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Question: T200001.

UT

Mechanical wave motion requires

a)
b)
c)
d)

high pressure
low pressure
particle motion
ionic bonding and disbonding

Question: T200002.UT

In an homogenous and isotropic elastic medium such as low carbon


steel, sound velocity

a)
b)
c)
d)

decreases with distance from source


varies with direction
is constant in all directions
depends on frequency

Question: T200003.UT

The amount of time between two compressions, or two rarefactions


of an elastic wave is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

wavelength
period
frequency
velocity

Question: T200004.UT

The velocity of sound is

a)
b)
c)
d)

constant for all materials


varies with frequency
varies inversely with wavelength
is characteristic of a material

Question: T200005.UT

Compared to the atomic or molecular spacing of a material,


ultrasonic wavelengths are

a)
b)
c)
d)

much greater
smaller
about the same distance
are multiples of the atomic spacing

Question: T200006.UT

The elastic wave that has particle motion parallel to the


direction of wave propagation is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

longitudinal wave
compression wave
density wave
all of the above

Question: T200007.UT

In Rayleigh waves, particle motion is

a)
b)
c)
d)

parallel to the direction of wave propagation


right angles to the direction of wave propagation
retrograde
in counter clockwise ellipses

Question: T200008.UT

Rayleigh waves can be used in steel to penetrate up to

a)
b)
c)
d)

10mm
10cm
1m
1 wavelength

Question: T200009.UT

In bending waves (plate wave mode) particles in the middle zone


of the plate vibrate

a) in longitudinal mode
b) in shear mode
c) in Rayeigh mode

d) not at all

Question: T200010.UT

In the Lamb wave called a dilational wave, particles in the


middle zone of the plate vibrate

a)
b)
c)
d)

in longitudinal mode
in shear mode
in Rayleigh mode
not at all

Question: T200011.UT

If one sound beam passes through another moving in the opposite


direction, the result will be,

a)
b)
c)
d)

a change in amplitude
a change in direction
a change in frequency
no change

Question: T200012.UT

In a standing wave, nodes and antinodes are separated by

a)
b)
c)
d)

1/4 wavelength
1/2 wavelength
1 wavelength
2 wavelengths

Question: T200013.UT

Standing waves are generated in ultrasonic testing for

a)
b)
c)
d)

through testing (pitch-catch)


resonance thickness testing
flaw detection
B-scans

Question: T200014.UT


Specific acoustic impedance is the product of

a)
b)
c)
d)

density and permittivity


hardness and velocity
velocity and density
specific activity and amplitude

Question: T200015.UT

Poisson's ratio is expressed in units of

a)
b)
c)
d)

m/s
Pa
N/m2
no units, it is dimensionless

Question: T200016.UT

Frequency can be expressed in terms of

a)
b)
c)
d)

1/s (s=seconds)
cps
Mhz
all of the above

Question: T200017.UT

The ratio of sound velocity in water to the longitudinal velocity


of sound in steel is very nearly

a)
b)
c)
d)

1:1
1:2
1:4
1:5

Question: T200018.UT

Rayleigh wave velocities for a given material are always

a)
b)
c)
d)

greater than longitudinal wave velocities


greater than transverse wave velocities
less than transverse wave velocities
about the same as shear wave velocities

Question: T200019.UT

The ratio of the incident sound pressure to the reflected sound


pressure is called the

a)
b)
c)
d)

acoustic impedance
acoustic intensity
coefficient of reflection
coefficient of transmission

Question: T200020.UT

The ratio of the incident sound pressure to the transmitted sound


pressure is called the

a)
b)
c)
d)

acoustic impedance
acoustic intensity
coefficient of reflection
coefficient of transmission

Question: T200021.UT

When is the coefficient of transmission a negative value?

a)
b)
c)
d)

if Z incident is less than Z transmitted


If Z incident is greater than Z transmitted
if Z incident equals Z transmitted
never

Question: T200022.UT

Incident sound pressure plus reflected sound pressure equals

a)
b)
c)
d)

0
1
transmitted sound pressure
none of the above

Question: T200023.UT

Total incident sound intensity can be calculated from

a)
b)
c)
d)

the sum of the reflected and transmitted intensities


the difference between reflected and transmitted intensities
R plus D (reflection and transmission coefficients)
R plus D (reflection and transmission coefficients)

Question: T200024.UT

(Sin a1) (C2) = (Sin a2) C1) is a form of

a)
b)
c)
d)

Krautkramer's law
Snell's law
Boyle's law
Hooke's law

Question: T200025.UT

If the Sine of a refracted angle is calculated to be 0.707, the


refracted angle will be

a)
b)
c)
d)

36 degrees
45 degrees
60 degrees
undetermined from the given information

Question: T200026.UT

For a shear wave travelling from steel to water incident on the


boundary at 10 degrees will give a refracted shear wave in water
with an angle of

a)
b)
c)
d)

0 degrees
5 degrees
20 degrees
none of the above

Question: T200027.UT

The critical angle refers to the

a) longitudinal waves' angle


b) incident angle
c) refracted angle

d) reflected shear wave

Question: T200028.UT

The critical angle occurs when the sine of the refracted angle
equals

a)
b)
c)
d)

0.707
0.846
1.000
1.414

Question: T200029.UT

At a solid to free boundary, an obliquely incident longitudinal


wave from the solid can result in, at most,

a)
b)
c)
d)

a reflected longitudinal
a reflected longitudinal
a refracted longitudinal
a reflected longitudinal
longitudinal wave

wave only
and reflected shear wave
long wave
and reflected shear and refracted

Question: T200030.UT

At a liquid/solid boundary with an obliquely incident


longitudinal wave from the liquid the result could be at most be

a)
b)
c)
d)

a
a
a
a

reflected
refracted
reflected
reflected

longitudinal wave only


longitudinal wave only
longitudinal, and a refracted long wave
long and refracted long and shear wave

Question: T200031.UT

Given V (water) = 1.5 mm/us and V (steel) longitudinal velocity =


5.0 mm/us and shear velocity mm/us, what is the second critical
angle of an incident longitudinal wave from steel.

a)
b)
c)
d)

19 degrees
27 degrees
36 degrees
none of the above

Question: T200032.UT

A shear wave polarized in the plane of incidence impinging on a


free boundary at right angles to the boundary will result in

a)
b)
c)
d)

a reflected shear wave only


a reflected shear wave and reflected longitudinal wave
reflected longitudinal wave only
a surface wave

Question: T200033.UT

Maximum surface wave energy is obtained when the angle of


incidence is

a)
b)
c)
d)

0 degrees
60 degrees
90 degrees
just over the critical angle

Question: T200034.UT

Geometric-optic treatment of ultrasonic waves fails to account


for

a)
b)
c)
d)

reflection
refraction
diffraction
normal incidence

Question: T200035.UT

The relationship for acoustic pressure of spherical waves P=Pe/d,


implies

a)
b)
c)
d)

an inverse proportionality to distance


infinite sound pressure at the source
both a and b
none of the above

Question: T200036.UT

Spherical and cylindrical waves reflecting off a plane surface


preserve shape but not

a)
b)
c)
d)

velocity
wavelength
frequency
acoustic pressure distribution

Question: T200037.UT

The advantage of inspecting a thick solid cylinder with a


waterpath two times the cylinder radius instead of just the
cylinder radius is

a)
b)
c)
d)

increased sensitivity
reduced entry noise
smaller near zone
more uniform pressure through the cylinder

Question: T200038.UT

The ratio of the diameter of an oscillator to the wavelength it


generates gives the

a)
b)
c)
d)

acoustic velocity
near zone length
acoustic impedance of the oscillator
number of interference maxima and minima

Question: T200039.UT

For practical purposes, the equation for the near zone distance
can be approximated by (where l = wavelength and D = probe
diameter)

a)
b)
c)
d)

D / l
D squared / 4 l
D squared minus l squared/4 l
(D-4l)/l squared

Question: T200040.UT

Given an "X-cut" normal beam contact probe on steel, the probe is


12 mm diameter and has a frequency of 2 MHz. The approximate

near zone length is (V steel = 6.0mm/us)

a)
b)
c)
d)

4mm
12mm
24mm
48mm

Question: T200041.UT

A transducer has a near field in water of 35 mm.


contact on steel the near zone will be about

When used in

a)
b)
c)
d)

47 mm
35 mm
18 mm
9 mm

Question: T200042.UT

The so called angle of divergence applies to the

a)
b)
c)
d)

dead zone
near field
Fresnel zone
far field

Question: T200043.UT

Sin(gamma) = 1.2 lambda / D (where lambda is wavelength and D is


the crystal diameter) is the equation for

a)
b)
c)
d)

the first critical angle


interference minima in the near zone
half angle of divergence in the Fraunhoffer zone
optimum energy angle for shear waves

Question: T200044.UT

The angle of divergence is a function of

a)
b)
c)
d)

crystal thickness of the probe


crystal dimension eg. diameter
crystal shape
all of the above

Question: T200045.UT

A rectangular probe, 4mm X 8mm, will have its maximum half angle
of divergence

a)
b)
c)
d)

in the 4mm direction


in the 8mm direction
in no particular orientation
constant in all directions

Question: T200046.UT

Given a 10 X 10mm square probe of 5 MHz fundamental frequency,


compared to a 10mm diameter 5 Mhz probe, the near zone of the
square probe would be

a)
b)
c)
d)

longer
shorter
the same
independent of wavelength

Question: T200047.UT

In ultrasonic testing, actual point focusing of sound is not


possible due to

a)
b)
c)
d)

damping effects
divergence in the far zone
asymetric vibrations
diffraction effects

Question: T200048.UT

Huygen's
predict

wavelet theory and Fresnel zones can be used to

a)
b)
c)
d)

focal length
maxima and minima points in a sound beam
radius of curvature in a focused probe
fundamental frequency

Question: T200049.UT

AVG (or DGS in English) diagrams compare flaw signal amplitudes


to

a)
b)
c)
d)

side drilled holes


flat bottomed holes
a theoretical maximum
DAC's

Question: T200050.UT

Flaws oriented obliquely to the incident sound beam may be better


detected using

a)
b)
c)
d)

high gain
higher frequency
focused probes
separate transmit and receive probes

Question: T200051.UT

Echo amplitudes of reference reflectors are dependant on

a)
b)
c)
d)

size
shape
wave mode
all of the above

Question: T200052.UT

A surface can be considered smooth if its irregularities are not


more than ________ wavelength.

a)
b)
c)
d)

1
1/3
1/10
1/100

Question: T200053.UT

The problem of scatter of a rough surface can be reduced by

a) immersion testing

b) a smaller diameter probe


c) a lower frequency probe
d) longer pulse length

Question: T200054.UT

The effect of oxides or other non metallic inclusions within a


defect is to

a)
b)
c)
d)

amplify the signal


split the signal by mode conversion
reduce the signal amplitude
none of the above

Question: T200055.UT

As the pulse length of the excitation voltage is shortened the


transmitted pulse

a)
b)
c)
d)

frequency
frequency
increases
increases

spectrum broadens
spectrum shortens
energy output
penetration ability

Question: T200056.UT

In general, the frequency content of an ultrasound beam has a


larger proportion of high frequencies in its spectrum

a)
b)
c)
d)

on axis
off axis
in the far zone
in the free zone

Question: T200057.UT

The most significant result of scatter and absorption is

a)
b)
c)
d)

frequency content changes


directivity
attenuation
beam spreading


Question: T200058.UT

The effect of attenuation by absorption is most pronounced

a)
b)
c)
d)

in
on
on
on

steel
the beam axis
higher frequencies
lower frequencies

Question: T200059.UT

A neper (Np) is a unit of

a)
b)
c)
d)

attenuation
acoustic impedance
pulse rate
wavelength

Question: T200060.UT

If 3 dB gain was removed from a 100% FSH signal the resulting


signal would be __________ FSH.

a)
b)
c)
d)

97
94
85
71

Question: T200061.UT

If a signal is dropped from 100% FSH to 32% FSH, the number of


dB gain removed from the receiver is

a)
b)
c)
d)

14
10
6
4

Question: T200062.UT

Attenuation in plastics and rubber is predominantly attributable


to

a)
b)
c)
d)

absorption
scatter
beam spread
none of the above

Question: T200063.UT

The attenuation coefficient has the units

a)
b)
c)
d)

dB/m
Np/cm
Np/mm
all of the above

Question: T200064.UT

Non-crystallized materials such as glass are most likely to be

a)
b)
c)
d)

isotropic
anisotropic
piezoelectric
not inspectable

Question: T200065.UT

Attenuation in cast metals is usually reduced by

a)
b)
c)
d)

forging
rolling
extruding
all of the above

Question: T200066.UT

For a given metal of a given grain size, attenuation in the cast


form of the metal relative to the worked form is usually

a)
b)
c)
d)

greater
less
identical
unpredictable

Question: T200067.UT

The effect utilized by ultrasonic transducer crystals is the


_________ effect.

a)
b)
c)
d)

piezoelectric
pyroelectric
ferroelectric
hall

Question: T200068.UT

Piezoelectric crystals' structure will always contain

a)
b)
c)
d)

face-centered cubic form


hexagonal form
symmetry about polar axes
asymmetry about polar axes

Question: T200069.UT

An X-cut quartz crystal is primarily used to generate the


________ wave mode.

a)
b)
c)
d)

longitudinal
transverse
Rayleigh
Lamb

Question: T200070.UT

A typical voltage range for driving (exciting) piezoelectric


crystals would be

a)
b)
c)
d)

50 to 100 mV
50 to 100 V
50 to 100 kV
500 to 1000 V

Question: T200071.UT

Y-cut crystals generate shear waves into a solid material by

a) refraction

b) direct coupling
c) reflection
d) no means known

Question: T200072.UT

The efficiency of the piezoelectric effect is rated by K33 which


is the

a)
b)
c)
d)

piezoelectric modulus
electromechanical coupling factor
deformation constant
Young's modulus

Question: T200073.UT

After a voltage excitation of the piezoelectric crystal, the


amplitude of its oscillations decrease by the quantity determined
by the

a)
b)
c)
d)

Q factor
damping coefficient
characteristic frequency
resonance frequency

Question: T200074.UT

The characteristic or fundamental frequency of a piezoelectric


material is not dependant on

a)
b)
c)
d)

damping material on either face


thickness of crystal
velocity of sound in the crystal
all of the above

Question: T200075.UT

To determine the damping coefficient you must know

a)
b)
c)
d)

the acoustic impedance of the backing material


the acoustic impedance of the loading (front) material
both a and b
none of the above

Question: T200076.UT

Harmonic resonances of piezoelectrically excited crystals occur


at

a)
b)
c)
d)

twice the characteristic frequency


all even multiples of the first resonant frequency
all odd multiples of the first resonant frequency
none of the above

Question: T200077.UT

Although rarely used in modern day NDT transducers, quartz has


the advantage of

a)
b)
c)
d)

chemical inertness
high coupling coefficient
high dielectric constant
all of the above

Question: T200078.UT

For high temperature measurements the preferred piezoelectric


material is

a)
b)
c)
d)

lithium niobate
lithium sulphate hydrate
quartz
PZT

Question: T200079.UT

Polarization of PZT crystals is accomplished using

a)
b)
c)
d)

strong permanent magnets


strong alternating voltage
strong direct voltage
none of the above

Question: T200080.UT

A significant disadvantage of PZT as a transducer material is

its

a)
b)
c)
d)

low density
high curie point
high acoustic impedance preventing good matching
exceptionally high electromechanical coupling coefficient

Question: T200081.UT

Electrodynamic methods of generating and receiving ultrasound


rely on

a)
b)
c)
d)

magnetrostriction
eddy currents
laser heating
none of the above

Question: T200082.UT

Magnetostricitive probes consist of

a)
b)
c)
d)

copper windings through thin laminated plates


copper windings around a ceramic core
solid steel wrapped with copper wire
none of the above

Question: T200083.UT

Optical methods used in ultrasonic testing such as Schlieren


diffraction and interferometer methods are used in

a)
b)
c)
d)

transmission techniques only


reception techniques only
both transmission and reception
optical methods are not used in ultrasonics

Question: T200084.UT

To make useful ultrasonic holograms requires

a)
b)
c)
d)

penetrating acoustic waves


a source of reference waves
conversion means to optical holograms
all of the above

Question: T200085.UT

Pulse-echo ultrasonic testing

a)
b)
c)
d)

uses
uses
both
none

a single probe
separate transmitter and reciever probes
a and b
of the above

Question: T200086.UT

Using the pulse echo method with a 0 degree probe having separate
transmit and receive crystals, the pattern on a CRT of a flat
steel plate would appear as

a)
b)
c)
d)

evenly spaced multiples


randomly spaced multiples
a single spike from the opposite wall
an uninterrupted base line

Question: T200087.UT

Phantom echoes of multiples when testing thick specimens are a


result of

a)
b)
c)
d)

insufficient suppression
modulation from the power supply
PRF set too high
too much gain

Question: T200088.UT

The main bang signal is formed as a result of the

a)
b)
c)
d)

dead zone
couplant/specimen interface
transmitter pulse
all of the above

Question: T200089.UT


When an ultrasonic machine is equipped with this option, the
pulse energy and pulse length can be adjusted

a)
b)
c)
d)

receiver fine grain control


swept gain
time corrected gain
damping

Question: T200090.UT

The voltage of a received ultrasonic signal at the machine's


receiver is typically

a)
b)
c)
d)

1/1000 to 1 volt
10 to 100 volts
100 to 1000 volts
not measurable

Question: T200091.UT

In order to adequately amplify received signals an ultrasonic


machine's receiver amplifier must have a gain of about

a)
b)
c)
d)

6 to 12 dB
20 to 40 dB
80 to 100 dB
100 to 200 dB

Question: T200092.UT

The main disavantage of a broadband receiver in a ultrasonic


machine is

a)
b)
c)
d)

non-linear response to amplification


amplifier noise limits possible amplification
RF display cannot be used
rectified display cannot be used

Question: T200093.UT

The zero time on a contact normal beam probe

a) corresponds to the rising edge of the main bang

b) corresponds to the falling edge of the main bang


c) is determined indirectly by calibration blocks
d) none of the above

Question: T200094.UT

The acoustic impedance of backing material is often increased by

a)
b)
c)
d)

adding a tuning transformer to the probe


increasing test pressures
adding metal powder to the material
increasing suppression

Question: T200095.UT

A great disadvantage of the old quartz crystal transducers that


used the work piece as one of the electrodes was

a)
b)
c)
d)

a fluctuating dead zone


insufficient damping
decreasing sensitivity with use
an increase in frequency with use

Question: T200096.UT

A contact angle beam probe used in fixed housings occasionally


requires

a)
b)
c)
d)

transformer tuning
machining or replacing of the wear face
new couplant between crystal and plastic wedge
all of the above

Question: T200097.UT

Wedges used to introduce refracted waves into a test specimen are


made of

a)
b)
c)
d)

copper
brass
plastics
all of the above can be used


Question: T200098.UT

In order that one can operate above the critical angle of


reflection of longitudinal waves, wedge material for angle beams
are

a) grooved on the front face


b) always made of polystyrene
c) chosen with a longitudinal velocity greater than the shear
velocity of the test piece
d) chosen with a longitudinal velocity less than the shear
velocity of the test piece

Question: T200099.UT

The layer of highly absorbing material sometimes bonded to the


top and front of an angle probe's wedge is called a (an)

a)
b)
c)
d)

cap
backing
anechoic trap
none of the above

Question: T200100.UT

A calibration for horizontal linearity would check properties of


the

a)
b)
c)
d)

receiver amplifier
image unit (oscilloscope)
calibration block
probe

Question: T200101.UT

The purpose of the 50mm diameter perspex insert in the IIW block
is to

a)
b)
c)
d)

check constancy of probe sensitivity


establish probe exit point
calibrate for range
both a and b

Question: T200102.UT

An echo pulse width in steel determines

a)
b)
c)
d)

a system's resolving power


time of flight
the far zone length
the frequency of the probe

Question: T200103.UT

Pulse echo instruments without an image tube are

a)
b)
c)
d)

not useful in NDT


not yet available
used for wall thickness measurements
not portable

Question: T200104.UT

Electronic gates on the trace of a UT machine can be used to

a)
b)
c)
d)

determine the presence of flaws


determine the amplitude of flaws
both a and b
none of the above

Question: T200105.UT

When flaw echo signals are recorded so as to display a plan view


of the test piece the presentation is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

A-scan
B-scan
C-scan
D-scan

Question: T200106.UT

Resonance testing techniques used for thickness determination


use

a) continuous sound waves


b) pulsed sound waves

c) Y-cut quartz crystal transducers


d) all of the above

Question: T200107.UT

The purpose of a reference delay-line in an ultrasonic


interferometer is for

a)
b)
c)
d)

determining amplitude from a known reflector


accurate time measurements
eliminating near zone effects
eliminating dead zone effects

Question: T200108.UT

Uniform and strongly adhering films of paint or oxides are not


removed for ultrasonic testing if

a)
b)
c)
d)

sand blasting cannot remove them


formed on curves surfaces
their presence does not interfere with the test
sufficiently smooth

Question: T200109.UT

Due to its cost and toxicity _________ is not used as a couplant


in contact testing,

a)
b)
c)
d)

SAE oil
heavy diesel oil
mercury
methyl-cellulose solution

Question: T200110.UT

Water jet techniques with water paths of 100mm are restricted to


the through transmission methods because

a)
b)
c)
d)

sound cannot travel upstream for pulse-echo testing


too much water is required
of disturbing echoes behind the surface echo
none of the above


Question: T200111.UT

A narrow high intensity ultrasound beam capable of finding very


small flaws has its disadvantage in

a)
b)
c)
d)

sizing the flaw


characterizing the flaw
requiring a small scanning grid
none of the above

Question: T200112.UT

An effective maximum range for a 5MHz 10mm diameter probe is


around ________ in steel.

a)
b)
c)
d)

50mm
100mm
200mm
300mm

Question: T200113.UT

A minimum distance of a probe from an edge of the test piece is


maintained to eliminate side wall interference. This distance is
inversely proportional to the

a)
b)
c)
d)

soundpath
wavelength
frequency
beam spread

Question: T200114.UT

When testing a 30mm diameter, 500 mm long shaft from the flat end
of the shaft using longitudinal waves from a 20 mm diameter 2 MHz
probe, numerous signals are seen on the screen after 500mm.
These are

a)
b)
c)
d)

ghost images
secondary echos
internal thread indications
none of the above

Question: T200115.UT

Touching the reflection point of a normally incident transverse


wave with an oily finger will

a)
b)
c)
d)

reduce the signal by about 2 dB


reduce the signal by about 6 dB
increase the signal by about 2 dB
have no effect on signal amplitude

Question: T200116.UT

When using a refracted angle of 60 on a 20 mm thick plate the


half skip distance is

a)
b)
c)
d)

28mm
34mm
40mm
58mm

Question: T200117.UT

To calculate skip distance in a flat plate of thickness 'd' for a


refracted angle 'X' we use the formula

a)
b)
c)
d)

(cos X)/d
(sin 2X)/d
2d/cos X
2d (tan x)

Question: T200118.UT

To inspect cylindrical pieces with transverse waves in the


circumferential direction, maximum depth is obtained using

a)
b)
c)
d)

35 refracted angle
45 refracted angle
70 refracted angle
any of the above is adequate if the diameter ratio is
sufficient

Question: T200119.UT

The delta technique is used to determine


a)
b)
c)
d)

flaw size
wall thickness
flaw orientation
all of the above

Question: T200120.UT

Surface waves used for ultrasonic testing are generated by

a)
b)
c)
d)

conversion of longitudinal waves via plastic wedges


Y-cut quartz crystals
both a and b
surface waves are not used in ultrasonic testing

Question: T200121.UT

Frequency analysis of the reflected pulse is occasionally used to


determine

a)
b)
c)
d)

flaw size
flaw depth
coupling efficiency
wave velocity

Question: T200122.UT

Changes in flaw echo shape on the video display are used to


determine

a)
b)
c)
d)

flaw depth
flaw type
stand-off
all of the above

Question: T200123.UT

A defect that is not likely to be located by ultrasonic testing


of a forging blank is

a)
b)
c)
d)

segregation
flake cracks
non-metallic inclusions
cold cracks

Question: T200124.UT

In order to introduce a shear mode into cylindrical shaped


specimens when immersion scanning in the circumferential
direction you need only

a)
b)
c)
d)

use Y-cut crystals in the transducer


switch from pulse-echo to through transmission
off-set the probe from normal incidence
none of the above

Question: T200125.UT

When immersion inspecting small diameter tubing (<15mm diameter)


with a normal beam probe radiating axially towards a mirror
mounted ahead of it, the wave mode used for inspection in the
tube is

a)
b)
c)
d)

longitudinal
transverse
either a or b depending on mirror orientation
none of the above, mirrors are not used

Question: T200126.UT

Below 20 kHz, sound waves are considered to be

a)
b)
c)
d)

ultrasonic
sonic
subsonic
infra-sonic

Question: T200127.UT

Relatively low ultrasonic frequencies are used in long range


sonar units because

a)
b)
c)
d)

whales and submarines are big targets


higher frequencies cause whales to attack
sea water attenuates sound at 60 dB/km
all of the above


Question: T200128.UT

Lamb waves are used in testing

a)
b)
c)
d)

thin bar or plate


composite materials
liquids
bolts

Question: T200129.UT

The time required for a wave packet of ultrasound to go from 10%


to 90% of its maximum amplitude is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

pulse length
PRF
rise time
fall time

Question: T200130.UT

The time duration for an ultrasonic wave packet to have its


trailing edge drop from 90% to 10% of its maximum amplitude is
called

a)
b)
c)
d)

pulse length
PRF
rise time
fall time

Question: T200131.UT

Ferroelectric materials are electrostrictive substances that


exhibit

a)
b)
c)
d)

low acoustic impedance


high coupling coefficients
large deformations with applied voltage
natural acoustic damping properties

Question: T200132.UT

In ferroelectric materials, the units which contain a net

electric polarization are called

a)
b)
c)
d)

cells
bi-poles
mono-poles
domains

Question: T200133.UT

A voltage applied across a slice of piezoelectric material will


cause it to

a)
b)
c)
d)

twist
expand
contract
either b or c depending on polarity

Question: T200134.UT

Ferroelectric materials are made to respond in a piezoelectric


fashion by

a)
b)
c)
d)

using bi-metal electrodes


using only D.C. voltage
sintering the material
poling the material

Question: T200135.UT

A net dipole moment is found in ferroelectric ceramics such as


PZT when

a)
b)
c)
d)

heated above the curie temperature


the domains are frozen and aligned
used under water
use on highly retentive steel

Question: T200136.UT

In contact testing methods, the purpose of the layer of couplant


is to

a) reduce attenuation
b) stop back-scatter

c) allow only compressional wave to enter the piece


d) all of the above

Question: T200137.UT

In which of the following properties, considered when dealing


with transucer materials, does quartz excel in?

a)
b)
c)
d)

receiving constant
transmitting constant
dielectric constant
coupling coefficient

Question: T200138.UT

Curie temperature of a transducer material will indicate

a)
b)
c)
d)

toxicity of vapour
coupling constant
acustic impedance variations with temperature
maximum work surface temperature

Question: T200139.UT

Di-lithium crystals are noted mostly for their

a)
b)
c)
d)

high coupling coefficient


low disipation factor
low curie temperature
warp drive operation on starships

Question: T200140.UT

Internally reflected waves within a lightly loaded resonant


transducer (ie. acoustic impedance on either side is lower than
the transducer's)

a)
b)
c)
d)

nullify resonance
change the resonant frequency
increase the maximum oscillation amplitude
are totally internally refracted

Question: T200141.UT

For continuous wave testing, rise time of the transducer


oscillation relative to the applied driving voltage is

a)
b)
c)
d)

longer than fall time


shorter
about the same
not important

Question: T200142.UT

The first oscillation of a piezoelectric element hit by an


alternating voltage pulse is

a)
b)
c)
d)

higher than all other oscillations in that pulse


lower than all other oscillations in that pulse
never higher than the second oscillation in that pulse
higher or lower than the second oscillation depending on the
front loading

Question: T200143.UT

Acoustic transformers are constructed of

a)
b)
c)
d)

araldite
cork
tungsten loaded epoxies
any transitional layer designed to achieve maximum power
transfer

Question: T200144.UT

The purpose of tungsten powder incorporated in transducer


backings is to

a)
b)
c)
d)

increase acoustic impedance


increase absorption of backward moving ultrasound
both a and b
none of the above

Question: T200145.UT

Nickel and its compounds as well as cobalt and ferrites differ

from other magnetostrictive materials in that they

a)
b)
c)
d)

expand in applied magnetic fields


shrink in applied magnetic fields
are anti-magnetostrictive
are also piezoelectric

Question: T200146.UT

Magnetostrictive transducers have application in

a)
b)
c)
d)

drilling
welding
ultrasonic cleaning
all of the above

Question: T200147.UT

In a standing wave, the points of zero pressure change are


called

a)
b)
c)
d)

null points
nodes
anti-nodes
the still zone

Question: T200148.UT

A lens shape that would result in a divergent beam in optics


gives a convergent beam in ultrasonics because

a)
b)
c)
d)

electromagnetic wavelengths are shorter


electromagnetic waves are faster in solids than liquids
mechanical waves are usually faster in solids than liquids
none of the above

Question: T200149.UT

Ultrasonic transducers used in ultrasonic cleaning apparatus are


operating at a frequency of approximately

a) 25 kHz
b) 200 kHz
c) 0.5 MHz

d) 50 MHz

Question: T200150.UT

The purpose of ultrasonic vibrations added to the tip of a


soldering gun when soldering aluminum or magnesium is to

a)
b)
c)
d)

eliminate the need for penetrant inspection


make a fine grain structure with high shear strength
break through the oxide coating
all of the above

Question: T200151.UT

Which of the following is not a therapeutic application of


medical ultrasound

a)
b)
c)
d)

ultrasonic treatment of arthritis, bursitis, sciatica


destruction of brain tissue in neuro-sonic surgery
establishing health, sex and age of a fetus
destruction of gall stones

Question: T200152.UT

The timebase or baseline is displayed as a horizontal line by


means of

a)
b)
c)
d)

line focus electronics


line focus optical lenses
a light spot moving across phosphor
none of the above

Question: T200153.UT

Increasing the pulse repetition frequency will result in

a)
b)
c)
d)

decreasing sensitivity
increased resolution
altering the probes' frequency output
brightening the baseline

Question: T200154.UT


If it is difficult to resolve two defects separated by 0.5 cm,
resolution may be improved by

a)
b)
c)
d)

increasing
increasing
decreasing
decreasing

gain
soundpath
pulse length
probe frequency

Question: T200155.UT

Damping is achieved in an ultrasonic transducer by

a)
b)
c)
d)

electrical adjustment of the pulse


using high loss backing
using matching layers between crystal and workpiece
all of the above

Question: T200156.UT

Elastic constants such as Young's modulus and the bulk modulus


can be calculated from ultrasonic measurement of

a)
b)
c)
d)

attenuation
reflection coefficients
acoustic velocities
frequency domains

Question: T200157.UT

In order to accurately determine acoustic velocities you must


know

a)
b)
c)
d)

your instruments PRF


Snell's law
Young's modulus or the bulk modulus
the thickness of the test piece

Question: T200158.UT

Measurement of changes in sound velocity are used for


determining

a) density

b) flow rates of fluids


c) thickness
d) all of the above

Question: T200159.UT

Linearity of an ultrasonic machine's timebase must be within

a)
b)
c)
d)

1mm
2mm
1%
10%

Question: T200160.UT

Which item is not always marked on all standard transducers sold


for NDT purposes

a)
b)
c)
d)

frequency
exit point
crystal dimensions
serial number

Question: T200161.UT

For the purposes of ultrasonic testing, signal-to-noise ratio is


a function of

a)
b)
c)
d)

the probe
the oscilloscope
a combination of probe and scope
none of the above

Question: T200162.UT

When evaluating the performance of a probe-instrument


combination, far field resolution is limited by

a)
b)
c)
d)

the probes' functional frequency


instrument gain
available suppression
the test surface of the calibration block


Question: T200163.UT

The arbitrary amplitude response from flat bottomed or side


drilled holes is used to establish sensitivity level because

a)
b)
c)
d)

sensitivity is optimised
resolution is optimised
results can be reproducible
both a and b

Question: T200164.UT

Viscosity of couplant chosen for a contact ultrasonic inspection


will usually depend on

a)
b)
c)
d)

probe size
nominal frequency
surface condition
sensitivity required

Question: T200165.UT

In longitudinal wave inspection of the parent metal adjacent to a


weld, minimum sensitivity is usually set such that

a) it is 6 dB over the 80% FSH level for the appropriate side


drilled hole
b) it is 20 dB over the 80% FSH level for the appropriate side
drilled hole
c) backwall echo is 100% FSH in the absence of defects
d) none of the above

Question: T200166.UT

When doing an ultrasonic weld inspection material thickness, weld


preparation configuration, defect type and orientation are the
main considerations for

a)
b)
c)
d)

probe dimensions
frequency
probe angle
all of the above

Question: T200167.UT

Gain corrections to compensate for attenuation are dependant on

a)
b)
c)
d)

frequency used
grain structure of test material
pulse energy
a and b

Question: T200168.UT

The IIW Block #1 is used to calibrate

a)
b)
c)
d)

range
exit point
refracted angle
all of the above

Question: T200169.UT

When calibrating an ultrasonic instrument for range, the maximum


distance of interest should not be less than

a)
b)
c)
d)

100
200
one
two

mm
mm
half the horizontal scale
thirds the horizontal scale

Question: T200170.UT

DGS diagrams are used to establish

a)
b)
c)
d)

defect depth
defect size
correct probe dimensions
beam divergence

Question: T200171.UT

In the DGS (AVG German) system of defect sizing, the diagram


relates to soundpath distance to the _________ to obtain the
relative distance.

a) probe size

b) near-field length
c) stand-off distance
d) depth of defect

Question: T200172.UT

Where geometry permits in weld inspection, the distance you need


to move the probe back from the weld to ensure 100% volume
inspection is

a)
b)
c)
d)

1/2 skip from the weld centre-line


1 full skip from the weld centre-line
1/2 skip from the edge of the heat affected zone
1 full skip from the HAZ edge

Question: T200173.UT

During manual scanning, detection of obliquely oriented defects


is improved by

a)
b)
c)
d)

using a lower frequency


longitudinal wave inspections
adding swivel motion to the angle beam probe
all of the above

Question: T200174.UT

Shear-wave probe angle for contact testing of plate between 10mm


and 100 mm thick is

a)
b)
c)
d)

45 and 60 degrees
determined by probe frequency chosen
dependant on plate thickness, position and nature of defect
none of the above

Question: T200175.UT

Given a flat plate 25mm thick, the full skip range distance with
a 60 degree probe is

a)
b)
c)
d)

35mm
50mm
100mm
not possible to determine

Question: T200176.UT

The half skip range on a 16mm thick plate with a 70% probe is

a)
b)
c)
d)

24mm
33mm
47mm
64mm

Question: T200177.UT

A defects' vertical extent is deduced by __________ motion of the


probe

a)
b)
c)
d)

lateral
traversing
rotational
orbital

Question: T200178.UT

A sharp signal with large amplitude response seen from one side
of a weld but not the other, having a sharp drop off with both
rotational and orbital motion would indicate the presence of

a)
b)
c)
d)

porosity
lack of fusion
slag
cracking

Question: T200179.UT

The use of ultrasonic methods to check fillet welds is usually


restricted to determining the extent of penetration. This is
best facilitated by

a)
b)
c)
d)

a guidance system to hold the probe at a fixed distance


c-scan presentations
45 and 60 degree probes in tandem
holographic techniques

Question: T200180.UT

Size estimations of defects based on amplitude response are

a)
b)
c)
d)

the best option available


never reliable
used by all codes
always referenced to side drilled holes or notches

Question: T200181.UT

The amplitude reference line used to compare flaw response to


reference hole response at varying depths is abbreviated

a)
b)
c)
d)

ARL
AVG
DAC
DGS

Question: T200182.UT

If you are drawing a DAC for an inspection range of 200mm and


your response from the 3/8 node reference hole at 125mm has
already dropped to 10% FSH you will have to use

a)
b)
c)
d)

a new calibration block


larger reference holes
the DGS (AVG) system
a split DAC

Question: T200183.UT

A transfer valve is established using

a)
b)
c)
d)

published attenuation valves for the alloy tested


two shear wave probes in a through transmission technique
DGS (AVG) curves
multiple back-echoes from a normal beam probe

Question: T200184.UT

If coupling conditions on a test piece are better than on a


calibration block the transfer value will be

a)
b)
c)
d)

greater than zero


less than zero
not used
1 (one)

Question: T200185.UT

Vertical extent of a defect is determined using

a)
b)
c)
d)

a 6 dB drop method
a 10 dB drop method
a 20 dB drop method
any of the above is acceptable if the appropriate beam spread
plot is made for comparison

Question: T200186.UT

Acceptability of a defect is determined by

a)
b)
c)
d)

code or customer requirements


amplitude relative to reference
length
type of flaw

Question: T200187.UT

The most pronounced effects of beam deviation by surface


roughness are had when using

a)
b)
c)
d)

immersion testing
low frequency transducers
70 degree contact probes
normal beam probes

Question: T200188.UT

The result of increasing the temperature of a test piece from


10C. to 30C. is

a)
b)
c)
d)

increase sensitivity
decrease the refracted angle
decrease the acoustic velocity
all of the above

Question: T200189.UT

The ability to discern individual defects separate from the


initial interface signal is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

dead zone limit


near surface resolution
surface acuity
damping

Question: T200190.UT

The IIW Block #1 cannot be used to calibrate

a)
b)
c)
d)

angle beam resolution


range for time-base
time-base linearity
sensitivity

Question: T200191.UT

The maximum amplitude response from the 1.5mm diameter hole in


the IIW Block #1 is used to determine

a)
b)
c)
d)

longitudinal wave sensitivity


shear wave sensitivity
dead zone distance
both a and b

Question: T200192.UT

IIW blocks are constructed of

a)
b)
c)
d)

ASTM-A36 steel
stainless steel
aluminum
any metal or alloy

Question: T200193.UT

The 91mm step in the IIW Block #1 is used for


a)
b)
c)
d)

setting shear wave range with longitudinal waves


establishing non-standard ranges
shear wave resolution determinations
none of the above

Question: T200194.UT

The purpose of the small Rompas or DIN block (IIW Block #2) is

a)
b)
c)
d)

range calibration
determining exit point of probe
determining actual refracted angle
all of the above

Question: T200195.UT

The 5mm diameter through hole in the DIN or ROMPAS block is used
for checking

a)
b)
c)
d)

shear wave sensitivity


longitudinal wave sensitivity
beam angle
all of the above

Question: T200196.UT

When setting sensitivity of a longitudinal probe using the IIW


blocks

a)
b)
c)
d)

total number and size of last echo are used


response from the side drilled hole is used
both a and b can be used
IIW blocks are never used to set sensitivity

Question: T200197.UT

The dB difference between a signal 25% FSH and 100%

a)
b)
c)
d)

6 dB
8 dB
10 dB
12 dB

FSH is

Question: T200198.UT

To reduce the influence of incident angle when evaluating beam


characteristics the preferred target is

a)
b)
c)
d)

a cylindrical target at right angles to beam axis


a spherical target of tungsten
a flat bottom hole
vee notches

Question: T200199.UT

Given that maximum acoustic intensity occurs at the focal point,


the focal point for a flat 100mm diameter 4 MHz probe in water
is

a)
b)
c)
d)

10mm inside the probe damping


the probe face
the end of the near zone
none of the above

Question: T200200.UT

In the AVG (DGS) diagrams originated by Krautkramer in 1959, the


reduced range is given

a)
b)
c)
d)

as a fraction of the near zone


in millimeters only
as a ratio of the probe diameter
where the amplitude equals the ideal backwall echo

Question: T200201.UT

In immersion testing, defect sizing is improved in the flaw


traverse technique measuring probe movement to 6 or 20 dB drop
levels by use of

a)
b)
c)
d)

lower frequency probes


focused probes
Y-cut transducer elements
oil coupling instead of water

Question: T200202.UT

To determine the functional, or operating frequency of a probe


you need

a)
b)
c)
d)

a UT machine capable of R.F. display


a frequency analyser
to know probe diameter and its near zone as measured in water
any of the above can be used

Question: T200203.UT

The resolving power of an ultrasonic system depends primarily on

a)
b)
c)
d)

the loop gain of the transducer


operating frequency
amount of gain used in the receiver amplifier
the pulse energy

Question: T200204.UT

When a flaw has a size that is less than the wavelength of


ultrasound impinging on it,

a)
b)
c)
d)

the AVG (DGS) system must be used for sizing


dimensions are determined using the 20 dB drop method
it is not possible to determine the flaws' shape
it cannot be detected

Question: T200205.UT

Signal averaging, correlation, and filtering are techniques used


in ultrasonic systems to

a)
b)
c)
d)

extract weak signals from incoherent noise


improve resolution
characterize defects for type
none of these techniques are used in ultrasonic testing

Question: T200206.UT

The process where by a re-current signal is extracted from


incoherent noise is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

amplitude modulation
frequency modulation
signal averaging
filtering

Question: T200207.UT

Receiver noise must often be filtered out of a test system.


Receiver amplifier noise increases proportionally to

a)
b)
c)
d)

the square root of the bandwidth


the inverse square of the bandwidth
attenuation
temperature

Question: T200208.UT

A group of ultrasonic transducers arranged in some form of


geometrical pattern with individual transducers use sequentially
as transmitters, receivers or both is called a

a)
b)
c)
d)

sequenced array
switched pulser
C-scan array
multi-element probe

Question: T200209.UT

Which is not used as an acoustic imaging method?

a)
b)
c)
d)

deconvolution
sequenced array
liquid-surface levitation
holography

Question: T200210.UT

In order to determine a particular material parameter by


ultrasonics you would need to find its

a)
b)
c)
d)

critical angle
acoustic velocity and acoustic impedance
attenuation
any or all of the above depending on the parameter sought

Question: T200211.UT

The so called delta technique derives its name from

a) its origins in the Mississippi delta


b) measurements of changes in velocity (delta "V")
c) the triangular juxtaposition of transmitter, receiver and
flaw
d) none of the above

Question: T200212.UT

Increasing a focused probe's focal length can have the advantage


of increasing focal depth, but this is achieved at the expense
of

a)
b)
c)
d)

increasing attenuation
increasing focal spot size
reducing resolution
both b and c

Question: T200213.UT

Which is not an advantage of electromagnetic acoustic transducers


(EMAT)?

a)
b)
c)
d)

high electric to acoustic power conversion


can inspect rough or coated surfaces
non-contacting
inspection of high temperature surfaces

Question: T200214.UT

In highly automated inspection apparatus, ultrasonic phased


arrays permit

a)
b)
c)
d)

elimination of mechanical scanning apparatus


increased resolution over a greater depth range
control of beam shape
all of the above

Question: T200215.UT

Rayleigh waves have

a) distinctly different velocities from longitudinal and shear


waves in the same medium
b) ellipsoidal particle displacement
c) a velocity slightly less than shear waves in the same medium
d) all of the above

Question: T200216.UT

For crystalline material to have piezoelectric properties it must


have

a)
b)
c)
d)

asymmetry of crystal axes


silicon as one of its component elements
nuclear spin parity
no unstable isotopes

Question: T200217.UT

For unpoled poly-crystalline piezoelectric materials, an applied


pressure results in

a)
b)
c)
d)

polar alignment of crystal


radial mode vibration
maximum voltage
zero net voltage

Question: T200218.UT

Even under ideal conditions, the electro mechanical coupling


coefficient (k) will not exceed

a)
b)
c)
d)

0.1
1.0
10
100

Question: T200219.UT

If the product of the relative transmitter and receiver


efficiencies of quartz is 1, which of the following

piezomaterials would have a product less than 1?

a)
b)
c)
d)

PZT
ZnO
PVDF
none of the above

Question: T200220.UT

A dual crystal probe using PZT as a transmitter and PVDF as a


receiver, as compared to just PZT used in the send-receive mode
would be

a)
b)
c)
d)

about 7 times more efficient


half as efficient
hampered by low signal to noise ratio
useless

Question: T200221.UT

The purpose of using metal powder in epoxies as probe backing


material is to

a) increase acoustic impedance of the backing to match the


ceramic piezoelements' acoustic impedance
b) provide an electric conductor to the back electrode
c) decrease bandwidth
d) none of the above

Question: T200222.UT

In ultrasonic testing, beam focusing is accomplished by

a)
b)
c)
d)

placing lenses in front of the planar transmitter


suitably curved piezo material
specimen geometry
all of the above

Question: T200223.UT

The result of a cylindrical shaped lens on the front of an


ultrasonic probe is a(n)

a) point focused beam

b) line focused beam


c) asymptotic beam
d) negatively focused beam

Question: T200224.UT

Which is not an advantage of electromagnetic acoustic transducers


(EMATs)?

a)
b)
c)
d)

no couplant needed
hot surfaces are more easily inspected
easily shaped beams
increased sensitivity over ferro electric probes

Question: T200225.UT

Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) generate ultrasound


by means of

a)
b)
c)
d)

cosmic awareness
eddy currents
mechanical contact
magnetic deformations

Question: T200226.UT

EMATs cannot be used to generate ultrasound in

a)
b)
c)
d)

non-conductive material
magnetic metals
non-magnetic metals
both a and b

Question: T200227.UT

The most common method used to determine the nature of a probes'


sound field is by

a)
b)
c)
d)

Fast Fourier transforms


impedance curves
side drilled holes
using two transducers, one transmitting and the other
receiving

Question: T200228.UT

An angle beam probe is checked for refracted angle on an IIW and


found to be 44 degrees. The IIW block temperature is 10C.
Moving to the 40 degree C. test piece the refracted angle will
be

a)
b)
c)
d)

more
less
the same
not possible to know

Question: T200229.UT

To determine the dominant frequency of a probe you would require

a)
b)
c)
d)

an unrectified signal on a baseline calibrated in time


a rectified signal on a baseline calibrated in distance
a reference probe
an impedance matching circuit

Question: T200230.UT

The time interval in microseconds between the first and last


instant at which the value of the pulse reaches 10% of its peak
amplitude is considered the

a)
b)
c)
d)

pulse length
20 dB drop length
dead zone
rise time

Question: T200231.UT

When determining signal-to-noise ratio the suppression control is


set at

a)
b)
c)
d)

maximum
minimum
50%
suppression setting is not important

Question: T200232.UT

When determining signal-to-noise ratio, the noise is attributable


to

a)
b)
c)
d)

electrical noise from machine, cable and probe


metal grain structure
both a and b
inability for focus the baseline

Question: T200233.UT

Probe index refers to

a)
b)
c)
d)

nominal frequency of the probe


beam exit point
the refracted angle in the test piece
the incident angle from perspex

Question: T200234.UT

For a given range, deviations of + or - 2 degrees in refracted


angle will result in greatest depth error for

a)
b)
c)
d)

70 probes
60 probes
45 probes
error will be constant at all angles

Question: T200235.UT

Depth of the dead zone is determined by

a)
b)
c)
d)

probe design
pulse energy setting
gain setting
all of the above

Question: T200236.UT

A discontinuity whose shape, size location or properties make it


detrimental to the useful service of the product in which it
occurs or which exceeds the accept/reject criteria is a(n)

a)
b)
c)
d)

defect
slag inclusion
crack
anomaly

Question: T200237.UT

A response or evidence of a response in non-destructive testing


that requires interpretation is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

an indication
a defect
a flaw
signal-to-noise ratio

Question: T200238.UT

The component of ultrasonic wave attenuation resulting from


conversion of mechanical energy to heat is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

acoustic absorption
coupling
divergence
acoustic impedance

Question: T200239.UT

The property which determines acoustic transmission across a


boundary between two media is termed

a)
b)
c)
d)

acoustic impedance
electric impedance
conductivity
transmissivity

Question: T200240.UT

Coupling two media to provide optimum transfer of ultrasonic


energy between them is

a)
b)
c)
d)

a code requirement
acoustic impedance matching
best accomplished by dry coupling
all of the above

Question: T200241.UT

For a given ultrasonic beam impinging on a surface, the angle of


incidence, the angle of reflection and the normal to that surface
are

a)
b)
c)
d)

always equal
never equal
found by the inverse squared law
in the same plane

Question: T200242.UT

Loss of acoustic energy in a material due to scatter, absorption


and dispersion is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

suppression
attenuation
damping
all of the above

Question: T200243.UT

A curve showing the relationship of amplitude to distance


travelled to reflectors of the same area is usually referred to
as a(n)

a)
b)
c)
d)

AVG
DAC
DGS
NDT

curve
curve
curve
curve

Question: T200244.UT

The ultrasonic pulse received from the boundary of a body normal


to the beam axis is termed

a)
b)
c)
d)

backwall echo
a multiple reflection
the normal echo
a defect


Question: T200245.UT

An ultrasonic display in rectangular coordinates where distance


or time of flight is represented in one direction and probe
displacement represented on the other and reflected pulses as
bright marks on a dark background (or vise versa) is called a(n)

a)
b)
c)
d)

A-scan
B-scan
C-scan
tomograph

Question: T200246.UT

Noise generated by the transmitting transducer which is produced


in the receiving transducer of a dual crystal probe is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

signal from noise effect


cross-talk
acoustic pick-up
FM cross-over

Question: T200247.UT

An assembly of ultrasonic crystals mounted so as to behave as


though it were a single crystal is called a(n)

a)
b)
c)
d)

acoustic mat
crystal mosaic
phased array
linear array

Question: T200248.UT

The time interval between the initial pulse and the initiation of
the time base sweep is termed

a)
b)
c)
d)

range
time of flight
programmed off-set
delay

Question: T200249.UT


The frequency at which the overall response of an ultrasonic
pulse-echo flaw detection system is maximum is the

a)
b)
c)
d)

dominant frequency
resonance frequency
nominal frequency
anti-resonance frequency

Question: T200250.UT

The lowest acoustic frequency which will cause a condition of


resonance to be established in a given material of given
thickness is the _________ frequency.

a)
b)
c)
d)

fundamental
parallel
series
anti-resonance

Question: T200251.UT

A probe which incorporates separate transmit and receive crystals


in the same housing is called a

a)
b)
c)
d)

dual crystal probe


T-R probe
delta probe
normal probe

Question: T200252.UT

The unit of sound (or electrical) gain or attenuation, dB is

a)
b)
c)
d)

one tenth of a bell


a ratio of voltages or intensities
derived from naval protocol
both a and b

Question: T200253.UT

The display of remnant reflections originating from previously


transmitted pulses due to too high a PRF are called

a)
b)
c)
d)

transients
trip signals
ghost echoes
none of the above

Question: T200254.UT

Harmonic frequencies occur at

a)
b)
c)
d)

2 times the fundamental frequency


3 times the fundamental frequency
4 times the fundamental frequency
all of the above

Question: T200255.UT

The boundary between any two media of different acoustic


impedances is termed a(n)

a)
b)
c)
d)

interface
divide
interlude
front

Question: T200256.UT

A wave that is propagated in thin material, & whose velocity is


dependant on frequency and material thickness.

a)
b)
c)
d)

Lamb wave
Rayleigh wave
shear wave
new wave

Question: T200257.UT

The repeated reflections of ultrasonic pulses from between


surfaces or discontinuities within a body are

a)
b)
c)
d)

ghost echoes
sing-around
multiple echoes
wrap-around

Question: T200258.UT

A 'normal' probe is one which

a)
b)
c)
d)

operates at half wave resonance


operates at quarter wave resonance
has tungsten powder imbedded in its backing epoxy
introduces sound into a test piece at right angles to the
surface

Question: T200259.UT

The method whereby a discontinuity is detected and evaluated


using reflected pulses.

a)
b)
c)
d)

pulse-echo method
through transmission
bulk wave testing
crack tip diffraction

Question: T200260.UT

The number of times per second that an ultrasonic transducer is


excited to produce a pulse is

a)
b)
c)
d)

determined by the crystal thickness


a function of the cable capacitance
the pulse repetition frequency
all of the above

Question: T200261.UT

The gain or attenuation setting at which indications are assessed


is the ________ level.

a)
b)
c)
d)

reference
scan
threshold
bell

Question: T200262.UT

Instrument settings which relate a reference echo of reproducible


amplitude with which other instrument settings relating to a
discontinuity echo are compared is the

a)
b)
c)
d)

scanning level
threshold level
reference sensitivity
overall system gain

Question: T200263.UT

Addition of suppression or reject to a display effectively

a)
b)
c)
d)

filters out unwanted noise


reduces dynamic range
increases sensitivity
none of the above

Question: T200264.UT

The relationship between amplitudes of an indication in A-scan


presentation and the magnitude of the corresponding received
signals is used to determine

a)
b)
c)
d)

vertical linearity
manual scanning speed
longitudinal/shear mode energy ratios
none of the above

Question: T200265.UT

The device which incorporates one or more ultrasonic crystals


mounted inside a liquid filled flexible tire is commonly called
a

a)
b)
c)
d)

rubber tester
rotating head probe
wheel probe
plate probe

Question: T200266.UT

Which pulse method of ultrasonic testing uses only a single


crystal?


a)
b)
c)
d)

pulse-echo
pitch-catch
through-transmission
all of the above

Question: T200267.UT

The source of ultrasound in acoustic emission techniques is

a)
b)
c)
d)

sudden relaxation of stresses within the material


a transmitter crystal
rotary wire brushes
static discharge

Question: T200268.UT

Resolving power of broadband transducers

a)
b)
c)
d)

increases with
decreases with
is independant
depends solely

soundpath distance
soundpath distance
of soundpath distance
on near field length

Question: T200269.UT

Examination of a metal's elastic properties by increasing the


angle of incidence until either the longitudinal or shear mode
disappears is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

wave mode analysis


spectral analysis
specular analysis
critical-angle analysis

Question: T200270.UT

When doing immersion critical-angle analyses the pitch-catch


technique is used. The receiver probe is used to study the

a)
b)
c)
d)

reflected longitudinal wave


reflected transverse wave
transmitted longitudinal wave
Rayleigh waves

Question: T200271.UT

Non-contacting ultrasonic coupling, ie. coupling across an air


gap has its advantage in

a)
b)
c)
d)

avoiding fluid contamination of test piece


testing at elevated temperatures is possible
avoiding transducer wear on rough surfaces
all of the above

Question: T200272.UT

When performing a "normal beam" inspection of 60mm thick plate by


immersion technique, the minimum waterpath to avoid waterpath
multiples in the first metal wall thickness display is

a)
b)
c)
d)

15mm
30mm
60mm
240mm

Question: T200273.UT

If the longitudinal waves are required at an angle other than


zero degrees from the normal in the test piece

a) the incident angle must be less than the first critical angle
b) the incident angle must be less than the second critical
angle
c) the incident angle must be between the first and second
critical angles
d) you are out of luck-it can't be done

Question: T200274.UT

Although no longer commonly used for thickness testing of steel


plate, resonance testing still finds application in

a)
b)
c)
d)

flaw detection in integrated circuits


locating nonbond areas in rubber to metal
shadow technique ultrasonic testing
all of the above

Question: T200275.UT

Ultrasonic systems similar to those used in nondestructive


testing are used in

a)
b)
c)
d)

ultrasonic welding
diagnostic medicine
de-watering units
ultrasonic machining

Question: T200276.UT

Transducers used for resonance measurements would more likely be

a)
b)
c)
d)

broadband-type pulse
high-Q factor
low-Q factor
none of the above

Question: T200277.UT

When information is presented as a B-scan on an oscilloscope,


intensity (or amplitude) of a signal is indicated by

a)
b)
c)
d)

strobe effects for signals over a threshold amplitude


digital readout on the corner of the screen
brightness of the spot on the scope
none of the above

Question: T200278.UT

When measuring crack depth using shear-wave soundpaths, amplitude


drop and probe travel, you need in addition to various distances
and the refracted angles

a)
b)
c)
d)

a transmitting and a receiving transducer


the beamwidth in the vertical plane
maximum amplitude with respect to a side drilled hole
maximum amplitude with respect to a flat bottom hole

Question: T200279.UT

For a given flaw, with a physical vertical extent of 11mm, the


probe requiring the maximum forward travel to locate the flaw
ends would be the

a)
b)
c)
d)

0
45
60
70

Question: T200280.UT

An increase in attenuation or a decrease in velocity in a


material is generally indicative of

a)
b)
c)
d)

degradation or loss of strength


an increase in compressive loading
an increase in tensile strength
decreasing pulse frequency

Question: T200281.UT

Attenuation studies in ultrasound could be used to determine

a)
b)
c)
d)

average gain size of metals


yield point of materials during elastic-plastic deformation
fracture toughness of stainless steel
all of the above

Question: T200282.UT

Ultrasonic methods used to monitor or detect fatigue cracks are


based on

a)
b)
c)
d)

attenuation effects
amplitude of reflection energy
both a and b are used
none of the above

Question: T200283.UT

An advantage of using ultrasonic surface waves over other wave


modes is

a) good sensitivity to subsurface defects

b) the ease of focusing the beam


c) test piece contours are followed without loss due to direction
changes
d) none of the above

Question: T200284.UT

The weld defect that results when a weld puddle solidifies from
the outer edges and causes stresses sufficient to produce
cracking is

a)
b)
c)
d)

crater cracking
underbead cracking
transverse cracking
puddle jumping

Question: T200285.UT

The purpose of removing a weld cap by grinding it flush with the


base metal in preparation for ultrasonic testing is to

a)
b)
c)
d)

reduce scatter from redirection of beam


improve volumetric coverage
increase sensitivity to near surface defects
all of the above

Question: T200286.UT

When testing tubular products with ultrasonics it is essential to


ensure a fixed alignment between the probe and workpiece since a
slight shift of tube axis could result in

a)
b)
c)
d)

a large change in incidence angle


damaging the probe
differential losses in frequency content
none of the above

Question: T200287.UT

In immersion ultrasonic testing of tubular products, line focused


probes have an advantage over point focused probes in that

a) higher frequencies are available


b) higher inspection rates are possible

c) higher resolution is achieved


d) higher sensitivity is achieved

Question: T200288.UT

When inspecting tubing using ultrasonic immersion methods in the


tube mill

a)
b)
c)
d)

the tube is rotated under the ultrasonic probes


the probes are rotated around the tube
both a or b can be arranged
none of the above

Question: T200289.UT

Lamb waves are used to inspect

a)
b)
c)
d)

threaded bar stock


for inclusions in TIG welded root passes
thin plate
all of the above

Question: T200290.UT

In general, ultrasonic testing of cast iron is

a)
b)
c)
d)

done at frequencies from 1-2 MHz


by immersion methods only
both a and b
avoided

Question: T200291.UT

Which of the following non-metals would more commonly be tested


by ultrasonics in the kiloherz range of frequencies?

a)
b)
c)
d)

wood
concrete
rubber
all of the above

Question: T200292.UT


Ultrasonics when used on timber (ie. logs) can determine

a)
b)
c)
d)

age by counting rings


diameter
presence or absence of decay
none of the above, ultrasound is not used to test timber

Question: T200293.UT

Ultrasonic velocities of glasses such as quartz, fused silica and


pyrex are

a)
b)
c)
d)

not possible to determine


available for only the longitudinal mode
about the same as steel
about the same as water

Question: T200294.UT

Ultrasonics has been successfully used in testing rubber tires


for determining

a)
b)
c)
d)

porosity location
de-lamination location
the state of cure
all of the above

Question: T200295.UT

Ultrasonic holography has an advantage over other imaging


techniques in that it provides

a)
b)
c)
d)

total information from a single pulse


a 3-dimensional display of defects
maximum inspection speed
the best sensitivity of all imaging systems

Question: T200296.UT

Non-destructive testing is one of many applications of


low-intensity ultrasound. Which of the following is not an
example of low-intensity ultrasound application.

a)
b)
c)
d)

acoustic holography
ultrasonic fish-finders
ultrasonic cleaning
ultrasonic flowmeters

Question: T200297.UT

The weak emission of light that sometimes accompanies cavitation


in high intensity ultrasonic fields is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

sonoluminescence
fluorescence
bioluminescence
ultraluminescence

Question: T200298.UT

Diagnostic medical application of low intensity ultrasound has


its advantage in

a)
b)
c)
d)

its ability to detect phenomena X-rays cannot


destroying gall stones
generating therapeutic heat
all of the above

Question: T200299.UT

The Doppler effect is utilized in ultrasonic

a)
b)
c)
d)

flaw detection
flowmeters
B-scanners
cleaners

Question: T200300.UT

Ultrasound intensity used in low intensity diagnostic testing


(such as nondestructive testing) is on the order of

a)
b)
c)
d)

100W/cm
100mW/cm
100kW/cm
100MW/cm

Question: T200301.UT

Steel ball bearings would probably be tested nondestructively


using

a)
b)
c)
d)

ultrasonics
liquid penetrant
magnetic particles
radiography

Question: T200302.UT

The term defect or flaw indicates

a)
b)
c)
d)

a minimum or maximum size


suitability of a part for a given purpose
nature of the fault
none of the above

Question: T200303.UT

Ultimately the cause of any crack is

a)
b)
c)
d)

corrosion
re-crystallization
stress
strain

Question: T200304.UT

Localized heating of metal objects can result in

a)
b)
c)
d)

"crazy" cracks
grinding cracks
are strike cracks
all of the above

Question: T200305.UT

In a valve casting, sponginess

a)
b)
c)
d)

could result in a leak


could be found using liquid penetrant
is easiest found using ultrasonics
both a and b

Question: T200306.UT

The term pipe refers to

a)
b)
c)
d)

a forging defect
a weld defect
central shrinkage in an ingot
a central blowhole in a casting

Question: T200307.UT

A surface breaking crack located by ultrasonics

a)
b)
c)
d)

will be
may not
will be
will be

easily located using eddy currents


by located by another NDT method
shorter if located with LPI
longer if located with LPI

Question: T200308.UT

If a procedure fails to take into consideration a significant


variable, such as temperature, the result will be

a)
b)
c)
d)

unreliable inspection results


missed defects
lack of repeatability
over sensitivity

Question: T200309.UT

If it is possible to automate a previously manually performed


scan, you can always expect

a)
b)
c)
d)

faster inspections
more accurate results
improved flaw detection reliability
all of the above


Question: T200310.UT

When dealing with ultrasonic nondestructive testing the letters


PZT stand for

a)
b)
c)
d)

Paul Zamphir Tait, the discoverer of the piezo-ceramics


lead zirconate titanate
phosphoric zirconate tungstenate
none of the above

Question: T200311.UT

The most commonly used backing used in ultrasonic transducers


used in NDT is

a)
b)
c)
d)

air
spur's epoxy
epoxy resin filled with tungsten powder
brass

Question: T200312.UT

The material added to epoxy resin to increase acoustic impedance


of the probe backing is usually

a)
b)
c)
d)

Rochelle salt
iron filings
tungsten powder
PbO (lead oxide)

Question: T200313.UT

The backward moving energy in an ultrasonic probe is damped by

a)
b)
c)
d)

natural attenuation of air


defocusing lenses
scattering by tungsten particles
none of the above

Question: T200314.UT

The least difficult aspect of a defect to determine using


ultrasonics is


a)
b)
c)
d)

length
height
elastic constants
yield stress reduction on the component

Question: T200315.UT

In time of flight diffraction techniques, the first wave to


arrive at the receiving probe is the _________ wave.

a)
b)
c)
d)

Rayleigh
diffracted
lateral
reflected

Question: T200316.UT

The longitudinal blurring of ultrasonic B-scan images that


results due to ultrasonic beam width can be reduced by

a)
b)
c)
d)

using a lower frequency probe


synthetic aperture focusing technique (saft)
increasing the soundpath
using immersion methods.

Question: T200317.UT

Using
shear
shear
steel

a contact probe with lucite wedge designed to produce a 70


wave in steel, which material could you not inspect using
waves generated from this probe ( V lucite = 2.68mm/sec V
(transverse) = 3.2 mm/sec)?

a)
b)
c)
d)

Aluminum (Vl = 6.32mm/sec Vt = 2.49 mm/sec)


Brass (Vl = 4.28mm/sec Vt = 2.03 mm/sec)
nickel (Vl = 5.63 mm/sec
Vt - 2.96 mm/sec)
titanium carbide (Vl - 5.63 mm/sec Vt = 5.16 mm/sec)

Question: T200318.UT

Given a wedge meant to produce a 60 refracted shear wave in


steel (Vl = 5.66 Vt = 3.12 mm/sec), which material would you be
able to also use this wedge for a 60 refracted shear wave?

a)
b)
c)
d)

aluminium 2117T4 (Vl=6.50 Vt=3.12mm/sec)


beryllium (Vl=12.9 Vt=8.88mm/sec)
iron (Vl=5.9 Vt=2.32 mm/sec)
nickel (Vl=5.66 Vt=2.96mm/sec)

Question: T200319.UT

The angle of incidence from lucite Vl=2.76mm/sec to produce a


60 refracted shear wave in steel (Vl=5.9 Vt=3.2mm/sec) is

a)
b)
c)
d)

23.1
34.6
48.3
58.1

Question: T200320.UT

In Snell's Law, there will be no first critical angle if the

a) incident angle does not exceed 89


b) acoustic velocity in the refracting medium is less than in the
incident medium
c) acoustic impedance of the refracting medium is greater than 1
d) none of the above, there will always be a first critical
angle

Question: T200321.UT

The inverse sine of the ratio of the acoustic velocity in the


incident medium to refracting medium's acoustic velocity gives

a)
b)
c)
d)

the first critical angle


the second critical angle
the third critical angle
the critical angle, which critical angle depends on the mode
velocity used

Question: T200322.UT

The inverse sine of the ratio of the _____ velocities gives the
first critical angle.

a) refracted long. and incident shear


b) incident long. and refracted long.

c) incident long. and refracted shear


d) incident long. and reflected long.

Question: T200323.UT

Given water, density=1g/cc Vl=1.5mm/sec and lead,


density=11.4g/cc Vl=2.16mm/sec. The second critical angle of
sound moving from water to lead is

a)
b)
c)
d)

7.8
14.4
28
not possible to determine from this information

Question: T200324.UT

Given the acoustic velocities Vl=1.5mm/sec for water and Vl=2.16


Vt=0.70 mm/sec for lead. What is the second critical angle for
a longitudinal wave from water to lead.

a)
b)
c)
d)

43.9
33.9
27.5
none of the above

Question: T200325.UT

In the welding process, removal of weld metal and base metal from
the opposite side of a welded joint to ensure complete
penetration upon welding from that side is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

de-welding
beveling
back gouging
joint preparation

Question: T200326.UT

The preferred welding term for a blowhole is

a)
b)
c)
d)

tunneling
gusher
porosity
gas pocket

Question: T200327.UT

The purpose of backing material at the root of a weld is

a)
b)
c)
d)

to support molten weld metal


a heat sink
to prevent lack of fusion
all of the above

Question: T200328.UT

In welding processes, a preplaced filler metal which is fused


into the root of a joint and thereby becomes part of the weld is
a

a)
b)
c)
d)

chill
chaplet
consumable insert
covered electrode

Question: T200329.UT

A crack occurring in the depression at the termination of a weld


bead is called a

a)
b)
c)
d)

hot tear
termination crack
heat check crack
crater crack

Question: T200330.UT

In a welded joint, the minimum distance from the root to the weld
face is the

a)
b)
c)
d)

hypotenuse
leg
effective throat
length of weld

Question: T200331.UT


The purpose of flux material in welding is

a)
b)
c)
d)

to stabilize the welding arc


to protect the molten weld from atmosphere
both a and b
none of the above

Question: T200332.UT

In welding, the area of base metal melted as determined on a


cross-section of the weld is the

a)
b)
c)
d)

heat affected zone


fusion zone
dead zone
twilight zone

Question: T200333.UT

The portion of base metal that has not been melted but whose
mechanical properties or microstructure have been altered by heat
of welding or cutting is called the

a)
b)
c)
d)

fusion zone
heat affected zone
dead zone
twilight zone

Question: T200334.UT

In a welding process using inert gas


the purpose of the inert gas is to

as a part of the operation,

a)
b)
c)
d)

react with the filler metal


provide a protective atmosphere over the weld puddle
increase the heat at the arc
harden the weld metal deposited

Question: T200335.UT

The protrusion of weld metal beyond the toe, face or root of a


weld is called

a)
b)
c)
d)

overlap
undercut
pass
bead

Question: T200336.UT

Another term for the welding phenomenon called "suck-back" is

a)
b)
c)
d)

undercut
blow-through
concave rout
overlap

Question: T200337.UT

Cracking occuring in the heat affected zone that does not usually
extend to the surface of the metal is

a)
b)
c)
d)

transverse cracking
underbead cracking
laminal cracking
post weld heat treatment cracking

Question: T200338.UT

In tig welding the electrode manipulated by the welder is

a)
b)
c)
d)

made of tungsten
not consumed
both a and b
none of the above

Question: T200339.UT

When inspecting a curved surface with a contact probe it is


advised to use

a)
b)
c)
d)

circular probes
rectangular probes
large probes
small probes


Question: T200340.UT

When inspecting rough surfaces, such as castings, coupling


efficiency can be improved by

a)
b)
c)
d)

using larger dimensioned probes


increasing receiver gain
using lower frequency probes
increasing damping

Question: T200341.UT

For contact testing of thin steel plate (5mm) it is recommended


to use shear waves at 80. A significant problem to contend with
however is

a)
b)
c)
d)

a large fraction of energy is converted to surface waves


interference from side lobes
identifying defects
locating the position of defects

Question: T200342.UT

You are required to scan the full volume of an unground tee joint
weld on 100mm thick plate. Scanning is to be done from one side
of the weld prep plate using a 45 probe. What is the scan
distance you must move from the tee plate surface to ensure 100%
coverage of the weld having a leg of 30mm?

a)
b)
c)
d)

142mm
230mm
283mm
300mm

Question: T200343.UT

You are to scan an unground 50mm thick butt weld from one side of
the weld only. The plate is 20mm thick and full volumetric
coverage of the weld plus 20mm heat affected zone is needed.
Weld face is 20mm wide. What is the maximum scan distance from
the weld centre-line for this coverage with a 60 probe?

a)
b)
c)
d)

40mm
68mm
98mm
120mm

Question: T200344.UT

A sharp narrow signal whose amplitude remains constant when


orbited and drops off quickly with probe rotation is probably

a)
b)
c)
d)

lack of fusion
an isolated pore
slag
a transverse crack

Question: T200345.UT

A ragged, cluster of individual spikes is located and determined


to be a defect. Sound path varies, amplitudes vary with rotation
and orbiting with the probe. But the defect does not drop off
completely when orbited. It is most likely a

a)
b)
c)
d)

crack
slag inclusion
porosity cluster
lack of fusion

Question: T200346.UT

A sharp narrow defect signal is located during a standard A-scan


of a weld. Rotation and orbit of the defect cause it to drop off
quickly with lateral probe motion the signal remains constant in
both amplitude and sound path. It is most likely a

a)
b)
c)
d)

slag inclusion
crack
lack of fusion
pore

Question: T200347.UT

Given a butt weld in a 55mm thick plate, ground flush, you locate
a large sharp narrow reflector with a soundpath of 154mm and exit
point 128mm from the weld centreline using a 45 probe. If it
has length of 20mm the flaw is likely

a) lack of penetration
b) mis-match

c) lack of fusion
d) suck back

Question: T200348.UT

The purpose of a straight-edge probe guide to limit traversing


motion is to

a)
b)
c)
d)

facilitate defect evaluation as to type


limit scanning to a specific depth
determine vertical extent
none of the above

Question: T200349.UT

When performing a manual pulse-echo contact scan to evaluate the


root area of a weld, a helpful aid is a(n)

a)
b)
c)
d)

level 1 technician
straight edged probe guide
electronic gate
threshold alarm

Question: T200350.UT

Given an immersion probe with a focal length of 50mm in water,


about what depth in steel would this probe focus if positioned
with normal incidence 40mm over a steel plate (using water
couplant)?

a)
b)
c)
d)

2.5 mm
5.0 mm
10 mm
40 mm

Question: T200351.UT

The probe used in the 30-70-70 mode converted method uses

a) 3 separate elements mounted


b) 2 separate elements mounted
c) a single element mounted to
Longitudinal wave
d) a single element mounted to

at different angles
at different angles
induce a 70 refracted
induce a 70 refracted Shear wave

Question: T200352.UT

The indirect shear wave in the 30-70-70 mode conversion method is


formed off the

a)
b)
c)
d)

70 Long. wave
creeping wave
direct shear wave
damping material on the front of the probe shoe

Question: T200353.UT

Which is a limitation of the 30-70-70 mode conversion method?

a)
b)
c)
d)

55

It cannot be performed with conventional probes


It requires special calibration blocks
Parallel surfaces are needed for mode conversion
All of the above