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Power converters

AC/DC Converters

UET--Lahore

UET

the operation of single phase circuits.

Therefore, single phase circuit will be

discussed first.

The emphasis will be on physical

understanding and not on the detailed

analysis which will follow later.

Consider a simple half wave rectifier circuit

with resistive load as shown in the following

circuit diagram.

Half--Wave Rectifier

Half

Inductive Load

Resistive Load

The load voltage is nearly same

as the source voltage during

positive half cycle.

The current is also sinusoidal

during positive half cycle.

During negative half cycle, the

diode is reverse biased the

current is zero and the voltage

is also zero.

The current and the voltage

waveforms are shown is the

diagram.

keep on flowing even if the source

voltage is negative.

This is due to the stored energy in the

inductor, when the source voltage

reverses its polarity, the inductor

becomes a source and the polariyty of

this source is so that it will keep the

current flowing in the same direction.

When the stored energy is release the

diode current will reduced to zero and

the diode is reverse biased.

During a part of the negative cycle, the

load voltage will follow the source

voltage as shown in the diagram.

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Inductive Load with Freewheeling Diode

The addition of diode D2 permits

the load current to be continuous

and prevents vL from going

negative.

When D1 is off, D2 allows the

energy in the circuit to maintain

continuity by providing a path

through which the inductor current

can free wheel.

Diode D2 is known as free-wheel

diode, by-pass, fly-back, catch

diode or commutation diode.

very large approaching infinity,

the load current will become

constant without any

fluctuations.

The Green line shows vs, Black

is the load voltage, blue is the

load current and yellow is the

source current.

It can be observed that the

source current is unidirectional

step waveform.

1- Bridge Rectifier

1- Bridge Rectifier

components, however, the total source current for

the full-bridge circuit does not contain any DC

components.

The reason is that the source current in the bridge

is sum of the two source currents, which have DC

components of equal magnitude but of opposite

polarity.

As the load is highly inductive, the load current iL

is constant.

During positive half cycle, iL is supplied by D1

and D4, therefore, is = iL.

During negative half cycle, iL is supplied by D2

and D3, therefore, is = - iL.

Therefore the source current will have a square

wave shape with zero DC component.

DC component.

For same AC source voltage,

the full wave rectifier produces

an average output voltage

twice that of the half-wave

circuit with free-wheeling

diode.

The half-wave rectifier with

free wheeling diode serves as

the basic building block for the

bridge circuit and in this

context the circuit is

sometimes called a halfbridge.

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Consider that a Single Phase Bridge rectifier is connected to the mains supply an it draws a

non-sinusoidal current from the mains.

Vmean

Vmean

2V

s

(1)

4I L

n For n=1,3,5

Pav Vmean I L

(2)

(3)

2

8Vrms

2

R

Pav

I rms

(8)

(11)

I1rms

I rms

I1

4I

L

2

2

pf

I1rms

(9)

(12)

Therefore

Therefore

2

8Vrms

2R

1 2

I L d t

0

8V 2

4 I L 4 2 Vs

8V

rms2

R 2R

R

Pav

10

I1 8Vrms

2

2 R

(7)

Analysis of 1- Converter

We also know that in case of non-sinusoidal mains current, only the fundamental

component of current contributes towards average power.

I1rms

(6)

Vs 2Vrms

Since

I1

(5)

2

2V 2V

4V

s s 2s

R R

(4)

V

2V

I L mean s

R

R

Since the AC current is a simple square wave, it has the well known spectrum of odd

harmonics with amplitude inversely proportional to the order.

In

1

Vs sin tdt

0

pf

(10)

Note that the results obtained in equations (7) and (10) is same

11

4I L 1

4

0 .9

2 I L 2

(13)

The current waveform is non-sinusoidal. The power factor is 0.9 due to waveform

distortion.

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Poly--Phase Rectifiers

Poly

3-Pulse Rectifiers

Phases are displaced by 120 degrees from each other.

The output assumes the value of the highest input at any instant in time.

Therefore there will be three pulses in the output voltage waveform.

The output ripple frequency is therefore 150 Hz.

In practice, the polypoly-phase AC sources are displaced symmetrically in

phase, however, this condition is not necessary for the basic operation of the

circuit below.

13

14

3-Pulse Rectifiers

3-Pulse Rectifiers

inductance approaches infinity, the load current

becomes constant.

This circuit is known as 33-phase, halfhalf-wave, 33-pulse

rectifier.

15

current waveforms w.r.t

w.r.t..

voltages are shown.

It can be seen that the circuit

draws unidirectional current

from the sources.

Therefore, this circuit is not

used in practice for high power

outputs.

In practice, a fullfull-wave circuit

is used.

The fullfull-wave circuit draws AC

current from the sources.

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using three diodes and a three phase

transformer are shown.

The secondary winding of the power

transformer is Y-connected using the

common N point as the negative of the

load point.

The output is has three pulses per cycle

with a pulse width of 2/3 radians.

Note that the pulses do not touch the zero

level.

The peak of the output DC is nearly the

peak value of the AC.

The minimum DC voltage is

Vmsin(2/6)=Vm / 2

(14)

Vav

3 3

Vm

2

(15)

V sin d

2

V

Vr ( P P ) Vm Vm sin m

Vrms

2

6 2

(16)

Vr ( rms )

2 / 3 / 6 m

17

5 / 6

Vav

Vr ( p p )

2 2

V

2

Vrms rms

4

2 2 2

(17)

For phase voltage of 230 Volts, the rms ripple is 57.5 Volts @150Hz.

18

constructed by connecting twotwo-half wave

converters in series.

The six pulses in the output are obtained

by using two, 33-pulse converters

connected in series.

Two sets of three pulses, displaced by 60O

if added, results 66-pulses per cycle.

19

from two 3-pulse converters is

shown with input and output

voltage waveforms.

The average value of the voltage

at positive terminal of load w.r.t.

common point is vav1.

And the average voltage at

negative terminal of the load w.r.t.

common point is vav2.

The average voltage across the

load can be calculated by adding

the two 3-phase half-wave

voltages.

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21

VL VL1 VL 2

(18)

Vr ( rms )

3 3

3

Vav

V ph Vline

22

Vr ( rms )

(17)

3 3

Vav 2

Vm

2

converter using a delta-star transformer

is shown with output load voltage

waveform.

It can be seen that the output have six

pulse per cycle.

Therefore, the ripple will have a

frequency of 300Hz.

The ripple is small compared to 3-pulse

converter.

Vr ( p p )

(23)

2 2

1 0.866

2

Vrms 0.166Vrms

(24)

Vr ( rms ) 26.8V

(25)

(19)

As there are six pulses per cycle, the frequency of the ripple is 300 Hz.

The ripple in the output voltage can be calculated by calculating the voltage at crosspoints of the output waveform

(20)

V

0.866V

o

line ( 60 )

line ( pk )

(21)

Vr ( p p ) 1 0.866 3 2Vrms

(22)

23

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Currents Waveforms

If we perform the Fourier analysis of the line current waveform, the following

equation represents the nth harmonic of the current waveform.

In

4I d

n

n

sin

cos

n

2

6

(26)

For n=1,2,3,4.

Practical circuit of

6-puse converter with

Phase Voltage, Line Voltage,

and phase current and line

current waveforms

25

12--pulse Converter

12

sin term in equation (26) indicates that the even harmonics are zero.

cos term indicates that the 3rd and its multiple (triplen) harmonics are

zero.

However, all other odd harmonics are present in the spectrum.

The distortion factor will be more closer to 1 as compared to square

wave.

The distortion factor can be improved by increasing the number of

steps in the current wave and making is more closer to sinusoidal

wave.

This technique to improve the quality of current waveform is known as

26

Selective Harmonic Cancellation Technique.

12

The 12-step converter can be realised

by using two 6-step converters.

The 3-phase input to these converters is

displaced by 30 degrees using dual

secondary windings one is delta

connected and the other is star

connected.

The outputs of the 6-step converters can

be connected in series to the load to get

the 12-step output across the load.

If the load is highly inductive the load

current will be nearly constant and the

input line current will have step sine

waveform as shown in the diagram.

It can be seen that the waveform is

much closer to sine wave.

27

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12--pulse Converter

12

connected in parallel, however, there will be an

instantaneous voltage difference due to the ripple on

each converter output which prevents direct connection.

The differential ripple voltage can be accounted for by a

center--tapped iron cored inductor.

center

The DC current in the inductor produces equal and

opposite mmfs in each half but the AC voltage is divided

across the inductance and causes some AC circulating

current .

This Device is known as an Inter

Inter--phase Reactor

Reactor and

has to be carefully designed to satisfy both AC and DC

29

conditions.

30

utilization and increase current capability.

In parallel connection total number of diode in

series are less resulting less drop, therefore

suitable for low voltage high current loads

The cost is higher due to the requirement of interinter phase reactor.

In Railway traction applications, the series

connection is used for 1500 volts DC systems.

The parallel connection is preferred for 750V DC

systems.

31

24--pusle Converter

24

Introduction

24connecting 4 bridges in series and displacing the

inputs by 15o.

The advantage is clear that the current

waveform is very close to sine wave.

The mains power utilization is very good with

distortion factor nearly unity.

However, the cost will be high due to the use of

large number of power diodes.

32

2/21/2016

Thank you

For your attention

33

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