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Add Maths Formulae List: Form 4 (Update 18/9/08)

01 Functions
Absolute Value Function

Inverse Function
If

f ( x ), if f ( x ) 0
f ( x)

y = f ( x ) , then f 1 ( y ) = x

Remember:
Object = the value of x
Image = the value of y or f(x)
f(x) map onto itself means f(x) = x

f ( x), if f ( x ) < 0

General Form

ax 2 + bx + c = 0

b b 2 4ac
x=
2a

where a, b, and c are constants and a 0.

*Note that the highest power of an unknown of a
quadratic equation is 2.

Nature of Roots

Forming Quadratic Equation From its Roots:

If and are the roots of a quadratic equation

+ =

b
a

c
a

b 2 4ac
b 2 4ac
b 2 4ac
b 2 4ac

x 2 ( + ) x + = 0
or
x ( SoR ) x + ( PoR ) = 0
SoR = Sum of Roots
PoR = Product of Roots
2

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>0
=0
<0
0

two real and different roots

two real and equal roots
no real roots
the roots are real

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Completing the square:

General Form

f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c

f ( x) = a ( x + p)2 + q

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

*Note that the highest power of an unknown of a

quadratic function is 2.

the value of x, x = p
min./max. value = q
min./max. point = ( p, q)
equation of axis of symmetry, x = p

Alternative method:
a > 0 minimum (smiling face)

f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c

a < 0 maximum (sad face)

a > 0 and f ( x) > 0

the value of x, x =

(ii)

min./max. value = f (

(iii)

equation of axis of symmetry, x =

x < a or x > b

b
)
2a
b
2a

Nature of Roots
a > 0 and f ( x) < 0

intersects two different points

at x-axis
2
b 4ac = 0 touch one point at x-axis
b 2 4ac < 0 does not meet x-axis
b 2 4ac > 0

b
2a

(i)

b
a< x<b

04 Simultaneous Equations
To find the intersection point solves simultaneous equation.
Remember: substitute linear equation into non- linear equation.

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05 Indices and Logarithm
Laws of Indices

Fundamental if Indices

Zero Index,

a0 = 1

a m a n = a m+n

Negative Index,

a 1 =

1
a

a m a n = a mn
( a m ) n = a m n

a
b
( ) 1 =
b
a
Fractional Index

1
an

= a

m
an

= a

( ab) n = a n b n

a n an
( ) = n
b
b

Fundamental of Logarithm

Law of Logarithm

log a y = x a x = y

log a mn = log a m + log a n

log a a = 1

log a

log a a x = x

log a mn = n log a m

log a 1 = 0

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m
= log a m log a n
n

Changing the Base

log a b =

log c b
log c a

log a b =

1
logb a

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06 Coordinate Geometry

Distance Between Point A and C =

(x1 x2 )2 + (x1 x2 )2
Gradient of line AC, m =

y2 y1
x2 x1

Or
y int ercept
Gradient of a line, m =

x int ercept

Parallel Lines

Perpendicular Lines

When 2 lines are perpendicular to each other,

m1 = m2 .

m1 m2 = 1

m1 = gradient of line 1
m2 = gradient of line 2

Midpoint

A point dividing a segment of a line

x1 + x2 y1 + y2
,

2
2

Midpoint, M =

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nx + mx2 ny1 + my2

P = 1
,

m+n
m+n

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Area of triangle:

Area of Triangle

1
2

A=

1
( x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1 ) ( x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3 )
2

General form
ax + by + c = 0

Intercept form

y = mx + c

x y
+ =1
a b

c = y-intercept

Equation of Straight Line

Gradient (m) and 1 point (x1, y1) 2 points, (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) given
given
y y1 y2 y1
y y1 = m( x x1 )
=
x x1 x2 x1

a = x-intercept
b = y-intercept

m=

b
a

x y
+ =1
a b

Equation of perpendicular bisector gets midpoint and gradient of perpendicular line.

Information in a rhombus:
A

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same length AB = BC = CD = AD
parallel lines mAB = mCD or mAD = mBC
diagonals (perpendicular) mAC mBD = 1
share same midpoint midpoint AC = midpoint
BD
any point solve the simultaneous equations

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

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Remember:

y-intercept x = 0
cut y-axis x = 0
x-intercept y = 0
cut x-axis y = 0
**point lies on the line satisfy the equation substitute the value of x and of y of the point into the
equation.

Equation of Locus
( use the formula of
distance)
The equation of the locus of a
moving point P ( x, y ) which
is always at a constant
distance (r) from a fixed point
A ( x1 , y1 ) is

The equation of the locus of a

moving point P ( x, y ) which is
always at a constant distance
from
two
fixed
points
A ( x1 , y1 ) and B ( x2 , y 2 ) with
a ratio m : n is

PA = r

PA m
=
PB n

( x x1 ) 2 + ( y y1 ) 2 = r 2

PA = PB
( x x1 ) + ( y y1 ) 2 = ( x x2 ) 2 + ( y y2 ) 2
2

( x x1 ) 2 + ( y y1 ) 2 m 2
=
( x x2 ) + ( y y 2 ) 2 n 2

More Formulae and Equation List:

At
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The equation of the locus of a moving

point P ( x, y ) which is always
equidistant from two fixed points A and B
is the perpendicular bisector of the
straight line AB.

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07 Statistics
Measure of Central Tendency
Ungrouped Data
Mean
x=

Without Class Interval

x
N

x=

x = mean
x = sum of x
x = value of the data
N = total number of the
data

Median

fx
f

TN + TN
2

When N is an odd number.

TN + T N

+1

m=

When N is an even
number.

fx
f

x = mean
f = frequency
x = class mark

m = TN +1

When N is an odd number.

m=

x=

x = mean
x = sum of x
f = frequency
x = value of the data

m = TN +1

Grouped Data
With Class Interval

+1

(lower limit+upper limit)

2

1N F
C
m = L + 2
fm
m = median
L = Lower boundary of median class
N = Number of data
F = Total frequency before median class
fm = Total frequency in median class
c = Size class
= (Upper boundary lower boundary)

Measure of Dispersion
Ungrouped Data

variance

x2

=
2

= variance
Standard
Deviation

(x x )
=
N

x
x2
N
2

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Grouped Data
Without Class Interval
With Class Interval

fx 2

=
f
2

= variance
=
=

(x x )

fx 2

=
f
2

x 2
x2
N

= variance

=
=

f (x x)

f
fx 2
x2
f

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The variance is a measure of the mean for the square of the deviations from the mean.
The standard deviation refers to the square root for the variance.
Effects of data changes on Measures of Central Tendency and Measures of dispersion
Data are changed uniformly with
+k
k
k
k
+k
k
k
k

Measures of
Mean, median, mode
Central Tendency
Range , Interquartile Range
Measures of
Standard Deviation
dispersion
Variance

k
k
k2

No changes
No changes
No changes

08 Circular Measures
Terminology

Convert degree to radian:

Convert radian to degree:

xo = ( x

180

180
180
x radians = ( x
) degrees

degrees

180D

Remember:

???
360 = 2 rad
D

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O
???

k
k
k2

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Length and Area

A = area
s = arc length
= angle
l = length of chord

Arc Length:

s = r

Length of chord:

l = 2r sin

Area of Sector:

A=

Area of Triangle:

1 2
r
2

A=

1 2
r sin
2

Area of Segment:

A=

09 Differentiation
Differentiation of a Function I

Gradient of a tangent of a line (curve or

straight)

y = xn
dy
= nx n1
dx

dy
y
= lim ( )
dx x 0 x

Example
y = x3
Differentiation of Algebraic Function
Differentiation of a Constant

y=a
dy
=0
dx

dy
= 3x 2
dx

a is a constant
Differentiation of a Function II
y = ax
dy
= ax11 = ax 0 = a
dx

Example
y=2
dy
=0
dx

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Example
y = 3x
dy
=3
dx

1 2
r ( sin )
2

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Differentiation of a Function III

Chain Rule

y = ax n

y = un

dy
= anx n1
dx

dy dy du
=

dx du dx

Example
y = 2 x3

Example
y = (2 x 2 + 3)5

dy
= 2(3) x 2 = 6 x 2
dx

u = 2 x 2 + 3,
y = u5 ,

u and v are functions in x

therefore

therefore

du
= 4x
dx

dy
= 5u 4
du

dy dy du
=

dx du dx
= 5u 4 4 x

1
xn
Rewrite
y=

= 5(2 x 2 + 3) 4 4 x = 20 x(2 x 2 + 3) 4

y = xn

Or differentiate directly
y = (ax + b) n

dy
n
= nx n1 = n+1
dx
x

dy
= n.a.(ax + b) n 1
dx

Example
1
y=
x
y = x 1
1
dy
= 1x 2 = 2
x
dx

y = (2 x 2 + 3)5
dy
= 5(2 x 2 + 3) 4 4 x = 20 x(2 x 2 + 3) 4
dx

Law of Differentiation
Sum and Difference Rule

y =uv
u and v are functions in x
dy du dv
=

dx dx dx
Example
y = 2 x3 + 5 x 2

dy
= 2(3) x 2 + 5(2) x = 6 x 2 + 10 x
dx

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Product Rule

Quotient Rule

y = uv
u and v are functions in x
dy
du
dv
= v +u
dx
dx
dx

y=

u
v

dy
=
dx

Example
y = (2 x + 3)(3 x 3 2 x 2 x)

u and v are functions in x

v

du
dv
u
dx
dx
v2

Example
x2
y=
2x +1
u = x2
v = 2x +1
du
dv
= 2x
=2
dx
dx
du
dv
u
v
dy
= dx 2 dx
dx
v
dy (2 x + 1)(2 x) x 2 (2)
=
(2 x + 1) 2
dx

u = 2x + 3
v = 3x3 2 x 2 x
du
dv
=2
= 9 x2 4x 1
dx
dx
dy
du
dv
=v
+u
dx
dx
dx
3
2
=(3 x 2 x x)(2) + (2 x + 3)(9 x 2 4 x 1)

Or differentiate directly
y = (2 x + 3)(3x3 2 x 2 x)

dy
= (3x3 2 x 2 x)(2) + (2 x + 3)(9 x 2 4 x 1)
dx

4 x2 + 2 x 2 x2 2 x2 + 2 x
=
=
(2 x + 1) 2
(2 x + 1) 2

Or differentiate directly
x2
y=
2x +1
dy (2 x + 1)(2 x) x 2 (2)
=
dx
(2 x + 1) 2
4 x2 + 2 x 2 x2 2 x2 + 2 x
=
=
(2 x + 1) 2
(2 x + 1) 2

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Gradients of tangents, Equation of tangent and Normal
Gradient of tangent at A(x1, y1):

dy
= gradient of tangent
dx
Equation of tangent: y y1 = m( x x1 )
Gradient of normal at A(x1, y1):
mnormal =

If A(x1, y1) is a point on a line y = f(x), the gradient

of the line (for a straight line) or the gradient of the
dy
tangent of the line (for a curve) is the value of
dx
when x = x1.

1
dy

1
mtangent

= gradient of normal

dx
Equation of normal : y y1 = m( x x1 )

Maximum and Minimum Point

Turning point
At maximum point,
dy
=0
dx

d y
<0
dx 2

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dy
=0
dx

At minimum point ,
dy
=0
dx

12

d2y
>0
dx 2

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Rates of Change

Chain rule

Small Changes and Approximation

Small Change:

dA dA dr
=

dt dr dt

dx
=5
dt
Decreases/leaks/reduces NEGATIVES values!!!
If x changes at the rate of 5 cms -1

y dy
dy

y x
x dx
dx
Approximation:
ynew = yoriginal + y

= yoriginal +

dy
x
dx

x = small changes in x
y = small changes in y
If x becomes smaller x = NEGATIVE

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10 Solution of Triangle

Sine Rule:

Cosine Rule:

Use, when given

2 sides and 1 non included
angle
2 angles and 1 side

a
A
b

a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cosA
b2 = a2 + c2 2ac cosB
c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cosC

a
b
c
=
=
sin A sin B sin C

Area of triangle:

cos A =

C
b

b2 + c2 a 2
2bc

A=

Use, when given

2 sides and 1 included angle
3 sides

A
180 (A+B)

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14

C is the included angle of sides a

and b.
c

A
b

1
a b sin C
2

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If C, the length AC and length AB remain unchanged,
the point B can also be at point B where ABC = acute
and A B C = obtuse.
If ABC = , thus ABC = 180 .

Case of AMBIGUITY
A
180 -

Remember : sin = sin (180 )

C
B
B
Case 1: When a < b sin A
CB is too short to reach the side opposite to C.

Case 2: When a = b sin A

CB just touch the side opposite to C

Outcome:
No solution
Case 3: When a > b sin A but a < b.
CB cuts the side opposite to C at 2 points

Outcome:
1 solution
Case 4: When a > b sin A and a > b.
CB cuts the side opposite to C at 1 points

Outcome:
2 solution

Outcome:
1 solution

Useful information:
c

b
a

In a right angled triangle, you may use the following to solve the
problems.
(i) Phythagoras Theorem: c = a 2 + b 2
(ii)

Trigonometry ratio:
sin = bc , cos = ac , tan =

(iii) Area = (base)(height)

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15

b
a

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11 Index Number
Price Index

Composite index

I =

P1
100
P0

I=

I = Price index / Index number

I = Composite Index
W = Weightage
I = Price index

P0 = Price at the base time

P1 = Price at a specific time

I A, B I B ,C = I A,C 100

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Wi I i
Wi

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