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Advanced

Educational Statistics

Functions/Uses of Statistics

Helps in providing a better understanding and

exact description of a phenomenon of nature.

Helps in proper and efficient planning of a

statistical inquiry in any field of study.

Helps in collecting and classifying an

appropriate set of quantitative data.

Helps in presenting complex data in a suitable

tabular, diagrammatic and graphic form for an

easy and clear comprehension of data.

pattern of variability of a phenomenon

through quantitative observations.

Helps in drawing valid inference, along

with a measure of their reliability about

the population parameters from the

sample data.

Helps in understanding statistical

techniques for the purpose of making

informed decisions that affect our lives

and well-being.

Statistics

is a branch of

mathematical science that deals with the

scientific collection, classification,

organization, description, analysis and

interpretation of data obtained from

surveys and experiments. It also deals

with prediction and forecasting based on

data.

1. Descriptive Statistics - used to describe

the basic features of the data in a study. It is

used to present quantitative descriptions in

a manageable form. It provides summaries

about the sample and measures and form

the basis of virtually every quantitative

analysis of data. This type includes the

Measures of Central Tendency and

Measures of Dispersion.

inferences or generalizations on a

population based upon a sample and

used to test hypothesis and evaluate

estimates. It is used to make judgments

or conclusions on the probability that an

observed difference between/among

groups is a dependable one or one that

might have happened by chance in a

study.

Inferential Statistics:

With descriptive statistics, one is simply

describing what is or what the data shows while

with inferential statistics one tries to reach

conclusions that extend beyond the immediate

data.

Descriptive statistics uses graphical

numerical descriptions to give a picture of a data

set while inferential statistics uses mathematical

probabilities to make generalizations about a

large group based on data collected from a small

sample of that group.

universe that can be reached by a

researcher. It includes all individuals

with certain specified characteristics

in a target community/locale or

setting. It is the group to which the

researcher would like the results of a

study to be generalizable.

portion of a population on

which information is

obtained, preferably selected

in a such a way that it

represents the population.

observations, and

information that come

from investigations

Types of Data:

1. Measurement data sometimes

called quantitative data the result of

using some instrument to measure

something (e.g. test score, weight).

2. Categorical data also referred to

as nominal or qualitative data

provide categories for sorting or

classifying objects or events on the

basis of some quality like major field

(Sociology, Psychology, etc.)

observations from most to least or least to most.

It includes the position of individuals finishing

a race (first, second, third, etc.); social class

position (upper, middle, lower) and any data

involving scales that organize observations in

terms of categories (ex. Very favorable,

favorable, neutral, unfavorable, very

unfavorable)

* The rule for assigning numerals to ordinal data

categories is based on ordering observations in

a descending or ascending order.

consist of equal intervals which indicate

that the distance of each interval is known.

Example of categories which show interval

data are: ruler (the distance between 1 inch

and 2 inches is exactly the same as the

distance between 7 and 8 inches), age,

number of years of formal education, weekly

earnings, etc.

or event that can take on

different values. For example,

college major is a variable that

takes on values like

mathematics, computer

science, English, psychology,

etc.

Types of Variable:

1. Continuous a variable that consists of an

infinite continuum of points and provides

exact measures of the amount of a

characteristic present, in theory, any value

between the lowest and highest points on the

measurement scale.

2. Discrete provides counts of the number of

observations appearing in a finite set of

categories (e.g. gender, (male/female), college

class (freshmen/sophomore/junior/senior),

etc.)

experimental or predictor variable that is

manipulated, measured or selected by the

researcher as an antecedent condition to an

observed behavior. In a hypothesized causeand-effect relationship, the independent

variable is the cause and the dependent

variable is the outcome or effect.

4. Dependent also referred to as criterion

variable that is not under the experimenters

control the data. It is the variable that is

observed and measured in response to the

independent variable.

not measured in a particular study

must be held constant,

neutralized/balanced or eliminated

so that these will not have a biased

effect on the other variables

environment which may have an effect

on the dependent variable/s but which

are not controlled. These variables may

damage a studys validity making it

impossible to know whether the effects

were caused by the independent

variable. If these can not be controlled,

these must be taken into consideration

when interpreting results.

7. Intervening processes that are not directly observable which like extraneous variables

can alter the results of research. In Language teaching for example, these are usually

inside the subjects heads including various language learning processes which the

researcher cannot observe. If teaching technique is the independent variable and mastery

of objectives is the dependent variable, then the language learning processes used by the

subjects are the intervening variables.

motivation, fatigue, boredom,

and any other factor that arises

during the course of the research

either on the part of the

researcher or the respondents

the independent and dependent variables by

modifying the effect of the intervening variable/s .

Unlike extraneous variables, moderator variables

are measured and taken into consideration.

Typical moderator variables in language

acquisition research, when these are not the focus

of the study, include, age, gender, culture or

language proficiency of the subjects

Descriptive Statistics

or Averages

A. When N is less than 30 (ungrouped data)

1. Median - called the counting median

- middlemost score of the distribution

of scores arranged from highest to

lowest when N is odd, the middle

most score is the counting median

- when N is even, the counting median

is the average of the two middlemost

scores.

Example:

Given: X

85

72

X

80 79

86

83 83

85

79 74 86

83

N=9

83

80 Md = 80

79

79

74

72

Given: X

59 53

40 54

48 44

40 40

N = 12

X

51

50

43

41

59

54

53

51

50

48

Md = 48 + 44

44

2

43

= 92

41

2

40

= 46

40

40

- called arithmetic average

- the average of the given

scores using the formula:

M = x

N

cases

N is the number of

M is the mean

Example:

Given: X

X

85 80

72 83

89 74

N=9

79

83

85

85

83

80

89

79

74

85

83

72

-----------M = x = 730 = 81.11

N

9

scores

- called rough mode

- the score with the greatest frequency in the

distribution

Example:

X

56

58

63

61

Mode = 58

62

60

55

58

--------N=8

Example:

X

98

90

92

90 Modes: 90, 98 (bi-modal distribution)

85

89

98

97

80

90

89

98___

N = 12

*Therefore, when N is less than 30, the measures of central tendency

are the counting median, arithmetic mean and rough mode by the

inspection method.

1. Median is the most stable measure of central tendency.

Formula: X = ll + i (N F) where: ll lower limit of class

2

interval where median

fm

falls

N half of the scores

2

F sum of all scores

below the lower limit

fm number of scores

within interval where

median falls

i class interval

Example:

Ungrouped scores in a 75-item test:

25 38 48 35 28 62 48 38 35

60 47 38 34 66 59 46 38 34

57 44 37 33 22 56 44 37 32

55 43 37 32 20 52 42 36 31

50 39 35 29 17 50 41 36 30

N = 50

a. Determine the Range (R)

R = Hs Ls

6617 = 49

b. Determine the class interval (i)

i=(R + 1) - 1

10

= (49 + 1) 1

10

= (50) - 1

10

= 51

= 4

27

23

21

19

18

Grouped scores:

Ci of scores

64 67

60 63

56 59

52 55

48 51

44 47

40- 43

(ll is 35.5) 36 39

32 35

28 31

24 27

1

2

3

2

4

4

3

10 (fm)

8 = 21(F)

4

2

20 23

16 19

4

3

______

N = 50

Given: N = 25

2

F = 21

fm = 10

ll = 35.5

i= 4

X = 35.5 + (25 21) 4

10

= 35.5 + .4 (4)

= 35.5 + 1.6

= 37.1 or 37 (Rating for this

score is 75%)

measure of central tendency.

There are several methods

used to find the mean when X

is greater than 30 but the

assumed mean (AM) method

is the most efficient and most

meaningful.

Formula:

M = AM + i (fd)

N

Ci of scores

64 67

60 63

56 59

52 55

48 51

44 47

40 - 43

(AM = 37.5) 36 39

32 35

28 31

24 27

20 23

16 19

fd

1

7

7

2

6

12

3

5

15

2

4

8

4

3

12

4

2

8

3

1

3 = 65

10

0

0

8

-1

-8

4

-2

-8

2

-3

-6

4

-4

-16

3

-5

-15 =-53

______

________

N = 50

fd = 12

M = AM + i (fd)

N

= 37.5 + 4 (12/50)

= 37.5 + 4(.24)

= 37.5 + .96

= 38.46

Pearson mode is used.

Formula:

Mo = 3Md - 2M

Example:

Using the same distribution for the Md and M:

Mo = 3Md - 2M

= 3 (37.1) - 2 (38.46)

= 111.3 76.92

= 34.38

* Therefore:

Md = 37.1

M = 38.46

Mo = 34.38

* The mode is the highest of the three if

the Md is larger than the M. It is the

lowest if the M is greater than the MD.

Measures of Spread/Variability/Dispersion

- Show the tendency of the scores to scatter or

disperse above or below the measures of

central tendency

1. Range (R) the distance between the highest

score and the lowest score. Preferred than the

standard deviation to represent dispersion of

small data sets (e.g. number of samples is less

than 10)

Formula:

R = Hs Ls

standard deviation. It represents the

average squared deviation from the mean.

It is seldom used.

Formula:

Example:

S2 = (d2/N) 2

Given:

SD= 3.67

S2 = (3.67)2

= 13.47

most accurate measure of variability. In

comparing two groups, the smaller is the

SD, the more homogonous is the group

while the higher is the SD, the more

heterogeneous is the group.

a. When N is less than 30

Formula:

SD = d2/N

Example:

X

d

23 (23-23)

0

22 (22-23)

-1

23

0

25

2

18

-5

30

7

18

-5

25

2

_______

M = 184/8

= 23

d2

0

1

0

4

25

49

25

4

___

SD = d2/N

= 108/8

= 13.5

= 3.67

______

d = 108

2

It is an average in which each

quantity to be averaged is

designated a weight that

determines the relative

importance of each quantity on

the average

Formula: X = fixi

fi where:

x = weighted mean

fi = f1, f2, f3, fj

= items/options given

frequencies corresponding

Validation

Research Instrument/Questionnaire a list of

standardized questions printed on a sheet of paper and

handed to the respondent who writes his/her responses

on the sheet itself. The questions may either be in the

Closed Form (structured/restricted) or in the Open

Form (unstructured/unrestricted). The questions in

the Closed Form permit only certain responses, while in

the Open Form allow the respondents to make any

responses as they wish, in their own words. Sometimes,

different response formats may be constructed in one

instrument. A mixture of two forms may be employed

depending on the objective of a particular question.

All aspects of the problem must be covered by the

questionnaire. Avoid questions which are not related

to the problem.

Make sure that the questions truly answer or measure

what is being investigated.

The questionnaire must be well-organized and within

the comprehension of those who will answer it.

The questions must be clearly and briefly worded.

The questionnaire should require a minimum amount

of writing only. Most of the questions should be briefly

answered with a checkmark or a fact or figure and the

number of questions requiring extensive subjective

replies be kept to a minimum.

a research instrument reliable,

acceptable, contextual and applicable

to the participants of the study. A

researcher-designed instrument may

be validated by conducting a dry-run

to determine its reliability and validity.

A standard instrument should be

validated in the context of the study.

Questionnaire/Instrument

Validation

Reliability is the extent to which

the test/questionnaire is dependable,

self-consistent and stable. The test

agrees with itself. It is concerned with

the consistency of responses; even if

the person takes the test twice, the

same results are obtained.

Reliability of a Questionnaire:

Test-Retest

Reliability

the

same

measuring instrument is administered twice to

the same group of subjects. The reliability of

scores in the first and second administrations

of the test is determined by the Spearman

rank

correlation

coefficient

or

Spearman rho.

questions in a test are consistent with

one another or not. An examinee either

passes or fails an item. One (1) is

assigned for a pass and zero (0) for a

failure.

The Kuder Richardson

Formula 20 is used.

Formula:

Compute the variance (S2) of the test scores of the

whole group.

Find the proportion passing each item (pi) and the

proportion failing each item (qi). For instance, 9 of the

10 students passed or got the correct answer in Item 1,

(p = 9/10 = 0.9); and only 1 student failed in Item 1, (q i

= 1/10 = 0.1)

Multiply pi and qi for each item i.e 0.9 x 0.1 = 0.09;

then take the sum of all the items. This gives piqi value

of equivalent.

Substitute the computed values using the formula

Student

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Total

X

4

5

5

7

12

14

17

18

19

20

121

(X-x)

-8.1

-7.1

-7.1

-5.1

0.1

1.9

4.9

5.9

6.9

7.9

S2 (X x)2

65.61

50.41

50.41

26.01

0.01

3.61

24.01

34.81

47.61

62.41

364.90

measures what it claims to measure. It is

vital for a test to be valid in order for the

results to be accurately applied and

interpreted. There are three types of

validity: content, criterion-related,

and construct. For criterion-related

validity and construct validity, the Pearson

r may be used while for content validity,

expert validation is usually sought.

test represent the entire range of

possible items the test should cover.

Individual test questions may be

drawn from a large pool of items that

cover a broad range of topics. Experts

rate each items relevance. Items that

are rated as strongly relevant by all the

experts are included in the final draft.

Correlational Procedures

Pearson Product Moment Correlation the

commonly used type of correlation which determines the

relationship between two or more variables.

The

correlation (r) ranges from -1.00 to +1.00. A correlation of

1.00, whether it is positive or negative, is a perfect

correlation. This means that as scores on one of two

variables increase or decrease, the scores on the other

variable also increase or decrease by the same magnitude.

A correlation of zero (0) means there is no relationship

between the two variables, i.e., when scores on one of the

variables go up, scores on the other variable may go up,

down or whatever. The Pearson r is also used to establish

the reliability and validity of a data-gathering instrument.

Formula:

N is the sample size

X is the individuals score on the X variable

Y is the individuals score on the Y variable

XY is the product of each X score times its corresponding Y

score

X2 is the individual X score squared

Y2 is the individual Y score squared

r from .00 to + .20 low, negligible relationship

r from +.20 to + .40

present but slight relationship

r from +.40 to +.70 marked substantial relationship

r from +.70 to + 1.00 high to very high relationship

Example:

N

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

X

(Math

Scores)

12

10

14

11

8

7

10

4

11

12

99

Y

(English

Scores)

16

12

8

13

10

6

19

6

13

19

122

X2

144

100

196

121

64

49

100

16

121

144

1055

Y2

256

144

64

169

100

36

361

36

169

361

1696

XY

192

120

112

143

80

42

190

24

143

228

1274

positive relationship between the students

performance in the tests of Mathematics and

English. Their scores in Mathematics

increase as their scores in English also

increase, or the other way around.

*How significant is the obtained r ?

Formula:

students performance in their

Mathematics and English tests is not

significant. One cannot determine

whether they perform better in

Mathematics or in English. Meaning,

they have more or less the same level of

performance in Mathematics and

English.

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