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Materials Science Lab - MECE3245

Instructor: Dr. Li Sun


Office: N232 Engineering Building 1
Phone: 713-743-4509
email: lsun4@uh.edu
Office Hour : By appointment

8 lab experiments
Cycle I

Age hardening
Creep
Tensile
Phase Diagram

Cycle II
Heat treatment
Fatigue
Charpy test
Recrystallization

Exam meet in D3 W122, lab in W249

Grading
8 labs 50pts = 400 points, including:
Pre-lab QA:
8 20 pts= 160 points
Lab performance:
8 10 pts= 80points
Lab report:
8 20 pts= 160 points
2 quizzes 400 pts = 800 points

Complete all 8 labs to get a grade


Please follow lab report policy
Lab rescheduling is generally not allowed

Preparation

Sign-up for the lab section.


Get your Materials Science textbook out (Calister)
Get familiar with the lab manual before each experiment
Read lab report format and requirement
Read syllabus

Textbook: Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, 9th edition,


William D. Callister, Jr., David Rethwisch, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 2013.

Session 1
Lab Monday, Wednesday 4:30-7pm
Group 1
Albarracin, Juan C

Group 2

Chavez,Jose M

Monconduit,Monica

Diaz, Carlos

Sandoval,Johnathan K

De Leon,John R

Rendon Boscan,Javier A

Soto Salinas,Bryan L
Zikar, Zainab

Group 3

Group 4

Session 2
Lab Tuesday, Thursday 9-12pm
Group 5
Amaya,Marlo O.

Group 6
Haggblom,Alex H

Mendez,Jose

Baguley,Jonathan G

Henry,Chad Alan

Montiel,Paula A

Curiel,Fernando S

Huffman,Garrett T

Thomas,Sara

Jaramillo,Vanessa

Yeung,Tsz To

Dalwadi,Pratik H

Group 7

Group 8

Session 3
Lab Tuesday , Thursday 1:00 -4:00 pm
Group 9
Group 10
Armstrong,Bradley K Moreno,Daniel

Group 11
Group 12
Ramirez Jr,John A

Garcia,Javier

Nguyen,Minh

Hernandez,Alan

Pedraza,Cesar

Tabsch Herbas,
Adnan A
Tong,Luis

Maknojia,Vasim Z

Quintanilla,Ricardo E

Tran,Don Hoang

May,Casey

Tabsch Herbas,Hany D

Valdez,Carlos A

Session 4
Lab Tuesday , Thursday 4:30 -7:00 pm
Group 13

Group 14

Austria,Anthony C.

Brookhim,Esth
er

Dadeks,Richard M.

Murphy,John D.

Ehtesham,Tooba

Yingst,Tyler K.

Moreno,Julio C

Group 15

Group 16

Lab Cycle 1
06/06/16- 06/17/16
Group 1,5,9,13

Group 2, 6, 10,14

Group 3,7,11

June 6 (Mo)

Age hardening

Creep

Tensile

June 7 (Tu)

Age hardening

Creep
Creep

Tensile

June 8 (We)

Creep

Tensile

Phase Diagram

June 9 (Th)

Creep

Tensile
Tensile

Phase Diagram

June 13 (Mo)

Tensile

Phase Diagram

Age hardening

June 14 (Tu)

Tensile

Phase
Diagram
PhaseDiagram

Age hardening

June 15 (We)

Phase Diagram

Age hardening

Creep

June 16 (Th)

Phase Diagram

Age
hardening
Agehardening

Creep

Four Lab Reports Due 5pm, June 17 (Friday)

Lab Cycle 2
06/20/15- 07/01/16
Group 1,5,9,13

Group 2, 6, 10,14

Group 3,7

June 20

Heat treatment

Fatigue

Charpy test

June 21

Heat treatment

Fatigue
Fatigue

Charpy test

June 22

Fatigue

Charpy test

Recrystallization

June 23

Fatigue

Recrystallization

June 27

Charpy test

Charpy test
Charpytest
Recrystallization

June 28

Charpy test

Recrystallization

Heat treatment

June 29

Recrystallization

Recrystallization
Heat
treatment

Fatigue

June 30

Recrystallization

Heat treatment

Fatigue

Heat treatment

Heattreatment

Four Lab Reports Due 5pm, July 1

Exams
Exam 1: 2-4 pm, June 20th 2016
Exam 2: 2-4 pm, July 4th 2016
D3 W122
Or Exam 2 : 2-4 pm, July 9th 2016

Safety is our Priority


Safety Procedures in the Lab
The following basic procedures must be followed at all times in the lab. Preparing for
these requirements is as important as preparing for the lab itself.
Eye Protection:
Wear eye protection at all times in the lab. Exercise particular care when engaged in
any operation involving elevated temperature, chemicals, moving hardware, ex.
(quenching, polishing, heat treatments, melting, fatigue, charpy).
The students performing the operation, as well as those watching from a close distance
must adhere to this.
Heat treatment:
Clear working area, ex. for quenching, etc. prior to assembling the students. Do not
allow the group to be confined to a restricted region. That is, move chairs away from the
furnace area.
Insist that observers stand comfortably away from the activity.
Clothing:
If a student is not wearing shoes which cover the feet, get someone else to do the
quenching,etc.
All neck ties must be removed for the lab.
Loose clothing or long hair which might be tangled in equipment must be removed or
secured

Stress-Strain Test (Tensile Test)

gauge

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Stress-strain Curve and Sample Deformation

Fracture
Separation of a sample into two or more pieces in response to an imposed stress.
Fracture is one type of failure takes place at temperature much lower than
melting temperature.
Based on materials ductility, three types of fracture surfaces

III
II

I
0

Highly ductile

Ductile: warning
before fracture

Moderate ductile

Brittle

Brittle: No
warning

Moderately Ductile Failure


Evolution to failure:
necking

void
nucleation

void growth
and linkage

shearing
at surface

fracture

Binary Isomorphous Phase Diagram


Component: 2 (Cu and Ni)
Binary systems

Thermodynamic variables: T and C (P


= usually constant at 1 atm)
Phase: 2 (L and )
Complete solid solution
Isomorphous binary phase diagram

Phase field: 3
L
+L (mixture)

Boundary between phase field


Liquidus line
Solidus line

Binary Eutectic Phase Diagram


Component: 2
Binary systems

Eutectic
Lower melting at specific composition of solid
mixture
Eutectic point at TE: and CE

Phase: 3 (L, , and )


Limited solubility in S
a: mostly A
b: mostly B

Phase field: 6
Single phase: L, , and
Mixture: +L, +L, +

Boundary between phase field


Liquidus line
Solidus line
Solvus line
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Solidification of Eutectic Alloy


Hypoeutectic & Hypereutectic

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Generalized Creep Behavior

T1

Stain versus time

T2

T3

Tensile test
Instantaneous measurement

T3 > T2 > T1

At lower temperature T<0.4Tm, the strain


is instantaneous thus independent of time
and stress.
At higher temperatures, strain in
materials are temperature and stress
dependent.

Typical Creep Curve

Creep rate :

d
dt

Primary creep

decreases

Secondary creep

constant

Strain hardening and recovery

Tertiary creep

increases

Defects generation and propagating

Strain hardening

Rupture Time Determination


When creep exists, the biggest concern is to
know the rupture time, so we can control the
design life to be shorter than the rupture time.

Larson-Miller parameter.

T(20+log tf) (Kh)

L-M parameter = T(C+ log tf )


C is a constant and normally have the value of
20 if use Kelvin for T and hours tf

After determining the L-M parameter versus


log plot, the creep rupture time at certain
stress level under specific temperature can be
estimated.
Log (MPa)

Example of Rupture Time Determination


Question: Determine the time of rupture
of a component subjected to a stress of
140MPa at 800oC.
Solution: L-M parameter at 140MPa
is about 24,000 Kh
2.4 104 = (800+273)(20+log tf )
20 + log tf = 22.37

Larson-Miller data for S590 iron

tf = 233 hours

Strengthening Mechanisms
Deformation
Elastic deformation
Plastic deformation
By slip related to dislocation movement

Strengthening
Impede dislocation movement (more difficult plastic deformation)
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Strengthening Mechanisms
5 strengthening mechanisms
Grain size reduction
Sold-solution strengthening
Strain hardening
Dispersion hardening (age hardening or
precipitate hardening)
Martensite hardening

Grain size reduction


Grain boundary interaction with dislocation
Grain size interaction frequency
strength
Hall-Petch equation

yield o k y d 1 / 2
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Strengthening Mechanisms
Solid-solution strengthening
Lattice strain interaction with dislocation
Partially cancel strain around dislocation
dislocation mobility
Solid-solution strengthening in copper as
a function of nickel content
CNi y and TS

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Strengthening Mechanisms
Strain hardening
Tangled and increased
dislocation density: increased
interaction between dislocations
(usually repulsive)
CW y and TS but %EL

Strengthening Mechanisms
Dispersion hardening (age hardening or precipitate
hardening)
Particle interaction with dislocations
Higher density dispersed particle

Martensite hardening

Age-Hardening: Introduction
Age hardening
One of strengthening mechanisms
By finely dispersed second phase
in the matrix

Procedures
Solution treatment
At a high temperature

Quenching
For supersaturated solute

Ageing: annealing (heat treatment)


at room or elevated temperatures
For second phase precipitation

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Charpy, Recrystallization, Fatigue, Heat treatment

Fatigue

Fatigue
A form of failure
Failure under applied cyclic stress
Stress condition: dynamic and fluctuating (time-dependent stress)
Temperature: relatively low

Why important
Failure could occur at stress level considerably lower than TS or YS
for a static load (max < y)
Occurs catastrophically (suddenly and no warning)
~90% of metallic failures
Polymers and ceramics also susceptible
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Stress Conditions in Fatigue

Applying cyclic stress conditions


Tensile (+) compressive (-)
Reversed stress cycle
Repeated stress cycle

(S)

Fatigue Test

Typical fatigue test


Simulating service
stress conditions
Uniaxial tensioncompression test
Rotating-bending test

S-N curve
S: stress amplitude
N: # of cycle to failure

S -N Curve I
Lower with increasing N but no failure if S lower
than certain value
Ferrous and Ti alloys
S becomes constant after certain N
Fatigue limit
Failure will not occur below the S
Usually 35-60% of TS for steels

Continuously lower S with increasing N


Non-ferrous alloys (Al, Cu, Mg, etc.)
No fatigue limit
Fatigue strength
Stress level at winch failure occurs for specified # of cycles

Fatigue life
# of cycles to cause failure at specified stress level

Types of stress condition affecting fatigue behavior


Elastic and plastic deformation
Smaller N for failure (N<104-105 cycles)
Low-cycle fatigue

Elastic deformation only


Larger N for failure (N>104-105 cycles)
High-cycle fatigue
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S-N Curve II

S-N curves are statistical by nature


P: probability of failure
At S=30 kpsi
1% failure at 106 cycles
50% failure at 2107 cycles

Fracture Toughness I

More on fracture mechanics


m >> 0 due to stress
concentrator, Kt (crack, flaw,
etc.)
Crack propagates if m >
critical stress (c)
c more resistance to
crack propagation (fracture
toughness )

a
m 2o
t

1/ 2

2E s
c

a
E = modulus of elasticity
gs = specific surface energy
replaced by gs+gp (plastic
deformation energy)

K t o
1/ 2

Fracture Toughness Test


Fracture toughness
Materials resistance to brittle fracture
Kc = Y a
Crack growth when
K Kc
Plane strain fracture toughness
KIc = Y a
Mode I

Mode II

Mode III

a
m 2o
t

1/ 2

2E s
c

a
E = modulus of elasticity
gs = specific surface energy
replaced by gs+gp (plastic
deformation energy)

K t o
1/ 2

Plane Strain Fracture Toughness


Plane strain
fracture
toughness
KIc = Y a

Mode I

Impact Fracture Testing


Fracture toughness test
Plane strain fracture test
Impact energy test (notch toughness)

Impact fracture tests


Normal tensile test (low loading rates):
Not good enough for evaluation of fracture behavior under impact

Chosen to represent conditions of


High strain (loading) rate (high rate of deformation)
Deformation at low temperatures
Triaxial stress state (the presence of a notch)

Standardized tests
Charpy test
Izod test

Loading Rate Effect

Increased loading rate


y and TS
%EL
More like brittle behavior

Mechanism
Dislocation movement vs
crack propagation
Less time for dislocations
to move past in response
to loading

Temperature Effect

Ductile-to-brittle
transition
temperature (DBTT)
Transition
temperature from
ductile to brittle w/
T

Service temperature
should be higher
than DBTT

Brittle

Ductile

Charpy Test
Impact test
Impact loading
V-notch in the sample
Charpy V-notch (CVN) technique
Impact loading by weighted
pendulum hammer
h: initial height
h': final height after impact
h-h': energy absorbed (measure of
impact energy (absorbed))
Impact energies are relative
Not easy to compare different
materials
For DTBT determination

Ductile-to-Brittle Transition I
T impact energy
Rather sudden change in some
materials
Charpy test as function of T

Failure surface appearance


Ductile fracture: fibrous or dull
Brittle fracture: granular (shiny)
texture or cleavage character

shiny

dull

Ductile-to-Brittle Transition II

DBTT in steels
Alloy compositions
Microstructures
C strength &
DBTT

DBTT in many
ceramics
Very high DBTT
~1000 C
Brittle in RT
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Strain Hardening

Metals
High strength
High ductility
Strain hardening

Strain hardening
Increase in with by
plastic deformation
Additional safe factor in
structure
More difficult in forming

Strain Hardening Mechanism


Strain hardening
Dislocation density & tangles
dislocation movement
Increased interaction between
dislocations (usually
repulsive)

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Cold Working
Forming
Cold work: deformation at room temperature
%CW

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Impact of Cold Working I


CW y and TS but %EL

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Impact of Cold Working II

What are the values of yield


strength, tensile strength &
ductility after cold working Cu?

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Heat Treatment After Cold Working

Cold working
Harder and more
brittle

Annealing
Going back to
before cold working
Steps
Recovery
Recrystallization
Grain growth
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Recovery
Dislocation
density
Annihilation of
some
dislocations
No nucleation of
new grains
Internal strain energy is relieved by virtue of dislocation motion, as a result of enhanced
atomic diffusion at the elevated temperature.

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Recrystallization
Formation of new grains
No/low dislocation densities
Grain size small
Consume and replace parent cold-worked grains
Restoring to condition prior to cold working with small grains

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Grain Growth
Increase in grain size after recrystallization
Small grains shrink (and ultimately disappear)
Large grains continue to grow

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Structure and Property Change during Heat Treatment


Heat treatment
Recrystallization: f(t, T)
t (time) change at constant T: t more
recrystallization
T (temperature) change at constant t: T faster
recrystallization

Recrystallization temperature, TR
Temperature at which recrystallization just
reaches completion in 1 h

0.3Tm < TR < 0.6Tm


%CW TR
Promoted recrystallization

Alloy %X TR
Slower recrystallization

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Recrystallization Temperature
Recrystallization temperature, TR
Temperature at which recrystallization just reaches
completion in 1 h

0.3Tm < TR < 0.6Tm


%CW TR
Promoted recrystallization

Alloy %X TR
Slower recrystallization

Recrystallization mechanism
New grain nucleation and growth
Growth by grain boundary movement
Atomic movement (diffusion) across grain boundaries

Effect of temperature
Promoted diffusion at high T

Effect of impurities
Impurity atoms preferentially segregate at and interact with
the new grain boundaries: recrystallization rate and
recrystallization temperature
0.3Tm (pure metals) to
0.7Tm (commercial alloys)

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