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# Question: T200001.

UT

## Mechanical wave motion requires

a)
b)
c)
d)

high pressure
low pressure
particle motion
ionic bonding and disbonding

Question: T200002.UT

## In an homogenous and isotropic elastic medium such as low carbon

steel, sound velocity

a)
b)
c)
d)

## decreases with distance from source

varies with direction
is constant in all directions
depends on frequency

Question: T200003.UT

## The amount of time between two compressions, or two rarefactions

of an elastic wave is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

wavelength
period
frequency
velocity

Question: T200004.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## constant for all materials

varies with frequency
varies inversely with wavelength
is characteristic of a material

Question: T200005.UT

## Compared to the atomic or molecular spacing of a material,

ultrasonic wavelengths are

a)
b)
c)
d)

much greater
smaller
are multiples of the atomic spacing

Question: T200006.UT

## The elastic wave that has particle motion parallel to the

direction of wave propagation is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

longitudinal wave
compression wave
density wave
all of the above

Question: T200007.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## parallel to the direction of wave propagation

right angles to the direction of wave propagation
in counter clockwise ellipses

Question: T200008.UT

## Rayleigh waves can be used in steel to penetrate up to

a)
b)
c)
d)

10mm
10cm
1m
1 wavelength

Question: T200009.UT

## In bending waves (plate wave mode) particles in the middle zone

of the plate vibrate

a) in longitudinal mode
b) in shear mode
c) in Rayeigh mode

d) not at all

Question: T200010.UT

## In the Lamb wave called a dilational wave, particles in the

middle zone of the plate vibrate

a)
b)
c)
d)

in longitudinal mode
in shear mode
in Rayleigh mode
not at all

Question: T200011.UT

## If one sound beam passes through another moving in the opposite

direction, the result will be,

a)
b)
c)
d)

a change in amplitude
a change in direction
a change in frequency
no change

Question: T200012.UT

## In a standing wave, nodes and antinodes are separated by

a)
b)
c)
d)

1/4 wavelength
1/2 wavelength
1 wavelength
2 wavelengths

Question: T200013.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## through testing (pitch-catch)

resonance thickness testing
flaw detection
B-scans

Question: T200014.UT

Specific acoustic impedance is the product of

a)
b)
c)
d)

## density and permittivity

hardness and velocity
velocity and density
specific activity and amplitude

Question: T200015.UT

## Poisson's ratio is expressed in units of

a)
b)
c)
d)

m/s
Pa
N/m2
no units, it is dimensionless

Question: T200016.UT

## Frequency can be expressed in terms of

a)
b)
c)
d)

1/s (s=seconds)
cps
Mhz
all of the above

Question: T200017.UT

## The ratio of sound velocity in water to the longitudinal velocity

of sound in steel is very nearly

a)
b)
c)
d)

1:1
1:2
1:4
1:5

Question: T200018.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## greater than longitudinal wave velocities

greater than transverse wave velocities
less than transverse wave velocities
about the same as shear wave velocities

Question: T200019.UT

## The ratio of the incident sound pressure to the reflected sound

pressure is called the

a)
b)
c)
d)

acoustic impedance
acoustic intensity
coefficient of reflection
coefficient of transmission

Question: T200020.UT

## The ratio of the incident sound pressure to the transmitted sound

pressure is called the

a)
b)
c)
d)

acoustic impedance
acoustic intensity
coefficient of reflection
coefficient of transmission

Question: T200021.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## if Z incident is less than Z transmitted

If Z incident is greater than Z transmitted
if Z incident equals Z transmitted
never

Question: T200022.UT

## Incident sound pressure plus reflected sound pressure equals

a)
b)
c)
d)

0
1
transmitted sound pressure
none of the above

Question: T200023.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## the sum of the reflected and transmitted intensities

the difference between reflected and transmitted intensities
R plus D (reflection and transmission coefficients)
R plus D (reflection and transmission coefficients)

Question: T200024.UT

## (Sin a1) (C2) = (Sin a2) C1) is a form of

a)
b)
c)
d)

Krautkramer's law
Snell's law
Boyle's law
Hooke's law

Question: T200025.UT

## If the Sine of a refracted angle is calculated to be 0.707, the

refracted angle will be

a)
b)
c)
d)

36 degrees
45 degrees
60 degrees
undetermined from the given information

Question: T200026.UT

## For a shear wave travelling from steel to water incident on the

boundary at 10 degrees will give a refracted shear wave in water
with an angle of

a)
b)
c)
d)

0 degrees
5 degrees
20 degrees
none of the above

Question: T200027.UT

## a) longitudinal waves' angle

b) incident angle
c) refracted angle

## d) reflected shear wave

Question: T200028.UT

The critical angle occurs when the sine of the refracted angle
equals

a)
b)
c)
d)

0.707
0.846
1.000
1.414

Question: T200029.UT

## At a solid to free boundary, an obliquely incident longitudinal

wave from the solid can result in, at most,

a)
b)
c)
d)

a reflected longitudinal
a reflected longitudinal
a refracted longitudinal
a reflected longitudinal
longitudinal wave

wave only
and reflected shear wave
long wave
and reflected shear and refracted

Question: T200030.UT

## At a liquid/solid boundary with an obliquely incident

longitudinal wave from the liquid the result could be at most be

a)
b)
c)
d)

a
a
a
a

reflected
refracted
reflected
reflected

## longitudinal wave only

longitudinal wave only
longitudinal, and a refracted long wave
long and refracted long and shear wave

Question: T200031.UT

## Given V (water) = 1.5 mm/us and V (steel) longitudinal velocity =

5.0 mm/us and shear velocity mm/us, what is the second critical
angle of an incident longitudinal wave from steel.

a)
b)
c)
d)

19 degrees
27 degrees
36 degrees
none of the above

Question: T200032.UT

## A shear wave polarized in the plane of incidence impinging on a

free boundary at right angles to the boundary will result in

a)
b)
c)
d)

## a reflected shear wave only

a reflected shear wave and reflected longitudinal wave
reflected longitudinal wave only
a surface wave

Question: T200033.UT

## Maximum surface wave energy is obtained when the angle of

incidence is

a)
b)
c)
d)

0 degrees
60 degrees
90 degrees
just over the critical angle

Question: T200034.UT

## Geometric-optic treatment of ultrasonic waves fails to account

for

a)
b)
c)
d)

reflection
refraction
diffraction
normal incidence

Question: T200035.UT

implies

a)
b)
c)
d)

## an inverse proportionality to distance

infinite sound pressure at the source
both a and b
none of the above

Question: T200036.UT

## Spherical and cylindrical waves reflecting off a plane surface

preserve shape but not

a)
b)
c)
d)

velocity
wavelength
frequency
acoustic pressure distribution

Question: T200037.UT

## The advantage of inspecting a thick solid cylinder with a

a)
b)
c)
d)

increased sensitivity
reduced entry noise
smaller near zone
more uniform pressure through the cylinder

Question: T200038.UT

## The ratio of the diameter of an oscillator to the wavelength it

generates gives the

a)
b)
c)
d)

acoustic velocity
near zone length
acoustic impedance of the oscillator
number of interference maxima and minima

Question: T200039.UT

For practical purposes, the equation for the near zone distance
can be approximated by (where l = wavelength and D = probe
diameter)

a)
b)
c)
d)

D / l
D squared / 4 l
D squared minus l squared/4 l
(D-4l)/l squared

Question: T200040.UT

## Given an "X-cut" normal beam contact probe on steel, the probe is

12 mm diameter and has a frequency of 2 MHz. The approximate

## near zone length is (V steel = 6.0mm/us)

a)
b)
c)
d)

4mm
12mm
24mm
48mm

Question: T200041.UT

## A transducer has a near field in water of 35 mm.

contact on steel the near zone will be about

When used in

a)
b)
c)
d)

47 mm
35 mm
18 mm
9 mm

Question: T200042.UT

## The so called angle of divergence applies to the

a)
b)
c)
d)

near field
Fresnel zone
far field

Question: T200043.UT

## Sin(gamma) = 1.2 lambda / D (where lambda is wavelength and D is

the crystal diameter) is the equation for

a)
b)
c)
d)

## the first critical angle

interference minima in the near zone
half angle of divergence in the Fraunhoffer zone
optimum energy angle for shear waves

Question: T200044.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## crystal thickness of the probe

crystal dimension eg. diameter
crystal shape
all of the above

Question: T200045.UT

A rectangular probe, 4mm X 8mm, will have its maximum half angle
of divergence

a)
b)
c)
d)

## in the 4mm direction

in the 8mm direction
in no particular orientation
constant in all directions

Question: T200046.UT

## Given a 10 X 10mm square probe of 5 MHz fundamental frequency,

compared to a 10mm diameter 5 Mhz probe, the near zone of the
square probe would be

a)
b)
c)
d)

longer
shorter
the same
independent of wavelength

Question: T200047.UT

## In ultrasonic testing, actual point focusing of sound is not

possible due to

a)
b)
c)
d)

damping effects
divergence in the far zone
asymetric vibrations
diffraction effects

Question: T200048.UT

Huygen's
predict

## wavelet theory and Fresnel zones can be used to

a)
b)
c)
d)

focal length
maxima and minima points in a sound beam
radius of curvature in a focused probe
fundamental frequency

Question: T200049.UT

to

a)
b)
c)
d)

## side drilled holes

flat bottomed holes
a theoretical maximum
DAC's

Question: T200050.UT

## Flaws oriented obliquely to the incident sound beam may be better

detected using

a)
b)
c)
d)

high gain
higher frequency
focused probes

Question: T200051.UT

## Echo amplitudes of reference reflectors are dependant on

a)
b)
c)
d)

size
shape
wave mode
all of the above

Question: T200052.UT

## A surface can be considered smooth if its irregularities are not

more than ________ wavelength.

a)
b)
c)
d)

1
1/3
1/10
1/100

Question: T200053.UT

## The problem of scatter of a rough surface can be reduced by

a) immersion testing

## b) a smaller diameter probe

c) a lower frequency probe
d) longer pulse length

Question: T200054.UT

defect is to

a)
b)
c)
d)

## amplify the signal

split the signal by mode conversion
reduce the signal amplitude
none of the above

Question: T200055.UT

## As the pulse length of the excitation voltage is shortened the

transmitted pulse

a)
b)
c)
d)

frequency
frequency
increases
increases

spectrum shortens
energy output
penetration ability

Question: T200056.UT

## In general, the frequency content of an ultrasound beam has a

larger proportion of high frequencies in its spectrum

a)
b)
c)
d)

on axis
off axis
in the far zone
in the free zone

Question: T200057.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## frequency content changes

directivity
attenuation

Question: T200058.UT

## The effect of attenuation by absorption is most pronounced

a)
b)
c)
d)

in
on
on
on

steel
the beam axis
higher frequencies
lower frequencies

Question: T200059.UT

## A neper (Np) is a unit of

a)
b)
c)
d)

attenuation
acoustic impedance
pulse rate
wavelength

Question: T200060.UT

## If 3 dB gain was removed from a 100% FSH signal the resulting

signal would be __________ FSH.

a)
b)
c)
d)

97
94
85
71

Question: T200061.UT

## If a signal is dropped from 100% FSH to 32% FSH, the number of

dB gain removed from the receiver is

a)
b)
c)
d)

14
10
6
4

Question: T200062.UT

## Attenuation in plastics and rubber is predominantly attributable

to

a)
b)
c)
d)

absorption
scatter
none of the above

Question: T200063.UT

## The attenuation coefficient has the units

a)
b)
c)
d)

dB/m
Np/cm
Np/mm
all of the above

Question: T200064.UT

## Non-crystallized materials such as glass are most likely to be

a)
b)
c)
d)

isotropic
anisotropic
piezoelectric
not inspectable

Question: T200065.UT

## Attenuation in cast metals is usually reduced by

a)
b)
c)
d)

forging
rolling
extruding
all of the above

Question: T200066.UT

## For a given metal of a given grain size, attenuation in the cast

form of the metal relative to the worked form is usually

a)
b)
c)
d)

greater
less
identical
unpredictable

Question: T200067.UT

## The effect utilized by ultrasonic transducer crystals is the

_________ effect.

a)
b)
c)
d)

piezoelectric
pyroelectric
ferroelectric
hall

Question: T200068.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## face-centered cubic form

hexagonal form

Question: T200069.UT

## An X-cut quartz crystal is primarily used to generate the

________ wave mode.

a)
b)
c)
d)

longitudinal
transverse
Rayleigh
Lamb

Question: T200070.UT

## A typical voltage range for driving (exciting) piezoelectric

crystals would be

a)
b)
c)
d)

50 to 100 mV
50 to 100 V
50 to 100 kV
500 to 1000 V

Question: T200071.UT

## Y-cut crystals generate shear waves into a solid material by

a) refraction

b) direct coupling
c) reflection
d) no means known

Question: T200072.UT

## The efficiency of the piezoelectric effect is rated by K33 which

is the

a)
b)
c)
d)

piezoelectric modulus
electromechanical coupling factor
deformation constant
Young's modulus

Question: T200073.UT

## After a voltage excitation of the piezoelectric crystal, the

amplitude of its oscillations decrease by the quantity determined
by the

a)
b)
c)
d)

Q factor
damping coefficient
characteristic frequency
resonance frequency

Question: T200074.UT

## The characteristic or fundamental frequency of a piezoelectric

material is not dependant on

a)
b)
c)
d)

## damping material on either face

thickness of crystal
velocity of sound in the crystal
all of the above

Question: T200075.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## the acoustic impedance of the backing material

both a and b
none of the above

Question: T200076.UT

at

a)
b)
c)
d)

## twice the characteristic frequency

all even multiples of the first resonant frequency
all odd multiples of the first resonant frequency
none of the above

Question: T200077.UT

## Although rarely used in modern day NDT transducers, quartz has

a)
b)
c)
d)

chemical inertness
high coupling coefficient
high dielectric constant
all of the above

Question: T200078.UT

## For high temperature measurements the preferred piezoelectric

material is

a)
b)
c)
d)

lithium niobate
lithium sulphate hydrate
quartz
PZT

Question: T200079.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## strong permanent magnets

strong alternating voltage
strong direct voltage
none of the above

Question: T200080.UT

## A significant disadvantage of PZT as a transducer material is

its

a)
b)
c)
d)

low density
high curie point
high acoustic impedance preventing good matching
exceptionally high electromechanical coupling coefficient

Question: T200081.UT

## Electrodynamic methods of generating and receiving ultrasound

rely on

a)
b)
c)
d)

magnetrostriction
eddy currents
laser heating
none of the above

Question: T200082.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## copper windings through thin laminated plates

copper windings around a ceramic core
solid steel wrapped with copper wire
none of the above

Question: T200083.UT

## Optical methods used in ultrasonic testing such as Schlieren

diffraction and interferometer methods are used in

a)
b)
c)
d)

## transmission techniques only

reception techniques only
both transmission and reception
optical methods are not used in ultrasonics

Question: T200084.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## penetrating acoustic waves

a source of reference waves
conversion means to optical holograms
all of the above

Question: T200085.UT

## Pulse-echo ultrasonic testing

a)
b)
c)
d)

uses
uses
both
none

a single probe
separate transmitter and reciever probes
a and b
of the above

Question: T200086.UT

Using the pulse echo method with a 0 degree probe having separate
transmit and receive crystals, the pattern on a CRT of a flat
steel plate would appear as

a)
b)
c)
d)

## evenly spaced multiples

randomly spaced multiples
a single spike from the opposite wall
an uninterrupted base line

Question: T200087.UT

## Phantom echoes of multiples when testing thick specimens are a

result of

a)
b)
c)
d)

insufficient suppression
modulation from the power supply
PRF set too high
too much gain

Question: T200088.UT

## The main bang signal is formed as a result of the

a)
b)
c)
d)

couplant/specimen interface
transmitter pulse
all of the above

Question: T200089.UT

When an ultrasonic machine is equipped with this option, the
pulse energy and pulse length can be adjusted

a)
b)
c)
d)

swept gain
time corrected gain
damping

Question: T200090.UT

## The voltage of a received ultrasonic signal at the machine's

a)
b)
c)
d)

1/1000 to 1 volt
10 to 100 volts
100 to 1000 volts
not measurable

Question: T200091.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

6 to 12 dB
20 to 40 dB
80 to 100 dB
100 to 200 dB

Question: T200092.UT

machine is

a)
b)
c)
d)

## non-linear response to amplification

amplifier noise limits possible amplification
RF display cannot be used
rectified display cannot be used

Question: T200093.UT

## b) corresponds to the falling edge of the main bang

c) is determined indirectly by calibration blocks
d) none of the above

Question: T200094.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## adding a tuning transformer to the probe

increasing test pressures
adding metal powder to the material
increasing suppression

Question: T200095.UT

## A great disadvantage of the old quartz crystal transducers that

used the work piece as one of the electrodes was

a)
b)
c)
d)

insufficient damping
decreasing sensitivity with use
an increase in frequency with use

Question: T200096.UT

## A contact angle beam probe used in fixed housings occasionally

requires

a)
b)
c)
d)

transformer tuning
machining or replacing of the wear face
new couplant between crystal and plastic wedge
all of the above

Question: T200097.UT

## Wedges used to introduce refracted waves into a test specimen are

a)
b)
c)
d)

copper
brass
plastics
all of the above can be used

Question: T200098.UT

## In order that one can operate above the critical angle of

reflection of longitudinal waves, wedge material for angle beams
are

## a) grooved on the front face

c) chosen with a longitudinal velocity greater than the shear
velocity of the test piece
d) chosen with a longitudinal velocity less than the shear
velocity of the test piece

Question: T200099.UT

## The layer of highly absorbing material sometimes bonded to the

top and front of an angle probe's wedge is called a (an)

a)
b)
c)
d)

cap
backing
anechoic trap
none of the above

Question: T200100.UT

## A calibration for horizontal linearity would check properties of

the

a)
b)
c)
d)

image unit (oscilloscope)
calibration block
probe

Question: T200101.UT

The purpose of the 50mm diameter perspex insert in the IIW block
is to

a)
b)
c)
d)

## check constancy of probe sensitivity

establish probe exit point
calibrate for range
both a and b

Question: T200102.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## a system's resolving power

time of flight
the far zone length
the frequency of the probe

Question: T200103.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## not useful in NDT

not yet available
used for wall thickness measurements
not portable

Question: T200104.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## determine the presence of flaws

determine the amplitude of flaws
both a and b
none of the above

Question: T200105.UT

## When flaw echo signals are recorded so as to display a plan view

of the test piece the presentation is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

A-scan
B-scan
C-scan
D-scan

Question: T200106.UT

use

## a) continuous sound waves

b) pulsed sound waves

## c) Y-cut quartz crystal transducers

d) all of the above

Question: T200107.UT

## The purpose of a reference delay-line in an ultrasonic

interferometer is for

a)
b)
c)
d)

## determining amplitude from a known reflector

accurate time measurements
eliminating near zone effects

Question: T200108.UT

## Uniform and strongly adhering films of paint or oxides are not

removed for ultrasonic testing if

a)
b)
c)
d)

## sand blasting cannot remove them

formed on curves surfaces
their presence does not interfere with the test
sufficiently smooth

Question: T200109.UT

## Due to its cost and toxicity _________ is not used as a couplant

in contact testing,

a)
b)
c)
d)

SAE oil
heavy diesel oil
mercury
methyl-cellulose solution

Question: T200110.UT

## Water jet techniques with water paths of 100mm are restricted to

the through transmission methods because

a)
b)
c)
d)

## sound cannot travel upstream for pulse-echo testing

too much water is required
of disturbing echoes behind the surface echo
none of the above

Question: T200111.UT

## A narrow high intensity ultrasound beam capable of finding very

small flaws has its disadvantage in

a)
b)
c)
d)

## sizing the flaw

characterizing the flaw
requiring a small scanning grid
none of the above

Question: T200112.UT

## An effective maximum range for a 5MHz 10mm diameter probe is

around ________ in steel.

a)
b)
c)
d)

50mm
100mm
200mm
300mm

Question: T200113.UT

## A minimum distance of a probe from an edge of the test piece is

maintained to eliminate side wall interference. This distance is
inversely proportional to the

a)
b)
c)
d)

soundpath
wavelength
frequency

Question: T200114.UT

When testing a 30mm diameter, 500 mm long shaft from the flat end
of the shaft using longitudinal waves from a 20 mm diameter 2 MHz
probe, numerous signals are seen on the screen after 500mm.
These are

a)
b)
c)
d)

ghost images
secondary echos
none of the above

Question: T200115.UT

## Touching the reflection point of a normally incident transverse

wave with an oily finger will

a)
b)
c)
d)

## reduce the signal by about 2 dB

reduce the signal by about 6 dB
increase the signal by about 2 dB
have no effect on signal amplitude

Question: T200116.UT

## When using a refracted angle of 60 on a 20 mm thick plate the

half skip distance is

a)
b)
c)
d)

28mm
34mm
40mm
58mm

Question: T200117.UT

## To calculate skip distance in a flat plate of thickness 'd' for a

refracted angle 'X' we use the formula

a)
b)
c)
d)

(cos X)/d
(sin 2X)/d
2d/cos X
2d (tan x)

Question: T200118.UT

## To inspect cylindrical pieces with transverse waves in the

circumferential direction, maximum depth is obtained using

a)
b)
c)
d)

35 refracted angle
45 refracted angle
70 refracted angle
any of the above is adequate if the diameter ratio is
sufficient

Question: T200119.UT

## The delta technique is used to determine

a)
b)
c)
d)

flaw size
wall thickness
flaw orientation
all of the above

Question: T200120.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## conversion of longitudinal waves via plastic wedges

Y-cut quartz crystals
both a and b
surface waves are not used in ultrasonic testing

Question: T200121.UT

## Frequency analysis of the reflected pulse is occasionally used to

determine

a)
b)
c)
d)

flaw size
flaw depth
coupling efficiency
wave velocity

Question: T200122.UT

## Changes in flaw echo shape on the video display are used to

determine

a)
b)
c)
d)

flaw depth
flaw type
stand-off
all of the above

Question: T200123.UT

## A defect that is not likely to be located by ultrasonic testing

of a forging blank is

a)
b)
c)
d)

segregation
flake cracks
non-metallic inclusions
cold cracks

Question: T200124.UT

## In order to introduce a shear mode into cylindrical shaped

specimens when immersion scanning in the circumferential
direction you need only

a)
b)
c)
d)

## use Y-cut crystals in the transducer

switch from pulse-echo to through transmission
off-set the probe from normal incidence
none of the above

Question: T200125.UT

## When immersion inspecting small diameter tubing (<15mm diameter)

with a normal beam probe radiating axially towards a mirror
mounted ahead of it, the wave mode used for inspection in the
tube is

a)
b)
c)
d)

longitudinal
transverse
either a or b depending on mirror orientation
none of the above, mirrors are not used

Question: T200126.UT

## Below 20 kHz, sound waves are considered to be

a)
b)
c)
d)

ultrasonic
sonic
subsonic
infra-sonic

Question: T200127.UT

## Relatively low ultrasonic frequencies are used in long range

sonar units because

a)
b)
c)
d)

## whales and submarines are big targets

higher frequencies cause whales to attack
sea water attenuates sound at 60 dB/km
all of the above

Question: T200128.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## thin bar or plate

composite materials
liquids
bolts

Question: T200129.UT

## The time required for a wave packet of ultrasound to go from 10%

to 90% of its maximum amplitude is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

pulse length
PRF
rise time
fall time

Question: T200130.UT

## The time duration for an ultrasonic wave packet to have its

trailing edge drop from 90% to 10% of its maximum amplitude is
called

a)
b)
c)
d)

pulse length
PRF
rise time
fall time

Question: T200131.UT

exhibit

a)
b)
c)
d)

## low acoustic impedance

high coupling coefficients
large deformations with applied voltage
natural acoustic damping properties

Question: T200132.UT

## electric polarization are called

a)
b)
c)
d)

cells
bi-poles
mono-poles
domains

Question: T200133.UT

## A voltage applied across a slice of piezoelectric material will

cause it to

a)
b)
c)
d)

twist
expand
contract
either b or c depending on polarity

Question: T200134.UT

fashion by

a)
b)
c)
d)

## using bi-metal electrodes

using only D.C. voltage
sintering the material
poling the material

Question: T200135.UT

PZT when

a)
b)
c)
d)

## heated above the curie temperature

the domains are frozen and aligned
used under water
use on highly retentive steel

Question: T200136.UT

## In contact testing methods, the purpose of the layer of couplant

is to

a) reduce attenuation
b) stop back-scatter

## c) allow only compressional wave to enter the piece

d) all of the above

Question: T200137.UT

## In which of the following properties, considered when dealing

with transucer materials, does quartz excel in?

a)
b)
c)
d)

receiving constant
transmitting constant
dielectric constant
coupling coefficient

Question: T200138.UT

## Curie temperature of a transducer material will indicate

a)
b)
c)
d)

toxicity of vapour
coupling constant
acustic impedance variations with temperature
maximum work surface temperature

Question: T200139.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## high coupling coefficient

low disipation factor
low curie temperature
warp drive operation on starships

Question: T200140.UT

## Internally reflected waves within a lightly loaded resonant

transducer (ie. acoustic impedance on either side is lower than
the transducer's)

a)
b)
c)
d)

nullify resonance
change the resonant frequency
increase the maximum oscillation amplitude
are totally internally refracted

Question: T200141.UT

## For continuous wave testing, rise time of the transducer

oscillation relative to the applied driving voltage is

a)
b)
c)
d)

## longer than fall time

shorter
not important

Question: T200142.UT

## The first oscillation of a piezoelectric element hit by an

alternating voltage pulse is

a)
b)
c)
d)

## higher than all other oscillations in that pulse

lower than all other oscillations in that pulse
never higher than the second oscillation in that pulse
higher or lower than the second oscillation depending on the

Question: T200143.UT

## Acoustic transformers are constructed of

a)
b)
c)
d)

araldite
cork
any transitional layer designed to achieve maximum power
transfer

Question: T200144.UT

backings is to

a)
b)
c)
d)

## increase acoustic impedance

increase absorption of backward moving ultrasound
both a and b
none of the above

Question: T200145.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## expand in applied magnetic fields

shrink in applied magnetic fields
are anti-magnetostrictive
are also piezoelectric

Question: T200146.UT

## Magnetostrictive transducers have application in

a)
b)
c)
d)

drilling
welding
ultrasonic cleaning
all of the above

Question: T200147.UT

## In a standing wave, the points of zero pressure change are

called

a)
b)
c)
d)

null points
nodes
anti-nodes
the still zone

Question: T200148.UT

## A lens shape that would result in a divergent beam in optics

gives a convergent beam in ultrasonics because

a)
b)
c)
d)

## electromagnetic wavelengths are shorter

electromagnetic waves are faster in solids than liquids
mechanical waves are usually faster in solids than liquids
none of the above

Question: T200149.UT

## Ultrasonic transducers used in ultrasonic cleaning apparatus are

operating at a frequency of approximately

a) 25 kHz
b) 200 kHz
c) 0.5 MHz

d) 50 MHz

Question: T200150.UT

## The purpose of ultrasonic vibrations added to the tip of a

soldering gun when soldering aluminum or magnesium is to

a)
b)
c)
d)

## eliminate the need for penetrant inspection

make a fine grain structure with high shear strength
break through the oxide coating
all of the above

Question: T200151.UT

## Which of the following is not a therapeutic application of

medical ultrasound

a)
b)
c)
d)

## ultrasonic treatment of arthritis, bursitis, sciatica

destruction of brain tissue in neuro-sonic surgery
establishing health, sex and age of a fetus
destruction of gall stones

Question: T200152.UT

means of

a)
b)
c)
d)

## line focus electronics

line focus optical lenses
a light spot moving across phosphor
none of the above

Question: T200153.UT

## Increasing the pulse repetition frequency will result in

a)
b)
c)
d)

decreasing sensitivity
increased resolution
altering the probes' frequency output
brightening the baseline

Question: T200154.UT

If it is difficult to resolve two defects separated by 0.5 cm,
resolution may be improved by

a)
b)
c)
d)

increasing
increasing
decreasing
decreasing

gain
soundpath
pulse length
probe frequency

Question: T200155.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## electrical adjustment of the pulse

using high loss backing
using matching layers between crystal and workpiece
all of the above

Question: T200156.UT

## Elastic constants such as Young's modulus and the bulk modulus

can be calculated from ultrasonic measurement of

a)
b)
c)
d)

attenuation
reflection coefficients
acoustic velocities
frequency domains

Question: T200157.UT

## In order to accurately determine acoustic velocities you must

know

a)
b)
c)
d)

Snell's law
Young's modulus or the bulk modulus
the thickness of the test piece

Question: T200158.UT

determining

a) density

## b) flow rates of fluids

c) thickness
d) all of the above

Question: T200159.UT

## Linearity of an ultrasonic machine's timebase must be within

a)
b)
c)
d)

1mm
2mm
1%
10%

Question: T200160.UT

## Which item is not always marked on all standard transducers sold

for NDT purposes

a)
b)
c)
d)

frequency
exit point
crystal dimensions
serial number

Question: T200161.UT

## For the purposes of ultrasonic testing, signal-to-noise ratio is

a function of

a)
b)
c)
d)

the probe
the oscilloscope
a combination of probe and scope
none of the above

Question: T200162.UT

## When evaluating the performance of a probe-instrument

combination, far field resolution is limited by

a)
b)
c)
d)

## the probes' functional frequency

instrument gain
available suppression
the test surface of the calibration block

Question: T200163.UT

## The arbitrary amplitude response from flat bottomed or side

drilled holes is used to establish sensitivity level because

a)
b)
c)
d)

sensitivity is optimised
resolution is optimised
results can be reproducible
both a and b

Question: T200164.UT

## Viscosity of couplant chosen for a contact ultrasonic inspection

will usually depend on

a)
b)
c)
d)

probe size
nominal frequency
surface condition
sensitivity required

Question: T200165.UT

## In longitudinal wave inspection of the parent metal adjacent to a

weld, minimum sensitivity is usually set such that

## a) it is 6 dB over the 80% FSH level for the appropriate side

drilled hole
b) it is 20 dB over the 80% FSH level for the appropriate side
drilled hole
c) backwall echo is 100% FSH in the absence of defects
d) none of the above

Question: T200166.UT

## When doing an ultrasonic weld inspection material thickness, weld

preparation configuration, defect type and orientation are the
main considerations for

a)
b)
c)
d)

probe dimensions
frequency
probe angle
all of the above

Question: T200167.UT

## Gain corrections to compensate for attenuation are dependant on

a)
b)
c)
d)

frequency used
grain structure of test material
pulse energy
a and b

Question: T200168.UT

## The IIW Block #1 is used to calibrate

a)
b)
c)
d)

range
exit point
refracted angle
all of the above

Question: T200169.UT

## When calibrating an ultrasonic instrument for range, the maximum

distance of interest should not be less than

a)
b)
c)
d)

100
200
one
two

mm
mm
half the horizontal scale
thirds the horizontal scale

Question: T200170.UT

## DGS diagrams are used to establish

a)
b)
c)
d)

defect depth
defect size
correct probe dimensions
beam divergence

Question: T200171.UT

## In the DGS (AVG German) system of defect sizing, the diagram

relates to soundpath distance to the _________ to obtain the
relative distance.

a) probe size

b) near-field length
c) stand-off distance
d) depth of defect

Question: T200172.UT

## Where geometry permits in weld inspection, the distance you need

to move the probe back from the weld to ensure 100% volume
inspection is

a)
b)
c)
d)

## 1/2 skip from the weld centre-line

1 full skip from the weld centre-line
1/2 skip from the edge of the heat affected zone
1 full skip from the HAZ edge

Question: T200173.UT

is improved by

a)
b)
c)
d)

## using a lower frequency

longitudinal wave inspections
adding swivel motion to the angle beam probe
all of the above

Question: T200174.UT

## Shear-wave probe angle for contact testing of plate between 10mm

and 100 mm thick is

a)
b)
c)
d)

45 and 60 degrees
determined by probe frequency chosen
dependant on plate thickness, position and nature of defect
none of the above

Question: T200175.UT

Given a flat plate 25mm thick, the full skip range distance with
a 60 degree probe is

a)
b)
c)
d)

35mm
50mm
100mm
not possible to determine

Question: T200176.UT

The half skip range on a 16mm thick plate with a 70% probe is

a)
b)
c)
d)

24mm
33mm
47mm
64mm

Question: T200177.UT

## A defects' vertical extent is deduced by __________ motion of the

probe

a)
b)
c)
d)

lateral
traversing
rotational
orbital

Question: T200178.UT

A sharp signal with large amplitude response seen from one side
of a weld but not the other, having a sharp drop off with both
rotational and orbital motion would indicate the presence of

a)
b)
c)
d)

porosity
lack of fusion
slag
cracking

Question: T200179.UT

## The use of ultrasonic methods to check fillet welds is usually

restricted to determining the extent of penetration. This is
best facilitated by

a)
b)
c)
d)

## a guidance system to hold the probe at a fixed distance

c-scan presentations
45 and 60 degree probes in tandem
holographic techniques

Question: T200180.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## the best option available

never reliable
used by all codes
always referenced to side drilled holes or notches

Question: T200181.UT

## The amplitude reference line used to compare flaw response to

reference hole response at varying depths is abbreviated

a)
b)
c)
d)

ARL
AVG
DAC
DGS

Question: T200182.UT

## If you are drawing a DAC for an inspection range of 200mm and

your response from the 3/8 node reference hole at 125mm has
already dropped to 10% FSH you will have to use

a)
b)
c)
d)

## a new calibration block

larger reference holes
the DGS (AVG) system
a split DAC

Question: T200183.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## published attenuation valves for the alloy tested

two shear wave probes in a through transmission technique
DGS (AVG) curves
multiple back-echoes from a normal beam probe

Question: T200184.UT

## If coupling conditions on a test piece are better than on a

calibration block the transfer value will be

a)
b)
c)
d)

## greater than zero

less than zero
not used
1 (one)

Question: T200185.UT

## Vertical extent of a defect is determined using

a)
b)
c)
d)

a 6 dB drop method
a 10 dB drop method
a 20 dB drop method
any of the above is acceptable if the appropriate beam spread

Question: T200186.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## code or customer requirements

amplitude relative to reference
length
type of flaw

Question: T200187.UT

## The most pronounced effects of beam deviation by surface

a)
b)
c)
d)

immersion testing
low frequency transducers
70 degree contact probes
normal beam probes

Question: T200188.UT

## The result of increasing the temperature of a test piece from

10C. to 30C. is

a)
b)
c)
d)

increase sensitivity
decrease the refracted angle
decrease the acoustic velocity
all of the above

Question: T200189.UT

## The ability to discern individual defects separate from the

initial interface signal is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

near surface resolution
surface acuity
damping

Question: T200190.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## angle beam resolution

range for time-base
time-base linearity
sensitivity

Question: T200191.UT

## The maximum amplitude response from the 1.5mm diameter hole in

the IIW Block #1 is used to determine

a)
b)
c)
d)

## longitudinal wave sensitivity

shear wave sensitivity
both a and b

Question: T200192.UT

## IIW blocks are constructed of

a)
b)
c)
d)

ASTM-A36 steel
stainless steel
aluminum
any metal or alloy

Question: T200193.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## setting shear wave range with longitudinal waves

establishing non-standard ranges
shear wave resolution determinations
none of the above

Question: T200194.UT

The purpose of the small Rompas or DIN block (IIW Block #2) is

a)
b)
c)
d)

range calibration
determining exit point of probe
determining actual refracted angle
all of the above

Question: T200195.UT

The 5mm diameter through hole in the DIN or ROMPAS block is used
for checking

a)
b)
c)
d)

## shear wave sensitivity

longitudinal wave sensitivity
beam angle
all of the above

Question: T200196.UT

blocks

a)
b)
c)
d)

## total number and size of last echo are used

response from the side drilled hole is used
both a and b can be used
IIW blocks are never used to set sensitivity

Question: T200197.UT

## The dB difference between a signal 25% FSH and 100%

a)
b)
c)
d)

6 dB
8 dB
10 dB
12 dB

FSH is

Question: T200198.UT

## To reduce the influence of incident angle when evaluating beam

characteristics the preferred target is

a)
b)
c)
d)

## a cylindrical target at right angles to beam axis

a spherical target of tungsten
a flat bottom hole
vee notches

Question: T200199.UT

## Given that maximum acoustic intensity occurs at the focal point,

the focal point for a flat 100mm diameter 4 MHz probe in water
is

a)
b)
c)
d)

## 10mm inside the probe damping

the probe face
the end of the near zone
none of the above

Question: T200200.UT

## In the AVG (DGS) diagrams originated by Krautkramer in 1959, the

reduced range is given

a)
b)
c)
d)

## as a fraction of the near zone

in millimeters only
as a ratio of the probe diameter
where the amplitude equals the ideal backwall echo

Question: T200201.UT

## In immersion testing, defect sizing is improved in the flaw

traverse technique measuring probe movement to 6 or 20 dB drop
levels by use of

a)
b)
c)
d)

## lower frequency probes

focused probes
Y-cut transducer elements

Question: T200202.UT

you need

a)
b)
c)
d)

## a UT machine capable of R.F. display

a frequency analyser
to know probe diameter and its near zone as measured in water
any of the above can be used

Question: T200203.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## the loop gain of the transducer

operating frequency
amount of gain used in the receiver amplifier
the pulse energy

Question: T200204.UT

## When a flaw has a size that is less than the wavelength of

ultrasound impinging on it,

a)
b)
c)
d)

## the AVG (DGS) system must be used for sizing

dimensions are determined using the 20 dB drop method
it is not possible to determine the flaws' shape
it cannot be detected

Question: T200205.UT

## Signal averaging, correlation, and filtering are techniques used

in ultrasonic systems to

a)
b)
c)
d)

## extract weak signals from incoherent noise

improve resolution
characterize defects for type
none of these techniques are used in ultrasonic testing

Question: T200206.UT

## The process where by a re-current signal is extracted from

incoherent noise is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

amplitude modulation
frequency modulation
signal averaging
filtering

Question: T200207.UT

## Receiver noise must often be filtered out of a test system.

Receiver amplifier noise increases proportionally to

a)
b)
c)
d)

## the square root of the bandwidth

the inverse square of the bandwidth
attenuation
temperature

Question: T200208.UT

## A group of ultrasonic transducers arranged in some form of

geometrical pattern with individual transducers use sequentially
as transmitters, receivers or both is called a

a)
b)
c)
d)

sequenced array
switched pulser
C-scan array
multi-element probe

Question: T200209.UT

## Which is not used as an acoustic imaging method?

a)
b)
c)
d)

deconvolution
sequenced array
liquid-surface levitation
holography

Question: T200210.UT

## In order to determine a particular material parameter by

ultrasonics you would need to find its

a)
b)
c)
d)

critical angle
acoustic velocity and acoustic impedance
attenuation
any or all of the above depending on the parameter sought

Question: T200211.UT

## a) its origins in the Mississippi delta

b) measurements of changes in velocity (delta "V")
c) the triangular juxtaposition of transmitter, receiver and
flaw
d) none of the above

Question: T200212.UT

## Increasing a focused probe's focal length can have the advantage

of increasing focal depth, but this is achieved at the expense
of

a)
b)
c)
d)

increasing attenuation
increasing focal spot size
reducing resolution
both b and c

Question: T200213.UT

(EMAT)?

a)
b)
c)
d)

## high electric to acoustic power conversion

can inspect rough or coated surfaces
non-contacting
inspection of high temperature surfaces

Question: T200214.UT

arrays permit

a)
b)
c)
d)

## elimination of mechanical scanning apparatus

increased resolution over a greater depth range
control of beam shape
all of the above

Question: T200215.UT

## a) distinctly different velocities from longitudinal and shear

waves in the same medium
b) ellipsoidal particle displacement
c) a velocity slightly less than shear waves in the same medium
d) all of the above

Question: T200216.UT

have

a)
b)
c)
d)

## asymmetry of crystal axes

silicon as one of its component elements
nuclear spin parity
no unstable isotopes

Question: T200217.UT

## For unpoled poly-crystalline piezoelectric materials, an applied

pressure results in

a)
b)
c)
d)

## polar alignment of crystal

maximum voltage
zero net voltage

Question: T200218.UT

## Even under ideal conditions, the electro mechanical coupling

coefficient (k) will not exceed

a)
b)
c)
d)

0.1
1.0
10
100

Question: T200219.UT

## If the product of the relative transmitter and receiver

efficiencies of quartz is 1, which of the following

## piezomaterials would have a product less than 1?

a)
b)
c)
d)

PZT
ZnO
PVDF
none of the above

Question: T200220.UT

would be

a)
b)
c)
d)

## about 7 times more efficient

half as efficient
hampered by low signal to noise ratio
useless

Question: T200221.UT

material is to

## a) increase acoustic impedance of the backing to match the

ceramic piezoelements' acoustic impedance
b) provide an electric conductor to the back electrode
c) decrease bandwidth
d) none of the above

Question: T200222.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## placing lenses in front of the planar transmitter

suitably curved piezo material
specimen geometry
all of the above

Question: T200223.UT

## The result of a cylindrical shaped lens on the front of an

ultrasonic probe is a(n)

## b) line focused beam

c) asymptotic beam
d) negatively focused beam

Question: T200224.UT

## Which is not an advantage of electromagnetic acoustic transducers

(EMATs)?

a)
b)
c)
d)

no couplant needed
hot surfaces are more easily inspected
easily shaped beams
increased sensitivity over ferro electric probes

Question: T200225.UT

## Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) generate ultrasound

by means of

a)
b)
c)
d)

cosmic awareness
eddy currents
mechanical contact
magnetic deformations

Question: T200226.UT

## EMATs cannot be used to generate ultrasound in

a)
b)
c)
d)

non-conductive material
magnetic metals
non-magnetic metals
both a and b

Question: T200227.UT

## The most common method used to determine the nature of a probes'

sound field is by

a)
b)
c)
d)

## Fast Fourier transforms

impedance curves
side drilled holes
using two transducers, one transmitting and the other
receiving

Question: T200228.UT

## An angle beam probe is checked for refracted angle on an IIW and

found to be 44 degrees. The IIW block temperature is 10C.
Moving to the 40 degree C. test piece the refracted angle will
be

a)
b)
c)
d)

more
less
the same
not possible to know

Question: T200229.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## an unrectified signal on a baseline calibrated in time

a rectified signal on a baseline calibrated in distance
a reference probe
an impedance matching circuit

Question: T200230.UT

## The time interval in microseconds between the first and last

instant at which the value of the pulse reaches 10% of its peak
amplitude is considered the

a)
b)
c)
d)

pulse length
20 dB drop length
rise time

Question: T200231.UT

## When determining signal-to-noise ratio the suppression control is

set at

a)
b)
c)
d)

maximum
minimum
50%
suppression setting is not important

Question: T200232.UT

to

a)
b)
c)
d)

## electrical noise from machine, cable and probe

metal grain structure
both a and b
inability for focus the baseline

Question: T200233.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## nominal frequency of the probe

beam exit point
the refracted angle in the test piece
the incident angle from perspex

Question: T200234.UT

## For a given range, deviations of + or - 2 degrees in refracted

angle will result in greatest depth error for

a)
b)
c)
d)

70 probes
60 probes
45 probes
error will be constant at all angles

Question: T200235.UT

## Depth of the dead zone is determined by

a)
b)
c)
d)

probe design
pulse energy setting
gain setting
all of the above

Question: T200236.UT

## A discontinuity whose shape, size location or properties make it

detrimental to the useful service of the product in which it
occurs or which exceeds the accept/reject criteria is a(n)

a)
b)
c)
d)

defect
slag inclusion
crack
anomaly

Question: T200237.UT

## A response or evidence of a response in non-destructive testing

that requires interpretation is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

an indication
a defect
a flaw
signal-to-noise ratio

Question: T200238.UT

## The component of ultrasonic wave attenuation resulting from

conversion of mechanical energy to heat is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

acoustic absorption
coupling
divergence
acoustic impedance

Question: T200239.UT

## The property which determines acoustic transmission across a

boundary between two media is termed

a)
b)
c)
d)

acoustic impedance
electric impedance
conductivity
transmissivity

Question: T200240.UT

## Coupling two media to provide optimum transfer of ultrasonic

energy between them is

a)
b)
c)
d)

a code requirement
acoustic impedance matching
best accomplished by dry coupling
all of the above

Question: T200241.UT

## For a given ultrasonic beam impinging on a surface, the angle of

incidence, the angle of reflection and the normal to that surface
are

a)
b)
c)
d)

always equal
never equal
found by the inverse squared law
in the same plane

Question: T200242.UT

## Loss of acoustic energy in a material due to scatter, absorption

and dispersion is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

suppression
attenuation
damping
all of the above

Question: T200243.UT

## A curve showing the relationship of amplitude to distance

travelled to reflectors of the same area is usually referred to
as a(n)

a)
b)
c)
d)

AVG
DAC
DGS
NDT

curve
curve
curve
curve

Question: T200244.UT

## The ultrasonic pulse received from the boundary of a body normal

to the beam axis is termed

a)
b)
c)
d)

backwall echo
a multiple reflection
the normal echo
a defect

Question: T200245.UT

## An ultrasonic display in rectangular coordinates where distance

or time of flight is represented in one direction and probe
displacement represented on the other and reflected pulses as
bright marks on a dark background (or vise versa) is called a(n)

a)
b)
c)
d)

A-scan
B-scan
C-scan
tomograph

Question: T200246.UT

## Noise generated by the transmitting transducer which is produced

in the receiving transducer of a dual crystal probe is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

## signal from noise effect

cross-talk
acoustic pick-up
FM cross-over

Question: T200247.UT

## An assembly of ultrasonic crystals mounted so as to behave as

though it were a single crystal is called a(n)

a)
b)
c)
d)

acoustic mat
crystal mosaic
phased array
linear array

Question: T200248.UT

The time interval between the initial pulse and the initiation of
the time base sweep is termed

a)
b)
c)
d)

range
time of flight
programmed off-set
delay

Question: T200249.UT

The frequency at which the overall response of an ultrasonic
pulse-echo flaw detection system is maximum is the

a)
b)
c)
d)

dominant frequency
resonance frequency
nominal frequency
anti-resonance frequency

Question: T200250.UT

## The lowest acoustic frequency which will cause a condition of

resonance to be established in a given material of given
thickness is the _________ frequency.

a)
b)
c)
d)

fundamental
parallel
series
anti-resonance

Question: T200251.UT

## A probe which incorporates separate transmit and receive crystals

in the same housing is called a

a)
b)
c)
d)

## dual crystal probe

T-R probe
delta probe
normal probe

Question: T200252.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## one tenth of a bell

a ratio of voltages or intensities
derived from naval protocol
both a and b

Question: T200253.UT

## The display of remnant reflections originating from previously

transmitted pulses due to too high a PRF are called

a)
b)
c)
d)

transients
trip signals
ghost echoes
none of the above

Question: T200254.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## 2 times the fundamental frequency

3 times the fundamental frequency
4 times the fundamental frequency
all of the above

Question: T200255.UT

## The boundary between any two media of different acoustic

impedances is termed a(n)

a)
b)
c)
d)

interface
divide
interlude
front

Question: T200256.UT

## A wave that is propagated in thin material, & whose velocity is

dependant on frequency and material thickness.

a)
b)
c)
d)

Lamb wave
Rayleigh wave
shear wave
new wave

Question: T200257.UT

## The repeated reflections of ultrasonic pulses from between

surfaces or discontinuities within a body are

a)
b)
c)
d)

ghost echoes
sing-around
multiple echoes
wrap-around

Question: T200258.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## operates at half wave resonance

operates at quarter wave resonance
has tungsten powder imbedded in its backing epoxy
introduces sound into a test piece at right angles to the
surface

Question: T200259.UT

## The method whereby a discontinuity is detected and evaluated

using reflected pulses.

a)
b)
c)
d)

pulse-echo method
through transmission
bulk wave testing
crack tip diffraction

Question: T200260.UT

## The number of times per second that an ultrasonic transducer is

excited to produce a pulse is

a)
b)
c)
d)

## determined by the crystal thickness

a function of the cable capacitance
the pulse repetition frequency
all of the above

Question: T200261.UT

## The gain or attenuation setting at which indications are assessed

is the ________ level.

a)
b)
c)
d)

reference
scan
threshold
bell

Question: T200262.UT

## Instrument settings which relate a reference echo of reproducible

amplitude with which other instrument settings relating to a
discontinuity echo are compared is the

a)
b)
c)
d)

scanning level
threshold level
reference sensitivity
overall system gain

Question: T200263.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## filters out unwanted noise

reduces dynamic range
increases sensitivity
none of the above

Question: T200264.UT

## The relationship between amplitudes of an indication in A-scan

presentation and the magnitude of the corresponding received
signals is used to determine

a)
b)
c)
d)

vertical linearity
manual scanning speed
longitudinal/shear mode energy ratios
none of the above

Question: T200265.UT

## The device which incorporates one or more ultrasonic crystals

mounted inside a liquid filled flexible tire is commonly called
a

a)
b)
c)
d)

rubber tester
wheel probe
plate probe

Question: T200266.UT

## Which pulse method of ultrasonic testing uses only a single

crystal?

a)
b)
c)
d)

pulse-echo
pitch-catch
through-transmission
all of the above

Question: T200267.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## sudden relaxation of stresses within the material

a transmitter crystal
rotary wire brushes
static discharge

Question: T200268.UT

## Resolving power of broadband transducers

a)
b)
c)
d)

increases with
decreases with
is independant
depends solely

soundpath distance
soundpath distance
of soundpath distance
on near field length

Question: T200269.UT

## Examination of a metal's elastic properties by increasing the

angle of incidence until either the longitudinal or shear mode
disappears is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

## wave mode analysis

spectral analysis
specular analysis
critical-angle analysis

Question: T200270.UT

## When doing immersion critical-angle analyses the pitch-catch

technique is used. The receiver probe is used to study the

a)
b)
c)
d)

## reflected longitudinal wave

reflected transverse wave
transmitted longitudinal wave
Rayleigh waves

Question: T200271.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## avoiding fluid contamination of test piece

testing at elevated temperatures is possible
avoiding transducer wear on rough surfaces
all of the above

Question: T200272.UT

## When performing a "normal beam" inspection of 60mm thick plate by

immersion technique, the minimum waterpath to avoid waterpath
multiples in the first metal wall thickness display is

a)
b)
c)
d)

15mm
30mm
60mm
240mm

Question: T200273.UT

## If the longitudinal waves are required at an angle other than

zero degrees from the normal in the test piece

a) the incident angle must be less than the first critical angle
b) the incident angle must be less than the second critical
angle
c) the incident angle must be between the first and second
critical angles
d) you are out of luck-it can't be done

Question: T200274.UT

## Although no longer commonly used for thickness testing of steel

plate, resonance testing still finds application in

a)
b)
c)
d)

## flaw detection in integrated circuits

locating nonbond areas in rubber to metal
all of the above

Question: T200275.UT

## Ultrasonic systems similar to those used in nondestructive

testing are used in

a)
b)
c)
d)

ultrasonic welding
diagnostic medicine
de-watering units
ultrasonic machining

Question: T200276.UT

## Transducers used for resonance measurements would more likely be

a)
b)
c)
d)

high-Q factor
low-Q factor
none of the above

Question: T200277.UT

## When information is presented as a B-scan on an oscilloscope,

intensity (or amplitude) of a signal is indicated by

a)
b)
c)
d)

## strobe effects for signals over a threshold amplitude

digital readout on the corner of the screen
brightness of the spot on the scope
none of the above

Question: T200278.UT

## When measuring crack depth using shear-wave soundpaths, amplitude

drop and probe travel, you need in addition to various distances
and the refracted angles

a)
b)
c)
d)

## a transmitting and a receiving transducer

the beamwidth in the vertical plane
maximum amplitude with respect to a side drilled hole
maximum amplitude with respect to a flat bottom hole

Question: T200279.UT

## For a given flaw, with a physical vertical extent of 11mm, the

probe requiring the maximum forward travel to locate the flaw
ends would be the

a)
b)
c)
d)

0
45
60
70

Question: T200280.UT

## An increase in attenuation or a decrease in velocity in a

material is generally indicative of

a)
b)
c)
d)

## degradation or loss of strength

an increase in tensile strength
decreasing pulse frequency

Question: T200281.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## average gain size of metals

yield point of materials during elastic-plastic deformation
fracture toughness of stainless steel
all of the above

Question: T200282.UT

## Ultrasonic methods used to monitor or detect fatigue cracks are

based on

a)
b)
c)
d)

attenuation effects
amplitude of reflection energy
both a and b are used
none of the above

Question: T200283.UT

modes is

## b) the ease of focusing the beam

c) test piece contours are followed without loss due to direction
changes
d) none of the above

Question: T200284.UT

The weld defect that results when a weld puddle solidifies from
the outer edges and causes stresses sufficient to produce
cracking is

a)
b)
c)
d)

crater cracking
transverse cracking
puddle jumping

Question: T200285.UT

## The purpose of removing a weld cap by grinding it flush with the

base metal in preparation for ultrasonic testing is to

a)
b)
c)
d)

## reduce scatter from redirection of beam

improve volumetric coverage
increase sensitivity to near surface defects
all of the above

Question: T200286.UT

## When testing tubular products with ultrasonics it is essential to

ensure a fixed alignment between the probe and workpiece since a
slight shift of tube axis could result in

a)
b)
c)
d)

## a large change in incidence angle

damaging the probe
differential losses in frequency content
none of the above

Question: T200287.UT

## In immersion ultrasonic testing of tubular products, line focused

probes have an advantage over point focused probes in that

## a) higher frequencies are available

b) higher inspection rates are possible

## c) higher resolution is achieved

d) higher sensitivity is achieved

Question: T200288.UT

tube mill

a)
b)
c)
d)

## the tube is rotated under the ultrasonic probes

the probes are rotated around the tube
both a or b can be arranged
none of the above

Question: T200289.UT

## Lamb waves are used to inspect

a)
b)
c)
d)

for inclusions in TIG welded root passes
thin plate
all of the above

Question: T200290.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## done at frequencies from 1-2 MHz

by immersion methods only
both a and b
avoided

Question: T200291.UT

## Which of the following non-metals would more commonly be tested

by ultrasonics in the kiloherz range of frequencies?

a)
b)
c)
d)

wood
concrete
rubber
all of the above

Question: T200292.UT

Ultrasonics when used on timber (ie. logs) can determine

a)
b)
c)
d)

## age by counting rings

diameter
presence or absence of decay
none of the above, ultrasound is not used to test timber

Question: T200293.UT

pyrex are

a)
b)
c)
d)

## not possible to determine

available for only the longitudinal mode

Question: T200294.UT

## Ultrasonics has been successfully used in testing rubber tires

for determining

a)
b)
c)
d)

porosity location
de-lamination location
the state of cure
all of the above

Question: T200295.UT

## Ultrasonic holography has an advantage over other imaging

techniques in that it provides

a)
b)
c)
d)

## total information from a single pulse

a 3-dimensional display of defects
maximum inspection speed
the best sensitivity of all imaging systems

Question: T200296.UT

## Non-destructive testing is one of many applications of

low-intensity ultrasound. Which of the following is not an
example of low-intensity ultrasound application.

a)
b)
c)
d)

acoustic holography
ultrasonic fish-finders
ultrasonic cleaning
ultrasonic flowmeters

Question: T200297.UT

## The weak emission of light that sometimes accompanies cavitation

in high intensity ultrasonic fields is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

sonoluminescence
fluorescence
bioluminescence
ultraluminescence

Question: T200298.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## its ability to detect phenomena X-rays cannot

destroying gall stones
generating therapeutic heat
all of the above

Question: T200299.UT

## The Doppler effect is utilized in ultrasonic

a)
b)
c)
d)

flaw detection
flowmeters
B-scanners
cleaners

Question: T200300.UT

## Ultrasound intensity used in low intensity diagnostic testing

(such as nondestructive testing) is on the order of

a)
b)
c)
d)

100W/cm
100mW/cm
100kW/cm
100MW/cm

Question: T200301.UT

## Steel ball bearings would probably be tested nondestructively

using

a)
b)
c)
d)

ultrasonics
liquid penetrant
magnetic particles

Question: T200302.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## a minimum or maximum size

suitability of a part for a given purpose
nature of the fault
none of the above

Question: T200303.UT

## Ultimately the cause of any crack is

a)
b)
c)
d)

corrosion
re-crystallization
stress
strain

Question: T200304.UT

## Localized heating of metal objects can result in

a)
b)
c)
d)

"crazy" cracks
grinding cracks
are strike cracks
all of the above

Question: T200305.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## could result in a leak

could be found using liquid penetrant
is easiest found using ultrasonics
both a and b

Question: T200306.UT

## The term pipe refers to

a)
b)
c)
d)

a forging defect
a weld defect
central shrinkage in an ingot
a central blowhole in a casting

Question: T200307.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

will be
may not
will be
will be

## easily located using eddy currents

by located by another NDT method
shorter if located with LPI
longer if located with LPI

Question: T200308.UT

## If a procedure fails to take into consideration a significant

variable, such as temperature, the result will be

a)
b)
c)
d)

## unreliable inspection results

missed defects
lack of repeatability
over sensitivity

Question: T200309.UT

## If it is possible to automate a previously manually performed

scan, you can always expect

a)
b)
c)
d)

faster inspections
more accurate results
improved flaw detection reliability
all of the above

Question: T200310.UT

PZT stand for

a)
b)
c)
d)

## Paul Zamphir Tait, the discoverer of the piezo-ceramics

phosphoric zirconate tungstenate
none of the above

Question: T200311.UT

## The most commonly used backing used in ultrasonic transducers

used in NDT is

a)
b)
c)
d)

air
spur's epoxy
epoxy resin filled with tungsten powder
brass

Question: T200312.UT

## The material added to epoxy resin to increase acoustic impedance

of the probe backing is usually

a)
b)
c)
d)

Rochelle salt
iron filings
tungsten powder

Question: T200313.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## natural attenuation of air

defocusing lenses
scattering by tungsten particles
none of the above

Question: T200314.UT

## The least difficult aspect of a defect to determine using

ultrasonics is

a)
b)
c)
d)

length
height
elastic constants
yield stress reduction on the component

Question: T200315.UT

## In time of flight diffraction techniques, the first wave to

arrive at the receiving probe is the _________ wave.

a)
b)
c)
d)

Rayleigh
diffracted
lateral
reflected

Question: T200316.UT

## The longitudinal blurring of ultrasonic B-scan images that

results due to ultrasonic beam width can be reduced by

a)
b)
c)
d)

## using a lower frequency probe

synthetic aperture focusing technique (saft)
increasing the soundpath
using immersion methods.

Question: T200317.UT

Using
shear
shear
steel

## a contact probe with lucite wedge designed to produce a 70

wave in steel, which material could you not inspect using
waves generated from this probe ( V lucite = 2.68mm/sec V
(transverse) = 3.2 mm/sec)?

a)
b)
c)
d)

## Aluminum (Vl = 6.32mm/sec Vt = 2.49 mm/sec)

Brass (Vl = 4.28mm/sec Vt = 2.03 mm/sec)
nickel (Vl = 5.63 mm/sec
Vt - 2.96 mm/sec)
titanium carbide (Vl - 5.63 mm/sec Vt = 5.16 mm/sec)

Question: T200318.UT

## Given a wedge meant to produce a 60 refracted shear wave in

steel (Vl = 5.66 Vt = 3.12 mm/sec), which material would you be
able to also use this wedge for a 60 refracted shear wave?

a)
b)
c)
d)

## aluminium 2117T4 (Vl=6.50 Vt=3.12mm/sec)

beryllium (Vl=12.9 Vt=8.88mm/sec)
iron (Vl=5.9 Vt=2.32 mm/sec)
nickel (Vl=5.66 Vt=2.96mm/sec)

Question: T200319.UT

## The angle of incidence from lucite Vl=2.76mm/sec to produce a

60 refracted shear wave in steel (Vl=5.9 Vt=3.2mm/sec) is

a)
b)
c)
d)

23.1
34.6
48.3
58.1

Question: T200320.UT

## a) incident angle does not exceed 89

b) acoustic velocity in the refracting medium is less than in the
incident medium
c) acoustic impedance of the refracting medium is greater than 1
d) none of the above, there will always be a first critical
angle

Question: T200321.UT

## The inverse sine of the ratio of the acoustic velocity in the

incident medium to refracting medium's acoustic velocity gives

a)
b)
c)
d)

## the first critical angle

the second critical angle
the third critical angle
the critical angle, which critical angle depends on the mode
velocity used

Question: T200322.UT

The inverse sine of the ratio of the _____ velocities gives the
first critical angle.

## a) refracted long. and incident shear

b) incident long. and refracted long.

## c) incident long. and refracted shear

d) incident long. and reflected long.

Question: T200323.UT

## Given water, density=1g/cc Vl=1.5mm/sec and lead,

density=11.4g/cc Vl=2.16mm/sec. The second critical angle of
sound moving from water to lead is

a)
b)
c)
d)

7.8
14.4
28
not possible to determine from this information

Question: T200324.UT

## Given the acoustic velocities Vl=1.5mm/sec for water and Vl=2.16

Vt=0.70 mm/sec for lead. What is the second critical angle for
a longitudinal wave from water to lead.

a)
b)
c)
d)

43.9
33.9
27.5
none of the above

Question: T200325.UT

In the welding process, removal of weld metal and base metal from
the opposite side of a welded joint to ensure complete
penetration upon welding from that side is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

de-welding
beveling
back gouging
joint preparation

Question: T200326.UT

## The preferred welding term for a blowhole is

a)
b)
c)
d)

tunneling
gusher
porosity
gas pocket

Question: T200327.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

## to support molten weld metal

a heat sink
to prevent lack of fusion
all of the above

Question: T200328.UT

## In welding processes, a preplaced filler metal which is fused

into the root of a joint and thereby becomes part of the weld is
a

a)
b)
c)
d)

chill
chaplet
consumable insert
covered electrode

Question: T200329.UT

## A crack occurring in the depression at the termination of a weld

a)
b)
c)
d)

hot tear
termination crack
heat check crack
crater crack

Question: T200330.UT

In a welded joint, the minimum distance from the root to the weld
face is the

a)
b)
c)
d)

hypotenuse
leg
effective throat
length of weld

Question: T200331.UT

The purpose of flux material in welding is

a)
b)
c)
d)

## to stabilize the welding arc

to protect the molten weld from atmosphere
both a and b
none of the above

Question: T200332.UT

## In welding, the area of base metal melted as determined on a

cross-section of the weld is the

a)
b)
c)
d)

## heat affected zone

fusion zone
twilight zone

Question: T200333.UT

The portion of base metal that has not been melted but whose
mechanical properties or microstructure have been altered by heat
of welding or cutting is called the

a)
b)
c)
d)

fusion zone
heat affected zone
twilight zone

Question: T200334.UT

## In a welding process using inert gas

the purpose of the inert gas is to

a)
b)
c)
d)

## react with the filler metal

provide a protective atmosphere over the weld puddle
increase the heat at the arc
harden the weld metal deposited

Question: T200335.UT

## The protrusion of weld metal beyond the toe, face or root of a

weld is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

overlap
undercut
pass

Question: T200336.UT

## Another term for the welding phenomenon called "suck-back" is

a)
b)
c)
d)

undercut
blow-through
concave rout
overlap

Question: T200337.UT

Cracking occuring in the heat affected zone that does not usually
extend to the surface of the metal is

a)
b)
c)
d)

transverse cracking
laminal cracking
post weld heat treatment cracking

Question: T200338.UT

## In tig welding the electrode manipulated by the welder is

a)
b)
c)
d)

not consumed
both a and b
none of the above

Question: T200339.UT

## When inspecting a curved surface with a contact probe it is

a)
b)
c)
d)

circular probes
rectangular probes
large probes
small probes

Question: T200340.UT

## When inspecting rough surfaces, such as castings, coupling

efficiency can be improved by

a)
b)
c)
d)

## using larger dimensioned probes

using lower frequency probes
increasing damping

Question: T200341.UT

## For contact testing of thin steel plate (5mm) it is recommended

to use shear waves at 80. A significant problem to contend with
however is

a)
b)
c)
d)

## a large fraction of energy is converted to surface waves

interference from side lobes
identifying defects
locating the position of defects

Question: T200342.UT

You are required to scan the full volume of an unground tee joint
weld on 100mm thick plate. Scanning is to be done from one side
of the weld prep plate using a 45 probe. What is the scan
distance you must move from the tee plate surface to ensure 100%
coverage of the weld having a leg of 30mm?

a)
b)
c)
d)

142mm
230mm
283mm
300mm

Question: T200343.UT

You are to scan an unground 50mm thick butt weld from one side of
the weld only. The plate is 20mm thick and full volumetric
coverage of the weld plus 20mm heat affected zone is needed.
Weld face is 20mm wide. What is the maximum scan distance from
the weld centre-line for this coverage with a 60 probe?

a)
b)
c)
d)

40mm
68mm
98mm
120mm

Question: T200344.UT

## A sharp narrow signal whose amplitude remains constant when

orbited and drops off quickly with probe rotation is probably

a)
b)
c)
d)

lack of fusion
an isolated pore
slag
a transverse crack

Question: T200345.UT

## A ragged, cluster of individual spikes is located and determined

to be a defect. Sound path varies, amplitudes vary with rotation
and orbiting with the probe. But the defect does not drop off
completely when orbited. It is most likely a

a)
b)
c)
d)

crack
slag inclusion
porosity cluster
lack of fusion

Question: T200346.UT

## A sharp narrow defect signal is located during a standard A-scan

of a weld. Rotation and orbit of the defect cause it to drop off
quickly with lateral probe motion the signal remains constant in
both amplitude and sound path. It is most likely a

a)
b)
c)
d)

slag inclusion
crack
lack of fusion
pore

Question: T200347.UT

Given a butt weld in a 55mm thick plate, ground flush, you locate
a large sharp narrow reflector with a soundpath of 154mm and exit
point 128mm from the weld centreline using a 45 probe. If it
has length of 20mm the flaw is likely

a) lack of penetration
b) mis-match

c) lack of fusion
d) suck back

Question: T200348.UT

motion is to

a)
b)
c)
d)

## facilitate defect evaluation as to type

limit scanning to a specific depth
determine vertical extent
none of the above

Question: T200349.UT

## When performing a manual pulse-echo contact scan to evaluate the

root area of a weld, a helpful aid is a(n)

a)
b)
c)
d)

level 1 technician
straight edged probe guide
electronic gate
threshold alarm

Question: T200350.UT

## Given an immersion probe with a focal length of 50mm in water,

about what depth in steel would this probe focus if positioned
with normal incidence 40mm over a steel plate (using water
couplant)?

a)
b)
c)
d)

2.5 mm
5.0 mm
10 mm
40 mm

Question: T200351.UT

## a) 3 separate elements mounted

b) 2 separate elements mounted
c) a single element mounted to
Longitudinal wave
d) a single element mounted to

at different angles
at different angles
induce a 70 refracted
induce a 70 refracted Shear wave

Question: T200352.UT

## The indirect shear wave in the 30-70-70 mode conversion method is

formed off the

a)
b)
c)
d)

70 Long. wave
creeping wave
direct shear wave
damping material on the front of the probe shoe

Question: T200353.UT

a)
b)
c)
d)

55

## It cannot be performed with conventional probes

It requires special calibration blocks
Parallel surfaces are needed for mode conversion
All of the above