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Objective

Exploratory analysis of sample data by

describing spatial continuity of two

continuous variables and their crosscontinuity

Very few pairs of samples are separated

exactly by h, because there is inevitable

randomness in the sample locations for any

chosen h.

In practice, tolerances are specified both on

the distance of h and on its direction.

Figure 7.1 shows a tolerance of 1 m on the

distance and 20 degrees on the direction of h.

Variogram is the most traditional choice to

summarize spatial continuity, in comparison

to correlation function and covariance.

Range is the distance (h) at which the

variogram reaches its plateau.

Sill is the plateau that the variogram reaches

at the range.

Nugget effect is the vertical jump from the

value of zero at the origin to the value of

variogram at extremely small separation

distances, due to sampling error or short

scale variability.

Variogram

Covariance Function

Omnidirectional Variogram

Omnidirectional means all directions. It

combines all directional variograms into a

single semivariogram.

Omnidirectinal variogram can be loosely

thought of as an average of the various

directional variograms.

However, the calculation of omnidirectional

variogram does not imply that spatial

continuity is the same in all direction.

It serves as a useful starting point for

producing a clear structure of overall spatial

continuity.

Since the omnidirectional variogram contains

more sample pairs than any directional

variogram, it is more likely to show a clearly

interpretable structure.

It can help detect some erratic directional

variograms if an omnidirectional variogram is

messy.

Two distance parameters need to be

chosen

Lag spacing (lag increment)

- Assuming the samples are regularly

spaced over the study area, set the initial

spacing as:

sqrt (study area/total number of points)

Lag tolerance = lag spacing

Distance parameters can be set differently

according to directions, if the sampling pattern

is noticeably anisotropic.

For samples located close to each other, it is

possible to include an additional lag with small

separations and a small tolerance for this first

lag. E.g. 0.5m, 1m, 2m, 3m

appearance.

Pattern of Anisotropy

After having an acceptable omnidirectional

variogram, we can explore the pattern of

anisotropy with various directional variograms.

Isotropy vs. anisotropy.

The direction of maximum spatial continuity and

the direction of minimum spatial continuity.

Pattern of Anisotropy

Choose a directional tolerance that is large

enough to allow sufficient pairs for a clear

variogram, yet small enough that the character

of the variograms for separate directions is not

blurred beyond recognition.

Figure 7.4: Tolerance on h is defined in a

rectangular coordinate system.

Figure 7.5: Posting of a semivariogram

surface.

Figure 7.6: A contour map of the variogram

surface.

Figure 7.7: Nine directional sample variogram

each showing the lag distance corresponding to

a value of 80,000ppm2.

Figure 7.8: A rose diagram of the nine ranges.

Figure 7.9: An ellipse fit to the rose diagram of

nine ranges.

The major and minor axes of the ellipse

represent the axes of a geometric anisotropy.

After identifying directions, it is time to choose

directional tolerance.

Directional tolerance should be large enough to

contain enough pairs and small enough to

avoid blurring the anisotropy resulted from

combining pairs of different directions.

Try several tolerances and use the smallest

one that still produces good results.

Figure 7.10: A directional tolerance of 40 o is

large enough to allow a clear directional

variogram while still preserving the evident

anisotropy.

Figure 7.3

Hole effect is a certain dip that occurs in a sample

variogram.

It happens when there is a natural cyclicity or

repetition in a data set.

Presence of outliers can result in poor behavior of

a variogram.

One can try removing the most erratic samples in

order to retain the useful contribution of large

sample values. Fig 7.13-7.15.

There are many data sets for which the

sample variogram is simply inappropriate as a

descriptive tool.

The variogram works well when there is no

proportional effect or no obvious clusters in a

data.

Fluctuation in the lag means is a problem.

Table 7.5.

Relative Variogram

To account for varying means, relative

variograms scale the original variogram to

some local mean value.

Local Relative Variogram

General Relative Variogram

Pairwise Relative Variogram

Local relative variogram divides an area in

regions and treats data in each region a separate

population, Fig 7.16.

A local variogram is scaled by the local mean.

Then the local variograms are summed to form

the overall variogram

n

i ( h)

i 1 N i (h) m 2

i

LR (h)

n

i 1 N i (h)

General relative variogram does not require

small populations which may cause local

variograms to be erratic.

Instead, the semivariance for each h is

adjusted by the mean of all the data values that

are used to calculate the semivariance.

( h)

GR (h)

m( h) 2

m h m h

1

m( h)

vi v j

2 N (h) ( i , j )|hij h

2

Pairwise relative variogram also adjusts the

variogram calculation by a squared mean.

This adjustment, however, is done separately for

each pair of sample values, using the average of

the two values as the local mean:

(vi v j )

1

PR (h)

vi v j 2

2 N (h) (i , j )|hij h ( 2 )

Correlogram

The covariance function and correlogram are

likely to be more resistant to erratic values since

they account for lag means (in case of

covariance) and lag variance (in case of

correlogram).

The relationship between covariance to

variogram, between correlogram and variogram

C(0) - C(h) = (h), (0) - (h) = (h)/(0)

Directional Covariance

Functions for U

Cross-Variograms

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