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Computer Tech Experiments

Experiment #2: Diode


Diode
1st Position
2nd Position

LED
Light is On
Light is Off

Diode Markings
>l
l<

Discussion
The position of the Diode when reversed resulted in the LED getting no electricity
to power the LED. If the LED and the resistor is both reversed, depending on the diode
position, it would work the same way as a regular circuit or it wouldnt work at all. I
believe that the diode, in which ever way it is facing will depend on what the other
pieces on the breadboard are facing.

Conclusion
Diode affects the flow of the electrical current by sending the current through only
one way. They are useful for current steering and sending a one-way path from the
positive to the negative.

Experiment #3: Series and Parallel Resistors


Circuit
A

B
C

LED Brightness
Bright
Dim
Quite Bright

Discussion:
1. Circuit A was Bright. Circuit B was dim and Circuit C was quite bright, it wasnt as
bright than Circuit A but was brighter than Circuit B.
2. The voltage would be from the battery; it would appear as a 5+ Bus. The current
would be the wire itself, transferring the electricity and the Resistance would be
the resistors that represent the amount of ohms it is stopping.
3. It would cause both circuits to become less dim than usual because there is
another set that has been added that is trying to stop the process of electrons
passing through.

Experiment 4: A Digital Monitor

Input
High
Low

LED
On
Off

Experiment #5: 7-Segment Display


Pin Number
1
2
3

LED Segment ON
A
A&F
Off

6
7

A & Bottom Left Dot


A&E

8
9
10
11

A&D
A & Bottom Right Dot
A&C
A&G

13
14

A&B
Off

Experiment #6: AND Gates


Input A
High (1)
High (1)
Low (0)
Low (0)

Input B
High (1)
Low (0)
High (1)
Low (0)

Output (LED On or Off)


On
Off
Off
Off

Experiment #7: OR Gates


Input A
High (1)
High (1)
Low (0)
Low (0)
Discussion:

Input B
High (1)
Low (0)
High (1)
Low (0)

Output (LED On or Off)


On
On
On
Off

1. To obtain an output at 5 volts you need to have at least one input on High. Only
when the input is low and low, it becomes off.
2. To obtain an output at 0 volts you need to have low for both inputs. Otherwise it
would become on.
The output of an OR gate responds to its inputs by where they are being connected. If
the inputs are connected towards positives, then the LED would turn on. If they are
connected to negatives, then the LED would turn off. It is basically like a switch in terms
of different inputs that create the output.

Experiment #8: Inverters


Input A
Output (LED On Off)
High (1)
Off
Low (0)
On
Discussion:
1. A 7404 integrated circuit would be designed for something that requires either
the opposite signals or for testing purposes.
2. The result would by high; however, there is just a matter of how much power
goes through both inverters because using 2 inverters require double the
amount of energy than just 1. They dont and cant cancel each other out.
An inverters function is to basically reverse the polarity of the current and produce
opposite product from the circuit and reverses the entire process. It changes DC
current to AC current and most appliances uses AC power, so it is mostly used in
households and businesses.

Experiment #9: NAND Gates


Observation:
Input A
High (1)
High (1)
Low (0)
Low (0)

Input B
High (1)
Low (0)
High (1)
Low (0)

Output (LED On or Off)


Off
On
On
On

Discussion:
1. The input states required to obtain an output of 5 volts is where any of the inputs
is put at the low value, causing the LED to turn on.

2. The input states required to obtain an output of 0 volts is where both of the inputs
is put at the high value, causing the LED to become off.
3. The N stands for Not in the acronym.
4. Both AND and NAND gates both creates a flow in the circuit. The difference
between the two is that they are the exact opposite of each other and they
function the opposite as well.
Based on the information being gathered, the NAND gate responds to its input when
there is at least one input value that is set onto low. Whatever input it is being given, the
output will always try to respond oppositely because of the NAND gates function.

Experiment 10: NOR Gates


Input A
High (1)
High (1)
Low (0)
Low (0)

Input B
High (1)
Low (0)
High (1)
Low (0)

Output (LED On or Off)


Off
Off
Off
On

Discussion:
1. The input states that are required to obtain an output at 5 volts will only be on if
both inputs are on the low value, causing the LED to be on.
2. The input states that are required to obtain an output at 0 volts is when at least
one of the inputs have to be in high value, causing the LED to be off.
3. The N stand for Not.
4. The relationship between the OR and NOR is that they are total opposites when
it comes to their inputs to obtain an output of 5 volts.
The output of a NOR gate responds to its inputs much as the same as an OR gate,
all it does is that whatever the input may be, the output will always try to be opposite
to the input being given.

Experiment 11: Exclusive OR Gates


Input A
High (1)
High (1)
Low (0)
Low (0)

Input B
High (1)
Low (0)
High (1)
Low (0)

Output (LED On or Off)


Off
On
On
Off

Discussion:
1. The input states that are required to obtain an output at 5 volts will only have an
LED on if input A and B are the opposite of each other.
2. The input states that are required to obtain an output at 0 volts will only have the
LED off if both inputs are exactly the same as each other.
R2
Time sec/ LED cycle
47 k
0.1
100 k
0.21
470 k
0.74
680 k
0.96
1M
1.12
The output of the exclusive OR gate responds to its input is the same as both the
NOR and OR gate. The input must be opposite from each other in order for the
output to respond as a value of 1. If the inputs are the same, then the output
wouldnt respond, meaning the LED is off and the value of the output would be 0.

Experiment 16: Digital Clock Circuit


Discussion:
1.

Resistance
1,200,000
1,000,000
800,000
600,000
400,000
200,000
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

2. The curve was from low to high. It was a solid curve. As the resistance
increases, the time also increases with it as well.
3. It would obviously be used for a clock on a computer, to calculate the time. It
would also be used a timer or a stopwatch as well.
4. The changes in the result if there was a different value used for the resistor is
that it will be able to hold more or less electricity into, meaning it can possibly
delay or speed up the process of the circuit.

Experiment #18 Binary to Decimal Decoder


D

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

1.
2.
3.
4.

Decimal
Equivalent
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

LED
Display
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

There are 16 different combinations that can be done with these 4 inputs.
The decimal values and the LED display are pretty much both the same.
Only 0 did not give a decimal value.
A clock would use this device that is similar to the binary to decimal decoder.

A 7447 Integrated Circuit is known as the decoding process before it actually sends
the information out to the 7-segment display. The inputs and outputs are the binary,
which then transfers the information onto the 7447 IC, which then converts the
information into decimals and sends that information to the 7-segment display,
where it would display the information being given.