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The story of prehistoric Britain began when the first humans arrived in Britain. It
ended when the Romans conquered the ancient Britons and Britain became part of
the Roman Empire.
 The earliest humans were hunter-gatherers. They survived by hunting animals and finding food
to eat. Then, very gradually people learned new skills. First they learned to herd animals and
grow crops. Later they discovered the secrets of making bronze and iron.
 Prehistoric people couldn't read or write, but they were astonishing builders. Their tombs, forts
and monuments have survived for thousands of years.The prehistoric period is divided into three
‘ages’. They are known as the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
 Stone-Age Britain
 The earliest inhabitants of Britain for whom there is compelling evidence are bands of hunters
living in Southern and Western England during the Hoxnian interglacial (about 380,000 to
400,000 BC).
(Some very recent excavations of stone tools on the East Anglian coastline suggest human
presence as early as 700,000 years ago).
 However, as temperatures again dropped, Britain was abandoned. Although there are signs of
human habitation during later interglacials, it was not until roughly 14,000 years ago that
occupation became permanent.
Some of the first things that Mesolithic Britons did, were to wipe out the lion, the elephant, and
the hippopotamus, and to domesticate the dog.
 By about 6000 BC the melting of the ice sheet had created the English Channel, and Britain
became an island.

They made gold. say. Bronze Age Britain There is no clear division between the Stone and the Bronze Age in Britain. the first day of Spring and so on.midsummer solstice. Some archaeologists suggest that the stones themselves might be phallic symbols used in fertility rituals (but the resemblance is generic to most stones .in contrast to stones shaped somewhat like. the right knee or the left foot). It was during the Bronze age (after 2500 BC) that circles of standing stones began to be erected in Britain. By far the most famous is Stonehenge. .e. but at least 900 stone circles survived long enough to be recorded. Many stone circles were erected within existing "henges" .(i. copper and bronze implements and ornaments.The stone circles may have been used to help with the astronomical observations necessary to establish the correct days for seasonal festivals . circular earthworks consisting of a ditch and bank surrounding a central table). Around 2500 BC the Beaker people (originally from Spain) began to immigrate to Britain and brought metal-working skills with them.


and returned to Gaul. He mounted two brief expeditions to Britain . Claudius placed AulusPlautius and Vespasian in charge of an army of c.The Romans conquered most of the island and this became the Ancient Roman province of Britannia. England in the Middle Ages concerns the history of England during the medieval period. evidence of the Romans once being there. He defeated a small British army. roads and culture that can be found all over Britain.ERMIRA:ROMAN PERIOD  The   Romans came to   Britain nearly 2000 years ago and changed it. developing into predatory kingdoms that competed for power. When some Gauls fled to Britain from Rome's armies. and . from the end of the 5th century through to the start of the Early Modern period in 1485. After several centuries of Germanic immigration.   .taking all the credit for the conquest .minted coins celebrating his victory. Even today. forts. and named his son Britannicus. can be seen in the ruins of Roman buildings. When England emerged from the collapse of the Roman Empire. Claudius paid a brief visit to Britain (16 days). Caesar feared that they might use it as a base for a August 55BC and May 54BC. the economy was in tatters and many of the towns abandoned. 40.Britain remained a possible target for conquest because of its wealth. new identities and cultures began to emerge.000 men.

with these. His actions were key to transforming the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. he guaranteed the loyalty of his troops and bribed important Romans. Julius Caesar acquired extraordinary resources by his conquest of Gaul.Military commanders and provincial governors amassed fortunes from the conquered peoples and then used their wealth and power to influence the political process back at Rome. .

000 men. British soldiers possessed no armor that was proof against the Roman pilum or javelin. Claudius paid a brief visit to Britain (16 days). Britain's part-time warriors were no match for the better trained and equipped Roman soldiers. close-order use of the short thrusting sword (gladius). Claudius placed AulusPlautius and Vespasian in charge of an army of c. but this was suppressed by 60 AD. Caratacus organized resistance in Wales. nor had they an appropriate tactical response to the Roman legionaries' disciplined.Britain under Rome Initially. and taking all the credit for the conquest . and named his son Britannicus. Rome occupied only the South-East. 40. but soon expanded North and West.   .minted coins celebrating his victory. The substantial investment in garrisons and infrastructure was worthwhile because of Britain's agricultural and mineral wealth.

dress and habits of Romans. It later became the home of the Sixth Legion. heated houses were usually within ten miles of a town.During the last quarter of the first century AD (75-100)." When a colony of veterans was established here. it was established about 78 AD. Public policy consciously aimed at persuading Britons to adopt the customs. ." and eventually as Lincoln. Another sign of wealth and Romanization was the construction of county villas. In the late 50s the Romans established another base at "Lindon. public monuments. baths & market places were constructed. Urbanization went alongside Romanization. The Romans were efficient engineers who provided cities with good water supplies. it became known as "Lindum Colonia. cities expanded considerably theatres. amphitheatres. Eburacum (or Eboracum) was a fortress of the Ninth Legion. These comfortable. The Saxons corrupted the name to "Eoforwic"." which they pronounced "Lindum. and the Vikings turned this into "Jorvik" which eventually became "York".

In the West. Final collapse PubliusHelviusPertinax (126193) On the death in 395 of the Emperor Theodosius. But by 401 the Roman homelands themselves were under attack. though not as real urban centers. though not as real urban centers.185-187. . the effective ruler of the Empire. often of barbarian descent. 192-193. many expanded again later. and Flavius Stilicho. The network of roads running arrow-straight through the British countryside marked routes that survive to this day. withdrew most of the legions garrisoned in Britain.Four centuries of occupation left their mark on the British landscape. and some may have been continuously occupied. Although Roman cities were decayed. many expanded again later. The Roman legacy to Britain Four centuries of occupation left their mark on the British landscape. Britain's coasts were under attack by Germanic raiders all along the "Saxon Coast" of South and East England. The Eastern part of the Empire had Governor of Britain. long been growing relatively more powerful and prosperous. and Roman Emperor. imperial power fell increasingly into the hands of military commanders. and some may have been continuously occupied. the Empire was divided between his two sons .Arcadius receiving the West and Honorius the East. The network of roads running arrow-straight through the British countryside marked routes that survive to this day. Although Roman cities were decayed.

 Anne Boleyn. who gave birth to his first child Mary but failed to provide the new king with a male heir. which brought about her arrest and execution. died giving birth to the king's sole male offspring. Henry married his brother's widow. Catherine was replaced by the king's mistress. Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Henry VIII. Catherine of Aragon. who gave birth to a single daughter. he declared papal authority ended in his realm and founded the Church of England. Mary I Elizabeth I . Jane Seymour. Henry's third wife.Edit:Tudor England The Tudor period was one the most exciting in British history. He then married Anne Boleyn. starting with the first monarch King Henry VII (1457–1509). The Tudors ruled for 118 years and Tudor England saw two of the strongest monarchs ever to sit on the English throne: King Henry VIII and his daughter Queen Elizabeth . Elizabeth. The Tudors were a Welsh-English family that ruled England and Wales from 1485 to 1603. When Henry found himself unable to convince the pope to sanction his divorce from Catherine. Edward. Anne ran afoul of powerful nobles allied with the king and was accused of treason and incest. Falling out of favor with Henry. began his reign in 1509.

Arts and crafts flourished too. Christopher Marlowe. With Elizabeth remaining unmarried and childless. England was home to great painters. the Catholic Mary. and the English captain Sir France Drake led the first voyage of English ships around the world. beautifulhouses were built and schools  and colleges were set up. ordering the seizure and execution of several Protestant nobles and clergymen. A loyal Catholic. England became richer than ever before. leaving the throne to his half sister Mary. towns grew. . daughter of Catherine of Aragon. Mary died in 1558 without an heir. This young and sickly king died in 1553. writers and musicians.At the age of nine. Edward VI succeeded his father in 1547. and regretfully ordered Mary's execution in 1587 . marking the rise of English power on the continent and the beginning of a steady decline in the power of Spain. In the next year. Elizabeth felt determined to reign in the religious conflict and political intrigue that plagued the Tudor court since the time of Henry VII. an immense armada of Spanish warships was sent by the king of  Spain. and poets at her court. and Ben Jonson flourished during the Elizabethan Age. Devoted to the memory of her mother. What did the Tudors do for Britain? During 118 years of Tudor rule. During her reign England began to colonize North America. Elizabeth restored the Church of England and encouraged playwrights. Queen of Scots. “Bloody Mary” made futile attempts to return England to the  Catholic Church. daughter of Anne Boleyn. As the country became wealthier. She also defeated the attempt by her cousin. when England was also home to a leading scientific philosopher. Talented men such as William Shakespeare. scattered by storms in the English Channel. Sir Francis Bacon. musicians. which brought the accession of her half sister Elizabeth. the Tudor dynasty came to an end with her death in 1603. to overthrow her.

Stephen. . Certainly. when King Henry I had died leaving no sons . Matilda's son. The walls were then painted white giving what is known as 'the black and white effect'   England is the paradise of women. succeeded). women moved freely outside the home and many were engaged in economic activities designed to supplement the family budget.Tudor houses are very distinctive and many can still be seen today. Salic Law excluded women from succession to the throne. The houses had a wooden frame with walls made from 'wattle and daub' . In France. This had happened in 1135.only his daughter Matilda (or Maud).a building material consisting of wooden strips covered with mud. Although it was assumed that women would be supported by their husbands or fathers. English women were not confined to the home in anything like the way common in the Mediterranean region. and although women were excluded from the educated professions and public office. He grew up in Tudor England in the time of Queen Elizabeth I . and the hell of horses." John Florio (1553-1625) Foreign travelers in England commented on the surprising degree of freedom and independence enjoyed by English women . clay and wet soil. the purgatory of men. The barons had sworn to accept Matilda's succession but many supported Henry I's nephew. (Eventually. instead. but the English crown could descend to a woman if there were no male heirs. Henry II.but their standards differed from today's. William Shakespeare was born in 1564. The result was civil war.

the Victorian era. Era of Peace and Prosperity Those who could see into the future would have been excited to see the dawn of a long period of peace and prosperity in England under Queen Victoria .Anisa:Victorian Britain .1837 to 1901. The preceding Georgian era had lasted from 1714 to 1830. it marked the beginning of a promising new age . . When Queen Victoria ascended the British throne in 1837. from the reign of George I through George IV.

says Porter. baths. Historians have characterized the mid-Victorian era. Her long reign until 1901 was generally characterised mostly by peace and prosperity. The Labour party only came into being in 1900. such as trade unions and cooperative societies. its leaders moved to other pursuits.[6] There was prosperity.Middle class England grew rapidly and the upper class. Boarding houses were built along the seafronts of towns near to industrialized areas such as London. the world’s first underground railway. Sigmund Freud developed modern psychiatry and Karl Marx developed his new economic theory. the House of Commons had two main political parties: the Tories and the Whigs. a large proportion of Victorian society was still working class. Poetry. There were no great wars. Politics. Darwin published his Theory of Evolution and the Great Exhibition of 1851 showcased many industrial and technological advances in the specially built Crystal Palace. Britain reached the zenith of its economic.' . and joined in celebrating the new prosperity. and exports from across the globe. The Victorian era in Great Britain was a time of great change and progress and is still considered the Birth of Modern Times. as the national income per person grew by half. Oscar Wilde. The Arts and Science Politically. The Chartist movement. However. especially in textiles and machinery. offering mass transit for city dwellers who were able to spend time off visiting the seaside and participating in the new pastime of sea bathing. came to include the nouveau riche. Manchester. the Science Museum. diplomatic and cultural power. to libraries. nicknamed the Tube. Employers typically were paternalistic. George Eliot. Scientifically. There was peace abroad (apart from the short Crimean war. as well as to the worldwide network of trade and engineering that produced profits for British merchants. 1854–56). the Royal Opera House. Opposition to the new order melted away. and social peace at home. opened in 1862. during the Victoria era. political. and gymnasia. The era saw the expansion of the second British Empire. Transport Evolution Railways continued to develop. By the mid 19th century the Whigs were known as the Liberal party and the Tories were the Conservative party. Middle-class reformers did their best to assist the working classes aspire to middle-class norms of 'respectability. and generally recognized the trade unions. The working class ignored foreign agitators like Karl Marx in their midst. the Natural History Museum and The Victoria and Albert Museum. In London. Much of the prosperity was due to the increasing industrialization. who made fortunes from successful commercial enterprises. Leeds and the northwest of England. Progress Victoria became queen in 1837 at age 18. literature and art flourished with the Bronte sisters.'. the Victorian era also saw huge success. schools and churches. peaked as a democratic movement among the working class in 1848. and they remained disgruntled at the social inequality and eventually sought reform. Prince Albert was a keen supporter of the Arts and London blossomed under his patronage with the building of the Royal Albert Hall. which was formerly purely hereditary. Rudyard Kipling and Charles Dickens publishing popular works. From Brighton to Bridlington fashionable seaside resorts sprang up. (1850–1870) as Britain's 'Golden Years.[7] Companies provided their employees with welfare services ranging from housing.

many of which remained covered by masks. with the first blood bank established on the front line in 1917. Harold Gillies established the field of plastic surgery. blood transfusions became routine to save soldiers. pioneering the first attempts of facial reconstruction. .Elio: World War One WWI saw pioneering advances in modern medicine Inspired by the sight of soldiers’ faces ravaged by shrapnel. As well as this.

known as Kitchener's Army. for example—and increased in size because of the introduction. . the cost of bullets fired in one 24 hour period in September 1918 was nearly four million pounds.although this view has been challenged by more recent scholarship. but the world's first global war would cost more than any that had gone before. The state's armed forces were reorganised—the war marked the creation of the Royal Air Force. Wales.The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland—then consisting of England. of more than two million men. the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Bulgaria). the AustroHungarian Empire. For example. Britain was an economic superpower. Scotland. in January 1916. responses in the United Kingdom in 1914 were similar to those amongst populations across Europe WW1 nearly caused a financial meltdown in Britain At the turn of the 20th century. fighting against the Central Powers (the German Empire. The outbreak of war has generally been regarded as a socially unifying event. of forced conscription for the first time in the kingdom's history as well as the raising of the largest all-volunteer army in history. and the whole of Ireland—was one of the Allied Powers during the First World War of 1914–1918. In any case.

the Ulster Protestants refused to be separated from Britain and in March 1914 elements of the army made clear that they would not force them. In 1918 it became a democracy. Ironically. albeit temporarily. When Britain entered World War One. Incipient domestic breakdown was usurped by international crisis. Thus the political ramifications extended beyond debates within Westminster to include the power of extra-parliamentary actors. with the introduction of universal adult male suffrage and votes for women aged over 30. In the event. And the formation of a coalition government in the same year all but silenced parliamentary opposition. culminated with the Lords losing their power of veto and becoming a revising chamber only. Freedom of speech was curtailed by the Defence of the Realm Act in 1914. World War One may not have initiated democratic change. which spanned two general elections. Elections. The House of Lords had not really been touched by the reform acts of the 19th century and increasingly behaved as a Conservative opposition when the Liberals were in power. and even the danger of civil war in Ireland.1913 Ireland was threatening to break the Liberal party once again. The other great constitutional issue remained unionism. but it was not a fully-fledged democracy. even if ordered to do so by the elected government of the day. The ensuing crisis. it did so in the name of 19th century liberal values . War and democracy In 1901 Britain had a constitutional government. What justified these claims. . the war's demands also weakened the exercise of constitutional government.the rights of small nations and the rule of law. The 1910 elections left the Liberals without an overall majority and dependent on the Irish nationalists. By 1912 . the Lords vetoed the budget. were deferred until the war was concluded. due in 1915. For those anxious to generate a sense of crisis there were other straws blowing in the same wind. In 1909. as intense in July 1914 as in any of the immediately preceding summers. In Ireland itself. What mattered more by then was the fact that the country was engaged in the greatest war of modern times. when in reality they were driven as much by the requirements of defence.Reform and crisis A protest march by women suffragettes in London. 1913 © This did not mean that the Liberal government did not tackle political reform before 1914. was usurped by international crisis. the sense of incipient domestic breakdown. the price of whose support was Irish 'home rule'. as its army bypassed France's eastern defences by swinging round them to the north. one in which Britain's military deaths were more than twice those it would suffer in World War Two. a package of tax proposals which Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George had adroitly presented as designed to finance welfare reforms. was Germany's invasion of Belgium. but it determined its timing. Strikes by the major trade unions between 1912 and 1914 and the militancy of the women's suffrage movement suggested that defining government in terms solely of parliamentary sovereignty could be self-defeating. which became the touchstone of British propaganda.

the costs of the war and the nationalist fervour that it had stoked became a catalyst for the decolonisation which took place in the following decades as the formation of the Commonwealth realm . many crown colonies. Canada. New Zealand. and Ireland.Florenc : World War Two When the United Kingdom (UK) declared war on Nazi Germany at the outset of World War II. it controlled. Although the British Empire and the Commonwealth countries all emerged from the war as victors. protectorates across the world and the Indian Empire.:[1] Australia. to varying degrees. which became official after the Balfour Declaration of 1926). and the conquered territories were returned to British rule. It also maintained unique political ties to five independent dominions as part of the British Commonwealth (a name popularised during World War I. South Africa.

relieving Britain of its most populous and valuable colony. [13] The price for India's entry to the war had been effectively a guarantee for independence. Britain now stood alone against the power of Germany’s military forces. the World War II Allies formally accepted the unconditional surrender of the armed forces of Nazi Germany and the end ofAdolf Hitler's Third Reich. and so the surrender of Germany was authorized by his replacement. The formal surrender of the occupying German forces in the Channel Islands was not until 9 May 1945. A significant turning point of World War II. Aftermath World War II confirmed that Britain was no longer the great power it had once been. Britain’s decisive victory saved the country from a ground invasion and possible occupation by German forces while proving that air power alone could be used to win a major battle. ultimately. France. The deployment of 150. military posts and. its civilian population. On 30 April Hitler committed suicide during the  Battle of Berlin. On June 17. The act of military surrender was signed on 7 May in Reims. The image of imperial strength in Asia had been shattered by the Japanese attacks. which had conquered most of Western Europe in less than two months. 1945 On 8 May 1945. and the stationing of white troops in Africa itself led to revised perceptions of the Empire in Africa. the Battle of Britain ended when Germany’s Luftwaffe failed to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force despite months of targeting Britain’s air bases. 1940. But Britain’s success in continuing the war would very much depend on the RAF Fighter Command’s ability to thwart the Luftwaffe’s efforts to gain air superiority. the defeated French signed an armistice and quit World War II. But Prime Minister Winston Churchill rallied his stubborn people and outmaneuvered those politicians who wanted to negotiate with Adolf Hitler. which came within two years of the end of the war. and that it had been surpassed by the United States on the world stage.. effectively ending World War II. Canada. In the afternoon of 15 August 1945.000 Africans overseas from British colonies. and British prestige there was irreversibly damaged. This then would be the first all-air battle in history. locked in the largest sustained bombing campaign to that date. the Surrender of Japan occurred. In the summer and fall of 1940. May 7. and ratified on 8 May in  Berlin. President of Germany  Karl Dönitz. Australia and New Zealand moved within the orbit of the United States. Germany. . German and British air forces clashed in the skies over the United Kingdom.Victory The front page of The Montreal Daily Star announcing the German surrender.

1940. Britain possessed an effective air defense system. . Even more serious. but a combination of bad intelligence and British attacks on Berlin led the Luftwaffe to change its operational approach to massive attacks on London. on September 15. August. the Germans had poor intelligence and little idea of British vulnerabilities. the Germans had major problems: they had no navy left after the costly conquest of Norway." In fact. first-rate fighter pilots. and the Luftwaffe had suffered heavy losses in the west (the first two factors made a seaborne attack on the British Isles impossible from the first). the second. Although air strikes did substantial damage to radar sites. failed not only with heavy losses. Hitler permanently postponed a landing on the British Isles and suspended the Battle of Britain. their army was unprepared for any form of amphibious operations. Britain’s situation was more favorable than most of the world recognized at the time. but also with a collapse of morale among German bomber crews when British fighters appeared in large numbers and shot down many of the Germans. and September). On the other hand.Did You Know? The battle received its name from a speech Winston Churchill delivered to the British House of Commons on June 18. The first attack on London on September 7 was quite successful. on August 13–15 the Luftwaffe soon abandoned that avenue and turned to attacks on RAF air bases. For a time the advantage seemed to swing slightly in favor of the Germans. in which he stated "The Battle of France is over. They wasted most of July in waiting for a British surrender and attacked only in August. A battle of attrition ensued in which both sides suffered heavy losses (an average loss of 21 percent of the RAF’s fighter pilots and 16 percent of the Luftwaffe’s fighter pilots each month during July. I expect the Battle of Britain is about to begin. As a result. and a great military leader in Air Marshal Hugh Dowding.

to exercise their own choices and take responsibility for their own lives. It should be restricted to the bare essentials: defence of the realm and the currency. others believe she destroyed the livelihoods of millions of workers. What is Thatcherism? Margaret Thatcher's policies as prime minister changed many aspects of British life. even dangerous. Everything else should be left to individuals. the Conservatives returned to power under the leadership of Margaret Thatcher. government's job is to get out of the way. was to plan and control industry. 1979. Some see her as having saved Britain from economic decline. notion to most postwar politicians.Even after her death. Central planning of industry and society had helped win the war. Thatcherism represents a belief in free markets and a small state. vast swathes of which were owned by the state. But what does the term mean? A handful of political leaders are influential enough to have an ism after their name. and were collectively called Thatcherism. This was a revolutionary.Sabina:The Thatcher Era to the Present In May. At its most crude. The only way to "win the peace". Margaret Thatcher was not alone in rejecting state ownership of businesses and socialist central planning. she remains a controversial figure. who used her cast iron will to help change the face of Britain. Rather than planning and regulating business and people's lives. . it was believed by the leaders of both the Labour and Conservative parties. But no political philosophy has shaped a nation in quite the same way as Thatcherism. She epitomised a particular school of right-wing politics: Thatcherism – laissez-faire economics and individual self-determination. Britain’s first female prime minister.

there had been high levels of income tax for high-earners. but Thatcher progressively cut income tax . Had Joseph become Conservative leader instead of Thatcher.Thatcher gradually moved supporters of her predecessor Ted Heath. headed by Keith Joseph. to tame inflation without resorting to union-negotiated pay policies. stating this was the responsibility of employers and employees. controlling the money supply with high interest rates.which seemed the more likely outcome at the time. Low taxation was a key area where Thatcherism was applied. The government also abandoned its commitment to full employment. says Prof Toye. It took Thatcher's own background and personality. while the higher rate was slashed from 83% to 40%. her suspicion of an overmighty Europe and instinctive affinity with the US. who were followers of Hayek's Austrian school of economics and were also heavily influenced by the theories of American economist Milton Friedman.the basic rate of tax fell to 25%. but despite that she managed to win a second general election. Her battle against inflation led to mass unemployment. There was a shift away from direct taxation to indirect. whom she labelled "wets". from her cabinet Thatcher belonged to a Conservative Party faction. she advocated monetarism. But it would not have been the same. . Under the previous Labour government. her belief in traditional family values and strong defence. then something resembling Thatcherism might have emerged as the prevailing economic philosophy of the age. Taking her cue from Friedman. to give shape and meaning to what we now know as Thatcherism. Thatcherism is also associated with the Iron Lady's own personal style. for example by increasing VAT from 8% to There was also a huge sale to tenants of council housing.

but then gradually she rid herself of them. . Thatcher wanted to put a human face on it. "but there was an element of it being linked to respectability and societal values". While the legacy of many Thatcher policies remain to this day. Prof Toye says." says Prof Toye." Although Thatcherism was based on the austere-sounding philosophy of monetarism.Thatcher made much of her background as a grocer's daughter "She saw herself as a conviction politician. The controversial clause stated that a local authority shall not "promote the teaching in any maintained school of the acceptability of homosexuality as a pretended family relationship". In the early stages she had to continue to include them in the cabinet. and what others would call her inflexibility. She believed that Victorian family values were the way to improve society.what she would call . One example of her impact on society was the inclusion of Section 28 of the Local Government Act 1988. Conventional marriage and a nuclear family were the building blocks.emphasising the value of hard work." She inherited a party that contained supporters of her predecessor Ted Heath. her background as a grocer's daughter. This was not just through economic means. says Prof Toye. And it was clear when she came to power that she couldn't move too far too fast. She contrasted that with the union leaders who she believed were trying to block economic progress. That was reflected by her moving with caution and carefully at first in her first term. and a "huge change". who opposed her monetarist policies and cuts to public spending. She also made much of her personal story. Because it did not create a criminal offence. so she talked about running the country's finances like a thrifty housewife. labelled by her as "wets". "It was not clear in 1975 what a Thatcher government would mean for Britain.steadfastness. through people bettering themselves. says Prof Toye. She prided herself on her . Conservative Prime Minister David Cameron wants to legalise gay marriage . "It was a fundamental part of her image . no prosecution was ever brought under this provision. he says.a stance inconceivable to Baroness Thatcher.

the difference between the number of births and deaths – measures the contribution of vital events to the dynamics of the population. Mid-year population estimates are also used as the base-year population of demographic projections. In demographic terms. Population estimates made between census years are revised retrospectively so as to provide a consistent series of population estimates over time.8%) largely due to the underestimation of net migration in the previous series (ONS 2013). The revised estimates for the intercensal period 2001 to 2011 resulted in an adjustment of 497.e. The population at 30 June of a given year (stock) is obtained by annually ‘updating’ the most recent census population count with data on demographic events contributing to population change between these two dates (births.Enkel Carciu: THE IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON UK POPULATION GROWTH Understanding the evidence Key concepts In the UK statistical system long-term international migrants are defined as people who move into and out of the country for at least 12 months. Immigration and emigration contribute to population change not only by altering the number of individuals in the country at a given time (direct contribution) but also by affecting natural change (indirect contribution). Net migration is the balance between immigration and emigration over a given time period. natural change – i. Population estimates The Office for National Statistics (ONS) produces annual estimates of the resident population of England and Wales and estimates for the UK as a whole by collating data provided by the  Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) and by the National Records for Scotland (NRS) (ONS 2015a). deaths and migration flows).500 (0. .

Population projections Population projections are calculations showing the future development of a population based on a set of assumptions about fertility. the long-term balanced net migration variant projection assumes that net migration will converge to zero in the long-term. In the principal projection. with total (but not age. mortality and net migration. including both the direct contribution and its impact on natural change. Official UK projections are revised every two years by updating base-year population estimates and assumptions underlying future demographic dynamics so as to reflect the latest available information. For comparative purposes. which assumes migration inflows and outflows exactly equal at all ages throughout the projection period (with same fertility and life expectancy as the principal projection). net migration is assumed to level off at +185.e. and 16 variant projections. . Two other variant projections illustrating the demographic impact of higher or lower net immigration (also assuming the same fertility and life expectancy as the principal projection) are also available: a high migration variant (long-term annual net migration at +265. Current projections take mid-2014 as the beginning of the projection period.000 per annum).000) and a low migration variant (+105. intended to capture the uncertainty of the assumptions by showing the impact on population dynamics if one or more components of demographic change differ from the principal projection (ONS 2015b). In this scenario future population change is driven only by natural change. The projection outputs consist of one principal projection reflecting the most ‘likely’ population developments on the basis of recently observed trends. The comparison between the principal projection and the zero net migration variant projection allows one to assess the overall impact of net migration on population trends – i. Finally.and sex-specific) in-migration and out-migration flows being equal from the year ending mid-2036 onwards. an important variant projection is the ‘zero net migration’ (aka ‘natural change only’).000 per year from 2020-21 onward.