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Risk Management

in Collection Care

Agnes Brokerhof
Sector Moveable Heritage Research

Karlstad 21 November 2013

My goal: reach the top


I studied the various paths to the top
I assessed if there is a path I dare
take
I am not sure I can reach my goal
If I reach the top, I will be proud
If I fall down, I will be hurt
I decided I dare do it, and set off
The uncertainty of reaching my goal
or the chance of hurting myself is the
risk that I took
I do as much as I can to make sure I
reach the top and not fall down
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The goal of the


heritage profession is
to pass on the heritage
that is given in our
care, to next
generations with
optimum significance
and optimum
accessibility.

Jean Dubuffet, Jardin d'email, 1974


Kroller Muller Museum
photo: Sanneke Stigter
www.kmm.nl

We can enjoy and use it for


our own purposes but
without impairing future
interpretation and use.
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Heritage
Management

Use

Operate value

(After Waller 2003)

Heritage
Cultural value
Meaning
Significance

Development

Preservation

Increase value

Minimize loss of value


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Jean Dubuffet, Jardin d'email, 1974


Kroller Muller Museum
photo: Sanneke Stigter
www.kmm.nl

Heritage management
is making
well-argued decisions
about the
allocation of resources
to
most effectively
and
efficiently
achieve our goal:
optimum
accessible value.
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Methodology for value assessment

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Significance value criteria


Attributes
State
Completeness or
Ensemble
Provenance
Rarity &
Representativeness

Values
Cultural history
Historic
Artistic
Information

Social
Societal
Experience

Use
Museum
Economic
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Value assessment
Frame of reference: international

Attributes

State

Completeness or Ensemble

Provenance

Rarity & Representativeness


Values

Cultural history
Historic
Artistic
Information

Social
Societal
Experience

Use
Museum
Economic
Overall evaluation
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+
o
+
+

o
+
o

+
o
+
o

+
+
o
o
-

+
+
+
o
+
+
+

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Heritage
Management

Use

Operate value

(After Waller 2003)

RISK

RISK

Heritage
Cultural value
Meaning
Significance

Development

Preservation

Increase value

Minimize loss of value


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Threats that may cause loss of value.


The ten agents of deterioration

Physical forces

Pests

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Light, UV, IR

Water

Fire

Criminals & Vandals

Contaminants Incorrect Temp Incorrect RH

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Dissociation

Dealing with the Agents

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Physical forces
Thieves & Vandals
Fire
Water
Pests & Weeds

Handling

Light, UV-, IR-Radiation


Contaminants
Incorrect Temperature
Incorrect RH
Dissociation

Integrated Pest Management

Safety & Security


Maintenance
Facility management

Preventive conservation
Registration
Documentation

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Agents of deterioration - Types


Events
Rare
Frequent
Physical forces
Thieves & Vandals
Fire
Water
Pests & Weeds
Light, UV, IR-Radiation
Contaminants
Incorrect Temperature
Incorrect RH
Dissociation
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Processes
Cumulative

Manage the risks


Legal risks

Health & Safety


risks

Financial risks

Reputational risks

Preservation
risks

Business risks

Economical risks
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Political risks
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Risk assessment
Risk Identification
Risk Analysis
Risk Evaluation

Risk Treatment
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Monitoring and Review

Communicate and Consult

Establish context

Risk is the chance of loss of value


Probability X Impact
How soon / How often? X How bad?
Scenario

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Identification and Analysis

Source
Cause

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Path
Mechanism

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Object
Effect

Scenario:

Exhibition lighting causes fading of tapestry

200 lx
3000 h/y

How soon?
How sensitive? ISO 3 1 jnf after 3,000,000 lx.h
What is light dosis? 200 x 3000 = 600,000 lx.h/y = 1 jnf in 5 years
How bad?
How much significance/value does the object lose?
How important is the object in the collection we assess?
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Scenario:

loss of material due to .??

How bad?
Where can material be lost?
How much significance/value will be lost?
How soon?
How can it lose material? How much?
How likely is that to happen?
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Scenario:

thief enters through weak link and takes object

How soon?
Level of security? Theft statistics?
What is likelihood of theft?
How bad?
Total loss of object?
How important is object in collection we asses?
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Qualify and Evaluation risk matrix

Probability X Impact
How soon / often? X How bad?
rarefrequentconstant X mild-significant-catastrophic

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Catastrophic
Significant
Mild

Impact

Rare

Frequent

Probability
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Constant

Semi-quantify and Evaluation step scales


Michalski ABC-scales

How soon / often? X How bad?


century-decadeyear X 1%-10%-100% loss
1-23 X 1-2-3

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6
5
4
3
2
1
0

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Quantify and Evaluation Fractional numbers


Waller Cultural Property Risk Analysis Model

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Which method?

Choose
between
two
options

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Confection
sizes

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Tailor made
to fit

Which method?

As simple as possible
Outcome is worth the effort
Fit to suit the reason why you do it
Form that is understood by those you want to reach

Choose between
option A or B

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Prioritize for
preservation strategy

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Risk treatment options

I expect that my hands get


sweaty and slippery, that I
will lose my grip, fall down
and smash my head

Take away
the cause

Secure the
pathway
Reduce
the effect
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Risk Treatment
Can you reach your goal with acceptable risk?
Do you need to reduce risks?
Which risks?
Why?

Biggest risk

Most urgent risk

Biggest uncertainty

And how?

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Cost-effective

Sustainable

1
0

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Communicate and Consult

Within organisation

With decision makers


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With stakeholders

With experts

With public
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In conclusion
If we want to be able to make well-argued decisions
about the allocation of resources to most effectively
and efficiently achieve our goal,
of passing on the heritage that is given in our care
to next generations with optimum accessible value,
then we need to assess and understand the value,
and assess and manage the risks to our heritage,
in a cost-effective manner.
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Nice to read
Ashley-Smith, J. (1999) Risk assessment for object conservation, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 358 pp.
Brokerhof, A.W. et al. (2005) Risk Assessment of Museum Amstelkring: Application to an historic building
and its collections and the consequences for preservation management; in Preprints of the 14th ICOM-CC
Triennial Meeting, The Hague, pp. 590-596.
Brokerhof, A.W. et al. (2013) Het Digitale Handboek Collectie-Risicomanagement; Rijksdienst voor het
Cultureel Erfgoed; http://www.cultureelerfgoed.nl/digitale-handboek-collectierisicomanagement.
Blow, A.E. (2010) Collection management using preservation risk assessment; Journal of the Institute of
Conservation, 33(1):65-78.
Blow, A.E. (2009) 'Risk Management as a Strategic Driver for a large Archive'; Collections - A Journal for
Museums and Archives Professionals, 5(9):61-72.
ISO 31000 (2009) Risk Management-Principles and Guidelines; International Organisation for Standarisation;
http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=43170
Michalski, S. (1994) A systematic approach to preservation: description and integration with other museum
activities; Preprints of the Contributions to the Ottawa Congress, 12 16 September 1994, Preventive
Conservation: Practice, Theory and Research, A. Roy and P. Smith (Eds.), IIC, London, pp. 8-11.
Versloot, A. (2010) Risk Assessment; Museum Our Lord in the Attic, Amsterdam, 48pp.
http://www.opsolder.nl/admin/pdf/Risico-analyseOLHoS-ENG.pdf
Waller, R.R. (1994) Conservation risk assessment: A strategy for managing resources for preventive
conservation. Preprints of the Contributions to the Ottawa Congress, 12 16 September 1994, Preventive
Conservation: Practice, Theory and Research, A. Roy and P. Smith (Eds.), IIC, London, pp. 12-16.
http://www.museum-sos.org/docs/WallerOttawa1994.pdf
Waller, R.R. (2003) Cultural Property Risk Analysis Model: Development and Application to Preventive
Conservation at the Canadian Museum of Nature. Gteborg Studies in Conservation 13, ISSN 0284-6578;
ISBN 91-7346-475-9 Gteborg Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, Gteborg; xvi + 189 pp.
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