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K. S.

RANGASAMY
COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

OBSERVATION CUM
RECORD NOTE BOOK

MH1253 MACHINE DYNAMICS LAB


DAPARTMENT OF MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING (NBA
Accredited)

K.S.RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY


TIRUCHENGODE 637 209

RECORD NOTE BOOK


Register Number:

Certified that this is the bonafide record of work done by Selvan /


Selvi ---------------------------------- of the Fourth Semester Mechatronics
Engineering branch during the year 2007 - 08 in the MACHINE DYNAMICS
Laboratory.

Staff in charge

Head of the Department


Submitted for the university Practical
Examinations on -------------------------

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

MH1253

MACHINE DYNAMICS LAB

003100

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Governments determinationosensitivity,effort,etc.forwatt,porter,proell,Hartnell
Governors.
2.

Cam study of jump phenomenon and drawing profile of the cam.

3. Motorised Gyroscope-Verification of laws- Determination of gyroscopic couple.


4. Whirling of shaft-Determination of critical speed of shaft with concentrated loads.
5. Balancing of reciprocating masses.
6. Balancing of rotating masses.
7. Determination of moment of inertia by oscillation method for connecting rod and
Flywheel.
8. Vibrating system-spring mass system-Determination of damping co-efficient of single
degree of freedom system.
9. Determination of influence co- efficient for multidegree freedom suspension system.
10. Determine of transmissibility ratio - vibrating table.
11. Determination of torsional frequencies for compound pendulum and flywheel system
With lumped moment of inertia.
12. Transverse vibration free Beam. Determination of natural frequency and deflection of
beam.
LIST OF EQUIPMENT
(For a batch of 30 students)
1. Cam analyzer.
2. Motorized gyroscope.
3. Governor apparatus Watt, Porter, Proell and Hartnell governors.
4. Whirling of shaft apparatus.
5. Dynamic balancing machine.
6. Static and dynamic balancing machine.
7. Vibrating table
8. Vibration test facilities apparatus

TOTAL: 45

MH1253-MACHINE DYNAMICS LAB


IV-SEMESTER BE-MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING
CYCLES
CYCLE1
1. Watt governor.
2. Porter governor.
3. Prowl governor.
4. Cam-study of jump phenomenon and drawing profile of the cam.
5. Motorized Gyroscope.
6. Whirling of shaft.
7. Balancing of reciprocating masses.
CYCLE II
8. Balancing of rotating masses.
9. Connecting rod and flywheel setup.
10. Spring mass system.
11. Multidegree freedom suspension system.
12. Vibrating table.
13. Compound pendulum.
14. Free-Beam setup.

CONTENTS

S.NO
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13..
14.

Date

Name of the Experiment


Watt governor
Porter governor
Proell governor
Motorized Gyroscope.
Compound pendulum.
Cam-study of jump phenomenon
and drawing profile of the cam
Connecting rod and flywheel setup
Whirling of shaft
Spring mass system
Vibrating table
Balancing of rotating masses.
Balancing of reciprocating masses
Multi degree of freedom suspension
system.
Free-Beam setup

Page No Marks
1
11
20
29
37
41
49
56
60
65
73
79
83
87

Sign

Expt.No:1
Date
:
WATT GOVERNOR APPARATUS
AIM:
To determine the sensitiveness, governor effort, governor power and draw the characteristic
curve of
1. Speed against sleeve displacement
2. Force vs. Radius of rotation.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Watt governor
2. Tachometer (Contact type)
3. Weights 5nos (Each 0.5 Kg)
4. Auto transformer
INTRODUCTION&DESCRIPTION
The function is to regulate the speed of an engine when there are variations in the load.
This equipment is designed & developed to enable the students to study the characteristics of
watt Governor by fixing the mechanisms properly to the spindle shaft. Characteristic curves of
the watt Governor can be drawn.Dimmer stat is used to control the speed. A counter hole over
the spindle shaft.. A graduated scale is fixed to the bracket and guided in vertical direction to
measure the lift.
SPECIFICATIONS:
1. Base Frame to mount the motor, shaft, bearing block & scale.
2. Shaft is fixed in the bearing block.
3. Electric motor: DC Motor, Capacity- hp, 1500rpm speed, single phase, 230 V AC.
4. Watt Governor Assembly.
5. Dimmerstat 2 Amp., DC Type- for controlling the speed, fitted, in a panel box with ON/OFF
switch.

FORMULA USED
i. F=m 2r
ii. Sensitiveness = 2(N2 N1)/(N2+N1)
iii. Governor effort P = c(m+M)g in N
Where c = N2-N1/n1
Iv.Governor Power = P x X in N-mm
F

-Centrifugal Force In Newtons

-Mass applied on sleeve in Kg

-Angular Velocity in rps

-Mass of the ball in Kg (700 gms)

-Acceleration due to gravity in m/s2

-Radius of rotation in m

-Sleeve displacement in mm

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
The Governor mechanism is fitted to the spindle shaft firmly. Ensure that the nut & bolts of
all the moving parts and of the spindle shaft are properly tightened. Then following simple
procedure is to be followed.
1. Keep the knob of the Dimmer stat in zero position before switching on the main supply.
2. Switch on the main supply and gradually go on increasing the speed of motor. Due to this the
center sleeve rises from the lower stop aligning with the marking on the scale. This is initial
lift of the sleeve.
3. Note down the reading of the sleeve position and speed for this initial lift. Speed of the motor
is to be measured by hand tachometer, from the counter hole provided on the spindle.
4. Then increase the speed in steps to give suitable sleeve displacement and the corresponding
speed. All the reading are to be entered in a tabular observation table.
5. After completing the experiment bring the knob of the Dimmer stat to its original position i.e.
Zero slowly and gradually. Then switch off the main supply.
6. Then the results may be plotted as graph.
2

OBSERVATION & CALCULATIONS


DIMENSIONS:
a) Length of each link- L

= 125mm.

b) Initial height of Governor- ho

= 94mm

c) Initial radius of rotation ro

= 136mm

d) Weight of each ball W

= 700 gms

Radius of rotation r at any position could be found as follows


1. Find height h

= [ho - X/2] mm

2. Find using

=Cos 1 (h/L)

3. Then r

= 50 + L sin mm

4. Force F

=w/g 2r

5.

= 2 N/60 rad/sec

TABULATION - 1
S.No Speed
Sleeve
in RPM Disp.
mm
N

Height In Radius of Force


mm
rotation
F
mm
newtons
h

1
2
3
4
5
6
3

Angular Angular
speed of position
balls
of balls.

MODEL CALCULATION

MODEL CALCULATION

MODEL CALCULATION

1. Explain the function of Governor?


2. What is the principle of inertia governors?
3. What is equilibrium speed?
4. Explain controlling force?
5. Explain the governor effort?
6. Define power of a governor?
7. Explain sensitiveness of governors?
8. What is meant by hunting?
9. Explain the term stability of the governor?
10. Explain isochronism.
11. Differentiate governor and flywheel.
12. What is the working principle of centrifuypel governor?
13. Give the example for centrifugal forever.
14. Give the example for spring loded governor.
15. Define stability.
16. What is unity?
17. What are all the factors are ascertained the quality of the governor.
18. What is controlling force diagram?
19. List out the terminologies of governor.
20. The height of a watt governor is expressed as___________.
21. Sensitivity of the governor is expressed as____________________.
23. What is the effect of friction at the sleeve on the performance of a governor?
7

TABULATION - 2

S.No

Speed in rpm
N

Sensitiveness

Governor effort
N

Governor power
N-mm

1
2
3
4
5

GRAPH
Speed in X-Axis vs. Sleeve Displacement in Y-Axis
Force in X-Axis Vs Radius of Rotation in Y-Axis
RESULT
The sensitiveness, governor effort, governor power are calculated.
The centrifugal force increases with increasing sleeve displacement.
Force Vs Radius of Rotation & Speed against sleeve displacement curves are plotted.

10

Expt.No:2
Date
:

PORTER GOVERNOR APPARATUS


AIM:
To determine the sensitiveness, governor effort, governor power and draw the
characteristics curves of
1. Speed against sleeve position.
2. Force against radius of rotation.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Porter governor
2. Tachometer
3. Weights 5nos (each 0.5 kg)
4. Auto transformer
INTRODUCTIONANDDESCRIPTION:
This equipment is designed and developed to enable the students to study the characters
of porter Governor by fixing the mechanisms properly to the spindle shaft. Characteristic curves
of the porter Governor can be drawn.
1. Determination of characteristics curves of sleeve against sleeve position.
2. Plotting of characteristics curve of force against radius of rotation.
The drive unit consists of a small electric motor connected by V belt to drive the shaft.
The motor and main shafts are mounted on a rigid base. Base frame is vertical fashion a governor
spindle is supported in a ball bearing. The unit has a unique facility of fixing optional governor
mechanism on spindle, by removing the nut fitted on top of the spindle shaft. The dimmers stat
provided with this unit achieves precise speed control. A counter hole over the spindle shaft
allows the use of a hand tachometer to measure the speed of the shaft .A graduated scale is fixed
to the bracket and guides in vertical direction to measure the lift.
11

SPECIFICATIONS:
1. Base frame to mount the motor, shaft, breaking the block and scale.
2. Shaft fixed in the Bearing Block.
3. Electric motor is a D.C motor, capacity H.P 1500 rpm single phase 230, volts A.C.
4. Watt Governor Assembly.
5. Dimmerstat 2 Amp., DC Type- for controlling the speed, fitted, in a panel box
With ON/OFF switch.
FORMULA USED
i. F=m 2r
ii. Sensitiveness = 2(N2 N1)/(N2+N1)
iii. Governor effort P = c(m+M)g in N
Where c = N2-N1/n1
iv.Governor Power = P x X in N-mm
F

-Centrifugal Force In Newtons

-Mass applied on sleeve in Kg

-Angular Velocity in rps

-Mass of the ball in Kg (700 gms)

-Acceleration due to gravity in m/s2

-Radius of rotation in m

-Sleeve displacement in mm

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
The governor mechanism is fitted to the spindle shaft firmly, ensures that the nut and both
of all the moving parts and of the spindle shafts are property tightened then following simple
procedure is to be followed.
1. Keep the knobs of the Dimness stat in zero position before suitable on the main supply.
2. Switch on the main supply and gradually go on increasing the speed of the motor. Due
to this centre sleeve wise from the lower stop aligning with the marking on the scale.
This is initial lift of the sleeve.
3. Note down the reading of the sleeve position and speed for the initial lift speed of the
motor is measured by tachometer from the counter bolt provided on the spindle.
12

4. Then increase the speed in steps to give suitable sleeve movement and note down the
readings of the sleeve displacement and the corresponding speed. All the readings are to
be centered in a table.
5. After completing, the experiment bring the knob of the dimmers stat to its original
position (ie) zero, slowly and gradually then switch off the main supply. Then the result
may be plotted as graph.
OBSERVATION
DIMENSIONS:
a)

Length of each link-

= 125mm.

b)

Initial height of Governor-

ho

= 96mm

c)

Initial radius of rotation

ro

= 136mm

d)

Mass of each ball

= 700 gms

e)

Mass of each sleeve

=500 gms

Radius of rotation r at any position could be found as follows


Find height h = ho - X/2 mm
Find using Cos 1 (h/L)
Then r = 50 + L sin mm
Force F=w/g 2r
= 2 N/60 rad/sec

13

TABULATION-1

S.No

Load

Speed In
RPM

Sleeve Disp.
mm

Height In
mm

1
2
3

No
load

4
1
2
3

0.5kg
load

4
1
2
3

1.0 kg
load

14

Radius
of
rotation
mm
r

Force
F
Newtons

Angular
speed of
balls

Angular
position
of balls.

MODEL CALCULATION

15

MODEL CALCULATION

16

TABULATION - 2

S.No

load

Speed in rpm
N

Sensitiveness

Governor effort
N

Governor
power
N-mm

1
2
3

Select any
load

4
5

GRAPH:
Speed in x-axis Vs sleeve displacement in y-axis
Speed in x-axis Vs Governor height for porter governor in y-axis
RESULT:
The sensitiveness, governor effort, governor power are calculated.
The centrifugal force increases with increasing sleeve displacement.
Force Vs Radius of Rotation& Speed against sleeve displacement curves are plotted.

19

Expt.No:3
Date
:

PROELL GOVERNOR APPARATUS


AIM:
To determine the sensitiveness, governor effort, governor power and draw the
characteristics curves of
1. Speed against sleeve position.
2. Force against radius of rotation.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Porter governor Apparatus.
2. Tachometer(Contact type).
3. Weights 5nos (each 0.5 kg).
4. Auto transformer.
INTRODUCTION AND DESCRIPTION:
This instrument is designed to enable the students to study characteristics of proell
governor by fixing the mechanism properly to the spindle shaft. In this governor step up the use
of the fly weight makes the governor highly sensitivity under this condition large displacement is
observed for very small change in speed. The centre sleeve of the governor incorporates a
weight sleeve to which weights can be added. The apparatus can perform following experiments.
Determination of characteristic curve of speed against sleeve position.
Plotting of characteristic curve of force against Radius of rotion. The drive unit consists
of small electric motor connected by a V- belt to drive the shaft . the motor and main shafts are
mounted on a rigid m-s base frame in vertical fashion . The governor spindle is supported in an
ball bearing. The unit has a unique facility of fixing optional governor mechanism on spindle , by
removing the nut, fitted , on the top of spindle shaft. The dimmers stat provides with this unit
achieves precise speed control.

20

A counter hole over the spindle shaft allows the use of a land tachometer to measure the
speed of shaft. A graduated scale is fixed to the bracket and guided in vertical direction measure
the lift.
FORMULA USED:
1. F=m 2r in N
2. Sensitiveness = 2 (N2 - N1) / (N2 N1)
3. Governor effort P = c (m+M) g in N
4. Governor power = P x in N .mm.
Where c = N2 - N1 /N1
-angular velocity in rps.
r- Radius of rotation in m
M mass applied on sleeve in kg
SPECIFICATION:
1. Base frame to mount the motor shaft having the block and scale.
2. Shaft fixed is the bearing block.
3. Electric motor: DC motor, Capacity H.P 1500 - rpm speed single phase 230 VAC.
4. Proell governor assembly with fly weight
5. Sleeve weight set.
6. Dimmer stat 2 Amp DC type for controlling the speed fitted in a pand box with on/off switch.
EXPERIMENTALPROCEDURE:
The governor mechanism is fitted to the spindle shaft firmly the centre of this governor
incorporates a weight sleeve of which can be added on sure that the nut and bolt of all the
moving parts and of the spindle shaft are properly tittered. Then following simple procedure is to
be followed.
1. By removing the bolt of the spindle shaft put 0.5 kg weight and tighten the bolts
firmly keep the taps of dimmer stat in zero position before switching on the main
supply.
21

2. Switch on the main supply and gradually go on increasing the speed of motor. Due to
this the centre sleeve vises from the lower stop aligning with the marking on the
scale. This to the initial lift of the sleeve.
3. Note down the readings of the sleeve position and speed for this initial speed of the
motor is to be measured by hand tachometer, from the counter hole provided on the
spindle.
4. Then increase the speed in steps to give suitable sleeve movement and note down the
readings of sleeve displacement and the corresponding speed. All the readings are to
be entered in a tabular column.
5. After completing the experiment for 0.5kg weight take readings by adding weight one
by one as 1kg, 1.5kg, 2kg, and enter the reading in the observation table readings for
no weight on the sleeve and enter for no weight.
6. After completing the experiment bring the knob of the dimmer stat to its original
position (ie) zero slowly and gradually then switch off the main supply.
7. Then result may be plotted as graph.
PRECAUTION:
1. Do not keep the mains on when the trial is complete.
2. Make proper connection of field of a armature of the DC motor.
3. Increase the speed slowly and gradually avoid abrupt use of dimmer stat for
controlling the speed.
4. Take the sleeve displacement reading when the pointer is steady see that at higher
speeds the load on the sleeve does not hit the upper sleeve of the Governor.
5. While closing the test bring the dimmers to zero position and then switch off the
motor.
6. Pat some lubricating oil on the spindle stay before it is driven.
7.
OBSERVATION D IMENSIONS:
a) Length of each link
b) Initial height of Governor- ho

= 125mm.
= 96mm
22

c) Initial radius of rotation ro

= 130mm

d) Weight of each ball W

= 700 gms

e) Weight of each sleeve

=500 gms

f) Extension of length BG

=75mm

Radius of rotation r at any position could be found as follows


Find height h = ho - X/2 mm
Find r in static condition for different sleeve condition.
TABULATION: 1
S.NO Load

Speed In

Sleeve

rpm

Height

Radius Of Angular

Angular

Force

Displacement In mm

Rotation

Speed of

Position of

MM'

mm

balls

balls

Newton
S

N
1.

No

2.

load

3.
4.
1.
2.
3.

0.5kg
load

4.
1.
2.
3.

1.0kg
load

4.
23
MODEL CALCULATION

24
MODEL CALCULATION

25
TABULATION-2

S.No

load

Speed in rpm
N

Sensitiveness

Governor effort
N

1
2
3

Select any
load

4
5

GRAPH
Speed Vs Sleeve Displacement
Force Vs Radius of Rotation
RESULT:
The sensitivesness, governor effort , governor power are calculated .
The centrifugal force increases with increasing sleeve displacement .
Force V2 Radius of rotation
Speed against sleeve displacement curves are plotted.

28

Governor
power
N-mm

Expt.No:4

Date

MOTORISED GYROSCOPE

AIM:
To verify the laws of gyroscopic couple.
To determine the gyroscopic couple theoretical and actual.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Gyroscope Weights
2. Stop watch
3. Tachometer(Contact type)

4. Autotransformer.

INTRODUCTION AND DESCRIPTION


X
D) GYROSCOPE
It is a body, which, while spinning about an axis, is free to rotate in either direction under
the action of external forces.
Examples: locomotive, automobile and aero- plane making a turn. In certain cases the gyroscopic
force are undesirable whereas in other cases the gyroscope effect may be utilized in developing
desirable forces.
E) GYROSCOPIC EFFECT
To a body, revolving (or spinning) about an axis say ox (Refer fig.1), if a couple
represented by a vector OY perpendicular to ox is applied, the body tries to process about an
axis oz which is perpendicular both to ox and OY. Thus the plane of spin, plane of
precession and plane of gyroscopic couple are mutually perpendicular. The above combined
effect is known as precession or gyroscopic effect.
29

FORMULA USED
Tactual = I p
where
I

= M.I.of disc Kg.cm.sec.

= Angular velocity of precession of disc in radians per second

= 2 N/60

where N = RPM of disc

Where N = rpm of disc

p=

x
rad / sec .
dt 180

From above find


Tactual =

I. . p

Distance in cm.

Weight of Rotor in kg

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
RULE NO.1
The spinning body exerts a torque or couple in such a direction which tends to make the
axis of spin coincide with that of the precession.
To study the rule of gyroscopic behavior following procedure may be adopted.
a) Balance the initial horizontal position of the rotor.
b) Start the motor by increasing the voltage with the dimmer, and wait until it attains constant
speed.
c) Process the yoke frame No.2 about vertical axis by applying necessary force by hand to the
same ( in the clockwise sense seen from above)
d) It will be observed that the rotor frame swings about the horizontal axis YY. Motor side is
seen coming, upward and the weight pan side going downwards.
30

e) Rotate the vertical yoke axis in the anti- clockwise seen from above and observe that the
rotor frame swing in opposite sense(as compared to that in previous case following the
above rule).
RULE NO .2
The spinning body processes in such a way as to make the axis of spin coincide with that of the
couple applied, through 90turn axis
a) Balance the rotor position on the horizontal frame.
b) Start the motor by increasing the voltage with the dimmer and wait till the disc attains
constant speed.
c) Put weight (1kg., 0.2 Kg or .5 Kg) in the weight pan, and start the stop watch to note the time
in second required for precession, through 90 or 180 etc.
d) The vertical yoke processeses about OZ axis as per the rule No.2
e) Speed may be measured by the tachometer.
f) Enter the observation in the table.
TABULATION:
S.No

Speed N

Load ( w )

Time (dt)

(rpm)

(Kg)

sec

Degrees (d)

' ' p

Tact

Tth

(rad/sec)

(Kg.cm)

(Kg.cm).

x
dt 180

1
2
3
4
5
31
MODEL CALCULATION

I. P

(WL)

32
MODEL CALCULATION

33
1. Explain spin.

2. Explain precession
3. Explain gyroscopic acceleration
4. Explain gyroscope
5. Explain gyroscopic in four wheeled vehicles.
6. Explain gyroscopic in two wheeled vehicles
7. List out the application of gyroscope.
8. What is pitching?
9. What is rolling?
10. What is active gyroscopic torque?
11. Explain gyroscopic effect on the body.
12. In what way the angular velocity can be represented by a vector.
13. What do you mean by gyroscopic planes?
14. What do you mean by gyroscopic couple?
15. Define the relation of magnitude for gyroscopic couple.
16. What is reactive gyroscopic torque?
17. What is angle of heal.
18. The axis of spin the axis of precession and axis of gyroscopic couple
are In three__________ planes.
19. What is gyroscopic?
20. What is meant by lag in response?

34

35
OBSERVATION:
1. Weight of Rotor (W)

: 6.850 Kg.

2. Rotor Diameter (D)

: 300mm.

3. Rotor Thickness

: 10mm.

1. Moment of inertia of the

: 0.78 Kg. Cm. sec

Disc, coupling and motor


Rotor about central axis (1)
2. Distance of bolt of weight : 184 mm. (18.4cm.)
Pan from disc center (L)
6. Motor

: To Make AC/DC, Fractional HP, single phase, 6000rpm..

PRECAUTIONS:
1. While measuring the speed with tachometer do not exert pressure on rotor shaft. Use of Noncontact type tachometer or stroboscope for measurement of motor speed will give better
results.
2. When the speed of rotor spin is changed, it takes some time to attain the constant speed due
to rotor inertia. Hence, it is advised to wait until the rotor reaches constant speed.
RESULT:
The gyroscopic couple was calculated and the laws are verified.

36
Expt.No:5
Date
:
AIM:

COMPOUND PENDULUM

To find the moment of inertia of the given rod.


APPPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Stop watch
2. Compound pendulum
PRINCIPLE AND INTRODUCTION:
When rigid body is suspended vertically, and its oscillates with a small amplitude under
the action of the force of gravity, the body is known as compound pendulum .
A compound pendulum represents a rigid body supported at "o". So that it can
swing in vertical plane about some axis passing through it.
O = point of oscillation.
G = center of gravity.
D = Distance between G and O; O=L/2.
FOMULA USED:
1. I =m (kg+h2)
Where, I= mass moment of inertia of the body in m4.
m= mass of the pendulum
kg= Radius of gyration about an axis through the centre of gravity and
perpendicular to the plane of motion in m.
2. Minimum time period (tp) min = [1/2

kG / g

PROCEDURE:
1. To measure the length of the rod from O to G-h=L/2.
2. For five oscillations, note the time taken.
3. The above is repeated for three times and note down the readings.
4. From this find out time period of oscillations.
37
TABULATION:

S.NO

No. of

Time for 5

Frequency of

Time period tp Moment of

Oscillation

Oscillation

oscillation(n)

in s

sec

in Hz

h=
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
h=
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
h=
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

38
MODEL CALCULATION

Intertia (I) kg
m2

39
CALCULATION:
Frequency of oscillations (n)=No of oscillation / time for five oscillation
(n)= 1/ 2
From above kg can be calculated
I =m(kg+h2)
RESULT:

(gh/k2+h2

Moment of inertia of rod is

40
Expt.No:6
Date :

CAM AND FOLLOWER MECHANISM

AIM:
To draw

1) the profile of the given cam


2) Find the jump speed
3) To draw graph between follower displacement and cam angle
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Cam and follower arrangement
2. Dimmer stat
3. Tachometer

4. Deflectometer
INTRODUCTION AND DESCRIPTION:
To study about cam and follower mechanism which is used to convert rotary motion in to
reciprocating or oscillatory motion. A cam is rotary element, which gives reciprocating or
oscillatory motion to another element know as follower. The cam and follower have a line
contact and constitute a higher pair. The cams are usually rotated at uniform speed by a shaft,
but the follower motion is pre determined and be according to the shape of the cam.
The cam and follower is one of the simplest as well as one of the important mechanisms
found in modern machinery today. The cams are widely used foe operating the inlet and exhaust
valves of internal combustion engines, automatic attachment of machineries, paper-cutting
machines, spinning and weaving textile Machineries, feed mechanism of automatic lathe etc.
PROCEDURE:
Profile of the cam
1. Fix the symmetric type of cam.
2. Note down the base circle diameter and nose circle diameter.
3. Check the follower readings with respect to the cam rotation manually.
4. Note the readings in protractor scale as well as in the steel rule.
5. Plot the graph.
6. Change another type of cam. Note down the readings.
7. Find out the maximum lift of each cam.
8. Dram the cam profile.
9. And Find out the critical speed.
41
JUMP SPEED:
1. Switch on the power supply increase the motor speed.
2. At a particular speed peculiar striking sound is heard .
3. The speed at which this sound occur is called jump speed.
4. At this speed follower does not follow the exact path guided by the cam contour.
5. Use of cam and follower beyond this speed is useless.
TABULATION:
S.NO

Cam angle in Degrees

Follower Displacement in mm

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:
Base circle diameter = 50mm.
Nose diameter

= 25mm.

Total angle of cam action


Lift X =

= 160 degrees.

mm.

X = JK = mm.
r 1 = OE - OJ=50mm.
r 2= QF - QK =25mm.
42
2Q = (EOF=160 (or) Q =EOK=80
TO FIND THE RADIUS OF THE CONVEX FLANKS.
R = radius of convex flanks.PE = PG.
From the geometry of the figure ,
OQ=OJ+JK-QK= r1+X r2
PQ=PF-OF =(R-7) mm.
OP=PE-OE=
Now consider the triangle OPQ. We know that
(PQ) =(OP) +(OQ) -2OP*OQ* cosR
PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE PROFILE OF THE CAM:

1.To draw the profile of the cam. First of all, draw the base circle with center O and
radius OE=r1=25mm.
2.Draw angle EOK=80 degree and angle KOG=60 degrees. such the total angle of cam,
action is 120degree.
3.On line Ok mark OQ =19.46mm. Now Q as center, draw a circle of radius equal to the
nose radius r2=QK=QF=12.5mm. The circle cuts the line OK at J.
4.Now JK represents the lift of the follower (i.e., 10mm)
5.Produce EO and GO as shown in fig. Now with P and P' as centers and radius equal to
R=37.12mm, draw arcs EF and GH which represent the convex flanks. EFKHGAE is the
profile of the cam.

43

1. What is cam?
2. Classification of cam?
3. Classify cam based on a shape?
4. Classification of follower?
5. What is roller follower?
6. Spherical follower?
7. Angle of ascend?
8. Angle of descend?
9. Angle of dwell?

10. Angle of action?


11. What is radial or disc cams?
12. What is dwell?
13. What is classification of followers according to follower shape?
14. What is classification of follower according to the motion of the follower?
15. What is classification of followers according to the path of motion?
16. What is the motion of the follower?
17. What is the application of cam?
.
18. What are the necessary elements of a cam mechanism?
19. What is translating angle?
20. Write the formula for maximum velocity?

44

MODEL CALCULATION

45
MODEL CALCULATION

46
MODEL CALCULATION

GRAPH:
Cam angle vs follower displacement.
RESULT:
Thus the cam profile is drawn. Cam angle vs follower displacement is drawn.
48
Expt.No:7
Date :

DETERMINATION OF M.I. BY OSCILLATION

AIM:
To determine the M.I of the connecting rod & fly wheel.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Connecting rod fly wheel set up, stop watch.
INTRODUCTION & DESCRIPTION:
Model of flywheel and connecting rod is useful to calculate 'moment of inertia of
connecting rod by oscillation. The effect of flywheel can be observed on oscillations of
connecting rod.
The apparatus consist of a bearing block mounted on support. This support is
fixed on board with the help of nut and bolt. A shaft is fitted in the bearing block, which is free

to oscillate. On the side of the bearing block there is an attachment for connecting rod. And on
the other side of the bearing block flywheel can be attached.
FORMULA USED:
Moment of inertia of the given connecting rods
I = MK2 kg.m2
I= mass moment of inertia of the body.
M= mass of the connecting rods in kg.
K= Radius of gyration about an axis through the centre of gravity and
perpendicular to the plane of motion in m.
PROCEDURE:
1. Measure the center-to-center distance of connecting rod. Also measure inner dia of both side
connecting rod.
2. Measure the weight of connecting rod and flywheel.
3. Attach small end of the connecting rod to the shaft.
4. Give oscillation to the connecting rod.
5. Measure the time for five oscillations and calculate the time period (tp1).
6. Remove the connecting rod from the shaft and again attach the big end of the connecting rod
to the shaft.
7. Again measure the time for five oscillations and calculate the periodic time (tp1).
8. Calculate the moment of inertia of the connecting rod.
9. Repeat the procedure for the times and take mean of it.
49
10.Attach flywheel to the other side of the shaft and repeat the same procedure as above and
see the effect of it on the oscillations of the connecting rod.
TABULATION:
S.No

1.

End Position

SMALL
END

2.
3.

BIG END

Time in
T
Second

No of
Frequency Periodic
oscillation of
Time (tp) in
in (n)
oscillation seconds T/n
in Hz

Moment of
inertia in kg
m2

Mean M.I
IN kg m2

4.

OBSERVATIONS:
1. L = Center to center distance of connecting rod = _________ m.
2. m = Weight of the connecting rod = ____________ Kg.
3. D1 = Dia of the small end connecting rod = ______________ m.
4. D2 = Dia of the big end connecting rod = _____________ m.

n = No of oscillation

CALCULATION:
1. Periodic time = tp = T/n in seconds.
First find the length of equivalent simple pendulum, when suspended from both ends.
L1 = g(tp1/2)2
Where,
L1 = Length of equivalent simple pendulum suspended from the top of small end.
L2= g (tp2/2)2
50
L2 = Lengthy of equivalent simple pendulum, when suspended from the top of big end.
Since K2 = h (L-h)

----------------------

(1)

Therefore h1 (L1-h1) = h2 (L2-h2)

----------------------

(2)

H1+h2 = d1/2 + L+ d2/2

----------------------

(3)

From the above equations (2) & (3). We get h1 & h2


Also, calculate from eqn,1 Since K2 = h1 (L1-h1)
moment of inertia of the given connecting rods
I = MK2 = _______ kg.m2
MODEL CALCULATION

51
MODEL CALCULATION

52
MODEL CALCULATION

53
1. Define static force analysis.
2. Define force and applied force.
3. When will the two force member is in equilibrium?
4. What do you mean by inertia?
5. State DAlemberts principle.
6. How you will reduce a dynamic analysis problem into an equivalent problem of
static equilibrium?
7. What do you mean by Equivalent offset inertia force?
8. When the connecting rod is large the piston executes simple harmonic motion.

9. Define Piston effort.


10. What do you mean by crank effort or turning moment on the crank shaft?
11. Define compound pendulum or torsional pendulum.
12. What are the requirements of an equivalent dynamical system?
13. What are the forces acting on the connecting rod?
14. What is meant by turning moment diagram or crank effort diagram?
15. Define Inertia force.
16. Differentiate the function of flywheel and governor.
17. Define Inertia Torque.
18. What do you understand by the fluctuations of energy and maximum fluctuation of
energy?
19. Define coefficient of fluctuation of energy.
20. What is meant by maximum fluctuation of speed?
54
21. Define coefficient of fluctuation of speed.
22. List out the few machines in which flywheel are used.

RESULT:
moment of inertia of the given connecting rods
I = MK2 = _______ kg.m2
50

55
Expt.No:8
Date

:
WHIRLING SPEED OF SHAFT

AIM:
To find the natural frequency of vibration for a given rotating shaft.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Auto Transformer
2. Shaft of different diameter.
3. Whirling speed of shaft apparatus.
INDRODUCTION & DESCRIPTION:
The speed at which the shaft runs so that the additional deflection of the shaft
from the axis of rotation becomes infinite is known as critical speed of whirling speed of
shaft.

The critical speed is same as measure of natural frequency.


FORMULA USED:
Fn = K

gEI / WI 4

cps

Nc= fnx 60cpm(Rpm)


K = constant.
Nc= Critical speed rpm
Fn=Natural frequency of vibration (cps)]
G = acceleration due to gravity in m/s2.
E= Young modules of material of the shaft in N/MM2
I = moment of Inertia of the rod in m4 = [d4/64].
W = weight per unit length (N/M)
L = Length of the shaft in m.
RROCEDURE:
1. Connect the motor to Dimmer shaft
2. Fix the shaft in between the bearings
3. Rotate the motor by using Dimmer shaft change the voltage.
4. Then determine the 1st mode
56
5. Find natural frequency and critical speed by using formula
6. Experiment is repeated for different diameter rods.
OBSERVATION:
K1= 2.45constant for first mode
K2 = 7.95 for second mode
g= 9.81 m/s2
L = Effective length of rod 0.9m
E= 2.1x1011 N/M2
I = d4/64
w= A g, Where - Density of shaft given in kg/m3 , A- Area of Rod = d2/4
S.No

Diameter

Moment

Weight

Length of

Theoretical

Measured

NC

NC

in m

of Inertia

per unit

m4

length

shaft in m

fn CPM

N/M
1.
2.
3.

0.0045
0.0060
0.0075

57
MODEL CALCULATION

fn CPM

theoretical

critical

58
MODEL CALCULATION

RESULT:
The natural frequency and critical speed for different shaft are found out.
59
Expt.No: 9
Date:
VIBRATION OF SPRING MASS SYSTEM
AIM:
To fine the natural frequency of the material of the given spring mass system and draw a
graph.
OBJECTIVE:
1. To understood the working principle of spring mass system.
2. When particles of the shaft of disc moves parallel to the axis of the shaft, then the
vibration are known as longitudinal vibration.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. LVDT.
2. Control panel.

3. Mass.
4. Spring mass system.
FORMULA USED:
1. Fn= 1/2

g /

in Hz.

2. S= w in N/mm
S= Stiffness of the spring
W = weight applied
Fn= natural frequency in Hz.

= deflection in mm
g=acceleration due to gravity in mm /s2.
PROCEDURE:
1. The digital devices are connected to the power supply.
2. The sensor elements are connected through the cables
3. The load is step by step increased and the corresponding deflection is observed for spring.
60
4. The weight is gradually removed and readings are noted.
5. The sensor of shaft is connected and the same procedure repeated.
6. The deflections and applied weights for the shaft is noted.
7. The graph is drawn between weights and the corresponding deflections
S.No

Weight in kg
Load

1.
2.
3.

Unload

Static deflection in
mm
Load

Unload

Natural

Stiffness of the

frequency in Hz spring in N/mm

4.
5.

GRAPH:
A graph is plotted against weight in kg in X axis and static deflection in
Mm in Y axis for spring mass system.

61
MODEL CALCULATION

63
MODEL CALCULATION

RESULT:
The natural frequency of the spring mass system is measured.
64
Expt.No: 10
Date:
VIBRATION TABLE
AIM:
To determine the transmissibility ratio, natural frequency and critical speed of the given
vibration table.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Experimental setup.
2. Power supply
3. Spring
FORMULA USED:
Transmissibility ratio = force transmitted / force excited
1. Force excited = m

2 e in N.

2. Force transmitted = 0.125 x number of plinking LED in N.

3. Theoretical natural frequency of system

n=

k/m

4. Stiffness of the spring [p/ ] =K=Gd4/8D3n.


Where m is mass of the disk (0.5)

is eccentricity (2mm)

= 2n/60

Mass of the motor and its base, m=8.43kg


G- Rigidity modulus, (0.8x105N /mm2)
d- Coil diameter of spring (3mm)
D- Mean diameter of spring (25mm)
N-Number of turns (4)

- (total coils 2)

P-force applied on the spring, in N

- Deflection of spring in mm.


Theoretical critical speed Nn = nx60/2 . Rpm.
Actual natural frequency of system = 2 n/60.
NG = actual critical speed of system, which is measure from graph.
65
PROCEDURE:
1.

Take out motor with unbalance wheel, guide rod etc and weigh in a balance M = 8.43kg

2.

Measure dimension of spring used for vibration isolation, d, D, n, free length etc.

3.

Calculate stiffness of spring.

4.

Calculate natural frequency.

5.

Ensure that this is within 1200 rpm.

6.

Fix the spring on the table.

7.

Note values of force transmitted as a function of speed (n)

8.

Do the same experiment with different spring as a function of speed(N)

9.

Find force transmitted = 0.125x number of plinking LED.

10.

Find force excited = m 2 e

11.

Find transmissibility ratio = force transmitted / force excited.

12.

Plot transmissibility V0 speed.

13.

Determine Nc where transmissibility is maximum.

14.

Calculate

c = 2 Nc/60 and compare with natural frequency n

TABULATION:
S.No

Speed of the Motor

Force transmitted

Force

Transmissibility

Transmissibility

in N

excited

ratio T in N

Ratio T in N

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

66
1. What are the causes of vibration?
2. Define Period and cycle of vibration.
3. Define frequency of vibration.
4. How will you classify vibration?
5. What is meant by free vibration and forced vibrations?
6. What do you meant by damping and damped vibration?

7. Define resonance.
8. What do you mean by a degree of freedom or movability?
9. A cantilever beam has . number of degrees of freedom.
10. Define steady state and transient vibrations.
11. What is equivalent spring stiffness?
12. List out the various methods of finding the natural frequency of free longitudinal
vibrations.
13. What is the principle of Rayleighs method of finding natural frequency of
vibrations?
14. A shaft supported in long bearing is assumed to hav ....for solving transverse
vibration problems.
15. The damping force per unit velocity is known as
16. Distinguish between critical damping and large damping.
17. When do you say a vibrating system is under damped?
18. Define critical or whirling or whipping speed of a shaft.
19. What are the factors that affect the critical speed of a shaft?
67
20. What are the causes of critical speed?
21. Define damping ratio.
22. Define logarithmic decrement.
23. What is meant by dynamic magnifier or magnification factor?
24. What is meant by transmissibility?
25. Define transmissibility ratio or isolation factor.

26. Briefly explain elastic suspension.


27. Specify any two industrial application where the transmissibility effects of vibration
are important.
28. Specify the importance of vibration isolation?
29. What are the methods of isolating the vibration?
30. Define torsional vibration.
31. Differentiate between transverse and torsional vibration.
32. Define node in torsional vibration.
33. Define torsional equivalent shaft.
34. What are the conditions to be satisfied for an equivalent system to that of geared
system in torsional vibrations?

68
MODEL CALCULATION

70
MODEL CALCULATION

71

GRAPH:
Speed vs transmissibility ratio

RESULT:
The transmissibility ratio, natural frequency and critical speed of given vibration
table are determined.

72

Expt.No: 11
Date

DYNAMIC BALANCING OF ROTOR


AIM:
To determine the balancing mass of the rotor connected in the crank shaft.
PRINCIPLE:
Balancing is the process of designing or modifying machinery so that unbalance is
reduced to an acceptable level and if possible is eliminated entirely.

Conditions for complete Balancing:


In order to have complete balance of several rotating mosses in different
plants the two conditions must be satisfied.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Dynamic Balancing Crankshaft model.
2. Tachometer
3. Scale and protractor.
PROCEDURE:
1. The dynamic model of crankshaft is run at the rated speed.
2. The known mass are placed at the required angular position.
3. The eccentricity of the masses are measured.
4. The distance between the reference plane to the rotating plane masses are measured.
5. Draw the couple and force polygon and find the unknown mass and angular position
of the balanced mass.
6. The shaft is run at some speed and check the balance.
7. To draw the force polygon and couple polygon and find the unknown masses for the
given condition.
73
TABULATION:
S.No Plane

Mass in kg

Radius in m

Centrifugal

Distance from in

Couple in

Angle

force in N

R.P N

N mm

in
degrees

1.
2.
3.

4.

MODEL CALCULATION

74

75
Force polygon

Couple polygon

76
1. Write the importance of Balancing?
2. Why balancing of dynamic forces are necessary?
3. Write the different types of balancing?
4. Write the condition for complete balancing?
5. Write the equation for balancing a single rotating mass by a single mass?
6. Whether grinding wheels are balanced or not? If so why?
7. Why complete balancing is not possible in reciprocating engine?
8. Differentiate between the unbalanced force due to a reciprocating mass and that

Due to revolving masses.


9. What are the various cases of balancing of revolving masses?
10. What are the effects of an unbalanced primary force along the line of stroke of
Two cylinder locomotive?
11. Define tractive force.
12. What is swaying couple?
13. What is the effect of hammer blow and what is the cause of it?
14. What are in-line engines?
15. What are the conditions to be satisfied for complete balance of in-line engine?
16. Why radial engines are preferred?
17. The balancing of rotating parts of an engine is necessary when it runs at
(a) Slow speed (b) Medium speed (c) High speed
18. Why balancing of rotating parts necessary for high speed engines?

77
19. How the different masses rotating in different planes are balanced?
20. Discuss how a single revolving mass is balanced by two masses revolving in
different planes.

RESULT:
Thus the balancing Masses on planes A and D are.
Mass MA =
Mass MD =

78
Expt.No:12
Date:
BALANCING OF RECIPROCATING MASS
AIM:
To study the balancing of reciprocating mass by applying different load and find the
unbalanced force for the given condition.
Apparatus Required:
1. Dimmer stat.
2. Weight.

3. Tachometer.
SPECIFICATION:
1. Main switch rocker type 6A, DPST with illuminates
2. Variance 0-2A, heavy duty , 0 230v AC
FORMULA USED:
F = m 2 r

(1 C ) 2 cos 2 Q C 2 sin 2 Q

F = unbalanced force in N

= 2n/60
C= 2/3
m=mass applied in kg
PROCEDURE:
1. Initially remove all weight , from system
2. Start the motor give some speed , observe vibration on the system note down speed.
Repeat if for different speed note down alls speeds.
3. Add some weight on piston to either eccentric or co axial start the rotor fix at earlier
tested speed if vibration are observed one of the following has to be done to remove
unbalance.

79

4. Either remove some weight from piston run and observe vibration at tested speed and
observe .
5. Or add weight in opposite direction of crank run and observe vibration at tested speed.
6. Note down speed & weight on piston crank and diameter at which weight are needed.

MODEL CALCULATION

80

81

RESULT:
Thus the study of balance of the reciprocating masses by applying different load
for the given condition is studied.

82
Expt.No: 13
Date:

MULTI DEGREE OF FREEDOM SUSPENSION SYSTEM


AIM:
To determine the natural frequency of spring mass system and damping factors, damping
coefficient.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Experimental Setup.
2. Stop watch
3. Spring 3 nos
FORMULA USED:
Stiffness of Spring K = Gd4 /8D3n
Natural frequency

n=

Damping frequency

K /M

d = 2/td

Damping factor = 1 d 2 / n
Damping co efficient = Cc=2m n = 2

K /M

Influence co efficient = 1/K1+1/k2


OBSEVATION:

Rigidity modulus G = 0.8x 103 kg /mm2

Coil diameter d = 1mm

Mean diameter of coil D=outer diameter - inert diameter

No.of turn n= 39 turns

Mass attached m = 0.5kg (m1 = m2= m)

PROCEDURE:
1. Fix the spring & mass one by one shown in fig
2. Now sketch the spring and note the diff( 3 reading)
3. Now sketch the spring and note the time taken for 5 oscillation (5readings)
4. Now calculate the natural frequency, damping factor & damping coefficient.
83

TABULATION:
S.No

Time taken for n oscillations

Displacement of
spring

1.
2.
3.
MODEL CALCULATION

84

MODEL CALCULATION

85
MODEL CALCULATION

RESULT:
The natural frequency of damping coefficient & influence of multi degree
freedom are found out.
1. Natural frequency

2. Damping co efficient = Cc
3. Influence co efficient =

86
Expt.No: 14
Date:

FREE BEAM VIBRATION

AIM:
To verify the Dunkerleys rule
1 / F2= 1/FL2 + 1/Fb2
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Experimental Setup
2. Stop watch
FORMULA USED:
Dunkerleys rule
1 / F2= 1/FL2 + 1/Fb2
Where F = Natural frequency of the given beam (Considering the weight of the beam)
With central load to be calculated from the formula
FL = Natural frequency of the given beam (Neclecting the weight of the beam )with central load to
be calculated from the formula
FL = 0.4985/ : Where = WL3 /48EI
Where W = central load of the beam weight attached in kg.
L= Length of the beam in mm
E = young modulus in N / mm 2
I = moment of inertia in mm4 (bh3 /12)
Fb= 0.5615/ Where b= 5W1I4 /384EI
W1 = Weight of the beam per unit length in kg /cm
PROCEDURE:
1. Arrange the set up as shown in figure with some weight attached to the platform.
2. Pull the platform & release it to set the system into natural vibrations.
3. Find the experimental period time T & experimental frequency F BY measuring the
time for say some n oscillations.
4. Repeat the experiment by adding different weight on the weight platform.
Find the experimental periodic time & natural frequency of the given beam ]
Experimental natural frequency F (Expt) = 1 /Texpt

87
OBSERVATIONS:
1. Length of the beam

L= 82.8cm 0.828m

2. Weight of the beam

W = 445kg

3. Weight per unit length of the beam W1 =

W/L
= 5.3X10-3 kg /Cm

0.53kg / m

4. Section of the beam


Breadth = 1.8cm

-0.018m

Height = 0.3cm

= 3x10-3 cm

E= 1.8x1011 NM2
I = bh3 /12 b = 1.8cm, h=0 .3cm
I= 4.05x1011 M4 Convert to mm4
CALCULATIONS:
Fb of the beam.
S.No

Weight in kg

No.of

Time for

Periodic

Natural

Natural

oscillation

time texp

Frequency

frequency

in (n)

oscillation

(Experimental )

(theoretical)

in sec
1.
2.
3.
4.

88
MODEL CALCULATION

89
MODEL CALCULATION

90
MODEL CALCULATION

GRAPH:
Plot the graph of 1/F2 Vs W Intercept of the graph with w = 0 gives the value of
Frequency.
RESULT:
The Dunkerleys rule is verified.
92