Chapter 5
Magnetic Circuits
Exit
2001 by N. Mohan
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TOC
52
Magnetic Field
Magnetic field, H, produced by current carrying conductor
K
Amperes Law
dl
closed path
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2001 by N. Mohan
H dA
i3
i1
i2
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53
H in a Toroid
i
rm
ID
OD
ID
OD
1 ID + OD
Mean radius, rm =
2
2
lm = 2 rm
Ni
Ni
Ampere's Law H m =
=
2 rm lm
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2001 by N. Mohan
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54
Flux Density B
J
7
4
10
In air B = o H , o
Ferromagnetic materials
henries
m
Bm
Bm
Bsat
m
o
Hm
N
N
N
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2001 by N. Mohan
Hm
Linear approximation Bm = m H m
Bsat ~ 1.6  1.8 Tesla
In saturation m approaches o
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55
Am
m = Bm Am
m
Ni
Bm = m H m and H m =
Am
Ni
Ni
F
m = Am m
=
=
A
m
m Am
A
m m
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Am
m Am
Reluctance
m =
Flux Linkage
m = Nm
MMF
2001 by N. Mohan
F = Ni
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56
Am +
Bg
Ag = N i
m = g =
Ag
= Am Bm = Ag Bg
Bm =
m (
Am
Am
Ag
2001 by N. Mohan
Ag
+
)= N i
Am m Ag o
m =
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Bg =
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TOC
57
Inductance
m
Am
m = Lm i
N
lm
Hm
( m )
Bm
( Am )
N2
Lm =
lm
m Am
(N )
N2
N2
Lm =
= m Am N =
=
i lm
lm
A
m m
m N
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Energy density
2001 by N. Mohan
W
1
=
w=
Bm2
volume 2 m
1
1
W = Li 2 =
Bm2 Amlm
N
2
2 m
volume
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58
Induced voltage
J
i (t )
+
e(t ) N
Exit
(t )
2001 by N. Mohan
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59
Given
(t ), i (t )
e(t )
i (t )
( t ) = sin t
e (t ) = N
d
= N cos t
dt
+
e(t ) N
d(t)
& e(t) = N
dt
L=
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(t )
2001 by N. Mohan
e(t ) = L
di (t )
dt
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510
i
+
i
+
e
m
i
e (t )
+ l
+
+
Ll
e(t )
em (t )
Lm
= N = N
N m + N A
N
= m + A
i (t )
Lself = Lm + LA
= Lself i = Lm i + LA i
m
R
+
v(t )
Ll
i (t )
+ el (t )
+
em (t )
e(t )
di
di
di
e = Lm + LA
= em + LA
dt N
dt
dt
N
em
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2001 by N. Mohan
eA
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TOC
511
Transformers
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2001 by N. Mohan
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512
Transformers  Development
Single coil
Assuming zero resistance and zero
leakage inductance
J
e1 = N1
+
e1
N1
d m
dt
m determined completely by
applied voltage: m = N e1 d
1
im depends on Lm
e1
Two coils
d m
dt
e (t )
N
1
= 1
e2 (t )
N2
e2 (t ) = N 2
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2001 by N. Mohan
& e1 (t ) = N1
d m
dt
im
Lm
+
e1
N1
N2
+
e2
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513
Transformer Model
+
im
e1
Lm
e2
J
J
Exit
2001 by N. Mohan
N1 N 2
Ideal
Transformer
Dot polarity
Magnetizing inductance
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514
m determined by e1 alone
hence i2 in secondary induces
+
e1
N1
i2 N 2
=
i2 N1
i1 (t ) = i2 '(t ) + im (t )
relflected
load
current
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2001 by N. Mohan
magnetizing
current
N2
i2 (t )
+
e2
i1 (t )
i1 (t )
i2 (t )
i2 '(t )
im
e1
Lm
e2
N1 N 2
Ideal
Transformer
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515
Real Transformers
J
i1 (t )
J
J
Add leakages
+
Core loss
v1
 hysteresis
 eddy currents
Winding resistances
R1
i2 '(t )
Ll1
+
e1
Rhe
Ll2
R2
i2 (t )
im
Lm
e2
v2
TOC
N1 N 2
Ideal
Transformer
Real
Transformer
m
circulating
currents
circulating
currents
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2001 by N. Mohan
Audio
516
R1
v1
e1
Real
Transformer
Exit
i2 '(t )
Ll1
Rhe
R2
Ll2
i2 (t )
im
Lm
e2
v2
N1 N 2
Ideal
Transformer
2001 by N. Mohan
Audio
TOC
517
Poc
2001 by N. Mohan
To find Lm
Rhe jX m =
Exit
I oc
2
Voc
=
Voc
jX m
Rhe
Voc
I oc
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518
1P
R2 = SC
2
2 I SC
N
R1 = R2 1
N2
E1
E2
N1
I SC
+
VSC
N2
VSC
I SC
2
R2
I SC
N2
2001 by N. Mohan
jX l 2
jX l1
2R2 + j2 X l 2 =
Exit
R1
N
jX l1 2 + jX l 2
N1
N
R1 2 + R2
N1
+
VSC
N1
N2
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519
Permanent Magnets
J
J
J
B
Sm
Co
0.8
0.6
Alnico
Ferrite

1000

800

500
H m ( kA / m )
0.4

200
Exit
2001 by N. Mohan
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520
Summary
What is the role of magnetic circuits? Why are magnetic
materials with very high permeabilities desirable? What
is the permeability of air? What is the typical range of
the relative permeabilities of ferromagnetic materials like
iron?
J Why can "leakage" be ignored in electric circuits but not
in magnetic circuits?
J What is Ampere's Law and what quantity is usually
calculated by using it?
J What is the definition of the mmf F?
J What is meant by "magnetic saturation"?
J What is the relationship between and B?
J How can magnetic reluctance be calculated? What
field quantity is calculated by dividing the mmf F by
the reluctance ?
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TOC
A
2001 by N. Mohan
J
521
Summary
In magnetic circuits with an air gap, what usually dominates
the total reluctance in the flux path: the air gap or the rest
of the magnetic structure?
J What is the meaning of the flux linkage of a coil?
J Which law allows us to calculate the induced emf?
What is the relationship between the induced voltage and the
flux linkage?
J How is the polarity of the induced emf established?
J Assuming sinusoidal variations with time at a frequency f,
how are the rms value of the induced emf, the peak of the
flux linking a coil, and the frequency of variation f related?
J How does the inductance L of a coil relate Faraday's Law
to Ampere's Law?
J In a linear magnetic structure, define the inductance of a
coil in terms of its geometry.
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A B
2001 by N. Mohan
J
522
Summary
J
J
J
J
Exit
2001 by N. Mohan
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