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Foundations in Health and Safety

Health: A state of well being in both a physiological and psychological sense. In occupational terms,
it would include not suffering (e.g.) from fatigue, stress or noise induced deafness.
Safety: The absence of danger or physical harm to persons, extending in the workplace to things
such as equipment, materials and structures
Welfare: Relates to the provision of workplace facilities that maintain the basic well being and
comfort of the worker such as eating, washing and toilet facilities which enable them to fulfill their
bodily functions.
Environmental protection: A measure used to prevent harm to the environment of the world. It
prevents harm to air, water, land and natural resources providing protection to flora, fauna and human
beings and their inter-relationships.
Hazard: Something with the potential to cause harm
Risk: The probability/likelihood that the potential would be realised and its possible consequence and
severity in terms of injury, damage or harm.
Near Miss: These are any form of accident which could result in injury or loss but do not.
Accident: An unwanted or unplanned event which results in a loss of some kind.
Reasons for Good Health And Safety Practice
Moral, Legal and Economic
Moral: Injury results in a great deal of pain and suffering for those affected.
An employee should not have to expect that by coming to work, life or limb is at risk, nor should
others be adversely affected by the employees undertaking.

Social (Legal): The moral reasons to prevent harm is usually further reinforced in both civil and
criminal law, as without the potential for regulatory action many employers would not act upon their
implied obligation of protection.
In many countries it is a legal requirement to safeguard the health and safety of employees and others,
who might be affected by the organisations activities.
Fault Liability: (Common Law Duty of Care)
They were owed a duty of care
The duty of care was breached
The breach caused the loss

The failure to do something which a reasonable man would do
Do something which a reasonable man would not do.
Duty of Employer ( So Far as is reasonably Practicable)
Safe Workplace and Environment
Safe Equipment
Safe system of work
Competent Staff
Adequate Supervision
Adequate Instruction and Training
Provide Appropriate PPEs
Employees Responsibility
Take care of their own health and safety at work
Take care of the health and safety of others
Co-operate with their employer
Not misuse or interfere with anything provided for health and safety
No alcohol or drugs
Report all accidents and near miss
Report any dangerous situation
Follow workplace rules ,Use equipment as they have been trained
Economical: Direct Cost (Measurable costs arising directly from the accident)
Lost Time of Injured Employee
Sick pay
Medical and First Aid
Damage to Equipment, Buildings
Product loss or Damage
Loss of Production Time
Insurance claims and Compensation
Court costs and Fines
Indirect Cost: Costs which arise indirectly as a consequence of the event, difficult to Quantify
Lost Time ( Other Employee, Supervisor and managers)
Loss Of Staff Moral
Business interruption
Loss of Business
Cost of time spent on Investigations
Loss of corporate image

Damage to Plant, Buildings and Equipment
Compensations paid to workers
Legal (Civil Climes)
Production delays
Loss of Raw Materials
Investigation Time
Criminal fines and Legal costs
Sick Pay
Overtime Pay
Hiring and Training New Employee, Loss of Business Reputation
Conventions - C 155 Occupational Safety and Health Convention 1981
Recommendations - R 164 , Occupational Safety and Health Recommendations 1981
Conventions are open to be agreed by UN Members and once agreed become binding on those
member states.
Recommendations for which member states have no specific obligations other than to notify their
existence to their legislatures and report on what happens as a result.
Role of Enforcement Agencies: Powers of Enforcement Agency

Enter premises at any reasonable time.

Take a police person or other authorise person if there is an obstruction in the execution of his
Examine and Investigate
Direct that premises or part of the premises remain undisturbed
Take photographs and measurements
Sample or retain unsafe articles and substances
Order the testing, dismantling and examination
Take possession of items
Require answers to questions with a signed statement, if necessary
Inspect and copy statutory books and documents or any other relevant document
Order medical examination
Any Other Power
Serve Improvement Notice / Citation or Prohibition Notice
International Standards

The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) is an international standard setting body
composed of representatives from various national standard bodies.
ISO is a non governmental organisation (NGO), its standards often become law, either through
treaties or national standards.
Approximately 158 countries are the members of ISO, their main products are international standards.
The International Labour Organisation (ILO)
The International Labour Organisation (ILO) was founded in 1919. The ILO is the international
organization responsible for drawing up and overseeing international labour standards. It is the only
'tripartite' United Nations agency that brings together representatives of governments, employers and
workers to jointly shape policies and programmes promoting Decent Work for all. This unique
arrangement gives the ILO an edge in incorporating 'real world' knowledge about employment and
The main aims of the ILO are to promote rights at work, encourage decent employment opportunities,
enhance social protection and strengthen dialogue on work-related issues.
At present there are 183 members countries in the ILO.
Sources of Information (Internal)
Company Policy
Accident/Ill health and Absent data
Audit and Inspection Reports
Investigation Report
Maintenance Records
Risk Assessments
Sources of Information (External)
National Legislation
International Standards
Professional bodies
Manufacturers data
Experts (Consultant, Lawyers)

Benefits of Good Health and Safety Practice

Increased level of compliances with rules and procedures
Improved production
Improved Staff Morale
Improved Company Reputation
Reduced Accidents

Reduced Ill health

Reduced Damage to Equipment
Reduced Staff Complaints
Reduced Absenteeism
Reduced insurance premium
Reduced fines and compensation claims

Element 2
Health and Safety Management Systems 1 Plan
Health and Safety Management Systems
HSG 65 : Successful Health and Safety Management Systems (HSE)
ILO OSH : Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health Management systems
OHSAS 18001: Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (BSI)
Follows the PDCA cycle:
Plan what youre going to do.
Do it!
Check that what youre doing is working.
Act if what youre doing isnt working as well as it should.

We will cover this in more detail in a minute

Policy. (Plan)
Organising. (Plan)
Planning and implementing. (Do)
Evaluation. Monitoring, review, measurement ,investigation (Check)
Auditing (Check)
Action for Improvement preventative and corrective action, continual
improvement (Act)
The system should develop over time to ensure continual improvement.
Key elements of ILO-OSH Management systems

Policy (Plan):
Clear statement of commitment to health and safety.
Organising (Plan):
Roles and responsibilities for health and safety.
At all levels in the organisation.
Planning and implementing (Do):
Detailed arrangements to manage H&S.
Risk assessments!

Evaluation - monitoring, review, measurement, investigation (Check):

Methods to monitor and review the effectiveness of the arrangements.
Audit (Check):
Independent, critical and systematic review of the management
Action for improvement - preventative and corrective action; continual
improvement (Act):
Steps to correct issues found in the review.

OHSAS 18001
With reference to OHSAS 18001: Occupational health and safety management systems

- policy (Plan)
- planning (Plan)
- implementation and operation (Do)
- checking and corrective action (Check)
- management review (Act)
- continual improvement (Act)
Continual Improvement
Continual improvement is a recurring process that enhances an organisations OHS&S management
system and improves its overall OH&S performance. Continual improvements must be consistent
with the organisations OH&S policy and can be achieved by carrying out internal audits performing
management reviews, analysing data, and implementing corrective and preventive actions.

HSG 65 Management System

Planning and Implementation
Measuring Performance
Reviewing Performance


Policy: Which should be a clear statement of intent, setting out the main health and safety aims and
objectives of the company and the commitment of management.
Organising: Which should ensure the allocation of responsibility to members of the workforce with
the emphasis on achieving competency and control, together with effective systems for
communication and consultation with the workforce.
Planning and Implementing:
That should involve the setting of standards and targets, the completion of hazard identification and
risk assessments and the introduction of appropriate control measures.
Measuring Performance:
Need to be put in place using proactive and reactive monitoring systems to provide data on the
achievement or non achievement of the objectives and targets set.
Is carried out to check whether what was planned was actually taking place, and a Review to
consider options for improvement and to set new targets where necessary.

Safety Policy: A fundamental component of an organisations OH&S management system established
by statute
Purpose of a Safety Policy is to:
Set out managements commitment to safety
Set out the organisation and arrangements for controlling work related hazards
Protect people from injury and occupational ill health
Comply with legal requirements and avoid prosecution
Manage health and safety on a cost effective basis
Safety Policy
A legal requirement
Used in decision-making
Should cater for the type of organisation i.e. different organisations have different needs
Tested by the enforcing authority during inspections and accident investigations
1, Each member shall in the light of national conditions and practice , and in consultation with the
most representative organisations of employers and workers ,formulate ,implement and periodically
review a coherent national policy on occupational health and the working environment.
2, The aim of the policy shall be to prevent accidents and injury to health arising out of linked with or
occurring in the course of work by minimising , so far as is reasonably practicable, the causes of
hazards inherent in the working environment.
Health and Safety Policy Consists of 3 Elements

Statement of Intent ( General Policy)


Purpose of Statement of Intent:

Demonstrate management commitment to health and
safety and set goals (Targets) and
Objectives. It should be
signed by the most senior person in the Organisation

Management Commitment
Gives the Policy authority
Has ultimate responsibility for Health and Safety

Targets should follow SMART principles

Benchmarking means that key performance indicators are compared with similar organisations
Reduced / Zero accidents
Zero prosecutions
Reduced sickness absence
Reduction in compensation climes
Improve reporting the near misses
Improve reporting in minor accidents
Increase numbers trained in health and safety
Improve audit scores
Organisation: This part deals with people and their operational duties in relation to health and safety.
It will outline the chain of command for health and safety management and identify roles and
responsibilities for individual staff or groups and give the scheme of delegation
Who is responsible to whom and for what
Director and Senior Managers : Setting Policy and Objectives
Line managers: Implementing Policy in their department
Supervisors: Checking Compliances with the policy
Safety Advisors: Advising company on accident and safety compliance
Employees: Responsible for own safety and others safety
Arrangements:This deals with the practical arrangements by which the general policy is to be
effectively implemented


Safety training
Safe systems of work, PTW
Risk Assessment
COSHH assessment
Environmental control
Machine/area guarding

Manual handling
Work at Height

Communicating the Policy: The Act requires that the employer must bring the policy to the attention
of his employees.
Induction Training
Team Briefing
News Letters
Displaying it on notice boards
Use of Posters
Informal discussion with employees
Review Of Policy
Changes in the structure of the organisation, and/or changes in key personnel
Processes / Materials
Work Patterns
Enforcement Action
Policy Review
Ineffective Health and Safety
No commitment or Leadership
No priority for Health and Safety
Insufficient Resources
Personnel do not understand the aims
No measurement on performance
Standards and Guidance relating to Health and Safety Policy
There are several recognised standards, guidelines that require employers to have a policy and provide
guidance on how to comply with this requirement.
ILO OSH 2001
OHSAS 18001
HSG 65
(in UK HASAWA 1974)

Element 3
Health And Safety Management System 2- DO
Employers duties to Employees
Make effective health and safety managements and arrangements
Safe Plant and Equipment
Information, Instruction, Training and Supervision (IITS)
Safe place of work and Access and Egress
Safe Environment and Welfare facilities
Consult and Inform Employees
Risk Assessments
Competent health and safety assistance
Health surveillance
Employers duties to Others
Carry out their work activities in such a way that persons not in his employment are not exposed to
risks to health or safety.
General Public
Other Employers employees and Trespassers
Precautions for the Safety of Visitors
Signing in
Providing Identification badge
Providing PPE
Site Induction
Escorting visitor to area of work
Remaining with visitor or regular monitoring
Escorting back to gate/reception
Signing out and removing badge

Roles of Directors / Senior Managers

Prepare and sign a health and safety policy
Set goals and objectives
Lead by example and to demonstrate commitment
Allocate responsibilities for health and safety
Provide sufficient resources
Appointing a Health and Safety Advisor
Receive monitoring reports and instigate action to rectify any deficiencies that have been found.

Middle Managers or Supervisors

Control work in their area of responsibility and set a good example. Carrying out risk assessments
Develop safe systems of work
Ensure members of their teams are fully briefed on the systems once they have been introduced
Carry out inspections of their working areas
Training, coaching and mentoring members of their team
Roles and Functions of Safety Practitioners
Advising the Management
Carrying out Inspection
Investigating the cause of any incidents
Supervising the recording and analysis of information on injuries, ill health, damage and production
Assessing accident trends and reviewing overall safety performance
Assisting with training for all levels
Liaison with safety representatives and safety committees
Keeping up to date with recommended codes of practice
Safety practitioner may also deal with outside the organisation
The enforcing authority, Fire rescue services, Insurance Company Contractors, Consultants and
Engineers, Manufacturers or supplier, Clients or customer, Police, Specialist Health and Safety
Practitioner, Public, Media
Employees duties
Take reasonable care
Take reasonable care of others
Co-operate with employers or anyone else for reasons of health and safety
Follow instructions and training in the use of machinery, equipment, Substances, transport equipment,
or safety devices
Inform employers of any dangerous work situation
Inform employers if health and safety could be improved
Not to interfere with anything provided for the purposes of health and safety
Self employed
Responsible to take reasonable care of their own health and safety and the health and safety of others
who might be affected by their acts or omissions.
Similar to workers responsibility
Suppliers, manufacturers and designers

For items of plant and equipment those involved in the supply chain are responsible for ensuring
that it:
Is adequately designed, constructed and tested so as to be safe for its intended purpose.
Comes with appropriate instructions.

For chemicals and substances those involved in the supply

chain are responsible for ensuring that it:
Is appropriately tested so that its hazardous properties are
Is appropriately packaged and labeled.
Comes with appropriate information (usually in the form of a Material Safety Data Sheet
Client and Contractor
Client: The party whom the work or project is being carried out.
Contractor: Those who visits the premises of others to carry out work. Contractor is the person
whom the client places the order.
Responsibilities of Client: Should protect contractors as well as their workforce from health and
safety risks and conduct all undertakings such a way as to ensure that members of the public around
or entering their premises are also protected.
Planning the work
Exchange of information between client and contractor
Information on hazards and risk
Hazards created by contract work
Contractor should:
Carryout risk assessment
Develop control measures
Documentation of safe working method (Method Statement)
Co-operation &Co-ordination
Between client & contractors
Between different contractors
Shared responsibilities
Hold regular meeting
Share information and risk assessments
Avoid carrying out incompatible processes
Prepare and agree joint site rule for the workplace (assembly points, smoking area )
Joint procedures for the management of visitors and contractors
Procedures for the management of traffic and the movement of vehicles
Inspections and monitoring of the workplace
Emergency procedure
Policy for the management of waste
Obtain advice on health and safety matters from a shared consultant

Identification of Suitable Contractors: Contractors should be assessed for Health and Safety
Factors to consider:
Health and safety policy
Accident / ill health record
Status of responsible person for health and safety
Details of prosecution / enforcement action
Experience in the field of work
Previous work/project
Reference of previous clients
Insurance details
Safety Culture
The safety culture of an organisation is the product of individual and group values, attitudes,
perceptions, competencies and patterns of behaviour that determine the commitment to, and the style
and proficiency of, an organisations health and safety management.
Factors affecting the culture
Lack of Effective communication
Lack of Leadership and Commitment
Lack of Monitoring
Failure to implement remedial action
Lack of consultation and Employee involvement
Poor working environment
Health and Safety seen as low priority
Lack of Supervision
Factors Influencing Safety Culture:
Indicators of Organisations Health and Safety Culture
Organisations developing a positive health should soon begin to see a significant reduction in the
following areas.
Sickness rate
Staff turnover
Level of compliance with health and safety rules and procedure
Complaints about working condition
Human Factors Which Influence Behaviour At Work
Organisational Factors
Job factors
Individual factors

Organisational Factors
Work patterns
Job Factors
Task Analysis
Ergonomics (man &machine interface)
Procedures, information and instructions
Working environment
Work patterns
Tools and equipment
Peer pressure
Human Factors Which Influence Behaviour At Work
Attitude, Motivation and Risk Perception
Attitude: The tendency to behave in a particular way in a certain situation
Management Commitment
Prevailing health and safety culture of organisation
Experience of the individual
Peer group influence
Home influence
Motivation: The driving force behind the way a person acts in order to achieve a goal
Job Satisfaction
Personal Achievement
Peer approval
Committed Management / Involvement in decisions
Safe Environments
Threat of Discipline
Perception: The way people interpret and make sense of presented information
Sensory input

Previous Experience
Feeling of being in control
Personnel Characteristics
Confidence in others abilities
Human factors which influence behaviours at work
Errors and Violations


How health and safety behaviour at work can be improved

Management commitment
Promoting health and safety standards by leadership and example and appropriate use of
disciplinary procedures
Competent personnel with relevant knowledge,skill and work experience
Effective communication within organisation

Communication is the passing on and receiving of information, ideas, thoughts and feelings so that
understanding is achieved. It is a two way process.
Methods of Communication
Written Communication: In the form of letters, Memos, reports, hand outs, notices, rules, policy and
Permanent Record
Accurate Detail
Wide Audience

One way
May be Unread
Often No feed back
Time Consuming
Barriers : Illiteracy, Competence, Presentation, Quality of Information, Quantity and Attitude.
Verbal Communication: In the form of Instructions, interviews, meetings, lectures, briefings and
informal talks.
Two Way
Instant Feed back
Easy to Do

No Record
No reference
Too much for memory
Limited audience

Barriers : Hearing Defect, Speech defects, Noise, Distance, Language, Lack of knowledge, Attitude,
Duration And speed.
Visual Communication: In the form of Video, Computer, Posters, Visual aids
Consistent message
Large Group

No Feed back
Too Much for Memory

Barriers : Environment and Knowledge of personnel

Low Cost

Need to Change regular basis


May become soiled

May become defaced
Reinforce Verbal Instructions
May become out of date
Constant message
Over reliance
Involve employees in selection.
May trivialise important message
Graphic Message
Variety of methods should be used for communication
People respond differently to different stimuli
Variety prevents over familiarisation with one method and helps to reinforce the message.

Need to over come language barriers and inability of some employee to read
Need to motivate, stimulate interest and gain involvement and feed back
The acceptance that different types of information require different methods of communication
Methods of Communication within an Organisation
Meetings, Team Briefings, Tool box Talks, Policy, Procedures, Rules, Standards, Trainings, Health
and Safety Reports and Posters.

Co-Operation and Consultation With Workforce

The primary responsibility to consult employees is set out in national and international laws.
ILO Occupational Safety and Health convention C155 requires that Health and Safety
Representatives (Employee Representatives)
Employer should consult with or Inform employees where there is no Representatives.
Introduction of measures that affect their health and safety
New process and technology
New work patterns
Consulting and Informing
A Basic requirement for a successful consultation through the use of a safety committee is the desire
of both employee and management to show honest commitment and positive approach to a
programme of accident prevention and the establishment of a safe and healthy environment and
systems of work
Consulting: Consulting is a two way process and involves listening to employees, views and taking
account of what they say before any decision is taken.
Informing: Informing is one way process providing employees with information.
Safety Committees
The objective of every safety committee must be to promote co-operation between employer and
employees to ensure employees Health and Safety at work.
A clear agenda is required for the meeting, and the committee discuss only the items on the agenda.
Number of Management representatives should not exceed the number of Safety representatives, and
should include line Managers, Engineers, HR Managers, Safety Officers and Supervisors
Safety Committee Agenda at Minutes

Minutes of the previous meeting

Study of Accident / Reportable illness
Examination of audit Report
Analysis of Reports provided by Inspectors
Development and monitoring of safety rules and safe system
Constant evaluation of effectiveness of safety training
Monitor the adequacy of health and safety communication
Date of Next meeting
Factors affecting the effectiveness of Safety Committee
A Clear management commitment
Clear Objective and Functions
Balanced Representation
Actual influence in decision Making
Respect of Management and work force
Commitment from committee members
Good leadership and chairman ship
Good communication channels
Access to relevant information and specialist advice
Training: It is necessary to ensure that they have adequate health and safety training and are capable
enough at their jobs to avoid risk to themselves or others.
Training should be given at the following stages
On Joining the Organisation
Before Starting Work (Job Specific)
Refresher Training
Work Practices changes ( Materials, New Technology)
New Legislation
Before moving to new Job

Importance of Induction Training

Shows the management Commitment
Identifies the Responsibilities
The employee knows how to recognise and report unsafe conditions
Identifies Hazards and Precautions
The employee is aware of the Hazards
Imparts Knowledge
Set the scene for future performance
Induction Training
Management Commitment to Safety
Company Safety Policy
Role of Safety Representatives

Emergency Procedure
First Aid Arrangements
Welfare Provisions
Specific Hazards
Health Surveillance Procedure
How to report Accidents
Factors to Consider when developing Training
What Employees need to know compared to what they do know
Employees Responsibilities
Activities Carried out
Risk Associated with activities
Action required by employees to minimise the risks
Employees existing knowledge and previous experience
Type of training already received
Different requirement for various levels of staff
Resources needed (cost, time and facilities)
Competence of staff to deliver training
Importance of Planning
Health and Safety must be managed systematically, To achieve this, a system must be in place to:
Implement &maintain health and safety requirements
Planning helps to
Set specific objectives to be achieved
Set specific procedures to achieve these objectives.
Setting Objectives
Factors to be considered:
Senior management involvement
Setting at each level and department
In line with legal, corporate policy and standards
Hazards and risks at work place or activity
Technological changes
Financial, operational and business interests
Views of interested parties (employees, contractors, manufacturers)
Based on SMART principles and up to date
Principles of Risk Assessment

Risk Assessment: A careful examination of what in work could cause harm, so that you can weigh up
whether you have taken enough precautions or should do more to prevent harm.
Objectives of Risk Assessment
The Identification of Hazards at Work, The evaluation of the risks from the hazards, Deciding how to
control the risks, Implementing a control strategy
Different types of Incidents
Ill health
Injury accidents
Dangerous Occurrences
Near miss
Damage only
Risk Assessors
A competent person or a team who have:

Experience and training in risk assessment process

Experience of the process / task
Technical knowledge
Knowledge of local regulation
Communication and reporting skills
Commitment and willingness to do a task
Awareness of their own limitations.

Composition of a RA team
Workers, familiar with the tasks and areas to be assessed.
Health and safety specialists, such as safety practitioners and occupational health nurses.
Technical specialists, such as mechanical and electrical engineers.
Line managers/Supervisors responsible for the tasks or areas being assessed.
Worker safety representatives.

All hazards must be identified

Risk control measure must be in place
The control measures must be reliable
The risk assessment must remain current for a period of time

Five Steps
Identifying the hazards
Decide who might be harmed and how
Evaluate the risk and existing precautions

Record findings
Review and revise, if necessary
Step One
Identifying the hazards HOW?
Observing the activity, Work place inspections, Consultation with employees, Non-inspection
techniques (JSA), Examination of documents, Accident / illness data, Near-miss reports
Step Two
Deciding who might be harmed and how.
Maintenance Workers, Contractors,
Trainees, Visitors, Members of Public,
Young workers,
New and expectant mothers
Step Two Contd
Deciding who might be harmed and how
Exposure to: Chemical hazards, Biological hazard, Radiation, Noise, Vibration, Temperature, Stress,
Step Three
Evaluate the risks and existing precautions
5 Fatality
4 Major disabling injury
3 - More than 3 days off
work, injury, illness
2 Minor injury, under 3 days off the work
1 Minor injury, No time off
5 Certain, imminent
4 Very likely
3 - Likely
2 Unlikely
1 Very unlikely
Risk = Likelihood X Severity
Step Three
Evaluate the risks and existing precautions

Control Hierarchy
A list of measures designed to control risk which are considered in order of importance,
effectiveness or priority or measures designed to control risk that normally begin with an extreme
measure of control and end with personal protective equipment as a last resort.
ERIC PD ( ERIC Prevents Death)
E Eliminate
R Reduce
I Isolate
C- Control
D- Discipline

Step Four
Record the findings
All significant hazards
The number of people affected and how
Existing control measures
Additional precautions required
Step Five
Review & Revise
Elapse of Time, When accident or incident occurred, Change in process, Change in material, Change
in premises, Change in work patterns, Prosecution, Enforcement action, Compensation claims, Policy
review, Professional advice,
Special Considerations to:
Young persons because of :
Lack of knowledge and experience, they are in developing stage, More likely to take risk, More likely
to respond to peer group pressure, Over enthusiasm,
Control measures:
Training, Close Supervision, Monitored by experienced fellow worker, Clear line of communication,
Restrict type of work to be carried out, Restrict type of equipment to be used, Restrict hours of work

Special Considerations to:

New & Expectant mothers because of
Their and their foets / babies health considerations
Exposure to various hazards can damage their health
Hazards may range from biological, physical, chemical, ergonomical, radiation, temperature etc.
Special Considerations to:
Disabled personnel because of
Their reduced mobility, Their reduced sensory ability, Reduced communication skills
Special Considerations to:
Night shift workers and lone workers
Rest period between shifts, Disruption of normal routines, Fatigue, Supervision, Violence while
travelling, Emergency arranging/ first aid arrangements, Access to welfare facilities, Light,
Cleaners /Lone workers / long route drivers
Loneliness at work area, Lack of Communication facility, Lack of assistance in case of emergency,
abnormal hours of work, Violence
Factors to be considered when assessing the risks to a long distance delivery driver.
Job factors
The time taken for the journey, Demands of the route (road conditions), Communications with home
base, Security issues (including possibility of violence).
Individual factors relate to:
Physical and psychological capabilities of the driver to cope with the job demands
The level of training given, Age
The vehicle:
Ergonomic factors such as design and layout of the drivers cab
The load:
Nature of load (e.g. hazardous, heavy)
Means of handling materials

Emergency equipment and procedures in place

Principles of control
The control of risks is necessary to prevent accidents and ill health, and may be required by law. To
enable this to be done risk assessment are carried out and then suitable control measures are
implemented to deal with the risk. This is a requirement of safety management system.
General Principles of Prevention

Avoid risks
Evaluate risks that cannot be avoided
Combat risks at source
Adapt the work to the individual
Adapt to technical progress
Replace dangerous with non-dangerous
Develop an overall prevention policy
Give collective measures priority over individual ones
Give appropriate instructions to employees

Selection of PPE
Identify the Hazard, Compliances with standard, Comfort, Compatibility, Cost, Replacement,
Training, Hygiene, Supervision, Storage,
PPE should be considered as a last resort
Only minimize the Injury, Poor selection or fit, Lack of comfort, Incompatibility with other PPEs,
Contamination, Misuse or non use, Relies on action being taken by user, May create additional
hazards, Relies on management enforcement

Safety Signs
Safe Conditions
Fire safety signs

White back ground, Circular band and diagonal bar in red (running from top left to bottom right)
Yellow back ground black triangular band Symbol or text in black
Blue circle with symbol or text in white
Safe Conditions
Green square or Rectangle with white symbols or text
Fire Safety Signs
White symbols on red square or rectangle
Safe System of Work
The integration of People, Equipment and Materials in the correct Environment to produce safest
possible condition in a specific area.
A safe system of work is a formal procedure based on a systematic examination of work in order to
identify the hazards. It defines safe methods of working which eliminate those hazards or minimise
the risks associated with them.
Safe System of Work
Employer is responsible for SSW
When significant residual risk remains, When control measures are removed
Eg. During maintenance
Active role of competent person
Involvement of worker
Ensure consistency
Better understanding in complex task
Reference document for the task
Proof of legal compliance
Safe System of Work
Consider: Technical, Procedural and Behavioral controls
Technical: Applied directly to hazard Eg. Guard, safety devices

Procedural: Control the way in which a task is completed, Correct operation of technical controls.
Eg. Sequence of work Checks to be done
Behavioural: Control the behaviour of workers, Introduce good practices
Eg. PPE, housekeeping
Developing Safe System of Work
1. Select the task
2. Record the stages of task
3.Evaluate the risk associated with each stage
4.Develop the safe working method
5. Implement the safe working method
6.Monitoring the safe system
Introduce controls & Formulate procedure
Define the Safe System of Work
Equipment & Machinery
Confined Space
A confined space is an area large enough and so configured that an employee can enter bodily and
perform their work
A confined space has a limited or restricted means of entry or exit
A confined space is not designed for continuous human occupancy.
Lone Working
Lone workers might be defined as workers who are separated from their work colleagues.

They lack assistance to do the work and if things go wrong.

Communication with colleagues and management is more difficult.

Working and Travelling Abroad

Hazards to security, Hazards to health
Consider arranging:

Pre- and post-visit briefings, Insurance arrangements, Personal health advice and vaccinations,
Financial arrangements, Personal security training and advice, Advice on cultural differences and
requirements, Accommodation, Emergency arrangements, 24-hour organisation contacts.
Advise on:
Vaccination, Pre-trip medical examination, Medical insurance, Training on personal health care,
Emergency medical provision, Post-trip medical check-up
Permit to Work System
This is a formal document, signed by an authorised person and intended to control the activities by
ensuring set procedures are followed and by recording the control measures that should be taken.
Role and function of Permit to Work System
Part of a safe system of work
To control high risk work activities such as hot work
Formalises the control of high risk work by ensuring that
All the risks have been identified
All the precautions put in place
Information has been communicated to all relevant parties.

Operation and Application

Description of Task, time, location
Hazard identification
Planning (Isolation, PPE)
Issued by an authorized person
Accepted by a competent person
Task completion
Closure of permit
Operation and application
A permit-to-work usually has four main sections:

Operation and application
Issued by Authorisation Manager
Specification of:
The exact nature of the work, Where the work can take place, The names of each of the workers
authorised to carry out the work, The date and time that work can start, The period of time the permit
is valid for, The control measures that must be in place before, during and after the work, Any
restrictions, Any other permits that may be relevant.
Authorisation Manager signs the permit

By competent person
Formal acceptance to confirm understanding of hazards, risks, precautions
Competent person signs the permit
Clearance/Return to Service
The competent person sign
To confirm that he has left the workplace in a safe condition
Work is complete
Normal operations may resume
The authorising manager signs
To accept the hand-back of the work place
No further work can take place under its authority.
Application of PTW
Certain activities that require PTW
Confined space work, Excavation, Hot work, Critical lifting, Radiography, Working at height

Emergency Procedures
Adequate emergency procedures should be in place or developed to control likely incidents. (Fire,
Spillages etc.) Procedures should be in writing and regularly tested through drills.
Type of Emergency
Fire (Evacuation)
Dealing with accidents
Chemical Spillage
Intruder alert
Explosive device
Emergency service contact & response time
Appointed personnel (to deal with)
Communication system
First aid / medical facilities
Evacuation procedure
Effects on surrounding community
Post emergency action
(Repair and Investigation)
First Aid Requirements
The employer must make an assessment to determine the needs. The following will be considered
Different Work activity
Difficult Access to Treatment
Workers working away from employers premises
First Aid
To preserve life
To prevent deterioration
To promote recovery
Provide treatment for minor injury
First Aid : Factors to be considered
Size of the organization
Nature and distribution of the work force
Nature of the work
History of accident/incident

Remoteness of the location

Need for travel
Training of person
First aid facility

A room centrally located and accessible by emergency services

Well ventilated, lit and adequate temperature control
Hand wash, chair and clinical waste bin

Eye-wash stations.
Emergency showers.
Resuscitation equipment.
Other equipment as required

Element 4 : Health and Safety Management System 4- CHECK

Companies should monitor their performance in managing health and safety in the same way that any
other aspect of business in monitored
Purpose for monitoring
Identify substandard Health and Safety Practices, Identify Trends, Compare Actual Performance
against targets, Benchmark, Identify use and effectiveness of control measures, Make decisions on
suitable remedial measures, Set priorities and establish realistic timescales, Assess Compliances with
legal requirements, Provide information to board and committees
Active and Reactive Monitoring
Active Monitoring (Proactive)

Check the health and safety plans have been implemented.

Monitor the extents of compliances with organisations systems/procedures, and with its legislative
/technical standards.
Reactive Monitoring
To analyse data relating to accidents, Near misses, Ill health and any other downgrading events
Active Monitoring
Organisations need to know:
Where they are
Where they want to be
What is the difference and why
Systematic Inspection of Plant and Premises

The systematic inspection of plant and premises can identify health and safety conditions,
providing an indication of the effectiveness of controls used to prevent substandard
If inspections are done on a timely basis it is possible to limit the harmful effects can arise
from sub standard conditions.

Health surveillance

Accident Report
Near miss Reports
Ill health Reports
Damage Report

Role of Safety inspections, Sampling, Surveys and Tours

Safety Inspection
Involves the straightforward observation of a workplace and or the activities or equipment within it.
It is usually carried out by a supervisors, employee representative and safety advisor at regular
intervals and often aided by the use of a check list.
To identify the health and safety status of what is being inspected and what improvements are needed.
Types of Inspection
General Workplace Inspection
Statutory Inspection

Preventive Maintenance Inspection (Periodic)

Pre use Checks of Equipment's
Factors Governing Frequency and Type of Inspection
Frequency of inspections should be established using the data gathered from various sources (Risk
Assessment, Accident/Near misses and plant break down etc.)
Depends upon factors such as the purpose of the inspection and level of risk within the Organisation.
Statutory Inspections will depend on legislation of the country or requirements of organisation.
Factors Governing Frequency and Type of Inspection

Compliance with statutory requirements

Activities undertaken at the workplace and their associated level of risk
The distribution of the workforce
The results from previous inspections and audits
Companys record of compliance with established standards
Recommendations from risk assessments
Accident history and the outcomes of accident investigations
Enforcement action taken or advice given by the enforcement authority
The introduction of new equipment, processes or safe systems of work
Manufacturers recommendations
Requirements from insurance companies
Consultation with or as a result of complaints from workers

Competence of Inspector
The people who carrying out the inspection will need to be competent and so require
Knowledge of workplace inspections and of the hazards associated with activities
Knowledge of controls in place to prevent hazards
Experience of the process, activity or area
Experience in carrying out inspections
Training in Inspection techniques
Training on checklists
Good communication and writing skills
Use of Checklists
Checklist can be useful aids when information/data is incorporated from plant and machinery.

Inspection Checklists
Housekeeping, Electrical Safety
Provision and use of PPE

Use and storage of Hazardous Substances

Manual Handling, Traffic Routes
Machinery, Internal Transport
Emergency Equipment
Welfare Facilities
Safe Systems of Work
Working Environment
Advantages (Strengths)of using Checklists
Enables prior preparation and planning
Inspection is more structured and systematic
Reduces the chance of important issues being overlooked
Provide immediate record of findings
Ensure a constant approach
Provide easy method for comparison and audit
Disadvantages (Weaknesses)of using Checklists
Over reliance on checklists may result in a blinkered approach by inspectors
Checklist may not be reviewed or updated to account for changes
Untrained person might attempt to conduct inspections
Inspection procedure may subject to human error
Allocation of Responsibilities and Priorities for action
Identify the person who is responsible to implement the corrective action.
Priorities for Action
High Risk: Likely to cause Major loss - Complete within 24 hours
Medium Risk: Serious loss - 7 days (1 month)
Low Risk: Minor loss- 30 days (3 Month)

Effective Report Writing

Style: Clear and Concise wording, do not use ambiguous words and use plain language where
Structure: Simple structure, simple heading easy to read and understand.
Emphasis: Prioritised to any weakness found, clear recommendations (high, med and low)
Persuasiveness: Highlight any potential changes and indicate any benefits, do not go into great
detail with correct action plan. Use of plain language is preferred.
i.e. Introduction, Summary, Main body of report, Conclusion and Recommendations.
A report of a workplace inspection should include the following:

Summary of findings
Good and bad practices
Priority of corrective actions
Breaches of legislation
Cost implications
Persons conducting the inspection
Factors should be considered When planning a safety Inspection of the workplace
The reason for the Inspection, The location or area
Date, time and duration, Members
Type, i.e. announced or unannounced
Method checklist or observation
Results of previous inspection
Remedial action and timescales
Company rules and standards
Major Problem areas in Safety Inspection
It is only a snapshot in time
Some hazards are not visible
Some hazards may not present
Unsafe practices may not happen during inspection
Safety Survey: It focus on a particular activities normally carried out by specialist persons (Fire
protection, Manual Handling)
Safety Tour: Unscheduled examination of work area, carried out by a range of personnel from works
Managers to Safety Committee members to ensure that standards of House keeping are at an
acceptable level, obvious hazards are removed and in general that safety standards are observed.
Safety Sampling: A random sampling exercise observing health and safety conditions and practices .
Benchmarking: Comparing the performance, learning from others , comparing own organisations
strength and weakness and acting on the lessons learned.
Health Surveillance: By carrying out health surveillance the employer will be able to detect problems
at early stages.
Reactive Monitoring

Dealing with things that went wrong!

Accidents, incidents, ill-health, other unwanted events and situations:
Highlights areas of concern.

Things that have already gone wrong.

Measures failure.
2 methods:
Lessons from one specific event, e.g. an accident.
-Data collected over a period

Data collected and reported about:
Dangerous occurrences.
Ill-health cases.
Worker complaints.
Enforcement action.
Assist in analysing:
Trends events over a period of time.
Patterns hot spots of certain types, e.g. injury.
Use of Statistics

Potential issues:
Data may be manipulated.
Incidents may go unreported.
Sudden increase in reporting of incidents can suggest a decrease in performance:
Could be due to improved reporting

Other reactive Measures:

Enforcement actions
Often required during pre-tender qualifications.
Civil claims
Total cost of claims can be calculated.
May be affected by:
- Advertising campaigns.
- Dissatisfaction with organisation

Role And Function of Investigation of Accidents

Why Investigate?
Humane , Legal, Economical
Role of Investigation

Establish What Happened

Identify Measures to Prevent Recurrence
Establish legal and or/ worker compensation liability
Data gathering
Identification of Trends
Determine the causes of what happened, including root cause
Role And Function of Investigation of Accidents
Function of Investigation
Demonstrate management commitment
Determine cause & prevent recurrence
Identify weakness in management system
Identify weakness in risk assessment
Comply with legal requirements
Collect data to establish trends
Prevent future business losses
Provide information in case of legal action
Provide information to insurance companies & general public
Basic Incident Investigation Procedure
The ILO Code of practice for Recording and Notifying of occupational Accidents and Diseases (COPRNOAD).
Approach to Investigation
Gather the Information: Where, When and Who
Analyze the information: What Happened and Why
Identify risk control measures: Possible solutions
Action Plan and Implementation: Which risk control measure to be implemented in the short and
long term
Preparing for Investigation
Determine the who should be involved in accident investigation.
A senior manager from another department, act as independent chairman.
A health and safety practitioner to advice on specific health and safety issues.
An engineer or technical expert to provide any technical information required.
A manager from the department where the accident occurred, whose responsibilities would include
ensuring the recommendations of the investigation team were actioned.
A local manager or supervisor with detailed knowledge of the site of accident and of the systems of
work in place.
A worker safety representative who apart from having the statutory right to be involved if trade union
appointed, could represent the injured worker and his co workers.

Preparing for Investigation

Ensure that the accident scene remains undisturbed insofar as it is reasonable and safe to do so.
collect all relevant existing documents such as previous accident reports, maintenance records, risk
assessments etc.
Identify the witnesses, who will need to be interviews during the investigation.
Check that legal reporting requirements have been met
Ascertain the equipment's that will be needed (measuring tape, camera)
Determine the style and depth of investigation.
Training for the reporting of accidents/incidents
The importance of reporting accidents and incidents for legal, investigative and monitoring reasons.
The type of event that the organisation requires to be reported.
The line of reporting
How to complete internal documents and forms
How to report external organisations, where appropriate
Scope and Depth of Investigation
The depth of investigation should depend on the severity of actual or potential loss, whichever is the
Investigation Guidelines
Anyone wishing to assist the injured party must take care.
Investigation must begin as soon as possible after the accident
Keep the objective clearly in mind ( Identify the causes and remedial action not to blame any one)
Witness should be interviewed one at a time
Ask open questions
Avoid making early assumptions
Approach the witness without bias
Make notes of interview, not relaying on memory
Summery of Action to be taken: (Immediate & future action after accident)

Isolate the scene and make the area safe

First aid to the victim
Calling medical assistance, if required
Implement or initiate emergency plan
Informing the next of kin
Report to relevant legal authority
Identify witness
Set up investigation team
Detailed investigation to find causes
Making recommendation
Implement corrective actions

Interviews, Plans, Photographs, relevant records and checklists

The ILO Code of practice requires, The employer should investigate all reported occupational
accidents, occupational diseases, dangerous occurrences and incidents.
Recording the details (Name of the interviewers, interviewee and anyone accompanying interviewees,
place date, time of interview and any significant comment or action during interview)
Conducting the interview in private without any disturbance
Interviewing one person at a time
Protecting the reputation of the people interviewed
Setting a casual, informal tone during the interview to put the individual at ease.
Summarising your understanding of the matter
Expressing appreciation for the witnesses information
Translating conclusions into effective action
Interviews, Plans, Photographs, relevant records and checklists
The use of sketch plan by investigator can assist in demining the root causes of the event. Plans can be
used to provide a clear indication of accident scene including position of any injured person, witness,
plant and equipment.

Take the photographs to preserve the images of accident scenes or resulting injuries.
Relevant Records
Opinions, Observations, Measurements, Check sheets, work permits, Risk Assessments, Method
statements and Training Records.
Interviews, Plans, Photographs, relevant records and checklists
Common structure of report tends to determine:
What Happened
The Loss
How it Happened
The Event
Why it Happened
The Causes
Preventive Action
Immediate Causes and Root Causes

Immediate Causes
Unsafe act by Workers and Unsafe Conditions
Root Cause (Management System Failure)
Lack Of Training
Poor Supervision
Equipment not Maintained
Domino Theory Of Accident Causation

Lack of management control

Individual & Job factors (Indirect)
Immediate Cause (Unsafe Acts & unsafe Conditions)
Event (Accident / Near Miss)
Injury / Damage (loss)

Direct causes / immediate causes

The driver of a forklift has been seriously injured after the truck has overturned
Cornering too fast
Hitting Obstruction
Driving on uneven ground
Moving with load elevated
Driving with unstable load
Driving with excessive load
Colliding with another vehicle
Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs
Poorly maintained truck or road
Poor lighting
Root / Underlying causes:
The driver of a forklift has been seriously injured after the truck has overturned
No or Inadequate risk assessment
No safe system of work
No defect reporting Systems
Lack of daily inspection
Lack of maintenance of vehicle
Lack of maintenance of workplace
Lack of Supervision
Unfamiliarity with workplace
High work load
Poor vehicle selection
Inadequate driver training

Reporting/Informing a death at work following an accident should include
Next of Kin
The Senior Manager
Health and Safety Specialist
Enforcing Authority
Employee Representatives
Other Employees
Insurance Company

Recording and Reporting Incidents

Internal Systems for collecting analysing and communicating data
Collecting the Data (Report Form Type)
Initial Record of Accident (Accident book)
First Aid Treatment Reports
Medical Treatment Reports
Sickness / Absence Records
Accident Report
Near Miss / Dangerous Occurrence Reports
Maintenance / Repair Report
Insurance Report
Reporting Routes
Person Receiving Harm, Person Causing Harm, Person Discovering Harm
Recording and Reporting Incidents
Analysing and communicating data
Reports from first line managers may be copied to the next line manager, safety professional,
employee representatives.
Organisational Requirements for Recording and Reporting Incidents
Recording and Notifying of Occupational accident and Disease) (ILO Code of Practice RNOAD)
Reporting: Procedure specified by the employer in accordance with national laws and regulations, and
in accordance with the practice at the enterprise, for the submission by workers to their immediate
supervisor, the competent person, or any other specified person or body, of information on
(a) Any occupational accident or injury to health which arises in the course of or inconnection with

(b) Suspected cases of occupational diseases;

(c) Dangerous occurrences and near misses.
Typical Examples of Major Injuries, Diseases, and Dangerous Occurrences
Major Injury: ILO Code of practice for RNOAD does not specify types of major injury resulting from
accidents that should be reported. It is left to national legislations.
Diseases: (Caused by Agents) (Diseases by Target Organ Systems)
Caused by Physical Agents
Respiratory Diseases
Chemical Agents
Skin Diseases
Biological Agents
Musculoskeletal Disorder
Occupational Cancer
Typical Examples of Major Injuries, Diseases, and Dangerous Occurrences
Dangerous Occurrences: Are the events that have the potential to cause death or serious injury and so
should be reported.
e.g. Failure of Lifting Equipment
Collapse of building

Element 5: Health and Safety Management Systems- Act

Audit: A thorough, critical examination of an organisations safety management systems and

Auditing Procedure

Setting objective of the audit

Selecting Audit Team
Contact the organisation being audited
Undertaking the audit
Providing Report
Action by Organisation

Written information that is likely to be examined during a health and safety audit
A copy of the company Health and Safety Policy
Details of written safe systems of work
Safety Committee minutes
Accident statistics
Investigation reports
Planned inspection reports
The First-Aid book
Records of maintenance
A register of hazardous substances
Training records

Internal Audit: Advantage

Easier to arrange
Incurring Minimal Cost
Employees may not feel threatened

Could be influenced by internal relationship and pressure
Conclusions may not take seriously
Auditor may make assumptions
External Audit: Advantage
Auditor is independent
Auditor will not make assumptions
Importance given to conclusions
More time to Organise
More Expensive
Employees may feel threatened
Action to be taken after the Audit
The audit findings should be submitted to the senior management of the organisation. such as they
have the authority both to require appropriate action to be taken and to authorise the resources that
might be necessary.
To enable management to demonstrate leadership and commitment from the top.
To enable management to give praise or reward where this has been earned but also to take
disciplinary action against workers incases where this is thought to be necessary.
To consider and reset their goals and objectives for the future and to comply with their personal
responsibilities either under legislation or under international standards and best practice.

Review of Health And Safety Performance

Reviewing health and safety performance is a key part of any heath and safety management system.
It should be conducted on a routine basis by managers.
Reason for Review

Not on Target
Review is an essential part of Management System
Review may be required for accreditation purpose
Issues to be Considered in the Review
Legal Compliances, Accident Data, Findings of Monitoring
Absence or Sickness Data, Audit Report
Consultation, Objectives Met