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Group 2 Elements

Atomic Radius
Ionisation Energy

Melting Points

Reactivity With


(Increases as you go down
(Decreases as you go down
(Decreases as you go down
group but Sr has a higher
melting point than Ca)

1) More Energy Levels

2) More Shielding Electrons
1) Electron further from Nucleus
2) More Shielding Electrons
3) Whilst effective Nuclear Charge stays the same
1) The ionic radius increases
2) Attraction between the delocalised electrons
and the metal cations decreases.
1) Delocalised electrons are closer to cations,
therefore there is a stronger attraction between the
cations and delocalised electrons.
1) Ions get bigger, therefore there is less force of
an attraction
2) The outer-electron therefore is more easily lost.

(Increases as you go down

Compared to group 1, metals are less reactive as ions get smaller across a period.
Reaction with Cold Water
Reaction too slow to notice
Reaction quick but not violent
Reaction increasingly exothermic
Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) H2(g) + Ca(OH)2
Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) H2(g) + Ca2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)
Group 2 Sulphates

Decreases as you go down group.
They are all ions and therefore

Group Hydroxides (made by reacting

with water)
Increases as you go down group.
They are all solids too.

Therefore: Ba(OH)2 is soluble but BaSO4 is insoluble.

Mg(OH)2 is insoluble but MgSO4 is soluble.
If anything is soluble, then it is easy to remove as it can be dissolved.
BaSO4 is used in medicine as a Barium meal as it is insoluble, therefore it doesnt cause
Mg(OH)2 is used in medicine as an Indigestion Tablet as it is insoluble.
Ca(OH)2 is used in agriculture to neutralise soil acid.
Test for Sulphate Ions (SO42-) AQUEOUS.


Add Dilute Hydrochloric Acid (HCl(aq))/

Add Dilute Nitric Acid (HNO3(aq))
(NOT sulphuric acid as this contains SO42Add Barium Chloride Solution (BaCl2(aq))/
Add Barium Nitrate Solution (Ba(NO3)2(aq))
Positive Result

Destroys Carbonate ions, Barium Carbonate also

forms a white precipitate.
How: 2H+ + CO32- H2O + CO2
Produces precipitate.

White precipitate of Barium Sulphate (BaSO4)

Ba2+ + SO42- BaSO4 (white precipitate)
To distinguish between BaCl2 and MgCl2 we use Sodium Hydroxide, BaCl2 remains
colourless, but MgCl2 makes a white precipitate.

The following is called a Free Radical Substitution.
When an alkane reacts with a halogen under conditions of: 1) Ultraviolet Light
2) Heat
3) Other forms of energy
Then the U.V. Light provides the energy needed to break the covalent bond in the halogen or
haloalkane molecule homolytically. Homolytic bond breaking creates radicals.
There are three stages: 1) Initiation: makes the radicals
2) Propagation: a) Take one atom
b) Pairs of Reaction
c) 2nd Reaction produces Radical of 1st Reaction
d) Makes the real products
e) Further steps occur if excess reactant
3) Termination: Destroys Radicals
Ozone is O3. It is formed by either: 1) Ultraviolet light on Oxygen light in the atmosphere
2) Electrical sparks at ground level
Polluting Ozone is a very toxic gas. The ozone layer in the atmosphere absorbs U.V. light
limiting the amount reaching the surface of the Earth. At present, there are large holes in the
North and South Pole.
Chlorine and chlorine compounds, which are found in the poles, destroy Ozone.
First, U.V. light hits chlorine or chlorine based compounds:
Cl2 2Cl
Then Cl reacts with Ozone (O3) in a pair of propagation steps. The Chlorine free radical is
called the reactive intermediate.
Cl + O3 OCl + O2
OCl + O3 Cl + 2O2
This makes the overall equation:
2O3 3O2
Therefore, as you can see, Chlorine is a catalyst in turning Ozone (O3) into Oxygen (O2).
This is because the termination step Cl + Cl Cl2 = makes Chlorine, which would once
again get hit by U.V. light. Therefore Chlorine provides an alternative route of lower
activation energy.
Chlorine atoms are also formed from chlorine-containing organic compounds in the upper
atmosphere due to the carbon-chlorine bond breakage in a homolytic way.
Therefore a C-Cl bond is not considered environmentally acceptable or friendly.
The IUPAC name of CF3Cl is Chlorotrifluoromethane
Also remember that when a metal chloride reacts with Sulphuric Acid, it makes Hydrochloric
Acid (HCl) and one other product.

Oxidation and Reduction

Oxidation is the Loss of Electrons
Reduction is the Gain of Electrons
Oxidation is the Loss of Hydrogen
Reduction is the Gain of Hydrogen
Oxidation is the Gain of Oxygen
Reduction is the Loss of Oxygen
Oxidising Agents are REDUCED themselves and OXIDISE others.
Reducing Agents are OXIDISED themselves and REDUCE others.
General Rule:
If you see a substance that has lost electrons, then it is a Reducing Agent.
If you see a substance that has gained electrons, then it is an Oxidising Agent
Oxidation Numbers:
1) All elements are zero
2) All simple ions have an oxidation number equal to its charge
3) The SUM of the oxidation numbers of a complex ion (molecules with a charge) is
equal to the charge on the ion
4) The SUM of the oxidation numbers of a molecule is zero
1) It has been oxidised if the oxidation number gets more positive because it has lost
electrons; it is therefore a Reducing Agent.
2) It has been reduced if the oxidation number gets more negative because it has
gained electrons; it is therefore an Oxidising Agent.
Assume :- Oxygen atoms are -2
Hydrogen atoms are +1
CH4 Hydrogen atoms are +1
There are 4 Hydrogen atoms, therefore 4 +1 = +4
This is a molecule, therefore (rule 4 says) the SUM must equal zero
That is how we know that C has oxidation number -4
CO2 Oxygen atoms are -2
There are 2 Oxygen atoms, therefore -2 2 = -4
This is a molecule, therefore (rule 4 says) the SUM must equal zero
That is how we know that C has oxidation number +4
CO32- Oxygen atoms are -2
There are 3 Oxygen atoms, therefore -2 3 = -6
This is a complex ion (molecule with a charge), therefore (rule 3 says) the SUM must
equal the charge on the ion
The charge on the ion is -2
That is how we know that C has oxidation number +4, because -6 +4 = -2
Redox Equations:
1) Write down the oxidation numbers
2) Identify the Oxidation equation and Reduction equation
3) Write Half-equations for both separately, use H2O, H+ and e4) Combine Reduction half equation and Oxidation half equation
5) Multiply equations appropriately so that electrons cancel

Functional Group

Word Endings

Connection with
Carbon Chain







Carboxylic Acid



Amine or begin with Amino

1) The isomer
will end with ol
if there is a
number in the
1) It is always
at the rear end
of a chain.
2) Numbers
begin from
1) Isomer will
be in the
middle of a
1) It is always
at the rear end
of a chain.




In a test for Alkanes and Alkenes, we use bromine water, it remains orange with Alkane, but
turns colourless with an Alkene.
IMPORTANT: If it asks you for the displayed formula of any of the above, you must show the
bonds. So instead of writing OH, you must O-H.
Geometrical Isomers take place at sights of restricted rotation.
If the both of the above connected chain are different to the bottom connected chain, then
there will be E/Z isomerism.
Double bonded isomers and Rings isomers have restricted rotation.
The E isomer looks like a Z shape.
The Z isomer looks like an E shape.
Type of isomer

What Happens


Functional Group

Ending changes
e.g. goes from ANE to ENE, etc.


Chain Isomer

First part of name changes

e.g. pentane to propane


Position Isomer

Numbers change
e.g. goes from 1-methylpentane to 2-methylpentane


Changes from E to Z or vice versa

e.g. goes from Z-1,2-dimethylcyclopropane to E-1,2 -dimethylcyclopropane


Primary Alcohols (Alcohols in which the Carbon connected to the OH is connected to 1 other
Carbon) are oxidised (they are made to gain Oxygen or lose Hydrogen) first to Aldehyde,
then to Carboxylic Acids.
The Reagent that will be the oxidising agent for the alcohol: Acidified Potassium Dichromate
(H+/Cr2O72-/ [O])
EXAMPLE: Ethanol (primary alcohol)
Ethanoic Acid
(Lost 2 Hydrogens) (Gained 1 Oxygen)

Aldehyde boils at a lower temperature than alcohols. Therefore we carry out the oxidation at
a temperature greater than the boiling point of the Aldehyde so that the Aldehyde is
separated from the [O] and the alcohol.
By using Reflux, we can make the carboxylic acid.
Secondary Alcohols (Alcohols in which the Carbon connected to the OH is connected to 2
other Carbons) are oxidised (they are made to gain Oxygen or lose Hydrogen) to Ketones.
EXAMPLE: Propan-2-ol (secondary alcohol)
(Lost 2 Hydrogens)

Tertiary Alcohols (Alcohols in which the Carbon is connected to 2 other Carbons) cant be
oxidised easily as the double bond cant be made without breaking a C-C bond. Therefore, if
it hints towards an alcohol that doesnt react with Acidified Dichromate, then this alcohol is
tertiary. Alcohols are a Homologous Series. In hydration, we use concentrated H2SO4
How each reagent helps
distinguish between
Aldehydes (Anal) &
Ketones (Anone)



Acidified Dichromate

Orange to Green

Orange to Orange

Tollens Reagent

Colourless to Silver Mirror

Colourless to Colourless

Benedicts or Feheiling

Blue solution to Brick Red


Blue solution to Blue solution

Industrial preparation of Ethanol



Raw Material






Other Requirements

Yeast & Water

Water & Phosphoric Acid catalyst



High Temperature, but Low Pressure

Level of Technology



Rate of Production


Very Fast


Very impure

Very pure

Purification Process

Distillation V.Expensive

Not needed

We use the industry method. We dont use fermentation because it is a slow reaction and is
very expensive. The industry method involves Hydration/ Electrophilic Addition of ethene to
from ethanol.
Brazil runs cars on alcohol through fermentation as it has lots of land; the sugar grows
quickly and due to cheap labour.
Bio Fuels
Fuel produced from biological or renewable sources
Fermentation is not Carbon Neutral: 1) Fuel used to distil impure ethanol releases CO2
2) Harvesting/planting sugar involved using fuel that
releases CO2
For a complete combustion of a fuel to take place in air, you must have sufficient supply of
1) Yeast
2) Sugar
3) Water
4) 37oC
Essential Conditions:
1) Yeast
2) 30oC T 42oC
3) No Air
It is an Oxidation reaction as respiration is Anaerobic.
Sugar (glucose)


+ 2CO2
Carbon Dioxide

Can be claimed to be Carbon Neutral:

6 CO2 taken in, 6 CO2 given out due to 2 CO2 from fermentation and 4 CO2 from combustion.


Curly arrow begins at:


What Happens

Nucleophilic Substitution

Curly arrow goes to Substrate from


Base Elimination

Curly arrow goes to Hydrogen in the

Substrate from the Reagent ( which is
called a Base)

Electrophilic Addition

Curly arrow goes to Reagent from

Double bond in Substrate

Acid Elimination

Curly arrow goes to Hydrogen in the

Acid from the Substrate

1) A Bonding Pair
Makes a Saturated (single
bond) reactant into a
Saturated (single bond)
Makes a Saturated (single
bond) reactant into a
Unsaturated (double bond)
Makes a Unsaturated
(double bond) reactant into a
Saturated (single bond)
Makes a Saturated (single
bond) reactant into a
Unsaturated (double bond)

2) A Lone Pair
Nucleophile: Electron pair donor.
Electrophile: Electron pair acceptor.
Reagent: Chemical/chemicals that react with an organic molecule.
Substrate: The organic molecule that undergoes the reaction.

1) First curly arrow goes to something positive
2) If curly arrow departs, it makes +1 charge
3) If curly arrow arrives, it makes -1 charge
4) Atoms have a max of 4 pairs, except Hydrogen which has a max of 1 pair

Electrophilic Addition:

The substrate is an Alkene. It is the only mechanism that begins with an Alkene. It makes a
1) Bromine (Br-Br) or Chlorine (Cl-Cl) : How: the double bond in the substrate is a
centre of high electron density. This induces a DIPOLE in the Br-Br or Cl-Cl bond.
2) HCl or HBr: How: H-Cl and H-Br are polar bonds.
3) Sulphuric Acid (H-OSO3H): HOW: The H-O bond in Sulphuric Acid is highly polar.
IMPORTANT: The most stable intermediate connects to the Halogen forming more often and
therefore giving the major product.
Types of Carbon

What is it



Connected to 3 other Carbons

Most Stable


Connected to 2 other Carbons

Less Stable


Connected to 1 other Carbon

Least Stable

When an alkene becomes an alkane, but it does not involve curly arrows, then it is simply
called Addition or Reduction or Hydrogenation.
Nucleophilic Substitution:
The substrate is a haloalkane. It can make an Alcohol, Nitrile or Amine.
1) Aqueous Sodium/Potassium Hydroxide (HO-) Remember: We dont use the Sodium
Ion. This reagent makes an alcohol.
2) Alcoholic Potassium Cyanide (N C-) Remember: we dont use the Potassium. This
reagent makes a Nitrile.
3) Ammonia (H3N); more ammonia will be added because this makes an unstable
intermediate. This reagent makes an Amine.
If we have an excess of haloalkane, further reactions take place.
As we go down the Halogen group, the Haloalkane in the Nucleophilic Substitution increases
the rate of the Nucleophilic Substitution (R-I reacts fastest with Reagent, R-Cl reacts slowest
with Reagent). As we go down the group, the bond strength of the halogen with the alkane
decreases even though polarity decreases (the more polar a bond, the weaker it is). Hence,
the reason the rate of Nucleophilic reaction increases as you down the halogen group is due
to polarisibility (the R-I bond is EASILY polarised).
The characteristic of the haloalkane that enables it to undergo the Nucleophilic Substitution
is the fact that it has a polar bond between a Carbon and Halogen.
Base Elimination:
The substrate is a haloalkane. It makes an Alkene.
Reagents (Base):
1) Alcoholic Potassium/Sodium Hydroxide (HO-) Remember: We dont use the Sodium.
Acid Elimination:
The substrate is saturated. It makes an alkene.
1) H+ How: There is a lone pair in the substrate that goes to the positive H+
It is a reaction which turns many small molecules into long chain molecules.

Addition Polymers: (Alkenes undergo Addition)
Made from alkenes or similar compounds
EXAMPLE: Ethene to Poly(ethene)


= plastic bottles

(P.V.C) =
Poly(phenylethene) (Polystyrene) = bubble wraps/packaging
If you are shown a polymer and asked what it was before, then count the number of
Carbons, then this shall give you the alkene chain, then you need to work out where the
double bond was.
Polymers are now recycled because:
1) It preserves raw materials
2) Prevents pollution
3) Saves energy
Polymers are non-biodegradable materials.
The Mass Spectrometer
Molecules can also be analysed by a mass spectrometer (not just elements).

Cl2 + e- Cl2+ + 2eThe mass spectrometer can measure to at least 4 decimal places of an a.m.u.

Mass Spectrometer Mr










Therefore, the mass spectrometer can distinguish between compounds of similar Mr.
Propane and Carbon Dioxide have the same Mr when it is to one decimal place.
Carbon has Mr 12.00000 by definition.
Some Chemicals have the same Mr EVEN TO 5 DECIMAL PLACES: Why:
They contain the same number of atoms of the same element, or another way of saying it is
that they have the same molecular formula.
Some Chemicals have a different Mr when made to 5 DECIMAL PLACES: Why:
They contain different number of elements of different elements.


Melting Point

Oxidising Ability
(The ability to attract
electrons to itself and
take away electrons from

Order of Reactivity

Reducing Ability
(The ability to give away
electrons to others)

(Increases as you go down
(Decreases as you go
down group)

1) Van Der Waals forces increase as

the size of the molecules increase.

(Decreases as you go
down group)

1) Small F- ion can attract extra

electron strongly, therefore it forms
more easily
2) Large I- ion cant attract extra
electron strongly, therefore it finds it
more difficult to form

(Decreases as you go
down group)

1) It needs to gain one electron

2)As the size increases, the nuclear
force decreases
3) Therefore the nucleus finds it harder
to attract an electron

Cl-<Br-<I(Increases as you go down


1) I- ion is very big, therefore it has a

weak force from the nucleus and hence
electrons are easily lost
2) Cl- ion is very small, therefore it has
a strong force from the nucleus, hence
electrons are difficult to remove
1)The size of the molecules increases,
therefore it becomes polar very easily

(Decreases as you go
down the group)

Strength of bond with C


1) Force decreases as size increases

2) Effective charge remains
approximately constant

Halogens may or may not displace with halide ions. The colour given off is of the element of
the displaced ion
Halides: F-, Cl-, Br-, I-} colourless
F2 an aqueous solution of F2 cannot be made as it reacts with water
Cl2 an aqueous solution of Cl2 has the colour (pale) green
Br2 an aqueous solution of Br2 has the colour Orange/Brown
I2 an aqueous solution of l2 has the colour Purple/Black
It takes less energy to break the weaker C-halogen bond; therefore the precipitate would
form quicker.
Chlorine reacts slowly with water: It is used in swimming pools but as small doses as it is
toxic. A Universal Indicator would turn pink in chlorine
Cl2(aq) + H2O
HCl (oxidation number of Cl here is -1) + HOCl (oxidation number of Cl here is +1) (aq)
This is an example of disproportionation. When the same chemical is oxidised and reduced.
Over time the HOCl (Chloric Acid) decomposes: 2HOCl(aq) 2HCl(aq) + O2(g)
When Chlorine reacts with Sodium Hydroxide, Sodium Chloride and Sodium Chlorate
(NaClO) is formed. When it says give the formula you must not write the name of the
substance, you should write the actual chemical formula of it, even if it may be an element.



Halide Ions
Add dilute HNO3
Carbonate ions
that could make
Ag2CO3 which is
white and would
give a false result
HOW does it
destroy it:
2H+ + CO32-
CO2 + H2O
Add Silver Nitrate
(Forms The
Add Dilute
(Dissolves AgCl(s))

Colourless Solution

Colourless Solution

Colourless Solution

Colourless Solution

Colourless Solution

Colourless Solution

White Precipitate
Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) AgCl(s)

Cream Precipitate
Ag+(aq) + Br-(aq) AgBr(s)

Yellow Precipitate
Ag+(aq) + I-(aq) AgI(s)

Colourless Solution
AgCl + 2NH3 [Ag(NH3)2]+ + Cl-

Cream Precipitate

Yellow Precipitate

Colourless Solution

Colourless Solution
AgCl + 2NH3 [Ag(NH3)2]+ + Cl-

Yellow precipitate

Fluoride ions are not tested for in the test for Halide ions, this is because when we add the
Silver Nitrate, it makes AgF, which is soluble and therefore forms no precipitates.
Add Concentrate Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4)


Misty Acidic Fumes (HCl)

Cl- cant reduce SO42-


NaCl + H2SO4 HCl + NaHSO4

(Not redox)
The role of H2SO4 is simply an acid
Misty Acidic Fumes (HBr)

NOT redox reaction, it is a


Orange/Brown liquid fumes (Br2)

H2SO4 + 2H+ + 2Br- Br2 + SO2 + 2H2O

Acidic fumes (SO2)
Misty Acidic Fumes (HI)


Purple/Black solid fumes (I2)

NOT redox reaction, it is a

SO42- + 4H+ + 2I- Br2 + SO2 + 2H2O

Unpleasant Smell (H2S - Hydrogen Sulphide)

10H+ + 8I- + SO42- H2S + 4I2 + 4H2O

Yellow Precipitate/Solid (S8 Sulphur) =


Reduction product: H2S

Oxidation product: 4I2
6I- + SO42- + 8H+ 4H2O + S + 3I2
Reduction product: S
Oxidation product: I2

Infrared Spectroscopy
Infrared waves do not break bonds but makes them vibrate.
The frequency of the vibration depends on: 1) strength of the bond- single, double or triple
2) Masses of the bonded atoms (C, N, O=heavy.

More absorption (higher wave number) of an infrared wave makes that chemical a more
effective greenhouse gas.
Bonding Type
Bonds to Hydrogen


Triple Bond


Double Bond


Single Bond


Bonds to Hydrogen

Triple Bond

Double Bond



c Acid



Finger print region unique to all compounds. It is compared to an

authentic sample.
Metal Extractions
Metals are usually found in the ground as their positive ions in ionic compounds.
Therefore extracting metal must involve reduction (gaining of electrons).
Positive Ion + Electrons Metallic Elements
e.g. Fe3+ + 3e- Fe

Single Bond

Ores are usually found as sulphides or oxides.

Sulphides are roasted in air to convert to Oxides. (This makes SO2 Acid Rain)
WS2 + 3.5O2 WO3 + 2SO2
The 1st choice reducing agent (it reduces others and oxidised itself) is Carbon (coke-made
from coal).
Blast Furnace we can use Iron, Copper or Manganese
1) Iron Ore (Fe2O3) impure main impurity is SiO2 limestone (CaO) used to remove
it and this makes CaSiO3 (slag). The slag can be used to build roads.
2) Air
3) Coke
4) Limestone
Reduction Process in the Blast Furnace
Reducing Agent: Coke (Condition: high temperature of 1500oC); we are reducing Iron(III).
Fe2O3 + C Fe + CO
Fe2O3 + C Fe + CO2
The other main reducing agent is Carbon Monoxide (CO)
(C + O2 CO2
C + CO2 2CO) this (coke) is where the energy comes from in a blast furnace.
Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO2 (Iron is more likely to react with CO than C as CO is gas)
The iron still contains about 4% Carbon, this is too much Carbon and this makes iron brittle.
However, Carbon (coke) does not work as a reducing agent for several metals, as it makes
the product (metal) them too brittle after reducing them.
1) Only works for elements that are less reactive than Carbon, thus it doesnt work for
Mg (Magnesium), Na (Sodium) and Al (Aluminium).
2) Carbide remains brittle at very low amounts, even less than 4%. Thus it doesnt work
for Ti and W. It is not commercial in these metals to get the carbon out.


W (Tungsten)



Tungsten is made by
reducing (given
electrons) WO3
with Hydrogen Gas.

WO3 + 3H2 W + 3H2O


Hydrogen is explosive;
therefore Water should
be used to put out a fir
which a metal is burnin

Ti (Titanium)

Aluminium (Al)



Titanium is made in
a 2 stage process.
First it is made into
TiCl4, and then the
TiCl4 is then reduced
with a more reactive
metal, either Na
(Sodium) or Mg
(Magnesium) and
made into Titanium.
An inert (no oxygen)
atmosphere is
required as Titanium
can react with

Stage 1:

Purified Bauxite
used in extraction
(Very high melting
point- this is
dissolved in molten
melting point). The
melting point of
mixture is much
lower than pure
Al2O3 much cheaper

Electrolysis is used to extract Al

from Al2O3.

TiO2 +2C + 2Cl TiCl4 + 2CO

TiO2 +C + 2Cl2 TiCl4 + CO2
Stage 2:
TiCl4 + 4Na Ti + 4NaCl
TiCl4 + 2Mg Ti + 2MgCl2

Cathode (negative electrode):

Al3+ + 3e- Al
2O2- O2 + 4e-

TiCl4 is a liquid with a l

boiling point. Therefore
can be distilled (separa
TiCl4 from Carbon)
cheaply to purify. Also
NaCl and MgCl are
soluble, hence they ca
dissolved to get simply
(Sodium) and Mg
(Magnesium) Therefor
you can see, Na and M
are extracted from thei
oxides by reacting them
with a more a reactive
Pure Titanium is
expensive: Why:
1) Cl2 needed
2) Na needed
3) Argon needed
1) Electrolysis can only
occur when we have io
that can move- that is w
electrolysis must be of
molten mixture.
2) The cathode and an
are made of graphite,
therefore oxygen forme
burns away the electro
hence they are repla
3) The major cost in th
process is electricity.
However the product is
very pure.
This is a low cost meth
of extracting Copper as
scrap iron is cheap, an
there is a low energy

Copper present in
Cu2+(aq) + Fe(s) Cu(s) + Fe2+(aq)
Copper (Cu)
ground water (any
dilute aqueous
solution-low grade
ore) can be captured CuO + C Cu + CO
by using scrap iron.
Every time a metal is given and in the middle of its name there is a bracket with a symbol in
it, then that symbol represents the positive charge on that metal ion.
FOR EXAMPLE: If you see Copper (II), it means Cu2+. Also the atom economy must be high
when extracting.
Remember that Aluminium is expensive. Sometimes the cost of extracting a metal is high
because of the energy required when heating it with another metal. Using enthalpy, we can
find this high amount of energy. Al = Al3+, Zn = Zn2+. Also Aluminium is recycled to save
electricity, energy and conserve bauxite. Also, Titanium is stronger than Aluminium. When
metal reacts with water, it makes an Oxide and Hydrogen.

Preserves resources (Economic)
Reduces pollution (Environmental)
Saves energy (Economic)
Scrap Iron/Steel has higher iron content (Economic)

Equilibrium is attained when there is a reversible reaction.

At equilibrium, the rate of formation of products from reactants is exactly balanced by the
rate of formation of reactants from products.

Two features of a reaction at equilibrium: 1) Concentrations of reactants and products

remain constant: WHY: Because the forward and
backward reactions are proceeding at equal
2) Forward and backward reactions proceeding at
equal rates
However, according to how we change the conditions, we can alter the position of
equilibrium. However, whatever condition we change, the reaction moves so as to oppose
the change.
We can change:
1) Temperature
2) Pressure (for gas reactions)
3) Concentration
N2 + 3H2


Pressure: If we increase the pressure, the reaction will attempt to decrease the pressure by
converting the reactant (which is 4 moles) into the product (which is 2 moles).
Therefore if we increase the pressure, the equilibrium moves to the side of fewest
gaseous molecules. However if there are the same number of moles on each side,
then the pressure shall have no effect.
Pressure increases Ammonia yield: There are more moles of reactant therefore an increase
in pressure is opposed.
N2 + 3H2


Temperature: The sign + means that it is endothermic, the sign - means that the reaction is
exothermic. Therefore, if we increase the temperature, the reaction will
attempt to decrease the temperature (try to cool down) by moving towards the
endothermic reaction, therefore making the N2 and 3H2.
Temperature decreases Ammonia yield: The forward reaction is exothermic; therefore if we
provide heat, the equilibrium will move to cool down by moving towards the
endothermic reaction, therefore less Ammonia is formed.
N2 + 3H2


Concentration: If we increase the amount of concentration of the product, the reaction will
attempt to decrease the concentration by moving towards the reactants.
Therefore, if we want a high yield of ammonia, the temperature must be kept low, and the
pressure must be kept high:
Increase pressure
N2 + 3H2

Increase temperature

Thus we use a compromise of both:

If we increased it further

Temperature (450oC)

Pressure (200atms)

Less ammonia in mixture

Too expensive equipment and

pumping costs, and also risk of

If we lowered it further

Reaction too slow

Less ammonia and slow reaction

A catalyst increases the rate of attainment of equilibrium and speeds up forward and
backward reactions. But it does not have an effect on the equilibrium amounts. The catalyst
in ammonia manufacture is Iron.
Why does the catalyst have no effect on the position of equilibrium:
A catalyst increases the rate of the forward and backward reaction, and this increase in rate
of forward and backward reaction is equal.
Equilibrium may also shift to oppose the loss of a substance.
Also, it is of paramount importance to remember that a negative H (enthalpy has
decreased) is always an exothermic reaction. The actual sign - means exothermic reaction.
Therefore the overall enthalpy of an exothermic reaction must have a - before it. FOR
EXAMPLE: The following is an exothermic reaction:

If the enthalpy has decreased as shown above, it means the sum of the bond enthalpies of
the product is lower than the sum of the bond enthalpies of the reactants.

Collision Theory
For particles to react chemically, they must: 1) Collide
2) With at least the activation energy

Only reactions with at least the activation energy can pass from reactants to products.
Reacting particles have different activation energies; some high, some low.
Maxwell Boltzmann Distribution:
1) Increase temperature: The curve of the graph becomes flatter and distributes to the
2) Add a catalyst: The Ea on the graph moves to the left, however the distribution of the
graph is not affected, and the catalyst is usually hot: WHY: To provide the activation
energy. If a catalyst remains hot during a reaction, it is because the reaction is
3) If we double the pressure, the volume halves, therefore the concentration also
doubles. Increasing Concentration/Pressure: The hump of the graph grows higher,
but does not move right or left.
4) What does the area under the graph represent: Total number of molecules. The
graph start at the origin because all molecules have some energy, therefore no
molecules have no energy. However very few molecules have the Ea.
5) The Y axis is labelled Number Of Molecules and the X axis is labelled Energy.

If we decrease the temperature: There is a decrease in the number of particles which have
the minimum energy to react, therefore there are fewer
successful collisions.
If we increase the temperature: There is an increase in the number of particles which have
the minimum energy to react, therefore there are many
more successful collisions. Also the Emp (the place where
the hump on the graph is) increases. This is more effective
in increasing the rate than increasing the pressure
because increasing the pressure by a small amount
increases the frequency of collisions by a small amount.
If we increase the concentration: The number of particles reacting is doubled (many more),
therefore there is a greater collision frequency (higher
chance of a successful collision).
If we decrease the concentration: The number of particles reacting is much fewer, therefore
there is a lower collision frequency.
If we add a catalyst: There is an increase in the number of particles which have the minimum
energy to react, therefore there are many more successful collisions.
Also the graph distribution remains the same. Sometimes a metal
catalyst is often used in the form of gauze or a powder to increase the
surface area of the catalyst.
If we increase the surface area of reactants: There is a greater collision frequency.

Once condition necessary for enthalpies of formation to be quoted as standard values at a
specific temperature of 298K: All reactants and products are in their standard states.

There is a difference between the value calculated through mean bond enthalpies and the
value given in a book because:
1) Mean bond enthalpies are not specific for this reaction
2) They are average values from many different compounds
An incomplete combustion can lead to a reaction being less exothermic.
Questions about q = m c T
Q = m c T
(You must write this in the exam)

In Standard Enthalpy of reactions:

H = Hf products Hf reactants
In Mean Bond enthalpy of reaction:
H = bonds broken (reactants) - bonds made (products)
The calculated values of enthalpies of combustion of alcohols, when plotted against Mr
follow a straight line: WHY:
1) Each Alcohol increases by an extra CH2
2) Combustion of each alcohol in the series breaks one more C-C bond and two more C-H
compared with the previous one and forms one more mol CO2 and more mol H2O.
Also sometimes the experimental values of enthalpy obtained by a student (through the
above equation) are lower than the calculated values (using Hesss law) due to one of:
1) Heat loss
2) Incomplete combustion
3) Reactants or products may not be in their standard states
Sometimes it is not possible to measure the enthalpy change directly for a combustion
reaction as other products are also formed that are not showed in the equation.
Elements have standard enthalpy of formation of zero by definition, but not when they are
not in their standard states.
For example if gaseous Mg is formed, instead of solid Mg, then the enthalpy would be less