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5-1

Chapter 5
Magnetic Circuits

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2001 by N. Mohan

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5-2

Magnetic Field
Magnetic field, H, produced by current carrying conductor
K

Amperes Law

dl

closed path

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2001 by N. Mohan

H dA

i3

i1
i2

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5-3

H in a Toroid
i
rm

ID

OD

ID
OD

1 ID + OD
Mean radius, rm =

2
2

lm = 2 rm
Ni
Ni
Ampere's Law H m =
=
2 rm lm
Exit

2001 by N. Mohan

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5-4

Flux Density B
J

Units:Weber / meter 2 [Wb / m 2 ] or Tesla [T ]


J

7
4
10

In air B = o H , o

Ferro-magnetic materials

henries
m

Bm

Bm

Bsat

m
o
Hm

N
N
N
Exit

2001 by N. Mohan

Hm

Linear approximation Bm = m H m
Bsat ~ 1.6 - 1.8 Tesla
In saturation m approaches o
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5-5

Flux, Flux Linkage, and MMF


Flux fm [Wb]
[assuming uniform flux density]
J

Am

m = Bm Am
m

Ni
Bm = m H m and H m =
Am

Ni
Ni
F
m = Am m
=
=

A
m

m Am
A
m m

Exit

Am
m Am

Reluctance

m =

Flux Linkage

m = Nm

MMF

2001 by N. Mohan

F = Ni
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5-6

Magnetic Structures with Air Gaps


Hm Am + H g A g = N i
Bm = m H m , Bg = o H g
Bm

Am +

Bg

Ag = N i

m = g =
Ag

= Am Bm = Ag Bg

Bm =

m (

Am

Am

Ag

2001 by N. Mohan

Ag

+
)= N i
Am m Ag o



m =
Exit

Bg =

To account for fringing Ag = ( w + A g )(d + A g )


= m + g

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5-7

Inductance
m

Am

m = Lm i

N

lm

Hm

( m )

Bm

( Am )

N2
Lm =
lm

m Am

(N )

N2
N2
Lm =
= m Am N =
=
i lm
lm
A
m m

m N

For linear magnetic conditions inductance depends only on magnetic circuit

Energy stored in magnetic circuits


J
J

Exit

Energy density

2001 by N. Mohan

W
1
=
w=
Bm2
volume 2 m

1
1
W = Li 2 =
Bm2 Amlm
N
2
2 m
volume

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5-8

Faradays Law - Induced Voltage


d
d
=N
e=
dt
dt

Induced voltage
J

Current direction is into positive polarity


voltage flux direction

i (t )
+
e(t ) N

Lenzs law: Polarity of induced voltage


J
N

Exit

(t )

2001 by N. Mohan

When current and flux directions are consistent (a current


as indicated would create a flux as indicated), then the
voltage should be labeled positive where the current enters
the coil.

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5-9

Coil in Sinusoidal Steady-State


Induced voltage under sinusoidal steady-state
K

Given

(t ), i (t )

e(t )

i (t )

( t ) = sin t
e (t ) = N

d
= N cos t
dt

+
e(t ) N

Relating e(t ), (t ), and i (t )


N
i
i
N
i (t ) = (t )
L

d(t)
& e(t) = N

dt
L=

Exit

(t )

2001 by N. Mohan

e(t ) = L

di (t )
dt

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5-10

Leakage and Magnetizing Inductances


m

i
+

i
+
e

m
i

e (t )
+ l
+
+
Ll

e(t )

em (t )

Lm

= N = N
N m + N A
N

= m + A

i (t )

Lself = Lm + LA

= Lself i = Lm i + LA i

m
R
+
v(t )

Ll

i (t )

+ el (t )
+
em (t )
e(t )

di
di
di
e = Lm + LA
= em + LA
dt N
dt
dt
N
em

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2001 by N. Mohan

eA

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5-11

Transformers

Exit

Tightly coupled coils (low leakage inductance)


J

Essential for power transmission and distribution


J

Helpful in understanding induction machines

2001 by N. Mohan

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5-12

Transformers - Development
Single coil
Assuming zero resistance and zero
leakage inductance
J

e1 = N1

+
e1

N1

d m
dt

m determined completely by

applied voltage: m = N e1 d
1
im depends on Lm

e1

Two coils

d m
dt
e (t )
N
1
= 1
e2 (t )
N2

e2 (t ) = N 2

Exit

2001 by N. Mohan

& e1 (t ) = N1

d m
dt

im
Lm

+
e1

N1
N2
+
e2

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5-13

Transformer Model
+

im

e1

Lm

e2

J
J

Exit

2001 by N. Mohan

N1 N 2


Ideal
Transformer

Dot polarity
Magnetizing inductance

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5-14

Transformer with Secondary Loaded


J

m determined by e1 alone
hence i2 in secondary induces

+
e1

N1

i2 N 2
=
i2 N1

i1 (t ) = i2 '(t ) + im (t )



relflected
load
current

Exit

2001 by N. Mohan

magnetizing
current

N2

i2 (t )
+
e2

i2 ' in the primary such that


N1 i2 = N 2 i2

i1 (t )

i1 (t )

i2 (t )

i2 '(t )

im

e1

Lm

e2

N1 N 2


Ideal
Transformer

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5-15

Real Transformers
J

i1 (t )

J
J

Add leakages
+
Core loss
v1
- hysteresis

- eddy currents
Winding resistances

R1

i2 '(t )

Ll1
+

e1

Rhe

Ll2

R2

i2 (t )

im

Lm

e2

v2

TOC

N1 N 2


Ideal
Transformer

Real
Transformer

Laminations to reduce eddy current loss


i

m
circulating
currents

circulating
currents

Exit

2001 by N. Mohan

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5-16

Determining Transformer Model Parameters


i1 (t )

R1

v1

e1

Real
Transformer

Exit

i2 '(t )

Ll1
Rhe

R2

Ll2

i2 (t )

im

Lm

e2

v2

N1 N 2


Ideal
Transformer

Open circuit test


N Core loss, Rhe
N Magnetizing inductance, Lm
J Short circuit test
N Winding resistance, R1 , R2
N Leakage inductance, Ll1 , Ll 2

2001 by N. Mohan

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5-17

Open Circuit Test


J
J
J

Secondary unloaded (open circuit)


Rated voltage applied to primary
Measure
N To find Rhe
Rhe

Poc

2001 by N. Mohan

To find Lm
Rhe jX m =

Exit

I oc

2
Voc
=

Voc

jX m

Rhe

Voc
I oc

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5-18

Short Circuit Test


J
J

One winding shortened


small voltage applied to other winding
Measure VSC , and I SC , and PSC
N To find R1 and R2
I1

1P
R2 = SC
2
2 I SC

N
R1 = R2 1
N2

E1

E2

N1

I SC

+
VSC

N2

VSC
I SC
2

R2

I SC

To find Ll1 and Ll 2


N1
X l1 = X l 2

N2

2001 by N. Mohan

jX l 2

jX l1

2R2 + j2 X l 2 =

Exit

R1

N
jX l1 2 + jX l 2
N1

N
R1 2 + R2
N1

+
VSC

N1

N2

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5-19

Permanent Magnets
J
J
J

Typically used in smaller motors


Applicable power range increasing due to new materials
In simplest analysis, treated simply as a source of magnetic
flux
Bm ( T )
1.4
1.2
1.0
e
-F
Nd

-B
Sm

Co

0.8
0.6

Alnico
Ferrite

|
1000

|
800

|
500
H m ( kA / m )

0.4

|
200

Figure 5-20 Characteristics of various permanent magnet materials.

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2001 by N. Mohan

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5-20

Summary
What is the role of magnetic circuits? Why are magnetic
materials with very high permeabilities desirable? What
is the permeability of air? What is the typical range of
the relative permeabilities of ferromagnetic materials like
iron?
J Why can "leakage" be ignored in electric circuits but not
in magnetic circuits?
J What is Ampere's Law and what quantity is usually
calculated by using it?
J What is the definition of the mmf F?
J What is meant by "magnetic saturation"?
J What is the relationship between and B?
J How can magnetic reluctance be calculated? What
field quantity is calculated by dividing the mmf F by
the reluctance ?
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A
2001 by N. Mohan
J

5-21

Summary
In magnetic circuits with an air gap, what usually dominates
the total reluctance in the flux path: the air gap or the rest
of the magnetic structure?
J What is the meaning of the flux linkage of a coil?
J Which law allows us to calculate the induced emf?
What is the relationship between the induced voltage and the
flux linkage?
J How is the polarity of the induced emf established?
J Assuming sinusoidal variations with time at a frequency f,
how are the rms value of the induced emf, the peak of the
flux linking a coil, and the frequency of variation f related?
J How does the inductance L of a coil relate Faraday's Law
to Ampere's Law?
J In a linear magnetic structure, define the inductance of a
coil in terms of its geometry.
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A B
2001 by N. Mohan
J

5-22

Summary
J

J
J

J
Exit

What is leakage inductance? How can the voltage drop


across it be represented separate from the emf induced by
the main flux in the magnetic core?
In linear magnetic structures, how is energy storage defined?
In magnetic structures with air gaps, where is energy mainly
stored?
What is the meaning of "mutual inductance"?
What is the role of transformers? How is an ideal
transformer defined? What parasitic elements must be
included in the model of an ideal transformer for it to
represent a real transformer?
What are the advantages of using permanent magnets?

2001 by N. Mohan

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