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2

KNOWN: Temperature and velocity of engine oil. Temperature and length of flat plate.

FIND: (a) Velocity and thermal boundary layer thickness at trailing edge, (b) Heat flux and surface

shear stress at trailing edge, (c) Total drag force and heat transfer per unit plate width, and (d) Plot the

boundary layer thickness and local values of the shear stress, convection coefficient, and heat flux as a

function of x for 0 x 1 m.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Critical Reynolds number is 5 105, (2) Flow over top and bottom surfaces.

PROPERTIES: Table A.5, Engine Oil (Tf = 333 K): = 864 kg/m3, = 86.1 10-6 m2/s, k = 0.140

W/mK, Pr = 1081.

ANALYSIS: (a) Calculate the Reynolds number to determine nature of the flow,

u L

0.1m s 1m

ReL = =

= 1161

86.1106 m 2 s

Hence the flow is laminar at x = L, from Eqs. 7.19 and 7.24, and

1/ 2 = 5 1m 1161 1/ 2 = 0.147 m

= 5L ReL

( )( )

1/ 3

t = Pr 1/ 3 = 0.147 m (1081)

= 0.0143m

<

<

(b) The local convection coefficient, Eq. 7.23, and heat flux at x = L are

hL =

k

2 Pr1/ 3 = 0.140 W m K 0.332 1161 1/ 2 1081 1/ 3 = 16.25 W m 2 K

0.332 Re1/

( ) ( )

L

L

1m

$

<

u2

864 kg m3

s,L = 0.664 ReL1/ 2 =

(0.1m s )2 0.664 (1161)1/ 2

<

(c) With the drag force per unit width given by D = 2L s,L where the factor of 2 is included to account

for both sides of the plate, it follows that

1/ 2

2

1/ 2

= (1m ) 864 kg m3 (0.1m s ) / 2 1.328 (1161)

D = 2L u

2 1.328 Re L

2

= 0.337 N m

For laminar flow, the average value h L over the distance 0 to L is twice the local value, hL,

h L = 2h L = 32.5 W m 2 K

The total heat transfer rate per unit width of the plate is

$

q = 2Lh L ( Ts T ) = 2 (1m ) 32.5 W m 2 K ( 20 100 ) C = 5200 W m

<

<

Continued...

(c) Using IHT with the foregoing equations, the boundary layer thickness, and local values of the

convection coefficient and heat flux were calculated and plotted as a function of x.

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

BL thickness, deltax * 10 (mm)

Convection coefficient, hx * 100 (N/m^2)

Heat flux, - q''x (W/m^2)

COMMENTS: (1) Note that since Pr >> 1, >> t. That is, for the high Prandtl liquids, the velocity

boundary layer will be much thicker than the thermal boundary layer.

(2) A copy of the IHT Workspace used to generate the above plot is shown below.

// Boundary layer thickness, delta

delta = 5 * x * Rex ^-0.5

delta_mm = delta * 1000

delta_plot = delta_mm * 10

// Scaling parameter for convenience in plotting

// Convection coefficient and heat flux, q''x

q''x = hx * (Ts - Tinf)

Nux = 0.332 * Rex^0.5 * Pr^(1/3)

Nux = hx * x / k

hx_plot = 100 * hx

// Scaling parameter for convenience in plotting

q''x_plot = ( -1 ) * q''x

// Scaling parameter for convenience in plotting

// Reynolds number

Rex = uinf * x / nu

// Properties Tool: Engine oil

// Engine Oil property functions : From Table A.5

// Units: T(K)

rho = rho_T("Engine Oil",Tf)

// Density, kg/m^3

cp = cp_T("Engine Oil",Tf)

// Specific heat, J/kgK

nu = nu_T("Engine Oil",Tf)

// Kinematic viscosity, m^2/s

k = k_T("Engine Oil",Tf)

// Thermal conductivity, W/mK

Pr = Pr_T("Engine Oil",Tf)

// Prandtl number

// Assigned variables

Tf = (Ts + Tinf) / 2

Tinf = 100 + 273

Ts = 20 + 273

uinf = 0.1

x=1

// Film temperature, K

// Freestream temperature, K

// Surface temperature, K

// Freestream velocity, m/s

// Plate length, m

PROBLEM 7.18

2

KNOWN: Square solar panel with an area of 0.09 m has solar-to-electrical power conversion

efficiency of 12%, solar absorptivity of 0.85, and emissivity of 0.90. Panel experiences a 4 m/s

2

breeze with an air temperature of 25C and solar insolation of 700 W/m .

FIND: Estimate the temperature of the solar panel for: (a) The operating condition (on)

described above when the panel is producing power, and (b) The off condition when the solar

array is inoperative. Will the panel temperature increase, remain the same or decrease, all other

conditions remaining the same?

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) The backside of the panel experiences no heat

transfer, (3) Sky irradiation is negligible, and (4) Wind is in parallel, fully turbulent flow over the

panel.

-6

PROPERTIES: Table A-4, Air (Assume Tf = 300 K, 1 atm): = 15.89 10 m /s, k = 0.0263

W/mK, Pr = 0.707.

ANALYSIS: (a) Perform an energy balance on the panel as represented in the schematic above

considering convection, absorbed insolation, emission and generated electrical power.

E in E out + E gen = 0

q cv + SGS Ts4 As Pelec = 0

(1)

q cv = h L As ( Ts T )

Pelec = eSGSAs

(2,3)

Nu L = hL / k = 0.037 Re4L/ 5 Pr1/ 3

4/5

(0.707 )1/ 3

h L = 23.0 W / m 2 K

Substituting numerical values in Eq. (1) using Eqs. (2 and 3) and dividing through by As, find Ts.

Continued ..

23 W / m 2 K (Ts 298 ) K + 0.85 700 W / m 2 0.90 5.67 108 W / m 2 K 4 Ts4

0.12 0.85 700 W / m 2 = 0

Ts = 302.2 K = 29.2C

(4)

<

(b) If the solar array becomes inoperable (off) for reason of wire bond failures or the electrical

circuit to the battery is opened, the Pelec term in the energy balance of Eq. (1) is zero. Using Eq.

(4) with e = 0, find

Ts = 31.7C

<

COMMENTS: (1) Note how the electrical power Pelec is represented by the E gen term in the

energy balance. Recall from Section 1.2 that E gen is associated with conversion from some form

of energy to thermal energy. Hence, the solar-to-electrical power conversion (Pelec) will have a

negative sign in Eq. (1).

(2) It follows that when the solar array is on, a fraction (e) of the absorbed solar power (thermal

energy) is converted to electrical energy. As such, the array surface temperature will be higher in

the off condition than in the on condition.

(3) Note that the assumed value for Tf at which to evaluate the properties was reasonable.

PROBLEM 7.26

KNOWN: Velocity, initial temperature, and dimensions of aluminum strip on a production line.

Velocity and temperature of air in counter flow over top surface of strip.

FIND: (a) Differential equation governing temperature distribution along the strip and expression for

outlet temperature, (b) Value of outlet temperature for prescribed conditions.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Negligible variation of sheet temperature across its thickness, (2) Negligible

effect of conduction along length (x) of sheet, (3) Negligible radiation, (4) Turbulent flow over entire

top surface, (5) Negligible effect of sheet velocity on boundary layer development, (6) Negligible heat

transfer from bottom surface and sides, (7) Constant properties.

PROPERTIES: Table A-1, Aluminum, 2024-T6 ( TAL 500K ) : = 2770 kg / m3 , c p = 983 J / kg K,

k=186 W/mK. Table A-4, Air ( p = 1atm, Tf 400K ) : = 26.4 106 m 2 / s, k = 0.0338 W / m K,

Pr = 0.69

ANALYSIS: (a) Applying conservation of energy to a stationary control surface, through which the

sheet moves, steady-state conditions exist and E in E out = 0. Hence, with inflow due to advection

and outflow due to advection and convection,

V A cc p (T + dT ) V Ac cpT dq = 0

+ V W cp dT h x ( dx W ) ( T T ) = 0

dT

hx

=+

(T T )

V cp

dx

(1)

<

Alternatively, if the control surface is fixed to the sheet, conditions are transient and the energy

balance is of the form, E out = E st , or

h x ( dx W )( T T ) = ( dx W ) cp

dT

dt

dT

hx

=

(T T )

cp

dt

Dividing the left- and right-hand sides of the equation by dx/dt and dx/dt = - V, respectively, equation

(1) is obtained. The equation may be integrated from x = 0 to x = L to obtain

Ti

To

dT

L

1 L

h x dx

=

T T V c p L 0

Continued ..

where h x = ( k / x ) 0.0296 Re 4x / 5 Pr1/ 3 and the bracketed term on the right-hand side of the equation

reduces to hL = ( k / L ) 0.037 Re 4L / 5 Pr1/ 3 .

Hence,

T T

L hL

ln i =

To T V cp

To T

L hL

= exp

V cp

Ti T

<

0.0338 W / m K

6 4 / 5 0.69 1/ 3 = 40.5 W / m 2 K

hL =

0.037

3.79

10

( )

5m

= 213C

2770 kg / m3 0.1m / s 0.002m 983 J / kg K

5m 40.5 W / m 2 K

<

COMMENTS: (1) With To = 213C, TAl = 530K and Tf = 411K are close to values used to

determine the material properties, and iteration is not needed. (2) For a representative emissivity of

= 0.2 and Tsur = T , the maximum value of the radiation coefficient is

h r = ( Ti

2

+ Tsur ) Ti2 + Tsur

is appropriate.

) = 4.1 W / m

PROBLEM 7.45

KNOWN: Pin fin of 10 mm diameter dissipates 30 W by forced convection in cross-flow of air with

ReD = 4000.

FIND: Fin heat rate if diameter is doubled while all conditions remain the same.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Pin behaves as infinitely long fin, (2) Conditions of flow, as well as base and

air temperatures, remain the same for both situations, (3) Negligible radiation heat transfer.

ANALYSIS: For an infinitely long pin fin, the fin heat rate is

q f = q conv = hPkAc

)1/2 b

q conv ~ h D D2

1/2

For forced convection cross-flow over a cylinder, an appropriate correlation for estimating the

dependence of h on the diameter is

Nu D =

m

hD

1/3 = C VD Pr1/3 .

= CRe m

Pr

D

k

h~D1 ( D)

0.466

It follows that

= D0.534 .

q conv ~ D0.534 D D2

1/2

= D1.23.

1.23

D

q 2 = q1 2

D1

1.23

20

= 30 W

10

= 70.4 W.

<

COMMENTS: The effect of doubling the diameter, with all other conditions remaining the same, is

to increase the fin heat rate by a factor of 2.35. The effect is nearly linear, with enhancements due to

the increase in surface and cross-sectional areas (D

-0.267

1.5

). Note that, with increasing Reynolds number, the exponent m

increases and there is greater heat transfer enhancement due to increasing the diameter.

Ignore everything after the average nusselt number expression in the book's solution.

Instead, either of the two following methods are correct.

Correct Method #1

For ReD1 = 4000, From Table 7.2, C1 = .193, m1 = .618

For ReD2 = 8000, From Table 7.2, C2 = .193, m2 = .618

qconv1 = qconv2 ~(D-1D.618DD2)1/2 = D1.309

qconv2 =qconv1 (D2/D1)1.309 = 30W (20/10)1.309 = 74.3 W

Correct Method #2

For ReD1 = 4000, From Table 7.2, C1 = .683, m1 = .466

hoverbar1~D1-1C1D1.466 = .683D1-.534

qconv1 ~ (.683D1-.534D1D12)1/2 = .826D11.23

For D2 = 2D1, ReD2 = 2ReD1 = 8000, now from Table 7.2 C, C2 = .193, m2 = .618

hoverbar2~D2-1C2D2.618 = .193D2-.382

qconv1 ~ (.193D2-.382D2D22)1/2 = .439D21.309

qconv2/qconv1 = ( .439D21.309) /(.826D11.23 ) = (.439(201.309))/(.862(101.23) = 1.51

qconv2 = 30 W (1.51) = 45.4 W

PROBLEM 8.12

KNOWN: Internal flow with constant surface heat flux, q s .

FIND: (a) Qualitative temperature distributions, T(x), under developing and fully-developed flow,

(b) Exit mean temperature for both situations.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (a) Steady-state conditions, (b) Constant properties, (c) Incompressible flow.

ANALYSIS: Based upon the analysis leading to Eq. 8.40, note for the case of constant surface

heat flux conditions,

dTm

= constant.

dx

Hence, regardless of whether the hydrodynamic or thermal boundary layer is fully developed, it

follows that

Tm ( x )

Tm,2

is linear and

will be the same for all flow conditions.

<

The surface heat flux can also be written, using Eq. 8.28, as

qs = h Ts( x ) T m ( x ) .

Under fully-developed flow and thermal conditions, h = hfd is a constant. When flow is developing h

> hfd. Hence, the temperature distributions appear as below.

<

PROBLEM 8.18

KNOWN: Laminar, slug flow in a circular tube with uniform surface heat flux.

FIND: Temperature distribution and Nusselt number.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady, incompressible flow, (2) Constant properties, (3) Fully developed,

laminar flow, (4) Uniform surface heat flux.

ANALYSIS: With v = 0 for fully developed flow and T/x = dTm/dx = const, from Eqs. 8.33 and

8.40, the energy equation, Eq. 8.48, reduces to

uo

d Tm T

=

r

.

dx

r r r

u d Tm r 2

T (r ) = o

+ C1 ln ( r ) + C2.

dx

u d Tm ro2

u d Tm

C2 = Ts o

T ( r ) = Ts o

dx

dx

(ro2 r2 ).

<

Tm =

Tm =

2

ro2

ro

0

Tr dr =

2

ro2

ro

0

u o d Tm

Tsr 4 dx

2

r 2 u d Tm

Ts o o

2 4 dx

ro2

( rro2 r3 ) dr

r4 r4

u r 2 d Tm

o o = Ts o o

.

2

4

8

dx

T

k

ro

qs

h=

= r

Ts Tm

Ts Tm

hence,

u r

k o o

2

h=

u oro2

8

d Tm

dx

4k 8k

=

=

ro D

d Tm

dx

Nu D =

hD

= 8.

k

<

PROBLEM 8.24

KNOWN: Inlet temperature and flowrate of oil moving through a tube of prescribed diameter and

surface temperature.

FIND: (a) Oil outlet temperature Tm,o for two tube lengths, 5 m and 100 m, and log mean and arithmetic

mean temperature differences, (b) Effect of L on Tm,o and Nu D .

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Negligible kinetic energy, potential energy and flow

work changes, (3) Constant properties.

PROPERTIES: Table A.4, Oil (330 K): cp = 2035 J/kgK, = 0.0836 Ns/m2, k = 0.141 W/mK, Pr =

1205.

ANALYSIS: (a) Using Eqs. 8.42b and 8.6

DL

Tm,o = Ts Ts Tm,i exp

h

mc

p

4m

4 0.5 kg s

ReD =

=

= 304.6

D 0.025 m 0.0836 N s m 2

4

0.0688 ( D L ) Re D Pr 0.141W m K

k

3.66 + 2.45 10 D L

h=

3.66 +

=

2/3

2/3

D

0.025 m

1 + 205 ( D L )

1 + 0.04 ( D L ) ReD Pr

0.025 m 5 m 119 W m 2 K

= 28.4$ C

Tm,o = 100 C 75 C exp

0.5 kg s 2035 J kg K

<

<

Tm,o = 44.9C.

Also, for L = 5 m,

T"m =

For L = 100 m,

To Ti

"n ( To Ti )

71.6 75

"n ( 71.6 75 )

T"m = 64.5$ C ,

= 73.3$ C

Tam = ( To + Ti ) 2 = 73.3$ C

Tam = 65.1$ C

<

<

(b) The effect of tube length on the outlet temperature and Nusselt number was determined by using the

Correlations and Properties Toolpads of IHT.

Continued...

50

25

45

20

Nusselt number, NuDbar

40

35

30

25

15

10

20

40

60

80

100

20

40

60

80

100

The outlet temperature approaches the surface temperature with increasing L, but even for L = 100 m,

Tm,o is well below Ts. Although Nu D decays with increasing L, it is still well above the fully developed

value of NuD,fd = 3.66.

COMMENTS: (1) The average, mean temperature, Tm = 330 K, was significantly overestimated in

part (a). The accuracy may be improved by evaluating the properties at a lower temperature. (2) Use of

Tam instead of T"m is reasonable for small to moderate values of (Tm,i - Tm,o). For large values of

PROBLEM 8.69

KNOWN: Flow conditions associated with water passing through a pipe and air flowing over the pipe.

FIND: (a) Differential equation which determines the variation of the mixed-mean temperature of the

water, (b) Heat transfer per unit length of pipe at the inlet and outlet temperature of the water.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Negligible temperature drop across the pipe wall, (2) Negligible radiation

exchange between outer surface of insulation and surroundings, (3) Fully developed flow throughout

pipe, (4) Negligible potential and kinetic energy and flow work effects.

-6

PROPERTIES: Table A-6, Water (Tm,i = 200C): cp,w = 4500 J/kgK, w = 134 10

-6

W/mK, Pra = 0.71, Prs 0.7.

Ns/m ,

m /s, ka = 0.023

ANALYSIS: (a) Following the development of Section 8.3.1 and applying an energy balance to a

differential element in the water, we obtain

& c p,w Tm dq m

& c p,w ( Tm + dTm ) = 0.

m

Hence

dq = m

where

dq = UidAi ( Tm T ) = U i D dx ( Tm T ) .

d Tm

U D

= i

( Tm T ) .

& cp

dx

m

(1)

<

The overall heat transfer coefficient based on the inside surface area may be evaluated from Eq. 3.30

which, for the present conditions, reduces to

Ui =

1

.

1 D D + 2t

D

1

+

ln

+

h i 2k D D + 2t h o

(2)

Re D =

&

4m

4 2 kg/s

=

= 19,004.

D w (1 m ) 134 10 6 kg/s m

Continued ..

Hence, the flow is turbulent. With the assumption of fully developed conditions, it follows from Eq.

8.60 that

k

0.3.

h i = w 0.023 Re 4/5

Prw

(3)

D

D

For the external air flow

Re D =

V ( D+2t )

4 m/s (1.3m )

12.6 106 m 2 / s

= 4.13 105.

ho =

ka

1/4

0.076 Re0.7

Pra0.37 ( Pra / P rs ) .

D

( D + 2t )

(4)

(b) The heat transfer per unit length of pipe at the inlet is

q = D Ui Tm,i T .

(5)

hi =

0.665 W/m K

0.023 (19,004 ) 4 / 5 ( 0.91)0.3 = 39.4 W/m 2 K

1m

ho =

0.7

0.023 W/m K

0.076 4.13 105

( 0.71)0.37 (1)1 / 4 = 10.1 W/m2 K.

(1.3 m )

1

1

1m

1

1.3 1

Ui =

+

ln +

= 0.37 W/m 2 K

q = (1 m ) 0.37 W/m 2 K

<

Since Ui is a constant, independent of x, Eq. (1) may be integrated from x = 0 to x = L. The result is

analogous to Eq. 8.42b and may be expressed as

DL

1m 500m

= exp

Ui = exp

0.37 W/m 2 K

m

T Tm,i

2 kg/s 4500 J/kg K

& c p,w

T Tm,o

Hence

= 0.937.

T Tm,i

T Tm,o

<

COMMENTS: The largest contribution to the denominator on the right-hand side of Eq. (2) is made

by the conduction term (the insulation provides 96% of the total resistance to heat transfer). For this

reason the assumption of fully developed conditions throughout the pipe has a negligible effect on the

calculations. Since the reduction in Tm is small (13C), little error is incurred by evaluating all

properties of water at Tm,i.

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