1920
0,1920
0,4380
0,4428
4,9818
0,0000
0,0000
-0,6400
6,0446

H
(tf/m)
3,1923
-3,1923
-

Horizontal pressure by track tire


we1=
8,3030 tf/m2
we2=
0,0000 tf/m2

hiw: internal water depth

x
(m)
0,3000
0,0000
0,6000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000

y
(m)
0,2887
0,2887
-

M
(tf.m/m)
0,1314
0,0000
0,1152
0,1314
0,1328
1,4945
0,0000
0,9217
-0,9217
0,0000
-0,1920
1,8134

0,00 m

acting point of resultant force


X = M/V =
0,3000 m
e = B0/2 - X =
0,0000 m
ground reaction
q1 = V/Bo + 6Ve/Bo^2 = 10,0743 tf/m2
q2 = V/Bo - 6Ve/Bo^2 = 10,0743 tf/m2

6) load against invert


Acting Load
(tf/m2)
Pvd
0,7380
Pvt1
8,3030
Pvt2
0,0000
Wtop
0,7300
Ws
0,6400
total
Pq= 10,4110

4/6

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/Load

Case 3: Box Culvert Inside is Full, Underground Water up to invert, Track load Case. L1
1) vertical load against top slab
Acting Load
Wtop= (t2*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0
Pvd=D*d
Pvt1
Pvt2

2) horizontal load at top of side wall


Acting Load
P1=Ka*we1
P2=Ka*we2
P3=Ka*d*D1
WP=-w*0

3) horizontal load at bottom of side wall


Acting Load
P1=Ka*we1
P2=Ka*we2
P3=Ka*d*(D1+H0)
WP=-w*H

4) self weight of side wall


Acting Load
Wsw=t1*H*c

5) ground reaction
Acting Load
Wbot=(t3*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0
Wtop
Ws=Wsw*2/B0
Pvd
Pvt1
Pvt2
Wiw=(hiw*B-2Hf^2)*w/B0
Up=0

summary of resistance moment


Item
Self weight

load on top slab

soil pressure

top slab
side wall (left)
side wall (right)
invert
Pvd
Pvt1
Pvt2
side wall (left)
side wall (right)

internal water
uplift
total

Wtop=
Pvd=
Pvt1=
Pvt2=
Pv1=

(tf/m2)
0,7300
0,7380
8,3030
0,0000
9,7710

P1=
P2=
P3=
P4=
Ph1=

(tf/m2)
4,1515
0,0000
0,4590
0,0000
4,6105

P1=
P2=
P3=
P4=
Ph2=

(tf/m2)
4,1515
0,0000
0,9990
-0,4000
4,7505

Wsw=

(tf/m)
0,1920

Wbot=
Wtop=
Ws=
Pvd=
Pvt1=
Pvt2=
Wiw=
U=
Q=

(tf/m2)
0,7300
0,7300
0,6400
0,7380
8,3030
0,0000
0,1917
0,0000
11,3327

V
(tf/m)
0,4380
0,1920
0,1920
0,4380
0,4428
4,9818
0,0000
0,1150
0,0000
6,7996

H
(tf/m)
2,8083
-2,8083
-

Horizontal pressure by track tire


we1=
8,3030 tf/m2
we2=
0,0000 tf/m2

hiw: internal water depth

x
(m)
0,3000
0,0000
0,6000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000

y
(m)
0,2985
0,2985
-

M
(tf.m/m)
0,1314
0,0000
0,1152
0,1314
0,1328
1,4945
0,0000
0,8383
-0,8383
0,0345
0,0000
2,0399

0,400 m

acting point of resultant force


X = M/V =
0,3000 m
e = B0/2 - X =
0,0000 m
ground reaction
q1 = V/Bo + 6Ve/Bo^2 = 11,3327 tf/m2
q2 = V/Bo - 6Ve/Bo^2 = 11,3327 tf/m2

6) load against invert


Acting Load
(tf/m2)
Pvd
0,7380
Pvt1
8,3030
Pvt2
0,0000
Wtop
0,7300
Ws
0,6400
total
Pq= 10,4110

5/6

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/Load

Case 4: Box Culvert Inside is Full, Underground Water up to invert, Track load Case. L2
1) vertical load against top slab
Acting Load
Wtop= (t2*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0
Pvd=D*d
Pvt1
Pvt2

2) horizontal load at top of side wall


Acting Load
P1=Ka*we1
P2=Ka*we2
P3=Ka*d*D1
WP=-w*0

3) horizontal load at bottom of side wall


Acting Load
P1=Ka*we1
P2=Ka*we2
P3=Ka*d*(D1+H0)
WP=-w*H

4) self weight of side wall


Acting Load
Wsw=t1*H*c

5) ground reaction
Acting Load
Wbot=(t3*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0
Wtop
Ws=Wsw*2/B0
Pvd
Pvt1
Pvt2
Wiw=(hiw*B-2Hf^2)*w/B0
Up=0

summary of resistance moment


Item
Self weight

load on top slab

soil pressure

top slab
side wall (left)
side wall (right)
invert
Pvd
Pvt1
Pvt2
side wall (left)
side wall (right)

internal water
uplift
total

Wtop=
Pvd=
Pvt1=
Pvt2=
Pv1=

(tf/m2)
0,7300
0,7380
8,3030
0,0000
9,7710

P1=
P2=
P3=
P4=
Ph1=

(tf/m2)
4,1515
0,0000
0,4590
0,0000
4,6105

P1=
P2=
P3=
P4=
Ph2=

(tf/m2)
4,1515
0,0000
0,9990
-0,4000
4,7505

Wsw=

(tf/m)
0,1920

Wbot=
Wtop=
Ws=
Pvd=
Pvt1=
Pvt2=
Wiw=
U=
Q=

(tf/m2)
0,7300
0,7300
0,6400
0,7380
8,3030
0,0000
0,1917
0,0000
11,3327

Horizontal pressure by track tire


we1=
8,3030 tf/m2
we2=
0,0000 tf/m2

hiw: internal water depth

V
(tf/m)
0,4380
0,1920
0,1920
0,4380
0,4428
4,9818
0,0000
0,1150
0,0000
6,7996

H
(tf/m)
2,8083
-2,8083
-

x
(m)
0,3000
0,0000
0,6000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000
0,3000

y
0,2985
0,2985
-

Ph2
(tf/m2)
5,9205
5,9205
4,7505
4,7505

Pq
(tf/m2)
10,4110
10,4110
10,4110
10,4110

Wsw
(tf/m)
0,1920
0,1920
0,1920
0,1920

q1
(tf/m2)
10,0743
10,0743
11,3327
11,3327

(m)

M
(tf.m/m)
0,1314
0,0000
0,1152
0,1314
0,1328
1,4945
0,0000
0,8383
-0,8383
0,0345
0,0000
2,0399

0,400 m

acting point of resultant force


X = M/V =
0,3000 m
e = B0/2 - X =
0,0000 m
ground reaction
q1 = V/Bo + 6Ve/Bo^2 = 11,3327 tf/m2
q2 = V/Bo - 6Ve/Bo^2 = 11,3327 tf/m2

6) load against invert


Acting Load
(tf/m2)
Pvd
0,7380
Pvt1
8,3030
Pvt2
0,0000
Wtop
0,7300
Ws
0,6400
total
Pq= 10,4110

Summary of Load Calculation


Item
Case
Case.1
Case.2
Case.3
Case.4

Pv1
(tf/m2)
9,7710
9,7710
9,7710
9,7710

Ph1
(tf/m2)
4,7205
4,7205
4,6105
4,6105

6/6

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/Load

4 Analysis of Plane Frame


Case 1: Box Culvert Inside is Empty, Underground Water up to Top slab, Track load Case. L1
1) Calculation of Load Term
Ph1
Horizontal Pressure at top of side wall
Ph2
Horizontal Pressure at bottom of side wall
Pv1
Vertical Pressure(1) on top slab
Pv2
Vertical Pressure(2) on top slab
Pq
Reaction to bottom slab
a
Distance from joint B to far end of Pv2
b
Distance from joint B to near end of Pv2
H0
Height of plane frame
B0
Width of plane frame
t1
Thickness of side wall
t2
Thickness of top slab
t3
Thickness of invert (bottom slab)

4,720
5,920
9,771
0,000
10,411
0,600
0,000
0,600
0,600
0,200
0,200
0,200

tf/m
2
tf/m
tf/m2
tf/m2
tf/m2
m
B
m
m
H0 (t1)
m
m
A
m
m

(t2)

C
(t1)

(t3)

B0
CAB = CDC = (2Ph1+3Ph2)H02/60

CBA = CCD = (3Ph1+2Ph2)H02/60

0,15601 tfm

CBC = CCB = Pv1B02/12 + {(a2-b2)B02/2 - 2B0(a3-b3)/3 + (a4-b4)/4}Pv2/B02

0,29313 tfm

CDA = CAD = PqB02/12

0,31233 tfm

0,16321 tfm

2) Calculation of Bending Moment at joint


k1
=
k2 = H0t23/(B0t13) =

1,0
1,0000

k3 = H0t33/(B0t13) =

1,0000

2(k1+k3)

k1

k3

-3k1

k1

2(k1+k2)

k2

-3k1

CBC - CBA

k2

2(k1+k2)

k1

-3k1

= CCD - CCB

k3

k1

2(k1+k3)

-3k1

CDA - CDC

k1

k1

k1

k1

-4k1

CAB - CAD

As load has bilateral symmetry, the equation shown below is formed.


B = -C

A = -D
2k1+k3

k1

k1

2k1+k2

3,0000
1,0

1,0
3,0000

A
B

R =0
=

CAB - CAD
CBC - CBA
-0,14911493
0,13711493

By solving above equation, the result is led as shown below.


A
B

= -0,07306
= 0,07006

C
D

1 / 16

=
=

-0,07006
0,07306

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

MAB = k1(2A +B) - CAB

MBA = k1(2B+A)+CBA

0,2231 tfm

MBC = k2(2B+C) - CBC

-0,2231 tfm

MCB = k2(2C+B)+CCB

0,2231 tfm

MCD = k1(2C+D) - CCD

-0,2231 tfm

MDC =k1 (2D+ C)+CDC

0,2393 tfm

MDA = k3(2D+A) - CDA

-0,2393 tfm

MAD = k3(2A+D)+CAD

0,2393 tfm

-0,2393 tfm

2) Calculation of Design Force


2-1) Side Wall in left
a) Shearing Force at joint

MBA
w2

5,920 tf/m2
4,720 tf/m2
-0,2393 tfm

w1
w2
MAB

Load at end A
Load at end B
Bending moment at end A

MBA
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end B


Length of member (=H0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

0,2231
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

L
x
A
w1

SAB = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MAB+MBA)/L


=
1,683 tf
=
-1,509 tf
SBA = SAB - L(w1+w2)/2

MAB

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=

c) Bending Moment
MA = MAB
MB = -MBA

0,280
0,104
0,320
-0,109

m
tf
m
tf

-0,239 tfm

-0,223 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
1,6831
-5,9205 x
+
1,0000 x2 ,
x =
Bending moment at x = 0,2994

5,621
0,299

m is;

Mmax = SABx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MAB

2 / 16

0,008 tfm

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

2-2) Top Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
a
b
MBC
MCB
L
ch
t
d

Uniform load
9,771 tf/m2
Uniform load
0,000 tf/m2
Distance from end B to near end of w2 0,000 m
Length of uniform load w2
0,600 m
Bending moment at end B
-0,2231 tfm
Bending moment at end C
0,2231 tfm
Length of member (=Bo)
0,600 m
Protective covering height
0,060 m
Thickness of member (height)
0,200 m
Effective height of member
0,140 m

w2
w1
C

B
MBC

SBC = (w1L+w2b)/2-(MBC+MCB)/L

2,931 tf

SCB = SBC -w1L - w2b

-2,931 tf

MCB
L

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SBC - w1x - w2(x-a)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=
c) Bending Moment
MB = MBC
MC = -MCB

=
=

0,000 m <= x <=

in case of
0,280
0,195
0,320
-0,195

0,600 m

m
tf
m
tf

-0,223 tfm
-0,223 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the center of member due to symmetry loading distribution.
Bending moment at x = 0,300 m is;
=
0,217 tfm
Mmax = SBCx - w1x2/2 - w2(x-a)2/2 + MBC

2-3) Side Wall in right


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
MCD
MDC
L
ch
t
d

Load at end C
Load at end D
Bending moment at end C
Bending moment at end D
Length of member (=H0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

4,720
5,920
-0,2231
0,2393
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tf/m
tf/m2
tfm
tfm
m
m
m
m

MCD
C
L

w1

x
D

w2

MDC

SCD = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MCD+MDC)/L


=
1,509 tf
SDC = SCD - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-1,683 tf

3 / 16

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=
c) Bending Moment
MC = MCD
MD = -MDC

0,280
0,109
0,320
-0,104

m
tf
m
tf

-0,223 tfm

-0,239 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
1,5091
-4,7205 x
-1,0000 x2 ,
x =

-5,021
0,301

Bending moment at x = 0,3006 m is;


Mmax = SCDx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MCD

= 0,00825 tfm

2-4) Bottom Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
MDA

Reaction at end D
Reaction at end A
Bending moment at end B

MAD
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end C


Length of member (=B0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

10,411 tf/m2
10,411 tf/m2
-0,23927 tfm
0,23927
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

L
MAD

MDA

w2

w1

SDA = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MDA+MAD)/L


=
3,123 tf
SAD = SDA - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-3,123 tf
b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint
Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SDA- w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
0,280 m
Sx1
=
0,208 tf
(ii) In case of x2 =
0,320 m
Sx2
=
-0,208 tf
c) Bending Moment
MD = MDA
=
-0,239 tfm
MA = -MAD
=
-0,239 tfm
The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SDA - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
3,1233
-10,4110 x
,
x =

0,300

Bending moment at x = 0,3000 m is;


Mmax = SDAx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MDA

4 / 16

0,229 tfm

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

Case 2: Box Culvert Inside is Empty, Underground Water up to Top slab, Track load Case. L2
1) Calculation of Load Term
Ph1
Horizontal Pressure at top of side wall
Ph2
Horizontal Pressure at bottom of side wall
Pv1
Vertical Pressure(1) on top slab
Pv2
Vertical Pressure(2) on top slab
Pq
Reaction to bottom slab
a
Distance from joint B to far end of Pv2
b
Distance from joint B to near end of Pv2
H0
Height of plane frame
B0
Width of plane frame
t1
Thickness of side wall
t2
Thickness of top slab
t3
Thickness of invert (bottom slab)

4,720
5,920
9,771
0,000
10,411
0,600
0,000
0,600
0,600
0,200
0,200
0,200

tf/m2
tf/m2
2
tf/m
2
tf/m
2
tf/m
m
B
m
m
H0 (t1)
m
m
A
m
m

(t2)

C
(t1)

(t3)

B0
CAB = CDC = (2Ph1+3Ph2)H02/60

CBA = CCD = (3Ph1+2Ph2)H02/60

0,15601 tfm

0,29313 tfm

0,31233 tfm

CBC = CCB = Pv1B0 /12 + {(a -b )B0 /2 - 2B0(a -b )/3 + (a -b )/4}Pv2/B0

CDA = CAD = PqB02/12

0,16321 tfm

2) Calculation of Bending Moment at joint


k1
=
k2 = H0t23/(B0t13) =

1,0
1,00000

k3 = H0t33/(B0t13) =

1,00000

2(k1+k3)

k1

k3

-3k1

k1

2(k1+k2)

k2

-3k1

CBC - CBA

k2

2(k1+k2)

k1

-3k1

k3
k1

0
k1

k1
k1

2(k1+k3)
k1

-3k1
-4k1

D
R

= CCD - CCB
CDA - CDC
0

CAB - CAD

As load has bilateral symmetry, the equation shown below is formed.


A = -D

R =0

B = -C

2k1+k3

k1

k1

2k1+k2

3,0000
1,0

1,0
3,0000

A
B

CAB - CAD
CBC - CBA
-0,14911493
0,13711493

By solving above equation, the result is led as shown below.


A

= -0,07306

-0,07006

0,07306

0,07006

5 / 16

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

MAB = k1(2A +B) - CAB

MBA = k1(2B+A)+CBA

0,2231 tfm

MBC = k2(2B+C) - CBC

-0,2231 tfm

MCB = k2(2C+B)+CCB

0,2231 tfm

MCD = k1(2C+D) - CCD

-0,2231 tfm

MDC =k1 (2D+ C)+CDC

0,2393 tfm

MDA = k3(2D+A) - CDA

-0,2393 tfm

MAD = k3(2A+D)+CAD

0,2393 tfm

-0,2393 tfm

2) Calculation of Design Force


2-1) Side Wall in left
a) Shearing Force at joint

MBA
w2

w1
w2
MAB

Load at end A
Load at end B
Bending moment at end A

5,920 tf/m
4,720 tf/m2
-0,2393 tfm

MBA
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end B


Length of member (=H0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

0,2231
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

L
x
A
w1

SAB = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MAB+MBA)/L


= 1,6831 tf
SBA = SAB - L(w1+w2)/2
= -1,5091 tf

MAB

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=

c) Bending Moment
MA = MAB
MB = -MBA

0,280
0,104
0,32
-0,109

m
tf
m
tf

-0,239 tfm

-0,223 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
1,6831
-5,9205 x
+
1,0000 x2 ,
x =
Bending moment at x = 0,2994

5,621
0,299

m is;

Mmax = SABx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MAB

6 / 16

0,008 tfm

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

2-2) Top Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
a
b
MBC

Uniform load
9,771
Uniform load
0,000
Distance from end B to near end of w2 0,000
Length of uniform load w2
0,600
Bending moment at end B
-0,2231

tf/m2
2
tf/m
m
m
tfm

MCB
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end C


Length of member (=Bo)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

tfm
m
m
m
m

0,2231
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

SBC = (w1L+w2b)/2-(MBC+MCB)/L

2,931 tf

SCB = SBC -w1L - w2b

-2,931 tf

w2
w1
C

B
MBC

MCB
L

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SBC - w1x - w2(x-a)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=
c) Bending Moment
MB = MBC
MC = -MCB

0,000 m <= x <=

in case of
0,280
0,195
0,320
-0,195

0,600 m

m
tf
m
tf

-0,223 tfm

-0,223 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the center of member due to symmetry loading distribution.
Bending moment at x = 0,300 m is;
=
0,217 tfm
Mmax = SBCx - w1x2/2 - w2(x-a)2/2 + MBC

2-3) Side Wall in right


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
MCD

Load at end C
Load at end D
Bending moment at end C

MDC
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end D


Length of member (=H0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

4,720 tf/m2
5,920 tf/m2
-0,2231 tfm
0,2393
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

MCD
C
L

w1

x
D

w2

MDC

SCD = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MCD+MDC)/L


=
1,509 tf
SDC = SCD - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-1,683 tf

7 / 16

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
0,280 m
Sx1
=
0,109 tf
(ii) In case of x2 =
0,320 m
Sx2
=
-0,104 tf
c) Bending Moment
MC = MCD
MD = -MDC

-0,223 tfm

-0,239 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
1,5091
-4,7205 x
-1,0000 x2 ,
x =

-5,0211
0,3006

Bending moment at x = 0,3006 m is;


Mmax = SCDx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MCD

0,0083 tfm

2-4) Bottom Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
MDA

Reaction at end D
Reaction at end A
Bending moment at end B

MAD
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end C


Length of member (=B0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

10,411 tf/m2
10,411 tf/m2
-0,2393 tfm
0,2393
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

L
MAD

MDA

w2

w1

SDA = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MDA+MAD)/L


=
3,123 tf
SAD = SDA - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-3,123 tf
b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint
Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SDA- w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
0,280 m
Sx1
=
0,208 tf
(ii) In case of x2 =
0,320 m
Sx2
=
-0,208 tf
c) Bending Moment
MD = MDA

=
-0,239 tfm
MA = -MAD
=
-0,239 tfm
The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SDA - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
3,1233
-10,4110 x
,
x =

0,3000

Bending moment at x = 0,3000 m is;


Mmax = SDAx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MDA

8 / 16

0,229 tfm

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

Case 3: Box Culvert Inside is Full, Underground Water up to invert, Track load Case. L1
1) Calculation of Load Term
Ph1
Horizontal Pressure at top of side wall
Ph2
Horizontal Pressure at bottom of side wall
Pv1
Vertical Pressure(1) on top slab
Pv2
Vertical Pressure(2) on top slab
Pq
Reaction to bottom slab
a
Distance from joint B to far end of Pv2
b
Distance from joint B to near end of Pv2
H0
Height of plane frame
B0
Width of plane frame
t1
Thickness of side wall
t2
Thickness of top slab
t3
Thickness of invert (bottom slab)

4,610
4,750
9,771
0,000
10,411
0,600
0,000
0,600
0,600
0,200
0,200
0,200

tf/m2
tf/m2
2
tf/m
2
tf/m
2
tf/m
m
B
m
m
H0 (t1)
m
m
A
m
m

(t2)

C
(t1)

(t3)

B0
CAB = CDC = (2Ph1+3Ph2)H02/60

CBA = CCD = (3Ph1+2Ph2)H02/60

0,13999 tfm

0,29313 tfm

0,31233 tfm

CBC = CCB = Pv1B0 /12 + {(a -b )B0 /2 - 2B0(a -b )/3 + (a -b )/4}Pv2/B0

CDA = CAD = PqB02/12

0,14083 tfm

2) Calculation of Bending Moment at joint


k1
=
k2 = H0t23/(B0t13) =

1,0
1,00000

k3 = H0t33/(B0t13) =

1,00000

2(k1+k3)

k1

k3

-3k1

k1

2(k1+k2)

k2

-3k1

CBC - CBA

k2

2(k1+k2)

k1

-3k1

k3
k1

0
k1

k1
k1

2(k1+k3)
k1

-3k1
-4k1

D
R

= CCD - CCB
CDA - CDC
0

CAB - CAD

As load has bilateral symmetry, the equation shown below is formed.


A = -D

B = -C

2k1+k3

k1

k1

2k1+k2

3,0000
1,0

1,0
3,0000

A
B

R =0
=

CAB - CAD
CBC - CBA
-0,17149493
0,15313493

By solving above equation, the result is led as shown below.


A
B

= -0,08345
= 0,07886

C
D

9 / 16

=
=

-0,07886
0,08345

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

MAB = k1(2A +B) - CAB

= -0,22888 tfm

MBA = k1(2B+A)+CBA

= 0,21427 tfm

MBC = k2(2B+C) - CBC

= -0,21427 tfm

MCB = k2(2C+B)+CCB

= 0,21427 tfm

MCD = k1(2C+D) - CCD

= -0,21427 tfm

MDC =k1 (2D+ C)+CDC

= 0,22888 tfm

MDA = k3(2D+A) - CDA

= -0,22888 tfm

MAD = k3(2A+D)+CAD

= 0,22888 tfm

2) Calculation of Design Force


2-1) Side Wall in left
a) Shearing Force at joint

MBA
w2

w1
w2
MAB

Load at end A
Load at end B
Bending moment at end A

4,750 tf/m
4,610 tf/m2
-0,2289 tfm

MBA
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end B


Length of member (=H0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

0,2143
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

L
x
A
w1

SAB = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MAB+MBA)/L


=
1,435 tf
SBA = SAB - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-1,373 tf

MAB

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=

c) Bending Moment
MA = MAB
MB = -MBA

0,280
0,115
0,320
-0,073

m
tf
m
tf

-0,229 tfm

-0,214 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
1,4355
-4,7505 x
+
0,1167 x2 ,
x =
Bending moment at x = 0,3045

40,414
0,304

m is;

Mmax = SABx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MAB

10 / 16

-0,011 tfm

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

2-2) Top Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
a
b
MBC

Uniform load
Uniform load
Distance from end B to near end of w2
Length of uniform load w2
Bending moment at end B

MCB
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end C


Length of member (=Bo)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

9,771
0,000
0,000
0,600
-0,214

tf/m2
2
tf/m
m
m
tfm

0,214
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

SBC = (w1L+w2b)/2-(MBC+MCB)/L

2,931 tf

SCB = SBC -w1L - w2b

-2,931 tf

w2
w1
C

B
MBC

MCB
L

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SBC - w1x - w2(x-a)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=
c) Bending Moment
MB = MBC
MC = -MCB

in case of
0,280
0,195
0,320
-0,195

0,000 m <= x <=

0,600 m

m
tf
m
tf

-0,214 tfm

-0,214 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the center of member due to symmetry loading distribution.
Bending moment at x = 0,300 m is;
=
0,225 tfm
Mmax = SBCx - w1x2/2 - w2(x-a)2/2 + MBC

2-3) Side Wall in right


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
MCD

Load at end C
Load at end D
Bending moment at end C

MDC
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end D


Length of member (=H0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

4,610 tf/m2
4,750 tf/m2
-0,214 tfm
0,229
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

MCD
C
L

w1

x
D

w2

MDC

SCD = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MCD+MDC)/L


=
1,373 tf
SDC = SCD - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-1,435 tf

11 / 16

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
0,280 m
Sx1
=
0,073 tf
(ii) In case of x2 =
0,320 m
Sx2
=
-0,115 tf
c) Bending Moment
MC = MCD
MD = -MDC

-0,214 tfm

-0,229 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
1,3728
-4,6105 x
-0,1167 x2 ,
x =

-39,81
0,296

Bending moment at x = 0,2955 m is;


Mmax = SCDx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MCD

-0,011 tfm

2-4) Bottom Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
MDA

Reaction at end D
Reaction at end A
Bending moment at end B

MAD
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end C


Length of member (=B0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

10,411 tf/m2
10,411 tf/m2
-0,229 tfm
0,229
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

L
MAD

MDA

w2

w1

SDA = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MDA+MAD)/L


=
3,123 tf
SAD = SDA - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-3,123 tf
b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint
Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SDA- w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
0,280 m
Sx1
=
0,208 tf
(ii) In case of x2 =
0,320 m
Sx2
=
-0,208 tf
c) Bending Moment
MD = MDA

=
-0,229 tfm
MA = -MAD
=
-0,229 tfm
The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SDA - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
3,1233
-10,4110 x
,
x =

0,300

Bending moment at x = 0,3000 m is;


2
3
Mmax = SDAx - w1x /2 - (w2-w1)x /(6L) + MDA

12 / 16

0,240 tfm

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

Case 4: Box Culvert Inside is Full, Underground Water up to invert, Track load Case. L2
1) Calculation of Load Term
Ph1
Horizontal Pressure at top of side wall
Ph2

Horizontal Pressure at bottom of side wall

Pv1

Vertical Pressure(1) on top slab

Pv2
Pq
a
b
H0
B0
t1
t2
t3

Vertical Pressure(2) on top slab


Reaction to bottom slab
Distance from joint B to far end of Pv2
Distance from joint B to near end of Pv2
Height of plane frame
Width of plane frame
Thickness of side wall
Thickness of top slab
Thickness of invert (bottom slab)

4,610 tf/m2
4,750 tf/m2
9,771 tf/m2
0,000 tf/m2
10,411 tf/m2
0,600 m
B
0,000 m
0,600 m
H0 (t1)
0,600 m
0,200 m
A
0,200 m
0,200 m

(t2)

C
(t1)

(t3)

B0
CAB = CDC = (2Ph1+3Ph2)H02/60

CBA = CCD = (3Ph1+2Ph2)H02/60

0,13999 tfm

CBC = CCB = Pv1B02/12 + {(a2-b2)B02/2 - 2B0(a3-b3)/3 + (a4-b4)/4}Pv2/B02

0,29313 tfm

CDA = CAD = PqB02/12

0,31233 tfm

0,14083 tfm

2) Calculation of Bending Moment at joint


k1
=
k2 = H0t23/(B0t13) =
k3 = H0t33/(B0t13) =

1,0
1,00000
1,00000

2(k1+k3)

k1

k3

-3k1

k1

2(k1+k2)

k2

-3k1

CBC - CBA

k2

2(k1+k2)

k1

-3k1

= CCD - CCB

k3
k1

0
k1

k1
k1

2(k1+k3)
k1

-3k1
-4k1

D
R

CDA - CDC
0

CAB - CAD

As load has bilateral symmetry, the equation shown below is formed.


A = -D

R =0

B = -C

2k1+k3
k1
k1
2k1+k2

A
B

CAB - CAD
CBC - CBA

3,0000
1,0

A
B

-0,17149493
0,15313493

1,0
3,0000

By solving above equation, the result is led as shown below.


A
B

= -0,08345
= 0,07886

C
D

13 / 16

=
=

-0,07886
0,08345

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

MAB = k1(2A +B) - CAB

= -0,22888 tfm

MBA = k1(2B+A)+CBA

= 0,21427 tfm

MBC = k2(2B+C) - CBC

= -0,21427 tfm

MCB = k2(2C+B)+CCB

= 0,21427 tfm

MCD = k1(2C+D) - CCD

= -0,21427 tfm

MDC =k1 (2D+ C)+CDC

= 0,22888 tfm

MDA = k3(2D+A) - CDA

= -0,22888 tfm

MAD = k3(2A+D)+CAD

= 0,22888 tfm

2) Calculation of Design Force


2-1) Side Wall in left
a) Shearing Force at joint

MBA
w2

w1
w2
MAB

Load at end A
Load at end B
Bending moment at end A

4,750 tf/m
4,610 tf/m2
-0,229 tfm

MBA
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end B


Length of member (=H0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

0,214
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

L
x
A
w1

SAB = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MAB+MBA)/L


=
1,435 tf
SBA = SAB - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-1,373 tf

MAB

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=

c) Bending Moment
MA = MAB
MB = -MBA

0,280
0,115
0,32
-0,073

m
tf
m
tf

-0,229 tfm

-0,214 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
1,4355
-4,7505 x
+
0,1167 x2 ,
x =
Bending moment at x = 0,3045

40,414
0,304

m is;

2
3
Mmax = SABx - w1x /2 - (w2-w1)x /(6L) + MAB

14 / 16

-0,011 tfm

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

2-2) Top Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
a
b
MBC

Uniform load
Uniform load
Distance from end B to near end of w2
Length of uniform load w2
Bending moment at end B

MCB
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end C


Length of member (=Bo)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

9,771
0,000
0,000
0,600
-0,214

tf/m2
2
tf/m
m
m
tfm

0,214
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

SBC = (w1L+w2b)/2-(MBC+MCB)/L

2,931 tf

SCB = SBC -w1L - w2b

-2,931 tf

w2
w1
C

B
MBC

MCB
L

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SBC - w1x - w2(x-a)
(i) In case of x1 =
Sx1
=
(ii) In case of x2 =
Sx2
=
c) Bending Moment
MB = MBC
MC = -MCB

in case of
0,280
0,195
0,320
-0,195

0,000 m <= x <=

0,600 m

m
tf
m
tf

-0,214 tfm

-0,214 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the center of member due to symmetry loading distribution.
Bending moment at x = 0,300 m is;
=
0,225 tfm
Mmax = SBCx - w1x2/2 - w2(x-a)2/2 + MBC

2-3) Side Wall in right


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
MCD

Load at end C
Load at end D
Bending moment at end C

MDC
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end D


Length of member (=H0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

4,610 tf/m2
4,750 tf/m2
-0,214 tfm
0,229
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

MCD
C
L

w1

x
D

w2

MDC

SCD = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MCD+MDC)/L


=
1,373 tf
SDC = SCD - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-1,435 tf

15 / 16

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
0,280 m
Sx1
=
0,0727 tf
(ii) In case of x2 =
0,320 m
Sx2
= -0,1145 tf
c) Bending Moment
MC = MCD
MD = -MDC

-0,214 tfm

-0,229 tfm

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
1,3728
-4,6105 x
-0,1167 x2 ,
x =

-39,8
0,296

Bending moment at x = 0,2955 m is;


2

Mmax = SCDx - w1x /2 - (w2-w1)x /(6L) + MCD

-0,011 tfm

2-4) Bottom Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint
w1
w2
MDA

Reaction at end D
Reaction at end A
Bending moment at end B

MAD
L
ch
t
d

Bending moment at end C


Length of member (=B0)
Protective covering height
Thickness of member (height)
Effective height of member

10,411 tf/m2
10,411 tf/m2
-0,229 tfm
0,229
0,600
0,060
0,200
0,140

tfm
m
m
m
m

L
MAD

MDA

w2

w1

SDA = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MDA+MAD)/L


=
3,123 tf
SAD = SDA - L(w1+w2)/2
=
-3,123 tf
b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint
Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SDA- w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 =
0,280 m
Sx1
=
0,208 tf
(ii) In case of x2 =
0,320 m
Sx2
=
-0,208 tf
c) Bending Moment
MD = MDA

=
-0,229 tfm
MA = -MAD
=
-0,229 tfm
The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SDA - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
=
3,1233
-10,4110 x
,
x =

0,300

Bending moment at x = 0,3000 m is;


Mmax = SDAx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MDA

16 / 16

0,240 tfm

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/MSN

Summary of Internal forces

Member
Side wall
(left)

Case
Case.1

Case.2

Case.3

Case.4
Top slab
Case.1

Case.2

Case.3

Case.4
Side wall
(right)

Case.1

Case.2

Case.3

Case.4
Invert
Case.1

Case.2

Case.3

Case.4

Check
Point
A
Middle
B
A
Middle
B
A
Middle
B
A
Middle
B
B
Middle
C
B
Middle
C
B
Middle
C
B
Middle
C
C
Middle
D
C
Middle
D
C
Middle
D
C
Middle
D
D
Middle
A
D
Middle
A
D
Middle
A
D
Middle
A

M
(tfm)
-0,239
0,008
-0,223
-0,239
0,008
-0,223
-0,229
-0,011
-0,214
-0,229
-0,011
-0,214
-0,223
0,217
-0,223
-0,223
0,217
-0,223
-0,214
0,225
-0,214
-0,214
0,225
-0,214
-0,223
0,008
-0,239
-0,223
0,008
-0,239
-0,214
-0,011
-0,229
-0,214
-0,011
-0,229
-0,239
0,229
-0,239
-0,239
0,229
-0,239
-0,229
0,240
-0,229
-0,229
0,240
-0,229

1/1

N
(tf)
3,123
3,027
2,931
3,123
3,027
2,931
3,123
3,026
2,931
3,123
3,026
2,931
1,509
1,509
1,509
1,509
1,509
1,509
1,373
1,373
1,373
1,373
1,373
1,373
2,931
3,027
3,123
2,931
3,027
3,123
2,931
3,026
3,123
2,931
3,026
3,123
1,683
1,683
1,683
1,683
1,683
1,683
1,435
1,435
1,435
1,435
1,435
1,435

S
at joint
1,683
0,000
-1,509
1,683
0,000
-1,509
1,435
0,000
-1,373
1,435
0,000
-1,373
2,931
0,000
-2,931
2,931
0,000
-2,931
2,931
0,000
-2,931
2,931
0,000
-2,931
1,509
0,000
-1,683
1,509
0,000
-1,683
1,373
0,000
-1,435
1,373
0,000
-1,435
3,123
0,000
-3,123
3,123
0,000
-3,123
3,123
0,000
-3,123
3,123
0,000
-3,123

(tf)
at 2d
0,104
-0,109
0,104
-0,109
0,115
-0,073
0,115
-0,073
0,195
-0,195
0,195
-0,195
0,195
-0,195
0,195
-0,195
0,109
-0,104
0,109
-0,104
0,073
-0,115
0,073
-0,115
0,208
-0,208
0,208
-0,208
0,208
-0,208
0,208
-0,208

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/Sum MSN

Calculation of Required Reinforcement Bar

5-1 Calculation of Required Reinforcement Bar


1) At Joint "A"of side wall
Case.1
M=
0,2393 tfm
ca =
N=
3,1233 tf
sa =
S0=
1,6831 tf
n=
S2d=
0,1038 tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
7,66 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 20,727 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+125,68 c^2
-975,55 c
-42680,20
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1915
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Case.2
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2393
3,1233
1,6831
0,1038

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

d
d

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
7,66 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 20,727 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+125,68 c^2
-975,55 c
-42680,20
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1915
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Case.3
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2289
3,1233
1,4355
0,1145

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
7,33 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 20,389 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+125,83 c^2
-947,7 c
-41462,03
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1890
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Case.4
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2289
3,1233
1,4355
0,1145

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
7,33 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 20,389 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+125,83 c^2
-947,7 c
-41462,03
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1890
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is
Case.
Requirement

2) At Joint "B"of side wall


Case.1
M=
0,2231 tfm
N=
2,9313 tf
S0=
1,5091 tf
S2d=
0,1090 tf

1
0,0000

2
0,0000

ca =
sa =
n=

0,0000 cm2 in Case.1


3
0,0000

from above calculation.

4
0,0000 (cm2)

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
7,61 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 19,943 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,04 c^2
-911,58 c
-39881,76
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1856
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Case.2
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2231
2,9313
1,5091
0,1090

tfm
tf
tf
tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

d
d

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
7,61 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 19,943 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,04 c^2
-911,58 c
-39881,76
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1856
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2

1/5

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/R-bar req

Case.3
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2143
2,9313
1,3728
0,0727

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
7,31 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 19,648 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,18 c^2
-888 c
-38849,92
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1834
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Case.4
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2143
2,9313
1,3728
0,0727

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
7,31 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 19,648 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,18 c^2
-888 c
-38849,92
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1834
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is
Case.
Requirement
3) At Joint "B"of top slab
Case.1
M=
0,2231
N=
1,5091
S0=
2,9313
S2d=
0,1954

1
0,0000

2
0,0000

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

0,0000 cm2 in Case.1


3
0,0000

from above calculation.

4
0,0000 (cm2)

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
14,78 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 17,985 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,91 c^2
-759,21 c
-33215,43
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1705
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3035 cm2
Case.2
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2231
1,5091
2,9313
0,1954

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

d
d

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
14,78 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 17,985 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,91 c^2
-759,21 c
-33215,43
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1705
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3035 cm2
Case.3
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2143
1,3728
2,9313
0,1954

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
15,61 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 17,472 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+127,13 c^2
-721,02 c
-31544,46
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1664
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3156 cm2
Case.4
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2143
1,3728
2,9313
0,1954

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
15,61 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 17,472 kgf/cm2
( 5,1E-07 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+127,13 c^2
-721,02 c
-31544,46
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1664
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3156 cm2
The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is
Case.
Requirement

1
0,3035

2
0,3035

0,3156 cm2 in Case.3


3
0,3156

from above calculation.

4
0,3156 (cm2)

2/5

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/R-bar req

4) At Joint "A"of invert


Case.1
M=
0,2393
N=
1,6831
S0=
3,1233
S2d=
0,2082

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
14,22 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 18,799 kgf/cm2
( 4,7E-08 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,56 c^2
-821,25 c
-35929,50
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1768
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3067 cm2
Case.2
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2393
1,6831
3,1233
0,2082

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

d
d

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
14,22 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 18,799 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,56 c^2
-821,25 c
-35929,50
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1768
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3067 cm2
Case.3
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2289
1,4355
3,1233
0,2082

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
15,94 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 18,087 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,87 c^2
-766,87 c
-33550,47
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1713
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3492 cm2
Case.4
M=
N=
S0=
S2d=

0,2289
1,4355
3,1233
0,2082

ca =
sa =
n=

tfm
tf
tf
tf

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
15,94 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 18,087 kgf/cm2
( 1,7E-07 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,87 c^2
-766,87 c
-33550,47
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1713
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3492 cm2
The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is
Case.
Requirement

5) At Middle of side wall


Case.1
M=
0,0083 tfm
N=
3,0275 tf

1
0,3067

2
0,3067

ca =
sa =
n=

0,3492 cm2 in Case.3


3
0,3492

from above calculation.

4
0,3492 (cm2)

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
0,27 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c =11,6723 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
h
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+129,27 c^2
-346,47 c
-15158,20
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1177
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
Case.2
M=
N=

0,0083 tfm
3,0275 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

d
d

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
0,27 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 11,672 kgf/cm2
(
0,0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+129,27 c^2
-346,47 c
-15158,20
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1177
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member

3/5

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/R-bar req

Case.3
M=
N=

0,0109 tfm
3,0259 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
0,36 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 11,798 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+129,23 c^2
-353,41 c
-15461,54
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1188
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Tensile is on outside of member
Case.4
M=
N=

0,0109 tfm
3,0259 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
0,36 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 11,798 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+129,23 c^2
-353,41 c
-15461,54
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1188
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,0000 cm2
Tensile is on outside of member
The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is
Case.
Requirement
Side
6) At Middle of top slab
Case.1
M=
0,2166 tfm
N=
1,5091 tf

1
0,0000
inside

2
0,0000
inside

ca =
sa =
n=

0,0000 cm2 in Case.1


3
outside

4
outside

from above calculation.

(cm2)

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
14,35 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 17,754 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
h
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+127,01 c^2
-741,93 c
-32459,57
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1687
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,2796 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
Case.2
M=
N=

0,2166 tfm
1,5091 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

d
d

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
14,35 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 17,754 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+127,01 c^2
-741,93 c
-32459,57
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1687
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,2796 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
Case.3
M=
N=

0,2254 tfm
1,3728 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
16,42 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 17,875 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,96 c^2
-750,91 c
-32852,27
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1696
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3570 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
Case.4
M=
N=

0,2254 tfm
1,3728 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
16,42 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 17,875 kgf/cm2
( 2,5E-07 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,96 c^2
-750,91 c
-32852,27
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1696
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3570 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is
Case.
Requirement
Side

0,3570 cm2 in Case.3

1
2
3
0,2796 0,2796 0,3570
inside
inside
inside

from above calculation.

4
0,3570 (cm2)
inside

4/5

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/R-bar req

7) At Middle of invert
Case.1
M=
0,2292 tfm
N=
1,6831 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
13,62 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c =18,4488 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
h
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,71 c^2
-794,33 c
-34751,76
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1741
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,2693 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
Case.2
M=
N=

0,2292 tfm
1,6831 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

d
d

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
13,62 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 18,449 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,71 c^2
-794,33 c
-34751,76
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1741
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,2693 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
Case.3
M=
N=

0,2396 tfm
1,4355 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
16,69 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 18,466 kgf/cm2
( 8,7E-08 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,7 c^2
-795,64 c
-34809,07
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1743
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3891 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
Case.4
M=
N=

0,2396 tfm
1,4355 tf

ca =
sa =
n=

70 kgf/m2
2100 kgf/m2
24

h=
d=
d' =
c=
b=

20
14
6
4,00
100

cm (height of member)
cm (effective height of member)
cm (protective covering depth)
cm (distance from neutral axis)
cm

e = M/N =
16,69 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 18,466 kgf/cm2
(
0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
0 = c^3
+126,7 c^2
-795,64 c
-34809,07
s = nc/(nc+sa) =
0,1743
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa =
0,3891 cm2
Tensile is on inside of member
The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is
Case.
Requirement
Side

0,3891 cm2 in Case.3

1
2
3
0,2693 0,2693 0,3891
inside
inside
inside

from above calculation.

4
0,3891 (cm2)
inside

8) Summary of required reinforcement


Required reinforcement for design is the maximum required reinforcement calculated above in 1) - 4).
Item
Point
Side
Calculation
Requirement

Side wall Side wall Top slab Invert


bottom
top
end
end
outside outside outside outside
1)
2)
3)
4)
0,000
0,000
0,316
0,349

Side wall Top slab Invert


middle
middle middle
inside
inside
inside
5)
6)
7)
0,000
0,357
0,389 (cm2)

5/5

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/R-bar req

6 Bar Arrangement and Calculation of Stress

Bending moment
Shearing force (joint)
Shearing force (2d)
Axial force
Height of member
Covering depth
Effective height
Effective width
Effective area
Young's modulus ratio
Required R-bar

M
S
S2d
N
h
d'
d
b
bd
n

kgfcm
kgf
kgf
kgf
cm
cm
cm
cm
cm2
-

Asreq

cm2

R-bar arrangement
Reinforcement
Perimeter of R-bar
M/N
Dist. from neutral axis

bottom
outside
23.927
1.683
115
3.123
20
6
14
100
1400
24
0,00
12@150

As
U
e
c
a'
b'

Shearing stress at joint


Allowable stress

2d kgf/cm2
2da kgf/cm2

Resisting Moment
Mr for compression
x for Mrc
s for Mrc
Mr for tensile
x for Mrs
c for Mrs

Mr
Mrc

kgfcm
kgfcm
cm
kgf/cm2
Mrs kgfcm
cm
kgf/cm2

Distribution bar (>As/6 and >Asmin)


Reinforcement
As
cm2
Reinforcement bar for fillet
Reinforcement
As

cm2

0,35

0,39

12@150

12@150

12@150

12@150

12@150

7,54
25,13
16,421
4,00
19,3
221,7
-3104,1
7,40
0,000
ok

7,54
25,13
15,944
4,00
17,8
216,5
-3031,6
7,47
0,000
ok

7,54
25,13
16,692
4,00
20,1
224,7
-3145,4
7,37
0,000
ok

6,5
70,0
ok
48,6
2100,0
ok
1,20
11,00
ok
0,08
5,50
ok

2,0
70,0
ok
0,0
2100,0
ok
0,00
11,00
ok
-

6,1
70,0
ok
44,4
2100,0
ok
1,08
11,00
ok
0,08
5,50
ok

6,2
70,0
ok
128,6
2100,0
ok
2,09
11,00
ok
0,14
5,50
ok

6,6
70,0
ok
140,3
2100,0
ok
0,00
11,00
ok
-

6,7
70,0
ok
139,5
2100,0
ok
2,23
11,00
ok
0,15
5,50
ok

7,0
70,0
ok
150,9
2100,0
ok
0,00
11,00
ok
-

235.438
235.438
5,884
2317,2
379.690
7,789
109,7

199.883
199.883
4,897
3122,5
218.260
6,329
72,2

235.421
235.421
5,862
2332,3
375.059
7,749
108,5

235.378
235.378
5,685
2457,0
338.900
7,420
98,7

235.378
235.378
5,685
2457,0
338.900
7,420
98,7

235.377
235.377
5,692
2451,9
340.307
7,434
99,1

235.377
235.377
5,692
2451,9
340.307
7,434
99,1

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

Shearing stress at 2d
Allowable stress

0,36

7,54
25,13
15,608
4,00
16,8
212,9
-2980,6
7,52
0,000
ok

(check)

s kgf/cm2
sa kgf/cm2

0,32

7,54
25,13
7,610
4,00
-7,2
126,1
-1764,8
10,74
0,000
ok

Tensile stress
Allowable stress

12@250

0,00

4,52
15,08
0,273
4,00
-29,2
27,8
-389,3
28,69
0,001
ok

c'

c kgf/cm2
ca kgf/cm2

0,00

Invert
end
middle
outside
inside
22.888
23.962
3.123
0
208
1.435
1.435
20
20
6
6
14
14
100
100
1400
1400
24
24

7,54
25,13
7,661
4,00
-7,0
126,6
-1772,5
10,69
0,000
ok

cm2

cm
cm

Compressive stress
Allowable stress

Type: B0,40m x H0,40m


Side wall
Top slab
middle
top
end
middle
inside
outside
outside
inside
825
22.307
21.427
22.543
0
1.509
2.931
0
109
195
3.027
2.931
1.373
1.373
20
20
20
20
6
6
6
6
14
14
14
14
100
100
100
100
1400
1400
1400
1400
24
24
24
24

12@250 12@250 12@250 12@250 12@250 12@250 12@250


4,52
4,52
4,52
4,52
4,52
4,52
4,52
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
ok
12@250
12@250
4,52
4,52

Minimum requirement of reinforcement bar

As min =

1/1

4,5 cm2

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/R-bar stress

DATA PLOT PEMBESIAN

h1

h2
Ha

h3
b1

b1

b2
Bb

Section of Culvert

1. Design Data
b1 =
0,200
h1 =
0,200
Bb =
0,800

m
m
m

2. Data Pembesian
Bottom slab :
As1 (cm2)
:
As2 (cm2)
:

Tumpuan
O 12 @ 150
O 12 @ 150

Lapangan
O 12 @ 150
O 12 @ 150

Tulangan bagi :
O 12 @ 250

b2 =
h2 =
Ha =

0,400
0,400
0,800

m
m
m

h3 =
Fillet =

0,200 m
0,15 m

0,06 m

Side wall :
As1 (cm2)
As2 (cm2)

:
:

Tumpuan
O 12 @ 150
O 12 @ 250

Lapangan
O 12 @ 250
O 12 @ 150

Tulangan bagi :
O 12 @ 250

Top slab :
As1 (cm2)
As2 (cm2)

:
:

Tumpuan
O 12 @ 150
O 12 @ 150

Lapangan
O 12 @ 150
O 12 @ 150

Tulangan bagi :
O 12 @ 250

Surabaya, 04 April 2016


3. Tulangan Miring (fillet) :
Bottom slab :
O 12 @ 250
Top slab
:
O 12 @ 250
4. Nama Bangunan
Lokasi

:
:

Culvert Type 2 (0,4 m x 0,4 m)


Kantor Bupati

1/1

U-Ditch 400x400.xls/PlotRebar