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Training

Training is the process of


increasing the job knowledge
and skills of employees.
Michael Jucious, training is
any process by which the
aptitudes, skills and abilities
of
employees
to
perform
specific jobs are increased.

Training
Objectives:
(i) To prepare employees for the right jobs by
imparting the required knowledge and
skills.
(ii) To enable employees to work more
efficiently on their present jobs by
exposing them to the latest concepts and
techniques.
(iii) To build a second line of competent
officers by preparing them to occupy
higher positions.

Training
Pts of distg
1. Nature
2. Contents

Training
Education
Development
Practical
Theoretical
Both
Job-related

General
Both

Career oriented

3. Participants

Nonmanagers

Managers

4. Duration

Short

Long

5. Cost paid

By the
employer

By the Govt. By both


and individual

Continuous

Training
Training

Importance:
1. Higher productivity
2. Reduced supervision
3. Better safety
4. Economy
5. Higher morale
6. Promotion and career growth
7. Stability and growth

Training
Types/purpose:
1. Induction or Orientation training
2. Job training
3. Remedial training
4. Safety
5. Promotional
6. Refresher

Training

Preparation
program:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

of

the

training

Defining the objectives.


Identifying training needs.
Selecting and motivating the target group.
Preparing the trainers.
Developing training package.
Presentation.
Performance try-out.
Follow-out.

Techniques/Methods of
Training
Important techniques of
Training

On-the-jobs
techniques

Off-the-jobs
techniques

Coaching/Counseli
ng

Classroom Method

Sensitivity training

Job Rotation

Programmed
instruction

Simulation/
Vestibule

Apprenticeship

Role Plays

Incident

Internship

Conference/
Discussion

Business game

Lectures

1962
On-the -job

Training
Requirements of a successful
training programme:
1. Need based training:
. Job analysis
. Organization analysis
. Organization behavior analysis
. Productivity analysis

Training
Principles of training to be
followed:
Every
training
programme
should consider the training
principle such as :

Motivation
Active involvement
Progress report
Reinforcement
Instruction in parts, etc.

Training
How to evaluate the
effectiveness of the
programme:

Did the change occur?


Is the change due to training?
Is the change positively related to the achievement of organizational
goals?
Will similar changes occur with new participants in the same training
programme?

Training
Evaluation(contd)
In evaluating training programme, measures
of change fall out four categories:

Reaction: how do participants feel about the


programme?

Learning: to what extent the trainees learned


what was taught to them?

Behavior: what on-the-job changes in behavior


occur because of attendance at the
programme?

Results: to what extent have cost-related


behavioral outcomes (e.g. quantity & quality
improvement, absenteeism reduction, etc.)
resulted from the training?