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HVDC Transmission part 2

Types of HVDC links:

Monopolar link
Bipolar link
Homopolar link

Monopolar link:

Having one conductor (-Ve Polarity) and ground is used as return

We can operated either in +Ve or Ve polarity,but usually
preferred -Ve polarity in order to reduce the Corona effect.
The major drawback in this system is power flow is interrupted
due to either converter failure or DC link.
The ground return is objectionable only when buried metallic
structures (Such as pipes) are present and are subject to
corrosion with DC current flow.

Bipolar link:

There are two conductors , one is operates at positive and other is

negative. During fault in one pole it will operate as monopolar
link. This is very popular link in HVDC

Homopolar link:

In this link, two or more conductors have same polarity.

Normally negative polarity are used(to less corona loss and radio
Ground is always used as return path.
During fault in one pole it works as monopolar.

Application of HVDC:
The main areas of application based on the economics and technical
performances, are
Long distance bulk power transmission.
The underground of submarine cables.
Asynchronous connection of AC system with different frequencies.
Control and stabilize the power system with power flow control.
Based on the interconnection, three types of HVDC is possible.
Bulk Power transmission
Back to back connection
Modulation of AC system

Purpose of HVDC based on interconnection:

Bulk power transmission
(Transfer the power from one end to another end without tapping
power in between).For this DC system is the best option. (Or) HVDC
transmission where bulk power is transmitted from one point to
another point over long distance.
Power flow control (Back to Back HVDC)
If two regions are very nearby, we can monitor the power flow
from one region to another to control, emergency support as per our
requirement.(Or)Back to Back link where rectification and inversion is
carried out in the same converter station with very small or no DC

To provide stability to AC system
This is basically used to control the power and stabilize the
system. It is also used to connect two different frequencies system.
(Modulation of AC) AC system is connected parallel with DC system.
(or)Parallel connection of AC and DC links. Where both AC and DC
run parallel. It is mainly used to modulate the power of AC lines.
HVDC is the better option for above cited purposes while compare
with its AC system.

Principle parts of HVDC


Various Parts of HVDC transmission:

Converter transformers
Smoothing reactors
Harmonic filters
Overhead lines
Reactive power source
Earth electrodes

Converters are the main part of HVDC system.
Each HVDC lines has atleast two converters, one at each end.
Sending end converter works as Rectifier (It converts AC power to
DC power). However converter as receiving end works as Inverter (
it converts DC power to AC power).
In case for reversal of operation, Rectifier can be used as inverter or
vice versa. So generally it is call it as CONVERTERS.
Several thyristors are connector in series and/or in parallel to form a
valve to achieve higher voltage / current ratings.
Note*- Valves (Combinations of several thyristors) .

Various Thyristor Ratings:

How to achieve required voltage and
current ratings?
The current rating of converter stations can be increased by
Valves in parallel
Thyristors in parallel
Bridges in parallel
Some combinations of above.
The voltage ratings of converter stations can be increased by
Valves in series
Bridges in series
Combination of above.
Bridge converters are normally used in HVDC systems.

Main requirement of the Valves are:

To allow current flow with low voltage drop across it during
the conduction phase and to offer high resistance for non
conducting phase.
To withstand high peak inverse voltage during non conducting
To allow reasonably short commutation angle during inverter
Smooth control of conducting and non conducting phases.

Two versions of switching converters are feasible depending
on whether DC storage device utilized is.
An inductor-Current source converter
A Capacitor-Voltage source converter.
CSC is preferable for HVDC system
VSC is preferable for FACTS like STATCOM,SVC,etc

Comparison of CSC and



Inductor is used in DC side

Capacitor is used in DC side

Constant current

Constant voltage

Higher losses

More efficient

Fast accurate control

Slow control

Larger and more expensive

Smaller and less expensive

More fault tolerant and more


Less fault tolerant and less


Simpler control

Complex control

Easily expandable for in series

Easily expanded in parallel for

increased rating

For six pulse converter, a conventional three phase or three
single phase transformer is used.
However for 12 pulse configuration, following transformer are
Six single -phase two windings
Three single- phase three windings
Two three- phase two windings
In converter transformer it is not possible to use winding close to
yoke since potential of its winding connection is determined by
conducting valves.
Here entire winding are completely insulated.

As leakage flux of a converter transformer contains very high
harmonic contents, it produces greater eddy current loss and hot spot
in the transformer tank.
In case of 12-Pulse configuration, if two three phase transformers
are used, one will have star-star connection, and another will have
star delta connection to give phase shift of 30.
Since fault current due to fault across valve is predominantly
controlled by transformer impedance, the leakage impedance of
converter transformer is higher than the conventional transformer.
On-line tap changing is used to control the voltage and reactive
power demand.

As its name, these reactors are used for smoothing the direct
current output in the DC line.
It also limits the rate of rise of the fault current in the case of
DC line short circuit.
Normally Partial or total air cored magnetically shielded
reactor are used.
Disc coil type windings are used and braced to withstand the
short circuit current.
The saturation inductance should not be too low.

Harmonic filters

Harmonics generated by converters are of the order of np1in AC side and

np is the DC side. Where p is number of pulses and n is integer.
Filter are used to provide low impedance path to the ground for the
harmonics current.
They are connected to the converter terminals so that harmonics should not
enter to AC system.
However, it is not possible to protect all harmonics from entering into AC
Magnitudes of some harmonics are high and filters are used for them only.
These filters are used to provide some reactive power compensation at the

Overhead lines:

As monopolar transmission scheme is most economical and the first

consideration is to use ground as return path for DC current.
But use of ground as conductor is not permitted for longer use and a
bipolar arrangement is used with equal and opposite current in both poles.
In case of failure in any poles, ground is used as a return path temporarily.
The basic principle of design of DC overhead lines is almost same as AC
lines design such as configurations,towers,insulators etc.
The number of insulators and clearances are determined based on DC
The choice of conductors depends mainly on corona and field effect

Reactive power source

As such converter does not consume reactive power but due to
phase displacement of current drawn by converter and the voltage in
AC system, reactive power requirement at the converter station is
about 50-60% of real power transfer, which is supplied by
filters,capacitors,and synchronous condensers.
Synchronous condensers are not only supplying reactive power but
also provide AC voltages for natural commutation of the inverter.
Due to harmonics and transient, special designed machines is used.

Earth electrodes:

The earth resistivity of at upper layer is higher (~4000 ohm-m) and

electrodes cannot be kept directly on the earth surface.
The electrode are buried into the earth where the resistivity is around (3-10
ohm-m) to reduce transient over voltages during line faults and gives low
DC electric potential and potential gradient at the surface of the earth.
The location of earth electrode is also important due to
Possible interference of DC current ripple to power lines, communication
systems of telephone and railway signals,etc.
Metallic corrosion of pipes, cable sheaths ,etc.
Public safety.
The electrode must have low resistance (Less than 0.1 ohm) and buried
upto 500 meters into the earth.

Constitution of EHV AC and DC links:

EHV transmission links, superposed on a lower voltage AC
networks, or interconnecting two such networks, or connecting
distant generating plants to an ac system, are compared as to their
principle components and arrangements thereof, according to
whether the line operates on AC or DC.
Below single line diagram, is single circuit three phase AC line. In
such system requires transformer at both ends-step up transformers
at the sending end and step down transformer at the receiving end.
Most long overhead AC lines require series compensation of part of
the inductive reactance.(one bank of series capacitor)


The three phase AC lines cannot be operated, except for a very short
time(less than 1 sec) with one or more conductors are open, because such
operation causes unbalanced voltages in the AC system and interference in
phone telephone lines.
Therefore three-pole switching is always used to clear the permanent
faults, although such fault may involve in any one conductor. This being
so, two parallel three phase circuits required for reliable transmission.

The line itself usually has two conductors, although some lines have
only one, the return path being in the earth or sea water or both.
At both end of the lines are converters, the components of which are
transformers and group of mercury arc valves.
The converter at the sending end- Rectifier.
The converter at the receiving end-Inverter.
Either converter can function as rectifier or inverter, permitting
power to be transmitted in either direction. Of course it is preferred
for AC line, also has this reversibility.
The circuit breaker are installed only on the AC side of the
converters. These breakers are not used for clearing faults on the dc
line or misoperations of the valves, for these faults

Can be cleared more rapidly by grid control of the valves. However
breaker is also required for clearing the faults in transformers or taking
the whole DC link out of service.
Harmonic filters and shunt capacitors for supplying reactive power
to the converters are connected to AC sides of the converter.
Large inductance called dc smoothing reactors are connected in
series with each pole of the DC line.

If higher reliability is required of a DC line than that provided by
two conductors, three or four conductors may be provided.
Here one pole of four conductor line is shown with two converters
per terminal.
The bus-tie switches 1 are normally open. If a permanent fault
occurred on the lower conductor, the converters connected to it
would be controlled so as to bring the voltage and current on it to
zero. Then switches 3 would be opened, isolating the faulted line.

Next the converter voltages would be raised to equality with those
of the respective adjacent converters, after which switch 1 would be
The capability of all converter would be usable, and the power
normally carried by two conductors would then be carried by one.