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You are on page 1of 16

NET

01 Functions

Absolute Value Function

Inverse Function

If

f ( x ), if f ( x ) 0

f ( x)

y = f ( x ) , then f 1 ( y ) = x

Remember:

Object = the value of x

Image = the value of y or f(x)

f(x) map onto itself means f(x) = x

f ( x), if f ( x ) < 0

02 Quadratic Equations

Quadratic Formula

General Form

ax 2 + bx + c = 0

b b 2 4ac

x=

2a

*Note that the highest power of an unknown of a

quadratic equation is 2.

Nature of Roots

If and are the roots of a quadratic equation

+ =

b

a

c

a

b 2 4ac

b 2 4ac

b 2 4ac

b 2 4ac

x 2 ( + ) x + = 0

or

x ( SoR ) x + ( PoR ) = 0

SoR = Sum of Roots

PoR = Product of Roots

2

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

>0

=0

<0

0

two real and equal roots

no real roots

the roots are real

ONE-SCHOOL.NET

03 Quadratic Functions

Completing the square:

General Form

f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c

f ( x) = a ( x + p)2 + q

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

quadratic function is 2.

the value of x, x = p

min./max. value = q

min./max. point = ( p, q)

equation of axis of symmetry, x = p

Alternative method:

a > 0 minimum (smiling face)

f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c

Quadratic Inequalities

a > 0 and f ( x) > 0

the value of x, x =

(ii)

min./max. value = f (

(iii)

x < a or x > b

b

)

2a

b

2a

Nature of Roots

a > 0 and f ( x) < 0

at x-axis

2

b 4ac = 0 touch one point at x-axis

b 2 4ac < 0 does not meet x-axis

b 2 4ac > 0

b

2a

(i)

b

a< x<b

04 Simultaneous Equations

To find the intersection point solves simultaneous equation.

Remember: substitute linear equation into non- linear equation.

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

ONE-SCHOOL.NET

05 Indices and Logarithm

Laws of Indices

Fundamental if Indices

Zero Index,

a0 = 1

a m a n = a m+n

Negative Index,

a 1 =

1

a

a m a n = a mn

( a m ) n = a m n

a

b

( ) 1 =

b

a

Fractional Index

1

an

= a

m

an

= a

( ab) n = a n b n

a n an

( ) = n

b

b

Fundamental of Logarithm

Law of Logarithm

log a y = x a x = y

log a a = 1

log a

log a a x = x

log a mn = n log a m

log a 1 = 0

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

m

= log a m log a n

n

log a b =

log c b

log c a

log a b =

1

logb a

ONE-SCHOOL.NET

06 Coordinate Geometry

Distance and Gradient

(x1 x2 )2 + (x1 x2 )2

Gradient of line AC, m =

y2 y1

x2 x1

Or

y int ercept

Gradient of a line, m =

x int ercept

Parallel Lines

Perpendicular Lines

m1 = m2 .

m1 m2 = 1

m1 = gradient of line 1

m2 = gradient of line 2

Midpoint

x1 + x2 y1 + y2

,

2

2

Midpoint, M =

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

P = 1

,

m+n

m+n

ONE-SCHOOL.NET

Area of triangle:

Area of Triangle

1

2

A=

1

( x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1 ) ( x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3 )

2

General form

ax + by + c = 0

Gradient form

Intercept form

y = mx + c

x y

+ =1

a b

m = gradient

c = y-intercept

Gradient (m) and 1 point (x1, y1) 2 points, (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) given

given

y y1 y2 y1

y y1 = m( x x1 )

=

x x1 x2 x1

a = x-intercept

b = y-intercept

m=

b

a

x y

+ =1

a b

Information in a rhombus:

A

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

same length AB = BC = CD = AD

parallel lines mAB = mCD or mAD = mBC

diagonals (perpendicular) mAC mBD = 1

share same midpoint midpoint AC = midpoint

BD

any point solve the simultaneous equations

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

ONE-SCHOOL.NET

Remember:

y-intercept x = 0

cut y-axis x = 0

x-intercept y = 0

cut x-axis y = 0

**point lies on the line satisfy the equation substitute the value of x and of y of the point into the

equation.

Equation of Locus

( use the formula of

distance)

The equation of the locus of a

moving point P ( x, y ) which

is always at a constant

distance (r) from a fixed point

A ( x1 , y1 ) is

moving point P ( x, y ) which is

always at a constant distance

from

two

fixed

points

A ( x1 , y1 ) and B ( x2 , y 2 ) with

a ratio m : n is

PA = r

PA m

=

PB n

( x x1 ) 2 + ( y y1 ) 2 = r 2

PA = PB

( x x1 ) + ( y y1 ) 2 = ( x x2 ) 2 + ( y y2 ) 2

2

( x x1 ) 2 + ( y y1 ) 2 m 2

=

( x x2 ) + ( y y 2 ) 2 n 2

At

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

point P ( x, y ) which is always

equidistant from two fixed points A and B

is the perpendicular bisector of the

straight line AB.

ONE-SCHOOL.NET

07 Statistics

Measure of Central Tendency

Ungrouped Data

Mean

x=

x

N

x=

x = mean

x = sum of x

x = value of the data

N = total number of the

data

Median

fx

f

TN + TN

2

TN + T N

+1

m=

When N is an even

number.

fx

f

x = mean

f = frequency

x = class mark

m = TN +1

m=

x=

x = mean

x = sum of x

f = frequency

x = value of the data

m = TN +1

Grouped Data

With Class Interval

+1

2

1N F

C

m = L + 2

fm

m = median

L = Lower boundary of median class

N = Number of data

F = Total frequency before median class

fm = Total frequency in median class

c = Size class

= (Upper boundary lower boundary)

Measure of Dispersion

Ungrouped Data

variance

x2

=

2

= variance

Standard

Deviation

(x x )

=

N

x

x2

N

2

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

Grouped Data

Without Class Interval

With Class Interval

fx 2

=

f

2

= variance

=

=

(x x )

fx 2

=

f

2

x 2

x2

N

= variance

=

=

f (x x)

f

fx 2

x2

f

ONE-SCHOOL.NET

The variance is a measure of the mean for the square of the deviations from the mean.

The standard deviation refers to the square root for the variance.

Effects of data changes on Measures of Central Tendency and Measures of dispersion

Data are changed uniformly with

+k

k

k

k

+k

k

k

k

Measures of

Mean, median, mode

Central Tendency

Range , Interquartile Range

Measures of

Standard Deviation

dispersion

Variance

k

k

k2

No changes

No changes

No changes

08 Circular Measures

Terminology

Convert radian to degree:

xo = ( x

180

radians

)radians

180

180

x radians = ( x

) degrees

degrees

180D

Remember:

180D = rad

???

360 = 2 rad

D

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

O

???

0.7 rad

1.2 rad

k

k

k2

ONE-SCHOOL.NET

Length and Area

r = radius

A = area

s = arc length

= angle

l = length of chord

Arc Length:

s = r

Length of chord:

l = 2r sin

Area of Sector:

A=

Area of Triangle:

1 2

r

2

A=

1 2

r sin

2

Area of Segment:

A=

09 Differentiation

Differentiation of a Function I

straight)

y = xn

dy

= nx n1

dx

dy

y

= lim ( )

dx x 0 x

Example

y = x3

Differentiation of Algebraic Function

Differentiation of a Constant

y=a

dy

=0

dx

dy

= 3x 2

dx

a is a constant

Differentiation of a Function II

y = ax

dy

= ax11 = ax 0 = a

dx

Example

y=2

dy

=0

dx

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

Example

y = 3x

dy

=3

dx

1 2

r ( sin )

2

ONE-SCHOOL.NET

Differentiation of a Function III

Chain Rule

y = ax n

y = un

dy

= anx n1

dx

dy dy du

=

dx du dx

Example

y = 2 x3

Example

y = (2 x 2 + 3)5

dy

= 2(3) x 2 = 6 x 2

dx

u = 2 x 2 + 3,

y = u5 ,

therefore

therefore

du

= 4x

dx

dy

= 5u 4

du

dy dy du

=

dx du dx

= 5u 4 4 x

1

xn

Rewrite

y=

= 5(2 x 2 + 3) 4 4 x = 20 x(2 x 2 + 3) 4

y = xn

Or differentiate directly

y = (ax + b) n

dy

n

= nx n1 = n+1

dx

x

dy

= n.a.(ax + b) n 1

dx

Example

1

y=

x

y = x 1

1

dy

= 1x 2 = 2

x

dx

y = (2 x 2 + 3)5

dy

= 5(2 x 2 + 3) 4 4 x = 20 x(2 x 2 + 3) 4

dx

Law of Differentiation

Sum and Difference Rule

y =uv

u and v are functions in x

dy du dv

=

dx dx dx

Example

y = 2 x3 + 5 x 2

dy

= 2(3) x 2 + 5(2) x = 6 x 2 + 10 x

dx

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

10

ONE-SCHOOL.NET

Product Rule

Quotient Rule

y = uv

u and v are functions in x

dy

du

dv

= v +u

dx

dx

dx

y=

u

v

dy

=

dx

Example

y = (2 x + 3)(3 x 3 2 x 2 x)

v

du

dv

u

dx

dx

v2

Example

x2

y=

2x +1

u = x2

v = 2x +1

du

dv

= 2x

=2

dx

dx

du

dv

u

v

dy

= dx 2 dx

dx

v

dy (2 x + 1)(2 x) x 2 (2)

=

(2 x + 1) 2

dx

u = 2x + 3

v = 3x3 2 x 2 x

du

dv

=2

= 9 x2 4x 1

dx

dx

dy

du

dv

=v

+u

dx

dx

dx

3

2

=(3 x 2 x x)(2) + (2 x + 3)(9 x 2 4 x 1)

Or differentiate directly

y = (2 x + 3)(3x3 2 x 2 x)

dy

= (3x3 2 x 2 x)(2) + (2 x + 3)(9 x 2 4 x 1)

dx

4 x2 + 2 x 2 x2 2 x2 + 2 x

=

=

(2 x + 1) 2

(2 x + 1) 2

Or differentiate directly

x2

y=

2x +1

dy (2 x + 1)(2 x) x 2 (2)

=

dx

(2 x + 1) 2

4 x2 + 2 x 2 x2 2 x2 + 2 x

=

=

(2 x + 1) 2

(2 x + 1) 2

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

11

ONE-SCHOOL.NET

Gradients of tangents, Equation of tangent and Normal

Gradient of tangent at A(x1, y1):

dy

= gradient of tangent

dx

Equation of tangent: y y1 = m( x x1 )

Gradient of normal at A(x1, y1):

mnormal =

of the line (for a straight line) or the gradient of the

dy

tangent of the line (for a curve) is the value of

dx

when x = x1.

1

dy

1

mtangent

= gradient of normal

dx

Equation of normal : y y1 = m( x x1 )

Turning point

At maximum point,

dy

=0

dx

d y

<0

dx 2

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

dy

=0

dx

At minimum point ,

dy

=0

dx

12

d2y

>0

dx 2

ONE-SCHOOL.NET

Rates of Change

Chain rule

Small Change:

dA dA dr

=

dt dr dt

dx

=5

dt

Decreases/leaks/reduces NEGATIVES values!!!

If x changes at the rate of 5 cms -1

y dy

dy

y x

x dx

dx

Approximation:

ynew = yoriginal + y

= yoriginal +

dy

x

dx

x = small changes in x

y = small changes in y

If x becomes smaller x = NEGATIVE

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

13

ONE-SCHOOL.NET

10 Solution of Triangle

Sine Rule:

Cosine Rule:

2 sides and 1 non included

angle

2 angles and 1 side

a

A

b

a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cosA

b2 = a2 + c2 2ac cosB

c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cosC

a

b

c

=

=

sin A sin B sin C

Area of triangle:

cos A =

C

b

b2 + c2 a 2

2bc

A=

2 sides and 1 included angle

3 sides

A

180 (A+B)

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

14

and b.

c

A

b

1

a b sin C

2

ONE-SCHOOL.NET

If C, the length AC and length AB remain unchanged,

the point B can also be at point B where ABC = acute

and A B C = obtuse.

If ABC = , thus ABC = 180 .

Case of AMBIGUITY

A

180 -

C

B

B

Case 1: When a < b sin A

CB is too short to reach the side opposite to C.

CB just touch the side opposite to C

Outcome:

No solution

Case 3: When a > b sin A but a < b.

CB cuts the side opposite to C at 2 points

Outcome:

1 solution

Case 4: When a > b sin A and a > b.

CB cuts the side opposite to C at 1 points

Outcome:

2 solution

Outcome:

1 solution

Useful information:

c

b

a

In a right angled triangle, you may use the following to solve the

problems.

(i) Phythagoras Theorem: c = a 2 + b 2

(ii)

Trigonometry ratio:

sin = bc , cos = ac , tan =

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

15

b

a

ONE-SCHOOL.NET

11 Index Number

Price Index

Composite index

I =

P1

100

P0

I=

I = Composite Index

W = Weightage

I = Price index

P1 = Price at a specific time

I A, B I B ,C = I A,C 100

http://www.one-school.net/notes.html

Wi I i

Wi

16

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