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Chapter 5 Under Imperial Spain

I.

During renaissance, a change happened opening of the world of SHIPPING


2 Iberian superpowers: Spain and Portugal
Initially made by Portuguese (southeastern route), secondly followed by the
Spaniards (southwestern)

EAST MEETS WEST


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II.

THE LUSITANIAN-HISPANIC RIVALRY IN MARITIME


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III.

Henry The Navigator established first navigation school at Sagres


point
Portuguese dreamed of reaching east by all-water route
Spaniards like Christopher Columbus voyage misapprehended a
dispute between Portugeuse and Spaniards
Pope Alexander VI mediated and made the Inter-caetera and Eximiae
Devotionis
Spain was given more rights (West)
Portuguese (East route)
Treaty of Tordesillas veritable gain to Portuguese, divided nonChristian world into 2 (370 leagues)

THE MAGELLAN EXPEDITION


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IV.

Making food or palatable triggered the search for spices


Fernand Braudel commented that almost everything depended on it
Merchants became wealthier and became important to the society
There was a dynamic interaction of cultures

Ferdinand Magellan a Portuguese serving the Spanish royalty


His suggestion of reaching the Maluku (Spice Islands) was rejected by
his king in Portugal
Ruy Faleiro urged him to ally with Spain
He convince Spanish King, Charles V with his plan and sailed directly to
Maluku
At the same expedition, he discovered Philippines
He was killed because of his intervention in Lapu-Lapu and Zulas
dispute
Victoria was the name of his voyage

MALUKU AND THE PHILIPPINES


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3 Spanish Expeditions succeeded Magellans: SAAVEDRA, VILLALOBOS,


and LEGAZPI
Legazpis was most successful
Zihuatanejo Saavedras voyage
The Spaniards of the voyage reported hat Mindanao was rich in
resources like gold and women were beautiful and fair-skinned
Saavedra never returned to Mexico

V.

TREATY OF ZARAGOZA
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VI.

VILLALOBOS EXPEDITION
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VII.

4 ships, 350 men


Reached Cebu and made blood compact with Katunaw and Gala
Made Cebu the first Spanish town in the Archipelago
Urdaneta Passage- by Andres de Urdaneta contributed by this voyage to
the future route of Manila-Acapulco trade

THE MAKING OF SPANISH INDIO


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IX.

6 ships, 370 men


First corn plant in Philippine soil
They were at Sarangani where food available is limited
Forced to leave, Villalobos surrendered to Portuguese at Maluklu
The contribution of the expedition as naming the country
Las Phelipinas (after Philip II) by BERNARDO de la TORRE

LEGAZPI-URDANETA
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VIII.

King Charles V ceded his right of the Maluku to John III of Portugal for
350,000 ducats
A line of demarcation was drawn at 297 leagues

Miguel Lopez de legazpi was granted by King Philipp II the title of


Adelantado de Filipinas
It was the bloodless conquest of Philippines
Filipino society was split up and divided into many barangay units
therefore making it impossible to put up an effective armed resistance
the prepared conquistadores
There was a pacification of Indios

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS
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The Philippines had been a Captaincy0General administered by the


Spanish king
National level: Manila, INTRAMUROS where King, Consejo de las Indias,
gobernador y capitan-general
Gobernador-general was commander-in-chief of army and navy and
president of Supreme Court (Real Audiencia); source of civil power

Provincial Level, alcaldia (previously encomienda)


Alcalde mayor (provincial governor)
Corregimientos unpacified military zones

X.

Ayuntamiento or CITY GIOVERNMENT was later formed

THE RESIDENCIA

XI.

Residencia became the judicial review of residenciado (1 judged) and


was conducted through publicly though a juez de residencia

Visita was conducted by a visitador-general from Spain

THE FILIPINO BUREAUCRATS


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XII.

On Municipal level, was the supervision of a gobernadorcillo


To be in position you must be a 25 year old mestizo had been a cabeza
de barangay for 4 years
He is to prepare pardon (tribute list), communal public work, quinto
(military conscription), and etc.
Gobernadorcillos were assisted by 3 supernumeraries or inspectors
Barrio government rested on cabeza de barangay whose role is to
collect taxes and contributions

THE AMALGATION (COMBINATION) OF CHURCH AND STATE


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Revolucionarios pointed oput the catholic instituons meddling on the


state
Malolos Constitution innovated the speartaion of Church adn Satte
Doroteo Cortes first to open anti-firar demonstration
Marcelo del Pilar stressed out the Philippine situation in that time as la
soberania monocal (monastic