population

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population

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1. Distinguish between exponential and logistic population growth. Give the equations for

each.

Exponential growth is continuous population growth in an environment where resources are

unlimited; it is density-independent growth.

dN/dt = rN where,

dN/dt = change in population size; r = intrinsic rate of increase (= per capita rate of increase and

equals birth rate minus death rate); N = population size.

Nt = Noert where,

Nt = population size at time t; No = original population size, r = intrinsic rate of increase and t =

time

Logistic growth is continuous population growth in an environment where resources are

limited; it is density-dependent growth. Logistic growth is characterized by a sigmoidal, or Sshaped growth curve.

dN/dt = rN [K - N/K] where,

dN/dt = change in population size; r = intrinsic rate of increase; N = population size; K = carrying

capacity (upper asymptote).

2. What is carrying capacity? Why do populations fluctuate around some estimated value

of K?

The carrying capacity (K) is the maximum population size that can be supported or sustained

by a given environment. At K, population growth ceases. Environmental conditions fluctuate

and cause K to fluctuate. Time lags in a population's response to environmental conditions will

cause the population size to oscillate around K - the population will slightly overshoot K and

when individuals die due to lack of resources, the population size will decrease and will slightly

undershoot K. Since there are enough resources below K, the population will start to grow

again and the cycle repeats itself. We think of K as some "average" value for the environment.

3. As of 1995, the human population was expected to double within 50 years. Calculate r

for the human population.

tdouble = ln (2)/ r

Therefore, r = ln (2)/t

t = 50 years, and so r = ln (2)/50 = 0.0139 individuals/(individuals x years)

4. If the human population size in 1993 was 5.4 billion, what was the projected population

size in the year 2000 (use info from previous question)?

No = population size in 1993 = 5.4 billion

t = 7 years (year 2000 - 1993)

r = 0.0139 (from question above)

Nt = No ert

Nt = (540,000,000) e(0.0139)(7)

Nt /540,000,000 = e 0.0973

Dust off your high school math skills. To get rid of the exponent, simply take the natural

log (ln) of both sides of the equation. Remember, when we take the natural log of a

quotient we end up taking the ln of one value and subtracting it from the ln of the other

value (see below).

ln (Nt /540,000,000) = ln (e 0.0973)

[here we're taking the natural log of the quotient]

= ln(Nt) - ln(540,000,000) = 0.0973

[rewrite it as natural log of one value minus natural log of the other value]

Nt = 595,000,000 or 5.95 billion

5. A population of Nicotiana, an annual plant, increases by 12% every year. Calculate the

doubling time for this population.

If the population increases by 12% per year, then l = 1.12

r = ln l = ln(1.12) = 0.113 individuals/(individuals x year)

tdouble = ln(2)/r

Therefore, t = ln(2)/0.113 = 6.1 years

6. In your research on population dynamics of June beetles, you estimate that the

population size is 3,000. Over the course of a month, you record 400 births and 150 deaths

in the population. Estimate r and calculate what the population size is predicted to be in 6

months.

We know that there are 400 births in the population over the month, in our population

of 3,000 individuals; we can express this as a rate by doing the following:

Birth rate = 400/3000 = 0.1333 births/(indiv. x month)

Using the same logic

Death rate = 150/3000 = 0.0500 deaths/(indiv. x month)

r = birth rate - death rate = 0.1333 - 0.0500 = 0.0833

Nt = No ert

We know that t = 6 months (given in the question)

Therefore, Nt = 3000 e (0,0833)(6)

ln Nt - ln 3000 = 0.4998

Nt = 4945 beetles

capacity is 500 butterflies and r = 0.1 individuals/(individuals x month), what is the

maximum population growth rate for the population? (Hint: maximum population growth

rate occurs when N = K/2).

In the question you're given the following information:

K = 500

r = 0.1

maximum population growth at K/2

Therefore, the maximum population size = K/2 = 500/2 = 250

dN/dt = rN[1-N/K] - this is the logistic growth equation

dN/dt = (0.1)(250) [1 - (250)/500)]

dN/dt = 12.5 individuals/month

8. What are the effects of environmental and demographic stochasticity on population

growth?

Environmental and demographic stochasticity will result in variation in the population growth

rate. Under these influences population size will fluctuate significantly over time.

9. A sample of single celled marine algae from the Giant Stairs site provided an estimate of

100,000 cells on the initial sampling date. Ten days later, the population size was

estimated to be 500,000 cells. Calculate the intrinsic rate of increase (r) for the population.

Nt = No ert

Nt / No = ert

Take the natural log of both sides to get rid of eln Nt - ln No = rt

ln Nt - ln No/t = r

Plug in the numbers.

r = ln(500,000) - ln(100,000)/10 = 13.12 - 11.51/10 = 0.16 indiv./(indiv. x day)

10. For the algal population described in question 9 above, use the exponential model of

population growth to predict the size of the population after another 10 days.

Nt = No ert

We're given this info:

No = 500,000

t = 10 days

r = 0.16

Nt / No = ert

Nt /500,000 = e (.16)(10)

ln Nt - ln (500,000) = 1.6

ln Nt = 13.12 + 1.6

ln Nt = 14.72

Nt = 2.47 million cells

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